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  1. Managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352

  2. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides. Lipotoxicity-related mechanism of NAFLD could be explained still best by the "double-hit" hypothesis. Insulin resistance is the major mechanism in the development and progression of NAFLD/Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Metabolic oxidative stress, autophagy, and inflammation induce NASH progression. In the "first hit" the hepatic concentrations of diacylglycerol increase with rising saturated liver fat content in human NAFLD. Activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are decreased in liver tissue of patients with NASH. Furthermore, hepatocyte lipoapoptosis is a critical feature of NASH. In "second hit" reduced glutathione levels due to oxidative stress lead to overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling that induces cell death in the steatotic liver. Accumulation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by the ineffectual cycling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductin (Ero1)-protein disulfide isomerase oxidation cycle through the downstream of the inner membrane mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)- Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway.

  3. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  4. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal liver enzymes (LE) are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. With availability of antiretroviral combination therapy, life expectancy has improved dramatically and as a consequence the spectrum of liver disease is changing. Increased reports on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV coinfected patients raise questions around prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical outcome of these liver diseases in HIV coinfection. Moreover, the potential impact of combination antiretroviral therapy as well as direct HIV effects on the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease needs to be explored. This review summarizes the recent literature on NAFLD and NASH in HIV.

  5. Current treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, C

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent hepatopathy, estimated at 30% in the general population. In the coming years, it will likely be the most common indication for liver transplantation and the most frequent cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and exercise interventions that have been shown to be efficacious, even for reverting fibrosis. Unfortunately, compliance with general measures involving lifestyle modifications is very poor, making pharmacologic strategies a necessary option. At present, there are no treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease approved by regulatory agencies, and the only ones with sufficient evidence and recommended by international societies are treatments with pioglitazone and vitamin E, which are not exempt from adverse effects. We review herein the current management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including dietary and physical activity interventions, available treatments, equivocal therapies, emerging treatments, and treatments presently in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia: An update.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, progressing from simple steatosis to necroinflammation and fibrosis (leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), and in some cases to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance are involved in NAFLD development and progression. NAFLD has been associated with several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and smoking. NAFLD is also characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia, postprandial lipemia and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction. Most importantly, NAFLD patients have an increased risk for both liver and CV disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review, the associations between NAFLD, dyslipidemia and vascular disease in NAFLD patients are discussed. NAFLD treatment is also reviewed with a focus on lipid-lowering drugs. Finally, future perspectives in terms of both NAFLD diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Adams, Leon Anton

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in the world, paralleling the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD exhibits a histological spectrum, ranging from “bland steatosis” to the more aggressive necro-inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may accumulate fibrosis to result in cirrhosis. Emerging data suggests fibrosis, rather than NASH per se, to be the most important histological predictor of liver and non-liver related death. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of individuals develop cirrhosis, however the large proportion of the population affected by NAFLD has led to predictions that NAFLD will become a leading cause of end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and indication for liver transplantation. HCC may arise in non-cirrhotic liver in the setting of NAFLD and is associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male gender. The MetS and its components also play a key role in the histological progression of NAFLD, however other genetic and environmental factors may also influence the natural history. The importance of NAFLD in terms of overall survival extends beyond the liver where cardiovascular disease and malignancy represents additional important causes of death. PMID:27213358

  8. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)--A Review.

    PubMed

    Karim, M F; Al-Mahtab, M; Rahman, S; Debnath, C R

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Hepatology clinics. It is closely related to the increased frequency of overweight or obesity. It has recognised association with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia are commonest risk factors. Association with hepatitis C genotype 3 is also recognised. NAFLD is an important cause of cyptogenic cirrhosis of liver. It affects all populations and all age groups. Most patients with NAFLD are asymptomatic or vague upper abdominal pain. Liver function tests are mostly normal or mild elevation of aminotranferases. Histological features almost identical to those of alcohol-induced liver damage and can range from mild steatosis to cirrhosis. Two hit hypothesis is prevailing theory for the development of NAFLD. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging tools like ultrasonogram which reveal a bright liver while liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis as well as differentiating simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Prognosis is variable. Simple hepatic steatosis generally has a benign long-term prognosis. However, one to two third of NASH progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis and may have a similar prognosis as cirrhosis from other liver diseases. Treatment is mostly control of underlying disorders and dietary advice, exercise, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, or cytoprotective agents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing. So it needs more research to address this problem.

  9. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A poorly known pandemic.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Salvador; Graupera, Isabel; Caballeria, Juan

    2017-12-20

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of an excessive depositing of fat in the liver, which can end up by causing inflammation, fibrosis and also cirrhosis with the corresponding complications including liver cancer. NAFLD has become the most common liver disease worldwide. The incidence has increased in parallel with the obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome epidemic, thus resulting in becoming one of the main indications for liver transplant. The diagnosis has principally been through histology but with the development of non-invasive methods, these have helped in simplifying the management of these patients in clinical practice. The only therapeutic strategies currently available are focused on weight loss (lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery). There is still no approved pharmacological option for the treatment of NAFLD, however there are a number of molecular studies in advanced stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: East Versus West

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Duseja, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease worldwide with prevalence ranging from 10% to 30% in various countries. It has become an important cause of unexplained rise in transaminases, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenesis is related to obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and resultant inflammation in the liver progressing to fibrosis. Pharmacological treatment in patients with NAFLD is still evolving and the treatment of these patients rests upon lifestyle modification with diet and exercise being the cornerstones of therapy. While there are many similarities between patients with NAFLD from Asia and the West, there are certain features which make the patients with NAFLD from Asia stand apart. This review highlights the data on NAFLD from Asia comparing it with the data from the West. PMID:25755421

  11. An update on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most overwhelming liver disease in Asia. In consideration of its increasing medical and economic impact on Asian people, it is time for us to review the update data in Asian countries and formulate strategies to cope with this emerging health problem in Asia. Moreover, growing data indicates that NAFLD may be a systemic disease, not just confined to liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but also associated with several extra-hepatic manifestations, such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal diseases, and malignancy. As the co-occurrence of NAFLD and viral hepatitis is common in Asia, issues related to the impact of NAFLD on the clinical outcomes and management of viral hepatitis remain to be elucidated. Areas covered: In this article, a narrative review was conducted, searching for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database till August 2016. Studies relevant to the emerging data of NAFLD in Asia, including the diagnosis, risk factors, the assessment and management of Asian NAFLD patients were examined and discussed. Expert commentary: Collaboration in Asian countries to develop an effective and practical measurement to assess the severity of NAFLD is urgently required.

  12. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diet and gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a severe liver disease that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity and its related insulin-resistance state. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in energy storage and the subsequent development of obesity and some of its related diseases is now well established. More recently, a new role of gut microbiota has emerged in NAFLD. The gut microbiota is involved in gut permeability, low-grade inflammation and immune balance, it modulates dietary choline metabolism, regulates bile acid metabolism and produces endogenous ethanol. All of these factors are molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota can induce NAFLD or its progression toward overt non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may advantageously affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are fervently awaited. PMID:26417275

  13. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease--new view].

    PubMed

    Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Lawniczak, Małgorzata; Marlicz, Wojciech; Miezyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2008-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, through the necroinflammatory disorder of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NAFLD/NASH is mostly related with visceral adiposity, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus (DM t.2) and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenetic concepts of NAFLD include overnutrition and underactivity, insulin resistance (IR) and genetic factor. The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated to be 17-33% in some countries, NASH may be present in about 1/3 of such cases, while 20-25% of NASH cases could progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD is now recognized as one of the most frequent reason of liver tests elevation without clinical symptoms. Insulin resistance is considering as having a central role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In hepatocytes, IR is related to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, formation of advanced glycation end-products, increased free fatty acids and their metabolites, oxidative stress and altered profiles of adipocytokines. Early stages of fatty liver are clinically silent and include elevation of ALT and GGTP, hyperechogenic liver in USG and/or hepatomegaly. Among clinical symptoms, abdominal discomfort is relatively common as well as chronic fatigue. NAFLD/NASH is not a benign disease, progressive liver biopsy have shown histological progression of fibrosis in 32%, the estimated rate of cirrhosis development is 20% and a liver--related death is 12% over 10 years. No treatment has scientifically proved to ameliorate NAFLD or to avoid its progression. The various therapeutic alternatives are aimed at interfering with the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder in order to prevent the progression to end-stage liver disease. The most important therapeutic measure is increasing insulin sensitivity by an attempt to change a lifestyle mostly by dieting and physical activity in order to loose weight. The most used agent is metformin, the others

  14. Glycosyltransferases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yu-Tao; Su, Hai-Ying; An, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a diverse class of enzymes involved in catalyzing the transfer of one or multiple sugar residues to a wide range of acceptor molecules. GTs mediate a wide range of functions from structure and storage to signaling, and play a key role in many fundamental biological processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that GTs have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this article, we present an overview of the basic information on NAFLD, particularly GTs and glycosylation modification of certain molecules and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. In addition, the effects and mechanisms of some GTs in the development of NAFLD are summarized. PMID:26937136

  15. Clinical approaches to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwenger, Katherine JP; Allard, Johane P

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and potentially cirrhosis, and it is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is associated with other medical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. NASH can only be diagnosed through liver biopsy, but noninvasive techniques have been developed to identify patients who are most likely to have NASH or fibrosis, reducing the need for liver biopsy and risk to patients. Disease progression varies between individuals and is linked to a number of risk factors. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis are associated with diet and lifestyle, influx of free fatty acids to the liver from adipose tissue due to insulin resistance, hepatic oxidative stress, cytokines production, reduced very low-density lipoprotein secretion and intestinal microbiome. Weight loss through improved diet and increased physical activity has been the cornerstone therapy of NAFLD. Recent therapies such as pioglitazone and vitamin E have been shown to be beneficial. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and statins may offer additional benefits. Bariatric surgery should be considered in morbidly obese patients. More research is needed to assess the impact of these treatments on a long-term basis. The objective of this article is to briefly review the diagnosis, management and treatment of this disease in order to aid clinicians in managing these patients. PMID:24587650

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An expanded review

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Zhang, Xuchen

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology. NAFLD patients are at increased risk of liver-related as well as cardiovascular mortality, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis, but the development of noninvasive advanced imaging, biochemical and genetic tests will no doubt provide future clinicians with a great deal of information and opportunity for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis and targeted treatment. As it currently stands several medications/supplements are being used in the treatment of NAFLD; however, none seem to be the “magic bullet” in curtailing this growing problem yet. In this review we summarized the current knowledge of NAFLD epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathologic changes, natural history, and treatment in order to aid in further understanding this disease and better managing NAFLD patients. PMID:28652891

  17. Molecular pathways in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Porras, José Antonio; Auguet, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathological change characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes and has frequently been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. It is an increasingly recognized condition that has become the most common liver disorder in developed countries, affecting over one-third of the population and is associated with increased cardiovascular- and liver-related mortality. NAFLD is a spectrum of disorders, beginning as simple steatosis. In about 15% of all NAFLD cases, simple steatosis can evolve into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a medley of inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis, often resulting in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NAFLD progression is not completely understood. Its pathogenesis has often been interpreted by the “double-hit” hypothesis. The primary insult or the “first hit” includes lipid accumulation in the liver, followed by a “second hit” in which proinflammatory mediators induce inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis. Nowadays, a more complex model suggests that fatty acids (FAs) and their metabolites may be the true lipotoxic agents that contribute to NAFLD progression; a multiple parallel hits hypothesis has also been suggested. In NAFLD patients, insulin resistance leads to hepatic steatosis via multiple mechanisms. Despite the excess hepatic accumulation of FAs in NAFLD, it has been described that not only de novo FA synthesis is increased, but FAs are also taken up from the serum. Furthermore, a decrease in mitochondrial FA oxidation and secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins has been reported. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiological changes of hepatic lipid metabolism that contribute to NAFLD. PMID:25045276

  18. Hypogonadism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, Gesthimani; Poulakos, Pavlos; Tsametis, Christos; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more common in men than in women. Thus, it has been suggested that sex steroids do have a role in the development of NAFLD. The aim of the current paper is to illustrate the association between NAFLD and hypogonadism, by reviewing data derived from both human and animal studies. The prevalence of NAFLD is high in men with hypogonadism, including those with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), as well as in women in post-menopause, those under estrogen receptor antagonist treatment or women with Turner syndrome. Estrogens seem to play a pivotal role in hepatic lipid homeostasis, as demonstrated in animal models with diminished ovarian estrogens (i.e., ovariectomized mice) and low serum testosterone (T) concentration is independently associated with NAFLD. The elucidation of the exact role of sex steroids in NAFLD pathogenesis would create a unique opportunity to develop novel therapies to tackle NAFLD disease.

  19. Factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Majid, Zain

    2018-04-01

    Introduction To determine the factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methodology All patients aged >18 years and having a fatty liver on abdominal ultrasound (US), presenting from January 2011 to January 2017, were included. A liver biopsy was performed on all the patients. Results Of 96 patients undergoing liver biopsy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 76 (79.2%) were men. On liver US, diffuse fatty liver (DFL) was noted in 68 (70.8%) patients. Liver biopsy showed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 78 (81.3%) patients. Factors associated with NASH were male gender, body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m 2 , DFL and raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A GULAB score (based on gender, US liver findings, lipid (fasting) levels, ALT level and BMI) of ≥5 predicted NASH with 82.05% sensitivity. Factors associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were age >40 years, diabetes mellitus, AST/ALT ratio > 1 and raised GGT. Conclusion NASH is common in patients with male gender, high BMI, DFL on liver US, raised ALT and GULAB score ≥5.

  20. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  1. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Thinking.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Socha, Piotr

    2017-10-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an increasingly prevalent paediatric disorder is diagnosed and managed by both paediatric gastroenterologists / hepatologists but also frequently by the general paediatrician. This paper updates recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approach which may be applied to everyday practice. Diagnosis of NAFLD takes into account the risk factor profile and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Techniques such as transient elastography and specific biomarkers aimed at improving diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD need further validation in the paediatric population. Defining the risk to develop cirrhosis seems to be of primary importance already in childhood and a combination of genetic, clinical and environmental factors can help in monitoring and making decisions on therapy. Weight reduction therapy should be the aim of treatment approach but the compliance is poor and pharmacological treatment would be helpful- DHA, some probiotics, vitamin E are to be considered but evidence is not sufficient to recommend widespread use.

  2. Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases risk of mortality from liver and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which may develop without cirrhosis. NAFLD predicts type 2 diabetes, even independently of obesity. Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD averages 25% and is as common as the metabolic syndrome. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The challenge for the diabetologist is to identify patients at risk of advanced liver disease and HCC. At a minimum, liver function tests (LFTs), despite being neither specific nor sensitive, should be performed in all patients with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Increases in LFTs, for which the updated reference values are lower (serum ALT ≈30 U/l in men and ≈20 U/l in women) than those hitherto used in many laboratories, should prompt assessment of fibrosis biomarkers and referral of individuals at risk to a NAFLD/hepatology clinic. Preferably, evaluation of NAFLD should be based on measurement of steatosis biomarkers or ultrasound if easily available. A large number of individuals carry the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) I148M variant (30-50%) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K variant (11-15%). These variants increase the risk of advanced liver disease and HCC but not of diabetes or CVD. Genotyping of selected patients for these variants is recommended. Many patients have 'double trouble', i.e. carry both a genetic risk factor and have the metabolic syndrome. Excess use of alcohol could be a cause of 'triple trouble', but such patients would be classified as having alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by John Jones, DOI: 10.1007/s00125

  3. Echocardiography and NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).

    PubMed

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe F; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Pirri, Clara; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-10-15

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with atherosclerosis, increased cardiovascular risks and mortality. We investigated if, independently of insulin resistance, diet, physical activity and obesity, fatty liver involvement has any relationship with echocardiographic measurements in NAFLD. 660 NAFLD and 791 non-NAFLD subjects, referred to the same out-patients medical unit for lifestyle-nutritional prescription, were studied. Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, malignancies, diabetes mellitus, extreme obesity, underweight-bad-nourished subjects and renal insufficiency were exclusion criteria. Liver steatosis was assessed by Ultrasound-Bright-Liver-Score (BLS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), trans-mitral E/A doppler ratio (diastolic relaxation) and left ventricular myocardial mass (LVMM/m(2)) by echocardiography. Doppler Renal artery Resistive Index (RRI), insulin resistance (HOMA) and lifestyle profile were also included in the clinical assessment. LVMM/m(2) is significantly greater in NAFLD, 101.62±34.48 vs. 88.22±25.61, p<0.0001 both in men and in women. Ejection fraction is slightly smaller only in men with NAFLD; no significant difference was observed for the E/A ratio. BMI (30.42±5.49 vs. 24.87±3.81; p<0.0001) and HOMA (2.90±1.70 vs. 1.85±1.25; p: 0.0001) were significantly greater in NAFLD patients. By Multiple-Linear-Regression, NAFLD and unhealthy dietary profile are associated also in lean non-diabetic subjects with lower systolic function, independently of BMI, dietary profile, physical activity, RRI and insulin resistance. NAFLD may be a meaningful early clue suggestive of diminishing heart function, with similar determining factors. NAFLD is amenable to management and improvement by lifestyle change counseling, addressing a dual target: reducing fatty liver, which is easily monitored by ultrasound, and, independently, maintaining a normal heart function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  4. [Dietetary recommendation for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Boniecka, Iwona; Gronostajska, Wioletta

    2017-12-22

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world. Nowadays, in the adult population of Europe it is estimated at 14% to 21%. Its most important risk factors are obesity and metabolic syndrome. Introducing lifestyle changes such as: dietary intervention and increased physical activity are the first-line treatment and are intended to support not only NAFLD but also associated diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Dietary management focuses on weight reduction of overweight or obese people by decreasing energy in diet. It is recommended to limit the intake of saturated fats and trans fatty acids as well as cholesterol. Instead, it is important to increase the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid diets, mainly from the n-3 family, which exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. It is also beneficial to eat nuts, despite their high energy value, as a source of alpha linolenic acid, which lowers LDL cholesterol. It is important to increase the share of vegetable protein (eg. soya) and limit the intake of fat meat, milk and the dairy products. A key role in the treatment and prevention of NAFLD is also a reduction of simple sugars and total exclusion of added sugar in the diet. The rise of NAFLD in developed countries is analogous to the increase of fructose consumption, which high intake is directly indicated as the main cause of the disease. Choosing foods with high fiber content, low glycemic index and meals composed with low glycemic load, is conducive to weight reduction. An important role in supporting NAFLD treatment is also attributed to vitamin D, C and E supplementation and some probiotic bacteria, as well as cinnamon and turmeric, which improve insulin sensitivity. Daily physical activity is strongly recommended as the supplement of healthy lifestyle.

  5. Weight reduction for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lijun; Wang, Jiyao; Li, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a wide spread liver disease. The present recommendations for treatment are not evidence-based. Some of them are various weight reduction measures with diet, exercise, drug, or surgical therapy. To assess the benefits and harms of intended weight reduction for patients with NAFLD. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese Biomedicine Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov until February 2011. We included randomised clinical trials evaluating weight reduction with different measures versus no intervention or placebo in NAFLD patients. We extracted data independently. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data and calculated the mean difference (MD) for continuous data, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The review includes seven trials; five on aspects of lifestyle changes (eg, diet, physical exercise) and two on treatment with a weight reduction drug 'orlistat'. In total, 373 participants were enrolled, and the duration of the trials ranged from 1 month to 1 year. Only one trial on lifestyle programme was judged to be of low risk of bias. We could not perform meta-analyses for the main outcomes as they were either not reported or there were insufficient number of trials for each outcome to be meta-analysed. We could meta-analyse the available data for body weight and body mass index only. Adverse events were poorly reported. The sparse data and high risk of bias preclude us from drawing any definite conclusion on lifestyle programme or orlistat for treatment of NAFLD. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias are needed to test the beneficial and harmful effects of weight reduction for NAFLD patients. The long-term prognosis of development of fibrosis, mortality, and quality of life should be studied.

  6. A disease-specific quality of life instrument for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: CLDQ-NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Henry, Linda; Racila, Andrei; Lam, Brian; Pham, Huong T; Hunt, Sharon

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are the most common causes of chronic liver disease with known negative impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Our aim was to validate a disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument useful for efficacy trials involving patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. From a long item selection questionnaire, we selected relevant items which, by factor analysis, were grouped into domains constituting Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version. The developed instrument was subjected to internal validity, test-retest reliability and construct validity assessment using standard methods. For development of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version instrument, a 75-item-long item selection questionnaire was administered to 25 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. After item reduction, factor analysis found that 98.7% of variance in the remaining items would be explained by six factors. Thus, the resulting Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version instrument had 36 items grouped into six domains: Abdominal Symptoms, Activity, Emotional, Fatigue, Systemic Symptoms, and Worry. The independent validation group included another 104 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The Cronbach's alphas of 0.74-0.90 suggested good to excellent internal consistency of the domains. Furthermore, the presence of obesity and history of depression were discriminated best by Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version scores (P<.05). The domains' correlations with the most relevant domains of Short Form-36 exceeded 0.70. Test-retest reliability in a subgroup of patients (N=27) demonstrated no significant within-patient variability with multiple administrations (all median differences were zero, all P>.15

  7. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Tunnicliffe, Elizabeth M; Kelly, Catherine; Collier, Jane; Wang, Lai Mun; Fleming, Kenneth A; Cobbold, Jeremy F; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan; Barnes, Eleanor

    2017-07-01

    The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis staging are central to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessment. We evaluated multiparametric magnetic resonance in the assessment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis using histology as standard in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Seventy-one patients with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were recruited within 1 month of liver biopsy. Magnetic resonance data were used to define the liver inflammation and fibrosis score (LIF 0-4). Biopsies were assessed for steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis and classified as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or simple steatosis, and mild or significant (Activity ≥2 and/or Fibrosis ≥2 as defined by the Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression consortium) non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transient elastography was also performed. Magnetic resonance success rate was 95% vs 59% for transient elastography (P<.0001). Fibrosis stage on biopsy correlated with liver inflammation and fibrosis (r s =.51, P<.0001). The area under the receiver operating curve using liver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of cirrhosis was 0.85. Liver inflammation and fibrosis score for ballooning grades 0, 1 and 2 was 1.2, 2.7 and 3.5 respectively (P<.05) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83 for the diagnosis of ballooning. Patients with steatosis had lower liver inflammation and fibrosis (1.3) compared to patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (3.0) (P<.0001); area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was 0.80. Liver inflammation and fibrosis scores for patients with mild and significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were 1.2 and 2.9 respectively (P<.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of liver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 0

  8. Increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease after diagnosis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Norelle R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2015-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Celiac disease alters intestinal permeability and treatment with a gluten-free diet often causes weight gain, but so far there are few reports of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with celiac disease. Population-based cohort study. We compared the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed from 1997 to 2009 in individuals with celiac disease (n = 26,816) to matched reference individuals (n = 130,051). Patients with any liver disease prior to celiac disease were excluded, as were individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol-related disorder to minimize misclassification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were determined. During 246,559 person-years of follow-up, 53 individuals with celiac disease had a diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (21/100,000 person-years). In comparison, we identified 85 reference individuals diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during 1,488,413 person-years (6/100,000 person-years). This corresponded to a hazard ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.8), with the highest risk estimates seen in children (HR = 4.6; 95% CI 2.3-9.1). The risk increase in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis was 13.3 (95% CI 3.5-50.3) but remained significantly elevated even beyond 15 years after the diagnosis of celiac disease (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-5.9). Individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared to the general population. Excess risks were highest in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis, but persisted through 15 years after diagnosis with celiac disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

    PubMed Central

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  10. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Stål, Per

    2015-10-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD.

  12. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Stål, Per

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD. PMID:26494963

  13. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... different populations of microorganisms in the intestines (gut microbiota) on the breakdown and absorption of nutrients are ... Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016: ...

  14. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Emerging Burden in Cardiometabolic and Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Eugene; Lee, Yong Ho

    2017-12-01

    As the number of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased, the influence of NAFLD on other metabolic diseases has been highlighted. Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that NAFLD not only affects the liver but also increases the risk of extra-hepatic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, an advanced type of NAFLD, can aggravate these inter-organ relationships and lead to poorer outcomes. NAFLD induces insulin resistance and exacerbates systemic chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which leads to organ dysfunction in extra-hepatic tissues. Although more research is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms and causal relationship between NAFLD and cardiometabolic and renal diseases, screening for heart, brain, and kidney diseases, risk assessment for diabetes, and a multidisciplinary approach for managing these patients should be highly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology and management

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Oranu, Amanke; Khungar, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract/Summary NAFLD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide both because of cardiovascular, hepatic and oncologic sequelae as well as because it is rapidly becoming the leading cause of end stage liver disease and liver transplant. With a prevalence of 30% in the US, it has reached epidemic proportions. While the metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor, there are differences among racial and ethnic groups, suggesting the complex interaction between hormonal, nutritional and genetic factors at play in disease pathogenesis. The clinical syndrome of NAFLD spans from bland steatosis to steatohepatitis which can progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The pathogenesis including roles of hormones, nutritional and intestinal dysbiosis, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, and hepatic inflammation, and genes are examined. Non-invasive testing and liver biopsy indications are reviewed. Approved and investigational therapies for NAFLD and NASH are outlined in this review of a disease that is currently an area of great interest to the hepatology community. PMID:27837778

  16. Gut-Liver Axis Derangement in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Marco; Pierri, Luca; Vajro, Pietro

    2017-08-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis. In this regard, the gut-liver axis (GLA) seems to play a central role. Principal players are the gut microbiota, its bacterial products, and the intestinal barrier. A derangement of GLA (namely, dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability) may promote bacteria/bacterial product translocation into portal circulation, activation of inflammation via toll-like receptors signaling in hepatocytes, and progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). Among other factors a relevant role has been attributed to the farnesoid X receptor, a nuclear transcriptional factor activated from bile acids chemically modified by gut microbiota (GM) enzymes. The individuation and elucidation of GLA derangement in NAFLD pathomechanisms is of interest at all ages and especially in pediatrics to identify new therapeutic approaches in patients recalcitrant to lifestyle changes. Specific targeting of gut microbiota via pre-/probiotic supplementation, feces transplantation, and farnesoid X receptor modulation appear promising.

  17. Single non-invasive model to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Estep, Michael J; Hossain, Nayeem; Younossi, Elena; Frost, Spencer; Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon; Fang, Yun; Goodman, Zachary; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A liver biopsy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing/staging NASH. Identification of NAFLD/NASH using non-invasive tools is important for intervention. The study aims were to: develop/validate the predictive performance of a non-invasive model (index of NASH [ION]); assess the performance of a recognized non-invasive model (fatty liver index [FLI]) compared with ION for NAFLD diagnosis; determine which non-invasive model (FLI, ION, or NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS]) performed best in predicting age-adjusted mortality. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database, anthropometric, clinical, ultrasound, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained (n = 4458; n = 861 [19.3%] NAFLD by ultrasound) and used to develop the ION model, and then to compare the ION and FLI models for NAFLD diagnosis. For validation and diagnosis of NASH, liver biopsy data were used (n = 152). Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazard modeling estimated the association among the three non-invasive tests (FLI, ION, and NFS) and mortality. FLI's threshold score > 60 and ION's threshold score > 22 had similar specificity (FLI = 80% vs ION = 82%) for NAFLD diagnosis; FLI < 30 (80% sensitivity) and ION < 11 (81% sensitivity) excluded NAFLD. An ION score > 50 predicted histological NASH (92% specificity); the FLI model did not predict NASH or mortality. The ION model was best in predicting cardiovascular/diabetes-related mortality; NFS predicted overall or diabetes-related mortality. The ION model was superior in predicting NASH and mortality compared with the FLI model. Studies are needed to validate ION. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  19. A Nutrigenomic Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2017-07-16

    Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification. In the last years, nutrigenomics is promoting an increased understanding of how nutrition affects the switch from health to disease by altering the expression of an individual's genetic makeup. The present review tries to summarize the most recent data evidencing how the interactions between nutrients and genetic factors can influence NAFLD development. The final goal should be to develop tools to quantify these complex interactions. The definition of a "nutrigenomic risk score" for each individual may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the management of NAFLD patients.

  20. Pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis: the link between hypercortisolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-10-28

    Based on the available literature, non alcoholic fatty liver disease or generally speaking, hepatic steatosis, is more frequent among people with diabetes and obesity, and is almost universally present amongst morbidly obese diabetic patients. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is being increasingly recognized as a common liver condition in the developed world, with non alcoholic steatohepatitis projected to be the leading cause of liver transplantation. Previous data report that only 20% of patients with Cushing's syndrome have hepatic steatosis. Aiming at clarifying the reasons whereby patients suffering from Cushing's syndrome - a condition characterized by profound metabolic changes - present low prevalence of hepatic steatosis, the Authors reviewed the current concepts on the link between hypercortisolism and obesity/metabolic syndrome. They hypothesize that this low prevalence of fat accumulation in the liver of patients with Cushing's syndrome could result from the inhibition of the so-called low-grade chronic-inflammation, mainly mediated by Interleukin 6, due to an excess of cortisol, a hormone characterized by an anti-inflammatory effect. The Cushing's syndrome, speculatively considered as an in vivo model of the hepatic steatosis, could also help clarify the mechanisms of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. The benefits of exercise for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Keating, Shelley E; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    As exercise is now an established therapy for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent investigations have sought to identify the optimal dose (type, intensity and amount) of exercise for hepatic benefit. Here, the authors discuss the following: the role of aerobic exercise for the modulation of hepatic steatosis; the limited evidence for the role of resistance training in reducing liver fat; the lack of evidence from clinical trials on the role of exercise in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; and the benefits of exercise for patients with NAFLD, beyond steatosis. Based on current evidence, the authors provide recommendations for exercise prescription for patients with NAFLD.

  2. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. PMID:26556368

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Is the Liver Another Target?

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. PMID:23087670

  4. Non-invasive Diagnosis of Fibrosis in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anil; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in developed as well as in developing countries. Its prevalence continues to rise currently affecting approximately 20-30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign non-progressive clinical course, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for evaluating the degree of hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis; however, several non-invasive investigations, such as serum biomarkers, have been developed to establish the diagnosis and also to evaluate treatment response. There has been a substantial development of non-invasive risk scores, biomarker panels, and radiological modalities to identify at risk patients with NAFLD without recourse to liver biopsy on a routine basis. Examples include combination of serum markers like NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), BARD score, fibrometer, FIB4, and non-invasive tools like fibroscan which assess fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Other markers of fibrosis that have been evaluated include high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma pentraxin 3, interleukin-6, and cytokeratin-18. This review focuses on the methods currently available in daily clinical practice in hepatology and touches briefly on the potential future markers under investigation. PMID:25755423

  5. IL-17A, MCP-1, CCR-2, and ABCA1 polymorphisms in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Ulas Emre; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Citli, Senol; Cebi, Alper Han; Korkmaz, Hatice Ayca Ata; Baki, Gaye

    2018-05-05

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children has risen significantly, owing to the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic in the last two decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely linked to sedentary lifestyle, increased body mass index, and visceral adiposity. In addition, individual genetic variations also have a role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene polymorphisms of MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) (rs1024611), CCR-2 (190 G/A) (rs1799864), ABCA1 (883 G/A) (rs4149313), and IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) in obese Turkish children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study recruited 186 obese children aged 10-17 years, including 101 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 85 children without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance, a liver panel, a lipid profile, liver ultrasound examination, and genotyping of the four variants were performed. No difference was found between the groups in respect to age and gender, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, or body fat ratio. In addition to the elevated ALT levels, AST and GGT levels were found significantly higher in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group compared to the non non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group (p<0.05). The A-allele of IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) was associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-3.77, p=0.02). The findings of this study suggest that there may be an association between IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) polymorphism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development in obese Turkish children. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Vetrani, Claudia; Lombardi, Gianluca; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Rivellese, Angela Albarosa

    2017-09-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content.

  7. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Vetrani, Claudia; Lombardi, Gianluca; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Rivellese, Angela Albarosa

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content. PMID:28954437

  8. New Discriminant Method for Identifying the Aggressive Disease Phenotype of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kenji; Arase, Yasuji; Fujiyama, Shunichiro; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Sezaki, Hitomi; Akuta, Norio; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To detect the aggressive phenotype (AP) of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on the initial laboratory data and clinical characteristics. Methods We enrolled 144 patients with histologically proven NAFLD. For the first analysis, 24 NAFLD patients underwent repeat biopsy to establish a discriminant formula for predicting the AP of NAFLD (D-APN). The AP was defined by NAFLD that had been maintained or progressed to a fibrotic stage beyond stage 2. In the second analysis, we analyzed the distribution of the AP in each stage of disease and the incidence of the PNPLA3 rs738409 GG genotype in AP in 120 other patients. Results After the analysis, the following function was found to discriminate the disease phenotype: z=0.150×body mass index (kg/m 2 )+0.085×age (years)+1.112×ln (AST) (IU/L)+0.127×ln (m-AST)-12.96. A positive result indicates the AP of NAFLD. The discriminant functions had a positive predictive value of 94% and a negative predictive value of 71%. The distribution of the AP and the incidence of the PNPLA3 GG genotype in the AP in each stage of the disease among the 120 patients were as follows: non-alcoholic fatty liver, 30%/33%; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) stage 1, 53%/26%; stage 2, 71%/70%; stage 3, 92%/57%; and stage 4, 93%/64%; there was a significant increase in the incidence of the AP as the disease progressed (p<0.001). Conclusion The new discriminant formula was useful for predicting disease progression potential in NAFLD patients and the incidence of the PNPLA3 GG genotype was elevated according to the distribution of AP.

  9. Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: which clinical arguments?

    PubMed

    Rosmorduc, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are growing epidemics associated with an increased risk for many types of cancer. In the liver, inflammatory and angiogenic changes due to insulin resistance and fatty liver disease are associated with an increased incidence of liver cancer. Regardless of underlying liver disease, cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) although are cases of HCC arising without cirrhosis raise the possibility of a direct carcinogenesis secondary to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Moreover, metabolic syndrome and its different features may also increase the risk of HCC in the setting of chronic liver diseases of other causes such as viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. Taking into account all these data, it is necessary to better determine the risk of developing HCC in patients with metabolic syndrome to improve the screening guidelines and develop prophylactic treatments in this setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an emerging driving force in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Byrne, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources. Accumulating evidence indicates that NAFLD exacerbates insulin resistance, predisposes to atherogenic dyslipidaemia and releases a variety of proinflammatory factors, prothrombotic factors and profibrogenic molecules that can promote vascular and renal damage. Furthermore, communication or 'crosstalk' between affected organs or tissues in these diseases has the potential to further harm function and worsen patient outcomes, and increasing amounts of evidence point to a strong association between NAFLD and CKD. Whether a causal relationship between NAFLD and CKD exists remains to be definitively established.

  11. An extended fatty liver index to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kantartzis, K; Rettig, I; Staiger, H; Machann, J; Schick, F; Scheja, L; Gastaldelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Peter, A; Schulze, M B; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2017-06-01

    In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TG OGTT ) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood parameters were measured during fasting and after a 2-h OGTT. A subgroup of 213 subjects underwent these measurements before and after 9 months of a lifestyle intervention. The fold-change TG OGTT was closely associated with liver fat content (r=0.51, P<0.0001), but had less power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.75) than the FLI (AUROC=0.79). Not only was the fold-change TG OGTT independently associated with liver fat content and NAFLD, but so also were the 2-h blood glucose level and rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3. In fact, a novel index (extended FLI) generated from these and the usual FLI parameters considerably increased its power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.79-0.86). The extended FLI also increased the power to predict changes in liver fat content with a lifestyle intervention (n=213; standardized beta coefficient: 0.23-0.29). This study has provided novel data confirming that the OGTT-derived fold-change TG OGTT and 2-h glucose level, together with the rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3, allow calculation of an extended FLI that considerably improves its power to predict NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. NHE1 deficiency in liver: Implications for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciT

    Prasad, Vikram, E-mail: prasadvm@ucmail.uc.edu; Chirra, Shivani; Kohli, Rohit

    Highlights: • FXR, PGC1α and PPARγ levels are upregulated in NHE1 deficient livers. • NHE1 deficiency downregulates expression of pro-lipogenic genes in liver. • Chronic exposure to high-fat diet upregulates hepatic NHE1 expression. • Loss of NHE1 better preserves hepatic insulin signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is closely associated with the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which can initiate NAFLD progression, has been shown to be dramatically reduced in mice lacking the electroneutral Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1 (Slc9a1). In this study, we investigated if NHE1 deficiency had effects in livermore » that could contribute to the apparent protection against aberrant lipid accumulation. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses of wild-type and NHE1-null livers revealed an expression profile that strongly suggested attenuation of both de novo lipogenesis and hepatic stellate cell activation, which is implicated in liver fibrosis. This included upregulation of the farnesoid X receptor FXR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ, its co-activator PGC1α, and sestrin 2, an antioxidant protein involved in hepatic metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, expression levels of the pro-lipogenic liver X receptor LXRα, and acetyl CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 were downregulated. These changes were associated with evidence of reduced cellular stress, which persisted even upon exposure to a high-fat diet, and the better preservation of insulin signaling, as evidenced by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). These results indicate that NHE1 deficiency may protect against NAFLD pathogenesis, which is significant given the availability of highly specific NHE1 inhibitors.« less

  13. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  14. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children.

    PubMed

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele

    2017-07-07

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  15. Histological scoring and associated risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Majid, N; Ali, Z; Rahman, M R; Akhter, A; Rajib, R C; Ahmad, F; Sharmin, S; Akond, A K; Huq, N

    2013-10-01

    Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is a hepatic disorder with histological features of alcohol induced liver disease that occurs in individual who do not consume significant alcohol. Liver biopsy is an important part of the evaluation in term of both grade & stage. A cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Pathology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka & department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from July 2007 to June 2009. Total 55 adult subjects of both sex were included on the basis of predefined inclusion & exclusion criteria in this study to evaluate the histological pattern of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its correlation with risk factors. Liver biopsy was done and H & E and Masson's Trichrome stain slides were examined to evaluate the grade and stage of NAFLD. Scoring and semiquantitative assessment of steatosis and NAFLD severity was done according to Kleiner scale known as NAFLD activity score (NAS). The results of Pearson correlation showed only BMI and triglyceride level significantly correlated with NAS score. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that BMI, central obesity, triglyceridaemia and age significantly correlated with staging of fibrosis. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that variation of NAS depend on BMI and triglyceride level. The study also revealed that risk factors contributed about 29% risk for the occurrence of non alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  16. Insulin resistance and oxidative stress interdependency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Videla, Luis A; Rodrigo, Ramón; Araya, Julia; Poniachik, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major cause of chronic liver disease in association with the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the population. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR) are major contributors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and in the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis. Recently, Houstis and colleagues reported that reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of IR, a phenomenon that can further promote exacerbation of oxidative stress. The improvement of the knowledge of these interrelationships should contribute to elucidate pathogenic pathways and design effective treatments for NAFLD.

  17. Focus on emerging drugs for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Alessandro; Zulli, Claudio; de Sio, Ilario; Del Prete, Anna; Dallio, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Loguercio, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in Western countries and is increasingly being recognized in developing nations. Fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of hepatic pathology, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease. Moreover, NAFLD is often associated with other metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and visceral obesity. The most recent guidelines suggest the management and treatment of patients with NAFLD considering both the liver disease and the associated metabolic co-morbidities. Diet and physical exercise are considered the first line of treatment for patients with NAFLD, but their results on therapeutic efficacy are often contrasting. Behavior therapy is necessary most of the time to achieve a sufficient result. Pharmacological therapy includes a wide variety of classes of molecules with different therapeutic targets and, often, little evidence supporting the real efficacy. Despite the abundance of clinical trials, NAFLD therapy remains a challenge for the scientific community, and there are no licensed therapies for NAFLD. Urgently, new pharmacological approaches are needed. Here, we will focus on the challenges facing actual therapeutic strategies and the most recent investigated molecules. PMID:25492998

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: What the clinician needs to know

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of liver disease in the Western world. Furthermore, it is increasing worldwide, paralleling the obesity pandemic. Though highly frequent, only about one fifth of affected subjects are at risk of developing the progressive form of the disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with fibrosis. Even in the latter, liver disease is slowly progressive, though, since it is so prevalent, it is already the third cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and it is predicted to get to the top of the ranking in few years. Of relevance, fatty liver is also associated with increased overall mortality and particularly increased cardiovascular mortality. The literature and amount of published papers on NAFLD is increasing as fast as its prevalence, which makes it difficult to keep updated in this topic. This review aims to summarize the latest knowledge on NAFLD, in order to help clinicians understanding its pathogenesis and advances on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25278691

  19. Epidemiology and Natural History of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Alita; Younossi, Zobair M

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease burden across the world. By definition, although the histopathologic features of NAFLD are identical to that of alcoholic liver disease, its diagnosis requires absence of significant alcohol use and absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. We now know that NAFLD is not simply a disease of the Western world. It is manifested across the world, in varying rates, across gender, across varying ethnicities, and in its association with other host factors. In this review article, the definition of NAFLD, its spectrum, ranging from mild steatosis to hepatocellular injury and inflammation defined as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is discussed. Mild steatosis is generally a stable disease whereas NASH can be progressive. Based on current published literature, current incidence and prevalence of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. It is also accepted that these processes will continue to increase in prevalence with the rise of obesity, type II diabetes, and associated metabolic syndrome. Some of the risk factors have been well-established and are discussed. In addition, this review also presents emerging associations with other risk factors for NAFLD. Natural history of NAFLD is variable depending upon the histologic subtypes and other underlying comorbidities and is discussed in this review as well. PMID:25755422

  20. Global Epidemiology of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Perspectives on US Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Zaki A.; Saeed, Armana; Ghavimi, Shima; Nouraie, Seyed-Mehdi; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a clinical syndrome that is predicted to affect millions of people worldwide, will become the next global epidemic. The natural course of this disease, including its subtype, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is not clearly defined, especially in the US minority populations. The aim of this review is to report the global epidemiology of NAFLD, with emphasis on US minority populations on the basis of database searches using using Pubmed and other online databases. The US Hispanic population is the most disproportionately affected ethnic group with hepatic steatosis whereas African-Americans are the least affected. Genetic disparities involved in lipid metabolism seem to be the leading explanation for the lowest incidence and prevalence of both NAFLD and NASH in African-Americans. PMID:27038448

  1. Early life programming and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C; Chan, C S; Drake, A J

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and can be considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of disease, from the relatively benign simple steatosis to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver failure, necessitating liver transplantation. Although the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in developed countries has substantial implications for public health, many of the precise mechanisms accounting for the development and progression of NAFLD are unclear. The environment in early life is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk in later life and studies suggest this also extends to NAFLD. Here we review data from animal models and human studies which suggest that fetal and early life exposure to maternal under- and overnutrition, excess glucocorticoids and environmental pollutants may confer an increased susceptibility to NAFLD development and progression in offspring and that such effects may be sex-specific. We also consider studies aimed at identifying potential dietary and pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing this risk. We suggest that further human epidemiological studies are needed to ensure that data from animal models are relevant to human health.

  2. Fructose and sugar: A major mediator of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Sullivan, Shelby; Nadeau, Kristen J; Green, Melanie; Roncal, Carlos; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kuwabara, Masanari; Sato, Yuka; Kang, Duk-Hee; Tolan, Dean R; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Rosen, Hugo R; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome; its rising prevalence parallels the rise in obesity and diabetes. Historically thought to result from overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, recent evidence suggests that diets high in sugar (from sucrose and/or high-fructose corn syrup [HFCS]) not only increase the risk of NAFLD, but also non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Herein, we review the experimental and clinical evidence that fructose precipitates fat accumulation in the liver, due to both increased lipogenesis and impaired fat oxidation. Recent evidence suggests that the predisposition to fatty liver is linked to the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C, which results in ATP consumption, nucleotide turnover and uric acid generation that mediate fat accumulation. Alterations to gut permeability, the microbiome, and associated endotoxemia contribute to the risk of NAFLD and NASH. Early clinical studies suggest that reducing sugary beverages and total fructose intake, especially from added sugars, may have a significant benefit on reducing hepatic fat accumulation. We suggest larger, more definitive trials to determine if lowering sugar/HFCS intake, and/or blocking uric acid generation, may help reduce NAFLD and its downstream complications of cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased expression of Zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign. PMID:22076166

  4. Proteomic and genomic studies of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - clues in the pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Wei; Dillon, John; Miller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widely prevalent hepatic disorder that covers wide spectrum of liver pathology. NAFLD is strongly associated with liver inflammation, metabolic hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Frequently, NAFLD has been considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. Some patients can remain in the stage of simple steatosis, which generally is a benign condition; whereas others can develop liver inflammation and progress into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism behind the progression is still not fully understood. Much ongoing proteomic researches have focused on discovering the unbiased circulating biochemical markers to allow early detection and treatment of NAFLD. Comprehensive genomic studies have also begun to provide new insights into the gene polymorphism to understand patient-disease variations. Therefore, NAFLD is considered a complex and mutifactorial disease phenotype resulting from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This paper reviewed the current status of proteomic and genomic studies that have contributed to the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis. For proteomics section, this review highlighted functional proteins that involved in: (1) transportation; (2) metabolic pathway; (3) acute phase reaction; (4) anti-inflammatory; (5) extracellular matrix; and (6) immune system. In the genomic studies, this review will discuss genes which involved in: (1) lipolysis; (2) adipokines; and (3) cytokines production. PMID:25024592

  5. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:28144387

  6. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-18

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction.

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An emerging field.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression. Besides, gut microbioma and host genetic and epigenetic background could explain considerable interindividual variability. Knowledge that epigenetics, heritable events not caused by changes in DNA sequence, contribute to development of diseases has been a revolution in the last few years. Recently, evidences are accumulating revealing the important role of epigenetics in NAFLD pathogenesis and in NASH genesis. Histone modifications, changes in DNA methylation and aberrant profiles or microRNAs could boost development of NAFLD and transition into clinical relevant status. PNPLA3 genotype GG has been associated with a more progressive disease and epigenetics could modulate this effect. The impact of epigenetic on NAFLD progression could deserve further applications on therapeutic targets together with future non-invasive methods useful for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD.

  8. Neutrophil depletion improves diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ou, Rongying; Liu, Jia; Lv, Mingfen; Wang, Jingying; Wang, Jinmeng; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yunsheng

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is highly associated with morbidity and mortality in population. Although studies have already demonstrated that the immune response plays a pivotal role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the comprehensive regulation is unclear. Therefore, present study was carried out to investigate the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development under neutrophil depletion. To achieve the aim of the study, C57BL/6 J mice were fed with high fat diet for 6 weeks before treated with neutrophil deplete antibody 1A8 or isotype control (200 μg/ mouse every week) for another 4 weeks. Treated with 1A8 antibody, obese mice exhibited better whole body metabolic parameters, including reduction of body weight gain and fasting blood glucose levels. Neutrophil depletion also effectively reduced hepatic structural disorders, dysfunction and lipid accumulation. Lipid β-oxidative markers, phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase α and phosphorylated-acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels were increased in 1A8 antibody-treated obese mouse group. The mitochondrial number and function were also reversed after 1A8 antibody treatment, including increased mitochondrial number, reduced lipid oxidative damage and enhanced mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were obviously reduced after neutrophil depletion, accompanied with decreased F4/80 mRNA level and macrophage percentage in liver. The decreased NF-κB signaling activity was also involved in the beneficial effect of neutrophil depletion. Taken together, neutrophil depletion could attenuate metabolic syndromes and hepatic dysfunction.

  9. Neglected features of lifestyle: Their relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Trovato, Guglielmo; Catalano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigated in non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD), with ultrasound (US)-detected fatty liver, and in a group of non-alcoholic and otherwise healthy subjects, relationship of neglected features of lifestyle with NAFLD and obesity. METHODS Five hundred and thirty-two NAFLD and 667 non-NAFLD healthy subjects, age 21-60 years were studied. Severity of liver steatosis was assessed by US bright liver score. The adherence to mediterranean diet score (AMDS) was assessed on the basis of a 1-wk recall computerized questionnaire which included a detailed physical activity reports (Baecke questionnaire). The western dietary profile score, as a simplified paradigm of unhealthy diet, a questionnaire quantifying sun exposure score and a sleep habits questionnaires provided a further comprehensive lifestyle assessment. RESULTS Body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance (HOMA), and triglycerides, poorer adherence to a mediterranean diet profile, sedentary habits, minor sun exposure and use of “western diet” foods are greater in NAFLD. Multiple linear regression analysis, weighted by years of age, displays BMI, HOMA and AMDS as the most powerful independent predictors of fatty liver severity; however, also the physical activity score, the western diet habit and the sun exposure score are acting inside the model with significant independent effects. CONCLUSION Articulated clinical intervention, according to our results, are justified in NAFLD and can be pursued addressing by focused intervention nutritional profile, physical exercise mainly in open-air subsets for enhancing sun exposure and healthier sleep duration and rhythm. PMID:27957244

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the liver disease of our age?

    PubMed

    Firneisz, Gábor

    2014-07-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma nonesterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients.

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The liver disease of our age?

    PubMed Central

    Firneisz, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma nonesterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients. PMID:25083080

  12. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  13. Alimentary regimen in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Peta, Valentina; Alfieri, Francesco; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bellentani, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are awaiting clarification. Insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation status, among other possible genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors, are thought to play the key role. There is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. However, the dietary nutritional management to achieve weight loss is an essential component of any treatment strategy. On the basis of its components, the literature reports on the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing cardiovascular risk and in preventing major chronic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. New evidence supports the idea that the Mediterranean diet, associated with physical activity and cognitive behaviour therapy, may have an important role in the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:25492997

  14. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Cole, Banumathi K; Feaver, Ryan E; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2018-02-01

    The progressive disease spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a rapidly emerging public health crisis with no approved therapy. The diversity of various therapies under development highlights the lack of consensus around the most effective target, underscoring the need for better translatable preclinical models to study the complex progressive disease and effective therapies. Areas covered: This article reviews published literature of various mouse models of NASH used in preclinical studies, as well as complex organotypic in vitro and ex vivo liver models being developed. It discusses translational challenges associated with both kinds of models, and describes some of the studies that validate their application in NAFLD. Expert opinion: Animal models offer advantages of understanding drug distribution and effects in a whole body context, but are limited by important species differences. Human organotypic in vitro and ex vivo models with physiological relevance and translatability need to be used in a tiered manner with simpler screens. Leveraging newer technologies, like metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics, and the future development of validated disease biomarkers will allow us to fully utilize the value of these models to understand disease and evaluate novel drugs in isolation or combination.

  15. Omic studies reveal the pathogenic lipid droplet proteins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Yang; Liu, Pingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD), the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13) may promote the development of NAFLD.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes: From physiopathological interplay to diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Nathalie C; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane A; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Salles, Gil F

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus and increasing evidence suggests that patients with type 2 diabetes are at a particularly high risk for developing the progressive forms of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and associated advanced liver fibrosis. Moreover, diabetes is an independent risk factor for NAFLD progression, and for hepatocellular carcinoma development and liver-related mortality in prospective studies. Notwithstanding, patients with NAFLD have an elevated prevalence of prediabetes. Recent studies have shown that NAFLD presence predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes and NAFLD have mutual pathogenetic mechanisms and it is possible that genetic and environmental factors interact with metabolic derangements to accelerate NAFLD progression in diabetic patients. The diagnosis of the more advanced stages of NAFLD in diabetic patients shares the same challenges as in non-diabetic patients and it includes imaging and serological methods, although histopathological evaluation is still considered the gold standard diagnostic method. An effective established treatment is not yet available for patients with steatohepatitis and fibrosis and randomized clinical trials including only diabetic patients are lacking. We sought to outline the published data including epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD in diabetic patients, in order to better understand the interplay between these two prevalent diseases and identify the gaps that still need to be fulfilled in the management of NAFLD in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25024596

  17. Impact of miR-140 Deficiency on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Benjamin; Lo, Pang-Kuo; Yao, Yuan; Li, Linhao; Wang, Hongbing; Zhou, Qun

    2018-04-27

    Loss of miR-140 has a pro-fibrotic effect in the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate whether miR-140 loss and obesity act synergistically to promote non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. Liver tissues were isolated from lean-fat diet and high-fat diet fed wild-type and miR-140 knockout mice. Using molecular staining and immunohistochemistry techniques we identified increased development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and fibrotic indicators in miR-140 knockout mice. Utilizing an in vitro model system, we demonstrated that miR-140 targets TLR-4, and that miR-140 overexpression is sufficient to inhibit palmitic acid signaling through the TLR-4/NFκB pathway. Our findings demonstrate that loss of miR-140 results in increased expression of TLR-4, sensitizing cells to palmitic acid signaling and resulting in increased inflammatory activity through the TLR4/NFκB pathway. This signaling axis promotes NAFLD development in a high-fat diet context and indicates the potential utility of miR-140 rescue as a therapeutic strategy in NAFLD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Ho; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG) in the liver (steatosis) that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis), which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications. PMID:25195642

  19. Effectiveness of exercise in hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Golabi, Pegah; Locklear, Cameron T; Austin, Patrick; Afdhal, Sophie; Byrns, Melinda; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-07-21

    To investigate the efficacy of exercise interventions on hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Ovid-Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database were searched for randomized trials and prospective cohort studies in adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the effects of at least 8 wk of exercise only or combination with diet on NAFLD from 2010 to 2016. The search terms used to identify articles, in which exercise was clearly described by type, duration, intensity and frequency were: "NASH", "NAFLD", "non-alcoholic steatohepatitis", "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease", "fat", "steatosis", "diet", "exercise", "MR spectroscopy" and "liver biopsy". NAFLD diagnosis, as well as the outcome measures, was confirmed by either hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) or biopsy. Trials that included dietary interventions along with exercise were accepted if they met all criteria. Eight studies met selection criteria (6 with exercise only, 2 with diet and exercise with a total of 433 adult participants). Training interventions ranged between 8 and 48 wk in duration with a prescribed exercise frequency of 3 to 7 d per week, at intensities between 45% and 75% of VO2 peak. The most commonly used imaging modality was H-MRS and one study utilized biopsy. The effect of intervention on fat mobilization was 30.2% in the exercise only group and 49.8% in diet and exercise group. There was no difference between aerobic and resistance exercise intervention, although only one study compared the two interventions. The beneficial effects of exercise on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were seen even in the absence of significant weight loss. Although combining an exercise program with dietary interventions augmented the reduction in IHTG, as well as improved measures of glucose control and/or insulin sensitivity, exercise only significantly decreased hepatic lipid contents. Prescribed exercise in subjects with NAFLD reduces IHTG independent of

  20. Review article: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients and the effect of bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, R J J; Schoon, E J; Smulders, J F; van Hout, G C M; Stockbrügger, R W; Koek, G H

    2007-12-01

    Morbid obesity is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The effects of bariatric surgery on liver tests an histological abnormalities after weight loss are controversial. To review the literature on the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with morbid obesity with respect to laboratory and histopathological parameters and the effect of weight loss on these parameters after bariatric surgery. Standard liver tests do not seem to be a sensitive tool for the assessment and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity. In nearly all patients with morbid obesity, histological abnormalities reflecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are present. Bariatric surgery in these patients will decrease the grade of steatosis. However, there are some concerns about the effect of bariatric surgery on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In particular, older follow-up studies reported negative results as opposed to more recent studies, which also showed improvement in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Unfortunately, most studies had limitations because of the selection of patients. Despite limitations in many studies, bariatric surgery seems to be a promising treatment in patients with obesity presenting with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Th17 involvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chackelevicius, Carla Melisa; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Tiribelli, Claudio; Rosso, Natalia

    2016-11-07

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis. During the last years, Th17 cells have been involved in the development of inflammation not only in liver but also in other organs, such as adipose tissue or lung. Differentiation of a naïve T cell into a Th17 cell leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production with subsequent myeloid cell recruitment to the inflamed tissue. Th17 response can be mitigated by T regulatory cells that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. Both T cell subsets need TGF-β for their differentiation and a characteristic plasticity in their phenotype may render them new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the role of the Th17 pathway in NAFLD progression to NASH and to liver fibrosis analyzing different animal models of liver injury and human studies.

  2. Diagnosis of different liver fibrosis characteristics by blood tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, P<0.005). AOF was estimated by the combination of hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST, ALT, platelets and prothrombin index ((a) R(2) =0.530), while FD was estimated by hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST/ALT, weight and platelets ((a) R(2) =0.529). (ii) Evaluation. Although NASH-CRN was a better system for fibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (P<10(-3)). FibroMeter showed a significantly higher AUROC than the NAFLD fibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, P<10(-3)) was well reflected by the relationship between respective blood tests (r(s) =0.852, P<10(-3)). Different characteristics of fibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-14

    To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index. The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888). Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the thread of Ariadne.

    PubMed

    Kosmidou, Maria; Milionis, Haralampos

    2017-06-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic fat accumulation) and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the aggressive form of liver steatosis plus inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis) are reaching epidemic dimensions in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). Taking into account that the incidence of DM increases worldwide, these entities represent major health problems. There is accumulating evidence that diabetic subjects with NASH are at increased risk not only for cardiovascular disease compications but also for cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. On the other hand, the presence of NAFLD correlates with an increased risk for the development of DM. The most-widely accepted pathophysiological mechanisms relating DM and NAFLD include central obesity and insulin resistanc, but new insights are under scrutiny. Therapeutic modalities used for the management of diabetes have been studied for their impact on NAFLD/NASH and both neutral and beneficial effects have been reported. In this review, we discuss issues regarding the epidemiology, the pathophysiological pathways relating NAFLD with DM and consider strategies that may be useful in the management of NAFLD in the diabetic population.

  5. Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: brewing evidence for hepatoprotection?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Teoh, Narci C; Chitturi, Shiv; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2014-03-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers with chronic liver disease have a reduced risk of cirrhosis and a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of primary etiology. With the increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide, there is renewed interest in the effect of coffee intake on NAFLD severity and positive clinical outcomes. This review gives an overview of growing epidemiological and clinical evidence which indicate that coffee consumption reduces severity of NAFLD. These studies vary in methodology, and potential confounding factors have not always been completely excluded. However, it does appear that coffee, and particular components other than caffeine, reduce NAFLD prevalence and inflammation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Several possible mechanisms underlying coffee's hepatoprotective effects in NAFLD include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects, while a chemopreventive effect against hepatocarcinogenesis seems likely. The so-far limited data supporting such effects will be discussed, and the need for further study is highlighted. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A Guide to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jonathan L.; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Oben, Jude A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, affecting 10%–20% of the general paediatric population. Within the next 10 years it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. While our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease remains limited, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of more widespread metabolic dysfunction and is strongly associated with a number of metabolic risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and, most significantly, obesity. Despite this, ”paediatric” NAFLD remains under-studied, under-recognised and, potentially, undermanaged. This article will explore and evaluate our current understanding of NAFLD in childhood and adolescence and how it differs from adult NAFLD, in terms of its epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, diagnosis and clinical management. Given the current absence of definitive radiological and histopathological diagnostic tests, maintenance of a high clinical suspicion by all members of the multidisciplinary team in primary and specialist care settings remains the most potent of diagnostic tools, enabling early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:27314342

  7. Pathology and biopsy assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Straub, Beate Katharina; Schirmacher, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases in Western industrialized countries with dramatically rising incidence. The diagnosis of NAFLD requires the existence of steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. In cases of relevant inflammation pathogenetically linked to steatosis, it is termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While pure steatosis represents a relatively harmless and rapidly reversible condition without a significant tendency to progression, NASH carries a significant morbidity and progression risk. Noninvasive methods neither reliably establish the diagnosis nor define the extent of disease in NASH, making histopathology the diagnostic gold standard. Since current therapeutic options in NASH are limited, indication for biopsy is made in the clinical context, predominantly in unclear clinical constellations, prior to invasive measures, for follow-up purposes and in the context of clinical studies. Histological hallmarks of NASH are steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning (with and without Mallory-Denk bodies), necroinflammation, and progressing disease a characteristic with perisinusoidal fibrosis. For semiquantitative assessment of necroinflammation (grading) and fibrosis (staging), a score has recently been implemented. Although histology does not reliably distinguish alcoholic steatohepatitis/alcoholic fatty liver disease from NASH/NAFLD, it may give valuable hints. NASH has a tendency for more steatosis, the so-called glycogenated nuclei, and less necroinflammatory activity. Future development of biopsy diagnosis will be coupled to the development of differential systemic therapeutic approaches. Especially in the context of clinical studies, detailed histological evaluation should be considered for the detection of predictive parameters. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Imaging of non alcoholic fatty liver disease: A road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Das, Chandan J; Baruah, Manas P

    2013-11-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum that includes simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. It is increasingly emerging as a cause of elevated liver enzymes, cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The morbidity and mortality related to NAFLD is expected to rise with the upsurge of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The need of the hour is to devise techniques to estimate and then accurately follow-up hepatic fat content in patients with NAFLD. There are lots of imaging modalities in the radiological armamentarium, namely, ultrasonography with the extra edge of elastography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with chemical shift imaging and spectroscopy to provide an estimation of hepatic fat content.

  9. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease phenotypes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Alessandro; Gitto, Stefano; Bianchini, Marcello; Verga, Maria Chiara; Di Girolamo, Maria; Bertani, Angela; Del Buono, Mariagrazia; Schepis, Filippo; Lei, Barbara; De Maria, Nicola; Villa, Erica

    2018-01-24

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be detected in up to 33.6% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, often in absence of metabolic risk factors. Nevertheless, most of previous studies on such issue were conducted within the IBD population only. The primary aim of this study was to compare clinical and metabolic features of NAFLD in patients with and without IBD (w/o IBD) and to identify specific NAFLD phenotypes within the IBD population. Among 223 NAFLD patients, 78 patients with IBD were younger compared to 145 without (w/o) IBD, were less likely to have altered liver enzymes, had lower mean body weight, smaller waist circumference and lower body mass index (BMI); at the same time, MetS was more prevalent among patients w/o IBD (56.6 vs. 23.1%, p < 0.001). Within IBD population, patients with severe IBD showed more often severe steatosis (S3) at ultrasound (US) (32.1 vs. 16.6%, p = 0.01), compared to mild-to-moderate disease. Independent risk factors for S3 US steatosis in IBD patients at the multivariate logistic regression analysis were: more than 1 IBD relapse per year during disease history (OR 17.3, 95% CI 3.6-84), surgery for IBD (OR 15.1, 95% CI 3.1-73.7) and more extensive intestinal involvement (OR 19.4, 95% CI 3.4-110.9); the ongoing anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (antiTNFα) therapy was the only independent factor which protect toward the presence of altered liver enzymes (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0-0.8, p = 0.02). In conclusion, NAFLD in IBD patients is different from that in patients w/o IBD, who seem to develop different NAFLD phenotypes according to intestinal disease clinical course. More severe IBD seem to predict the presence of more severe steatosis. Therapy with antiTNFα antibodies could prevent alteration of liver enzymes in such population.

  10. Dietary fructose as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Glucose is a major energy source for the entire body, while fructose metabolism occurs mainly in the liver. Fructose consumption has increased over the last decade globally and is suspected to contribute to the increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome affecting about one-third of the population worldwide and has progressive pathological potential for liver cirrhosis and cancer through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we have reviewed the possible contribution of fructose to the pathophysiology of NAFLD. We critically summarize the current findings about several regulators, and their potential mechanisms, that have been studied in humans and animal models in response to fructose exposure. A novel hypothesis on fructose-dependent perturbation of liver regeneration and metabolism is advanced. Fructose intake could affect inflammatory and metabolic processes, liver function, gut microbiota, and portal endotoxin influx. The role of the brain in controlling fructose ingestion and the subsequent development of NAFLD is highlighted. Although the importance for fructose (over)consumption for NAFLD in humans is still debated and comprehensive intervention studies are invited, understanding of how fructose intake can favor these pathological processes is crucial for the development of appropriate noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to detect and treat these metabolic effects. Still, lifestyle modification, to lessen the consumption of fructose-containing products, and physical exercise are major measures against NAFLD. Finally, promising drugs against fructose-induced insulin resistance and hepatic dysfunction that are emerging from studies in rodents are reviewed, but need further validation in human patients.

  11. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis. PMID:27128907

  12. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  13. The role of nutraceuticals for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Angelico, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of hepatic changes, which may progress to liver fibrosis and to cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome but mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of NAFLD are still under investigation. The traditional 'two hit hypothesis' has been developed within a more complex 'multiple parallel hit hypothesis' which comprises a wide spectrum of parallel hits. Many therapeutic approaches have been proposed so far and several types of nutraceuticals have been suggested for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the most promising of which are those with antioxidant effects. In particular, vitamin E appears to be effective for the treatment of nondiabetic subjects with more advanced NASH, although the high suggested daily dosages are a matter of concern. Moreover, polyphenols reduce liver fat accumulation, mainly by inhibiting lipogenesis. At present, there are insufficient data to support the use of vitamin C supplements in patients with NAFLD. Data on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation are heterogeneous, and no well-designed randomized controlled studies (RCTs) of adequate size, with histological assessment of steatosis, have been conducted. Based on the available data, silymarin supplementation for the treatment of NAFLD seems to have a favourable effect. The results with anti-inflammatory agents, such as vitamin D and carnitine are uncertain. In conclusion, there are insufficient data either to support or refute the use of nutraceuticals for subjects with NAFLD. Further RTCs, with histological changes as an outcome measure, are needed. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: current perspectives and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennie Ka Ching; Zhang, Xiang; Yu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuous spectrum of diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. NAFLD progresses from simple liver steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and, in more severe cases, to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of its growing worldwide prevalence, various animal models that mirror both the histopathology and the pathophysiology of each stage of human NAFLD have been developed. The selection of appropriate animal models continues to be one of the key questions faced in this field. This review presents a critical analysis of the histopathology and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the most frequently used and recently developed animal models for each stage of NAFLD and NAFLD-induced HCC, the main mechanisms involved in the experimental pathogenesis of NAFLD in different animal models, and a brief summary of recent therapeutic targets found by the use of animal models. Integrating the data from human disease with those from animal studies indicates that, although current animal models provide critical guidance in understanding specific stages of NAFLD pathogenesis and progression, further research is necessary to develop more accurate models that better mimic the disease spectrum, in order to provide both increased mechanistic understanding and identification/testing of novel therapeutic approaches. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of reflux esophagitis: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Kim, Youngha; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Gu, Seonhye; Kang, Danbee; Cho, Soo Jin; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sinn, Dong Hyun

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease in cross-sectional studies, but a prospective association has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to determine whether NAFLD increases the risk of incident reflux esophagitis in a large cohort study. We conducted a cohort study of 34 063 men and women without reflux esophagitis or other upper gastrointestinal disease at baseline who underwent health checkup examinations between January 2003 and December 2013. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasound based on standard criteria. Reflux esophagitis was defined by the presence of at least grade A mucosal break on esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The prevalence of NAFLD at baseline was 33.2%. During 153 520.2 person-years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of reflux esophagitis for participants without and with NAFLD were 9.6% and 13.8%, respectively (P < 0.001). The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for the risk of reflux esophagitis development in participants with NAFLD compared with those without NAFLD was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.23; P < 0.001). However, this association disappeared after adjusting for body mass index and other metabolic factors (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.09; P = 0.79). Similarly, in multivariable-adjusted models, there was no significant association between NAFLD severity and the risk of developing reflux esophagitis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not independently associated with the risk of the development of reflux esophagitis, but rather, reflux esophagitis is primarily the consequence of increased body mass index commonly associated with NAFLD. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Increased expression of zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign.

  17. [Balneotherapeutics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with the use of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, T E; Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of combined spa-and-resort treatment with the use of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters for the patients presenting with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A total of 40 patients presening with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NOFLD) were available for the examination. The study has demonstrated positive dynamics of clinical symptoms and results of liver functional tests, characteristics of intrahepatic dynamics, lipid metabolism, antioxidant hemostais, and the hormonal status of the patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The intake of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters promoted normalization of adiponectin and leptin levels in conjunction with the reduction in the degree of insulin resistance, i.e., the key pathogenetic factors responsible for hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is concluded that the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters may be recommended for the inclusion in the combined treatment and prevention of the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P < 0.001), as defined by E/A ratio <1 and E-wave deceleration time >220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  19. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with and without metabolic syndrome: Different long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Käräjämäki, Aki Juhani; Bloigu, Risto; Kauma, Heikki; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Perkiömäki, Juha; Huikuri, Heikki; Ukkola, Olavi

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, there is a great overlap between these two diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic prognosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with and without metabolic syndrome. Middle-aged subjects (n=958) were divided into four subgroups, those with NAFLD and MetS, those with NAFLD or MetS, and healthy controls. The baseline characteristics of the subgroups were analyzed. The follow-up time for cardiovascular events was about 16years. After approximately 21years the cardiac ultrasound and laboratory parameters were re-analyzed and new type 2 diabetes cases were recorded. Those with both diseases were at the greatest risk for cardiovascular events (p<0.001). Compared to healthy controls, only those with MetS, with or without NAFLD, were at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes (p<0.001) and for an increase in left ventricular mass index (p=0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). The cardiovascular and metabolic risk in subjects with NAFLD only was quite similar to that in healthy controls. The I148M variant of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3 polymorphism) was most present in those with NAFLD only (p=0.008). NAFLD with MetS implies a considerable risk for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and the increase of left ventricular mass index whereas NAFLD without MetS does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Choline Metabolism Provides Novel Insights into Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Progression

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Karen D.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Choline is an essential nutrient and the liver is a central organ responsible for choline metabolism. Hepatosteatosis and liver cell death occur when humans are deprived of choline. In the last few years there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that influence choline requirements in humans and in our understanding of choline’s effects on liver function. These advances are useful in elucidating why non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs and progresses sometimes to hepatocarcinogenesis. Recent findings Humans eating low choline diets develop fatty liver and liver damage,. This dietary requirement for choline is modulated by estrogen and by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes of choline and folate metabolism. The spectrum of choline’s effects on liver range from steatosis to development of hepatocarcinomas, and several mechanisms for these effects have been identified. They include abnormal phospholipid synthesis, defects in lipoprotein secretion, oxidative damage caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Furthermore, the hepatic steatosis phenotype and can be characterized more fully via metabolomic signatures and is influenced by the gut microbiome. Importantly, the intricate connection between liver function, one carbon metabolism, and energy metabolism is just beginning to be elucidated. Summary Choline influences liver function, and the dietary requirement for this nutrient varies depending on an individual’s genotype and estrogen status. Understanding these individual differences is important for gastroenterologists seeking to understand why some individuals develop NAFLD and others do not, and why some patients tolerate total parenteral nutrition and others develop liver dysfunction. PMID:22134222

  1. Non-invasive diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana V; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2013-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one in every three subjects in the occidental world. The vast majority will not progress, but a relevant minority will develop liver cirrhosis and its complications. The classical gold standard for diagnosing and staging NAFLD and assessing fibrosis is liver biopsy (LB). However, it has important sample error issues and subjectivity in the interpretation, apart from a small but real risk of complications. The decision to perform an LB is even harder in a condition so prevalent such as NAFLD, in which the probability of finding severe liver injury is low. In an attempt to overcome LB and to subcategorize patients with NAFLD in different prognoses allowing better management decisions, several non-invasive methods have been studied in the last decade. The literature is vast and confusing. This review will summarize which methods have been tested and how they perform, which tests are adequate for clinical practice and how they can change the management of these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Nima; Rabiee, Behnam; Poustchi, Hossein; Dehestani, Babak; Hemasi, Gholam Reza; Khonsari, Mahmood Reza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Saeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Zamani, Farhad

    2017-02-01

    The association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was confirmed by a large body of evidence. This study was conducted to determine the association between NAFLD and 10-year CVD risk. This study utilized the data of 2804 subjects aged 40-74 years from a cohort study of northern Iran. Two CVD risk assessment tools, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care, were utilized to determine the 10-year CVD risk in patients with NAFLD and the individuals without this condition. The mean risks were compared between these two groups. Using ACC/AHA approach, the mean risk in male participants suffering NAFLD was 14.2%, while in men without NAFLD was 11.7% (P-value < 0.0001). Using Framingham approach, the mean risks were 16.0 and 12.7% in men with and without NAFLD, respectively (P-value < 0.0001). Using ACC/AHA approach, the mean risks in female participants with and without NAFLD were 6.7 and 4.6%, respectively (P-value < 0.0001). Applying Framingham approach, the mean risk was 8.2% in women with NAFLD and 5.4% in women without NAFLD (P-value < 0.0001). The individuals with NAFLD had a higher risk of 10-year CVD events than individuals without NAFLD, according to both ACC/AHA tool and primary care version of Framingham tool. A large proportion of NAFLD patients fulfill the criteria of statin therapy recommendation, suggesting that statin therapy could reduce 10-year CVD risk in NAFLD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A Relative Deficiency of Lysosomal Acid Lypase Activity Characterizes Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Tovoli, Francesco; Napoli, Lucia; Negrini, Giulia; D'Addato, Sergio; Tozzi, Giulia; D'Amico, Jessica; Piscaglia, Fabio; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-05-25

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. Initial reports have suggested a role for a relative acquired LAL deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-however, it is still unclear whether this mechanism is specific for NAFLD. We aimed to determine LAL activity in a cohort of NAFLD subjects and in a control group of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, investigating the role of liver cirrhosis. A total of 81 patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD, and 78 matched controls with HCV-related liver disease were enrolled. For each patient, LAL activity was determined on peripheral dried blood spots (DBS) and correlated with clinical and laboratory data. A subgroup analysis among cirrhotic patients was also performed. LAL activity is significantly reduced in NAFLD, compared to that in HCV patients. This finding is particularly evident in the pre-cirrhotic stage of disease. LAL activity is also correlated with platelet and white blood cell count, suggesting an analytic interference of portal-hypertension-induced pancytopenia on DBS-determined LAL activity. NAFLD is characterized by a specific deficit in LAL activity, suggesting a pathogenetic role of LAL. We propose that future studies on this topic should rely on tissue specific analyses, as peripheral blood tests are also influenced by confounding factors.

  5. Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: New therapeutic option around the corner?

    PubMed Central

    Sofi, Francesco; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, being considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD has a common pathogenic background to that of metabolic syndrome, and shares many risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although there is no currently available evidence-based established treatment for NAFLD, all the recommendations from the medical associations indicate that the most effective treatment is to reduce weight through lifestyle modifications. Diet, indeed, plays a key role in the management of NAFLD patients, as both the quantity and quality of the diet have been reported to have a beneficial role in the onset and severity of the liver disease. Among all the diets that have been proposed, a Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary option for inducing weight loss together with beneficial effects on all the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Over the last few years, research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in NAFLD. In this review, we will examine all the available data on the association between diet, nutrients and the Mediterranean diet in association with onset and severity of NAFLD. PMID:24966604

  6. Interleukin-17 exacerbates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Bian, Z; Zhao, L; Liu, Y; Liang, S; Wang, Q; Han, X; Peng, Y; Chen, X; Shen, L; Qiu, D; Li, Z; Ma, X

    2011-11-01

    Mechanisms associated with the progression of simple steatosis to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain undefined. Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play a critical role in regulating inflammatory processes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and because T helper type 17 (Th17) functionally oppose T(reg)-mediated responses, this study focused on characterizing the role of Th17 cells using a NAFLD mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Mice in the HF group had a significantly higher frequency of liver Th17 cells compared to ND-fed mice. Neutralization of interleukin (IL)-17 in HF mice ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury reflected by decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and reduced inflammatory cell infiltrates in the liver. In vitro, HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of free fatty acids (FFA; oleic acid and palmitic acid) for 24 h and IL-17 developed steatosis via insulin-signalling pathway interference. IL-17 and FFAs synergized to induce IL-6 production by HepG2 cells and murine primary hepatocytes which, in combination with transforming growth factor (TGF-β), expanded Th17 cells. It is likely that a similar process occurs in NASH patients, as there were significant levels of IL-17(+) cell infiltrates in NASH patient livers. The hepatic expression of Th17 cell-related genes [retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR)γt, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23] was also increased significantly in NASH patients compared to healthy controls. Th17 cells and IL-17 were associated with hepatic steatosis and proinflammatory response in NAFLD and facilitated the transition from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Strategies designed to alter the balance between Th17 cells and T(regs) should be explored as a means of preventing progression to NASH and advanced liver diseases in NAFLD patients. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for

  7. Novel circulating biomarkers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sancho, Elena; Abelló, David; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Currently, a liver biopsy remains the only reliable way to precisely diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and establish the severity of liver injury, presence of fibrosis, and architecture remodeling. However, the cost and the intrinsic invasive procedure of a liver biopsy rules it out as a gold standard diagnostic test, and the imaging test are not the best choice due to the price, and currently is being refined. The lack of a biomarker of NAFLD pushes to develop this new line of research. The aim of the present systematic review is to clarify and update all the NAFLD biomarkers described in the literature until recently. We highlight α-ketoglutarate and CK18-F as currently the best potential biomarker of NAFLD. However, due to methodological differences, we propose the implementation of international, multicenter, multiethnic studies with larger population size, and biopsy proven NAFLD diagnosis to analyze and compare α-ketoglutarate and CK18-F as potential biomarkers of the silent evolution of NAFLD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Background of the FIB-4 index in Japanese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takashi; Zeniya, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and characteristics of the FIB-4 index of liver fibrosis in 1,441 Japanese men (age 50.7±10.2 years) and 304 women (age 53.9±10.3 years) who underwent comprehensive general health checkups and were identified as having non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. With respect to the FIB-4 index, differences according to sex, metabolic indices, and ultrasonic findings were investigated. Among 9,255 individuals who underwent comprehensive general health checkups, 2,750 (29.8%) were found to have mild fatty liver or fatty liver based on ultrasound findings. After excluding patients who consumed ≥150 g alcohol/week (818 individuals), those testing positive for hepatitis B surface antigens or hepatitis C virus antibody (184 individuals), and those for whom data were insufficient (three individuals), we investigated the FIB-4 indices in the remaining 1,745 subjects. There were no sex differences in the FIB-4 index. A total of 1,370 patients (78.5%) exhibited a low cut-off index (COI) (<1.30), 357 (20.5%), exhibited an indeterminate COI (1.30-2.67), and 18 (1.0%) exhibited a high COI (>2.67). There were no associations between the FIB-4 index and the constituent factors of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, there was a significant difference in the ln FIB-4 index between the patients with and without mild fatty liver or fatty liver on ultrasound among men (0.006±0.43 and -0.092±0.39, p<0.001), but not women. The FIB-4 index was is significantly lower in men, but not women, with fatty liver. The FIB-4 index must be calculated separately during medical checkups and evaluated in conjunction with ultrasound findings.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; Claus, Anke; Ehrmann, Veronika; Bergheim, Ina; Schwiertz, Andreas; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. Methods Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×107 colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. Results LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal IκB protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P≤0.05) was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-α, IL-8R and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P≤0.05) were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. Conclusions We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis. PMID:24475018

  10. Relationship between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nseir, William; Abu-Rahmeh, Zuhair; Tsipis, Alex; Mograbi, Julnar; Mahamid, Mahmud

    2017-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease which refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis. Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in women and is the leading cause of death from cancer among women. To assess the relationship between NAFLD and newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. The results of mammography screening examinations in women referred to the Breast Center, Holy Family Hospital, Nazareth during a 4 year period were collected. We identified cases of women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) within 1 month of the diagnosis. The control group comprised 73 women with normal mammography and breast ultrasonography who underwent abdominal CT within 3 months from the date of the breast cancer screening during the same study period. The control cases were matched by age and body mass index (BMI). We compared the cases with the controls in terms of the presence of diffuse hepatic fatty liver and other known risk factors for breast cancer. Of the 133 women who were screened, 73 with new diagnosis of breast cancer were eligible for the study. NAFLD was found in 33 of the women with breast cancer and in 12 in the control group (45.2% vs.16.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed NAFLD (odds ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.5, P = 0.016) to be associated with breast cancer. NAFLD is associated with breast cancer.

  11. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Videla, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed. PMID:26512643

  12. Imaging evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focused on quantification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an emerging major health problem, and the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Traditionally, liver biopsy has been gold standard method for quantification of hepatic steatosis. However, its invasive nature with potential complication as well as measurement variability are major problem. Thus, various imaging studies have been used for evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography provides fairly good accuracy to detect moderate-to-severe degree hepatic steatosis, but limited accuracy for mild steatosis. Operator-dependency and subjective/qualitative nature of examination are another major drawbacks of ultrasonography. Computed tomography can be considered as an unsuitable imaging modality for evaluation of NAFLD due to potential risk of radiation exposure and limited accuracy in detecting mild steatosis. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging using chemical shift technique provide highly accurate and reproducible diagnostic performance for evaluating NAFLD, and therefore, have been used in many clinical trials as a non-invasive reference of standard method.

  13. Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Duan, Xingping; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Pengyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Meng, Qiang

    2017-07-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver. Further mechanism investigation indicated that GA reduced hepatic lipogenesis via downregulating SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD1 expression, increased fatty acids β-oxidation via an increase in PPARα, CPT1α and ACADS, and promoted triglyceride metabolism through inducing LPL activity. Furthermore, GA reduced gluconeogenesis through repressing PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased glycogen synthesis through an induction in gene expression of PDase and GSK3β. In addition, GA increased insulin sensitivity through upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. In conclusion, GA produces protective effect against NAFLD, due to regulation of genes involved in lipid, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focused on quantification

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an emerging major health problem, and the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Traditionally, liver biopsy has been gold standard method for quantification of hepatic steatosis. However, its invasive nature with potential complication as well as measurement variability are major problem. Thus, various imaging studies have been used for evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography provides fairly good accuracy to detect moderate-to-severe degree hepatic steatosis, but limited accuracy for mild steatosis. Operator-dependency and subjective/qualitative nature of examination are another major drawbacks of ultrasonography. Computed tomography can be considered as an unsuitable imaging modality for evaluation of NAFLD due to potential risk of radiation exposure and limited accuracy in detecting mild steatosis. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging using chemical shift technique provide highly accurate and reproducible diagnostic performance for evaluating NAFLD, and therefore, have been used in many clinical trials as a non-invasive reference of standard method. PMID:28994271

  15. Consensus document. Management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Aller, Rocío; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado; Lo Iacono, Oreste; Bañares, Rafael; Abad, Javier; Carrión, José Antonio; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Caballería, Joan; Berenguer, Marina; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Miranda, José López; Vilar-Gómez, Eduardo; Crespo, Javier; García-Cortés, Miren; Reig, María; Navarro, José María; Gallego, Rocío; Genescà, Joan; Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Pareja, María Jesús; Albillos, Agustín; Muntané, Jordi; Jorquera, Francisco; Solà, Elsa; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Rojo, Miguel Ángel; Salmerón, Javier; Caballería, Llorenc; Diago, Moisés; Molina, Esther; Bataller, Ramón; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver diseases in Spain and the incidence is raising due to the outbreak of type 2 diabetes and obesity. This CPG suggests recommendation about diagnosis, mainly non-invasive biomarkers, and clinical management of this entity. Life-style modifications to achieve weight loss is the main target in the management of NAFLD. Low caloric Mediterranean diet and 200 minutes/week of aerobic exercise are encouraged. In non-responders patients with morbid obesity, bariatric surgery or metabolic endoscopy could be indicated. Pharmacological therapy is indicated in patients with NASH and fibrosis and non-responders to weight loss measures. NAFLD could influence liver transplantation, as a growing indication, the impact of steatosis in the graft viability, de novo NAFLD rate after OLT and a raised cardiovascular risk that modify the management of this entity. The current CPG was the result of the First Spanish NAFLD meeting in Seville. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Beneficial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Liong, Emily C; So, Kwok Fai; Fung, Man-Lung; Tipoe, George L

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing intrahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression levels; (ii) decreasing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inflammation via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, significantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  17. Effect of intracellular lipid accumulation in a new model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro exposure of liver cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) results in fat overload which promotes inflammatory and fibrogenic response similar to those observed in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). Since the mechanisms of this event have not been fully characterized, we aimed to analyze the fibrogenic stimuli in a new in vitro model of NASH. Methods HuH7 cells were cultured for 24 h in an enriched medium containing bovine serum albumin and increasing concentrations of palmitic and oleic acid at a molar ratio of 1:2 (palmitic and oleic acid, respectively). Cytotoxic effect, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and production of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines were measured. Results FFA induces a significant increment in the intracellular content of lipid droplets. The gene expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly increased. The protein level of interleukin-8 was also increased. Intracellular lipid accumulation was associated to a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta 1, alpha 2 macroglobulin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, connective tissue growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, thrombospondin 1. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated a significant increment of early apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The exposure of hepatocytes to fatty acids elicits inflammation, increase of oxidative stress, apoptosis and production of fibrogenic cytokines. These data support a primary role of FFA in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:22380754

  18. Intrahepatic vascular changes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Potential role of insulin-resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pasarín, Marcos; Abraldes, Juan G; Liguori, Eleonora; Kok, Beverley; La Mura, Vincenzo

    2017-10-07

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several clinical conditions characterized by insulin-resistance and high cardiovascular risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the liver expression of the metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance can be a frequent comorbidity in several chronic liver diseases, in particular hepatitis C virus infection and/or cirrhosis. Several studies have demonstrated that insulin action is not only relevant for glucose control, but also for vascular homeostasis. Insulin regulates nitric oxide production, which mediates to a large degree the vasodilating, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties of a healthy endothelium, guaranteeing organ perfusion. The effects of insulin on the liver microvasculature and the effects of IR on sinusoidal endothelial cells have been studied in animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The hypotheses derived from these studies and the potential translation of these results into humans are critically discussed in this review.

  19. Interleukin-34 as a fibroblast-derived marker of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Yoshio, Sachiyo; Mano, Yohei; Kumagai, Erina; Sugiyama, Masaya; Korenaga, Masaaki; Arai, Taeang; Itokawa, Norio; Atsukawa, Masanori; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Ito, Kiyoaki; Yoneda, Masashi; Nozaki, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Torimura, Takuji; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi; Fukai, Moto; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Taketomi, Akinobu; Mizokami, Masashi; Kanto, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic non-viral liver disease. Activation of macrophages and hepatic stellate cells is a critical step that promotes liver fibrosis. We aimed to explore the feasibility of interleukin-34 (IL-34), a key regulator of macrophages, as a fibrosis marker in patients with NAFLD. We enrolled 197 liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. We evaluated the serum levels of IL-34, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), soluble CD163 (sCD163), 40 cytokines/chemokines, hyaluronic acid, type IV collagen 7s, and clinically-approved fibrosis scores. IL-34 increased with the progression of fibrosis and was an independent marker for liver fibrosis. Immunostaining experiments, using resected liver specimens from NAFLD patients, revealed that IL-34 was mainly expressed on liver fibroblasts. IL-34 based fibrosis score (0.0387*IL-34 (pg/ml) + 0.3623*type IV collagen 7s (ng/ml) + 0.0184*age (year)–1.1850) was a practical predictive model of liver fibrosis. Using receiver-operating characteristic analyses, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of IL-34 based fibrosis score were superior or comparable to the other fibrosis biomarkers and scores. In conclusion, the IL-34 based fibrosis score, including serum IL-34, type IV collagen 7s and age, is a feasible diagnostic marker of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. PMID:27363523

  20. Assessment of the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Hui; Mu, Biao; Guan, Yue; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Nan; Pan, Da; Wang, Shao-Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder of the liver. The relationship between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of complications arising from the interaction between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes. A total of 212 individuals with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The presence of NAFLD was determined in individuals using abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of fatty liver disease. Patients were divided into three groups based on the duration of diabetes and NAFLD diagnosis. Type 2 diabetes patients were placed in group A; patients with type 2 diabetes longer than NAFLD were placed in group B; and patients with NAFLD longer than type 2 diabetes were placed in group C. All individuals had undergone electrocardiogram, blood pressure measurements, and thorough medical history and physical examinations (Doppler ultrasound, electrophysiology, fundoscopy, cardiac computed tomography). Laboratory measurements included fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, liver and renal function, lipid profile, and urinary albumin excretion. Compared with groups A and B, the patients of group C showed a higher prevalence of significant coronary artery disease and hypertension (P < 0.05). Compared with groups A and B, the patients of group C showed a lower prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy among the three groups (P > 0.05). NAFLD combined with type 2 diabetes is associated with the presence of significant coronary artery disease and hypertension. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Adrenic acid as an inflammation enhancer in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Horas H Nababan, Saut; Nishiumi, Shin; Kawano, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed. Plasma samples from NAFLD patients were also analyzed by LC/MS. The CDAHFD-fed db/db mice with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, mild fibrosis, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia displayed significantly higher hepatic and plasma levels of free adrenic acid (p < 0.05). The accumulated adrenic acid in the CDAHFD-fed db/db mice was associated with increased expression of ELOVL2 and 5, and the suppression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 gene during peroxisomal β-oxidation. The pretreatment of HepG2 cells with adrenic acid enhanced their cytokine-induced cytokines and chemokines mRNA expression. In NAFLD patients, the group with the highest ALT levels exhibited higher plasma adrenic acid concentrations than the other ALT groups (p-value for trend <0.001). Data obtained demonstrated that adrenic acid accumulation contributes to disease progression in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  3. Effects of iron overload in a rat nutritional model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Richard; Sijtsema, Helene P; Tlali, Mpho; Marais, Adrian D; Hall, Pauline de la M

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether excess hepatic iron potentiates liver injury in the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Iron-loaded rats were fed either MCD or control diets [MCD diet plus choline bitartrate (2 g/kg) and DL-methionine (3 g/kg)] for 4 and 12 weeks, after which liver pathology, hepatic iron, triglyceride, lipid peroxidation products and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were evaluated. Iron supplementation in MCD animals resulted in histologic evidence of hepatic iron overload at 4 and 12 weeks and a 14-fold increase in hepatic iron concentration at 12 weeks (P < 0.001). Iron supplementation in these animals was associated with increased lobular necroinflammation at 4 weeks (P < 0.02) and decreased hepatic steatosis (P < 0.01), hepatic triglyceride levels (P < 0.01), hepatic-conjugated dienes (CD; P < 0.02) and serum ALT levels (P < 0.002) at 12 weeks. Reduced hepatic steatosis (P < 0.005) and CD (P < 0.01) were apparent by 4 weeks. Iron supplementation was associated with a trend towards increased perivenular fibrosis not hepatic HYP content. Hepatic iron overload in the MCD model of NAFLD is associated with decreased hepatic lipid, decreased early lipid peroxidation products, increased necroinflammation and a trend towards increased perivenular fibrosis.

  4. The Biological Clock: A Pivotal Hub in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Mazza, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic pathology in the Western world and may evolve into steatohepatitis (NASH), increasing the risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD derives from the accumulation of hepatic fat due to discrepant free fatty acid metabolism. Other factors contributing to this are deranged nutrients and bile acids fluxes as well as alterations in nuclear receptors, hormones, and intermediary metabolites, which impact on signaling pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation. Autophagy and host gut-microbiota interplay are also relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Notably, liver metabolic pathways and bile acid synthesis as well as autophagic and immune/inflammatory processes all show circadian patterns driven by the biological clock. Gut microbiota impacts on the biological clock, at the same time as the appropriate timing of metabolic fluxes, hormone secretion, bile acid turnover, autophagy and inflammation with behavioural cycles of fasting/feeding and sleeping/waking is required to circumvent hepatosteatosis, indicating significant interactions of the gut and circadian processes in NAFLD pathophysiology. Several time-related factors and processes interplay in NAFLD development, with the biological clock proposed to act as a network level hub. Deranged physiological rhythms (chronodisruption) may also play a role in liver steatosis pathogenesis. The current article reviews how the circadian clock circuitry intimately interacts with several mechanisms involved in the onset of hepatosteatosis and its progression to NASH, thereby contributing to the global NAFLD epidemic. PMID:29662454

  5. Choline and Fructooligosaccharide: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cardiac Fat Deposition, and Oxidative Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Borges Haubert, Nadia Juliana Beraldo Goulart; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Carvalho Cunha, Selma Freire; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel; Padovan, Gilberto Joao; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Marchini Alves, Claudia Maria Meirelles; Marchini, Julio Flavio Meirelles; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats with choline and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The healthy control group received standard diet. The other three groups consisted of animals with NAFLD. Group Estr received standard diet; group Echo received standard diet plus choline (3 g/100 g diet); and group Efos received standard diet plus FOS (10 g/100 g diet). Food intake, weight, urinary nitrogen, urinary ammonia, total cholesterol, serum triacylglyceride, liver and heart weights, tissue nitrogen, tissue fat, vitamin E, TBARS, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in hepatic and heart tissue. Choline and FOS treatments resulted in total mean fat reduction in liver and heart tissue of 0.2 and 1.7 g, respectively. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing hepatic and cardiac steatosis. There were no differences in the TBARS level among experimental and control groups, indicating that the proposed treatments had no added protection against free radicals. While all experimental groups had increased vitamin E and GSH levels, choline treatment led to a significant increase compared to control. PMID:25987847

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to struggle with the strangle: Oxygen availability in fatty livers.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Oxygen is a central component of the cellular microenvironment, which participate in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, functions and energy metabolism. Accordingly, sufficient oxygen supply is an important factor for tissue durability, mainly in highly metabolic tissues, such as the liver. Accumulating evidence from the past few decades provides strong support for the existence of interruptions in oxygen availability in fatty livers. This outcome may be the consequence of both, impaired systemic microcirculation and cellular membrane modifications which occur under steatotic conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the main factors which can affect oxygen supply in fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in human hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Marcus J; Cartier, Jessy; Thomson, John P; Cameron, Kate; Meseguer-Ripolles, Jose; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Villarin, Baltasar Lucendo; Wang, Yu; Blanco, Giovanny Rodriguez; Dunn, Warwick B; Meehan, Richard R; Hay, David C; Drake, Amanda J

    2018-07-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in developed countries. An in vitro NAFLD model would permit mechanistic studies and enable high-throughput therapeutic screening. While hepatic cancer-derived cell lines are a convenient, renewable resource, their genomic, epigenomic and functional alterations mean their utility in NAFLD modelling is unclear. Additionally, the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a cell lineage identifier, is rapidly lost during cell culture, alongside expression of the Ten-eleven-translocation ( TET ) methylcytosine dioxygenase enzymes, restricting meaningful epigenetic analysis. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells can provide a non-neoplastic, renewable model for liver research. Here, we have developed a model of NAFLD using HLCs exposed to lactate, pyruvate and octanoic acid (LPO) that bear all the hallmarks, including 5hmC profiles, of liver functionality. We exposed HLCs to LPO for 48 h to induce lipid accumulation. We characterized the transcriptome using RNA-seq, the metabolome using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the epigenome using 5-hydroxymethylation DNA immunoprecipitation (hmeDIP) sequencing. LPO exposure induced an NAFLD phenotype in HLCs with transcriptional and metabolomic dysregulation consistent with those present in human NAFLD. HLCs maintain expression of the TET enzymes and have a liver-like epigenome. LPO exposure-induced 5hmC enrichment at lipid synthesis and transport genes. HLCs treated with LPO recapitulate the transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation seen in NAFLD and additionally retain TET expression and 5hmC. This in vitro model of NAFLD will be useful for future mechanistic and therapeutic studies.This article is part of the theme issue 'Designer human tissue: coming to a lab near you'. © 2018 The Authors.

  8. Aerobic vs. resistance exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Ryuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Bekki, Masafumi; Omoto, Masayuki; Matsuse, Hiroo; Nago, Takeshi; Takano, Yoshio; Ueno, Takato; Koga, Hironori; George, Jacob; Shiba, Naoto; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is a first-line therapy for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to: 1) summarize effective aerobic and resistance exercise protocols for NAFLD; and 2) compare the effects and energy consumption of aerobic and resistance exercises. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopas to January 28, 2016. From a total of 95 articles, 23 studies including 24 aerobic and 7 resistance exercise protocols were selected for the summary of exercise protocols. Twelve articles including 13 aerobic and 4 resistance exercise protocols were selected for the comparative analysis. For aerobic exercise, the median effective protocol was 4.8 metabolic equivalents (METs) for 40min/session, 3times/week for 12weeks. For resistance exercise, the median effective protocol was 3.5 METs for 45min/session, 3times/week for 12weeks. Aerobic and resistance exercise improved hepatic steatosis. No significant difference was seen in the duration, frequency, or period of exercise between the two exercise groups; however, %VO 2 max and energy consumption were significantly lower in the resistance than in the aerobic group (50% [45-98] vs. 28% [28-28], p=0.0034; 11,064 [6394-21,087] vs. 6470 [4104-12,310] kcal/total period, p=0.0475). Resistance exercise improves NAFLD with less energy consumption. Thus, resistance exercise may be more feasible than aerobic exercise for NAFLD patients with poor cardiorespiratory fitness or for those who cannot tolerate or participate in aerobic exercise. These data may indicate a possible link between resistance exercise and lipid metabolism in the liver. Both aerobic and resistance exercise reduce hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with similar frequency, duration, and period of exercise (40-45min/session 3times/week for 12weeks); however, the two forms of exercise have different characteristics. Intensity and energy consumption were significantly lower for resistance than for

  9. Potential strategies to improve uptake of exercise interventions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Frith, James; Day, Christopher P; Robinson, Lisa; Elliott, Chris; Jones, David E J; Newton, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    The management of non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) concerns lifestyle modification and exercise; however, adherence is poor. Factors such as lack of confidence to exercise, poor understanding of the benefits of exercise, and a fear of falling all influence engagement in physical activity. To increase exercise in NAFLD it is important to understand the barriers to performing it. Three chronic liver disease cohorts were identified from the Newcastle Liver Database: NAFLD (n=230), alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n=110) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n=97). Assessment tools were completed by all subjects: Outcome Expectation for Exercise Scale (OEES, understanding the benefits of exercise, lower scores indicate greater understanding), Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEES, confidence to exercise), Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I, higher scores indicate greater fear of falling). Activity was analysed from a functional perspective using the PROMIS-HAQ. Understanding the benefits of exercise was similar across each group [median OEES scores: NAFLD 2.38 (range 0.0-5.0), ALD 2.25 (0.0-5.0), PBC 2.28 (1.0-5.0), p=0.6]. In NAFLD confidence to exercise was significantly lower [median SEES score 0.0 (0.0-10.0), PBC 4.5 (0.0-10.0), p<0.001]. Fear of falling was similar in NAFLD and PBC, and greatest in ALD [22 (0-64), 22 (3-64), 30 (0-64), p=0.044]. In NAFLD, fear of falling was independently associated with increasing difficulty performing activity. NAFLD patients understand the benefits of exercise but lack confidence to perform it. Fear of falling was independently associated with more difficulty performing activity. Fear of falling and confidence are modifiable and potential targets to improve uptake and adherence for exercise intervention.

  10. [The Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2017-06-25

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be one of the important causes of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD-related HCCs (NAFLD-HCCs) have the following clinical features: high body mass index, deranged lipid profiles, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Among them, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and high Fe contents in the liver are risk factors of developing HCC in patients with NAFLD. Inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, insulin like growth factor-I, and lipotoxicity are intermingled and may cross react with each other to develop HCC. Because there is no guideline for early detection of HCC in patients with NAFLD, NAFLD-HCCs tend to be greater in size and in advanced stages when detected compared with hepatitis virus-related HCCs. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a surveillance program for the early detection of HCC. Treatment of NAFLD-HCCs is not different from other causes-related HCCs. However, patients with NAFLD-HCCs have cardiovascular disease and other metabolic problems, which may complicate treatment.

  11. The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, Elena; Pinzani, Massimo; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2016-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly prevalent and represents a growing challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. Despite its high prevalence, only a small minority of affected patients develops inflammation and subsequently fibrosis and chronic liver disease, while most of them only exhibit simple steatosis. In this context, the full understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is of extreme importance; despite advances in this field, knowledge on the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still incomplete. The 'two-hit' hypothesis is now obsolete, as it is inadequate to explain the several molecular and metabolic changes that take place in NAFLD. The "multiple hit" hypothesis considers multiple insults acting together on genetically predisposed subjects to induce NAFLD and provides a more accurate explanation of NAFLD pathogenesis. Such hits include insulin resistance, hormones secreted from the adipose tissue, nutritional factors, gut microbiota and genetic and epigenetic factors. In this article, we review the factors that form this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: do guidelines provide enough guidance?

    PubMed

    Koot, B G P; Nobili, V

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines. A literature overview is provided on open questions and controversies. Screening for NAFLD is advocated in all obesity and most NAFLD guidelines. Guidelines are not uniform in whom to screen, and most guidelines do not specify how screening should be performed in practice. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial, due to lack of a highly accurate screening tool, limited knowledge to predict the natural course of NAFLD and limited data on its cost effectiveness. Guidelines provide little guidance on how screening should be performed. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial because not all conditions for screening are fully met. Consensus is needed on the optimal use of currently available screening tools. Research should focus on new accurate screening tool, the natural history of NAFLD and the cost effectiveness of different screening strategies in children. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  13. Serum YKL-40 as a marker of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Erina; Mano, Yohei; Yoshio, Sachiyo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masaya; Korenaga, Masaaki; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Taeang; Itokawa, Norio; Atsukawa, Masanori; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Ito, Kiyoaki; Yoneda, Masashi; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Torimura, Takuji; Nozaki, Yuichi; Watanabe, Sumio; Mizokami, Masashi; Kanto, Tatsuya

    2016-10-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic non-viral liver disease. YKL-40, chitinase-like protein expressed in multiple tissues including liver, is involved in cell proliferation, inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum YKL-40 levels are associated with liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Serum YKL-40 levels were quantified in 111 NAFLD patients and 23 HCC patients with NAFLD. To identify the source of YKL-40, immunofluorescence staining of liver specimens from NAFLD patients was performed. Serum YKL-40 levels in NAFLD patients increased in accordance with the progression of liver fibrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that YKL-40 was one of the independent factors significantly associated with severe fibrosis (F3-4). We established a new predictive model for fibrosis of NAFLD, using logistic regression analysis: YKL-40 based fibrosis score = -0.0545 + type IV collagen 7s * 0.3456 + YKL-40 * 0.0024. Serum YKL-40 levels of HCC patients with non-cirrhotic NAFLD were significantly higher than those without HCC. Immunofluorescence staining showed that YKL-40 was expressed by macrophages in liver tissue of NAFLD patients. In conclusion, macrophage-derived YKL-40 is a feasible biomarker of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients.

  14. Dietary advanced glycation end-products aggravate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christopher; Herath, Chandana B; Jia, Zhiyuan; Andrikopoulos, Sof; Brown, Bronwyn E; Davies, Michael J; Rivera, Leni R; Furness, John B; Forbes, Josephine M; Angus, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine if manipulation of dietary advanced glycation end product (AGE), intake affects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression and whether these effects are mediated via RAGE. METHODS Male C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat, high fructose, high cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 33 wk and compared with animals on normal chow. A third group were given a HFHC diet that was high in AGEs. Another group was given a HFHC diet that was marinated in vinegar to prevent the formation of AGEs. In a second experiment, RAGE KO animals were fed a HFHC diet or a high AGE HFHC diet and compared with wildtype controls. Hepatic biochemistry, histology, picrosirius red morphometry and hepatic mRNA were determined. RESULTS Long-term consumption of the HFHC diet generated significant steatohepatitis and fibrosis after 33 wk. In this model, hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal content (a marker of chronic oxidative stress), hepatocyte ballooning, picrosirius red staining, α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type 1A gene expression were all significantly increased. Increasing the AGE content of the HFHC diet by baking further increased these markers of liver damage, but this was abrogated by pre-marination in acetic acid. In response to the HFHC diet, RAGE-/- animals developed NASH of similar severity to RAGE+/+ animals but were protected from the additional harmful effects of the high AGE containing diet. Studies in isolated Kupffer cells showed that AGEs increase cell proliferation and oxidative stress, providing a likely mechanism through which these compounds contribute to liver injury. CONCLUSION In the HFHC model of NAFLD, manipulation of dietary AGEs modulates liver injury, inflammation, and liver fibrosis via a RAGE dependent pathway. This suggests that pharmacological and dietary strategies targeting the AGE/RAGE pathway could slow the progression of NAFLD. PMID:27672297

  15. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome in Hypopituitary Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Williamson-Baddorf, Sarah; Waters, Bradford; Wan, Jim Y; Solomon, Solomon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased incidence of cardiovascular mortality and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in hypopituitarism; but previous studies did not correct for obesity in these patients. Therefore it remained unclear if endocrine deficiency in hypopituitarism is associated with metabolic consequences independent of obesity. This study was designed to determine the burden of cardiovascular disease and NAFLD in hypopituitarism. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control analysis of hypopituitary patients at Veterans Affair Medical center, Memphis; from January 1997- June 2007. After matching for age, gender, obesity and race, relevant data were abstracted from the subjects' records to determine the presence of hypopituitarism, cardiovascular risk factors and fatty liver disease. Cases and controls were characterized by descriptive statistics, and compared using Chi-square and Student's t- tests. Results Hypopituitary patients exhibited higher prevalence of hypertension- 88% vs 78% (P<0.03), hypertriglyceridemia-80% vs 70% (P=0.05), low HDL cholesterol-84% vs 70% (P<0.001), and metabolic syndrome-90% vs 71% (P<0.001). Patients also had higher mean plasma glucose levels-228 ± 152 vs 181 ± 83 mg/dL (P<0.01). Despite higher preponderance of cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients, prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity was similar in both groups (P>0.3). Hypopituitary patients had higher elevations in serum aminotransferase levels and hyperbilirubinemia-24% vs 11% (P<0.01), as well as higher INR and hypoalbuminemia 40% vs 23% (P<0.01). Conclusions There is increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and liver dysfunction consistent with NAFLD in hypopituitarism. Although hypopituitary patients had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors than controls, they were not disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. PMID:19745609

  16. Resolution of donor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Posner, Andrew D; Sultan, Samuel T; Zaghloul, Norann A; Twaddell, William S; Bruno, David A; Hanish, Steven I; Hutson, William R; Hebert, Laci; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C

    2017-09-01

    Transplant surgeons conventionally select against livers displaying high degrees (>30%) of macrosteatosis (MaS), out of concern for primary non-function or severe graft dysfunction. As such, there is relatively limited experience with such livers, and the natural history remains incompletely characterized. We present our experience of transplanted livers with high degrees of MaS and microsteatosis (MiS), with a focus on the histopathologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine cases were identified with liver biopsies available from both the donor and the corresponding liver transplant recipient. Donor liver biopsies displayed either MaS or MiS ≥15%, while all recipients received postoperative liver biopsies for cause. The mean donor MaS and MiS were 15.6% (range 0%-60%) and 41.3% (7.5%-97.5%), respectively. MaS decreased significantly from donor (M=15.6%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=0.86%), P<.001. Similarly, MiS decreased significantly from donor biopsies (M=41.3%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=1.8%), P<.001. At a median of 68 days postoperatively (range 4-384), full resolution of MaS and MiS was observed in 27 of 29 recipients. High degrees of MaS and MiS in donor livers resolve in recipients following liver transplantation. Further insight into the mechanisms responsible for treating fatty liver diseases could translate into therapeutic targets. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genistein Ameliorates Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Targeting the Thromboxane A2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhe; Chen, Junliang; Mao, Jinyan; Li, Hongling; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-13

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has yet received approval. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major ingredient of animal fats, and the AA cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein was against NAFLD by targeting the AA cascade. Using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities, and glucose tolerance. The thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) pathway was aberrantly active in NAFLD, evidenced by an elevation of circulating TXA 2 and hepatic thromboxane A 2 receptor expression. Mechanistically, we found that genistein directly targeted cyclooxygenase-1 activity as well as its downstream TXA 2 biosynthesis, while the TXA 2 pathway might mediate NAFLD progression by impairing insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our study revealed a crucial pathophysiological role of the TXA 2 pathway in NAFLD and provided an explanation as to how genistein was against NAFLD progression.

  18. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaosen; Cirillo, Pietro; Sautin, Yuri; McCall, Shannon; Bruchette, James L; Diehl, Anna Mae; Johnson, Richard J; Abdelmalek, Manal F

    2008-06-01

    While the rise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) parallels the increase in obesity and diabetes, a significant increase in dietary fructose consumption in industrialized countries has also occurred. The increased consumption of high fructose corn syrup, primarily in the form of soft drinks, is linked with complications of the insulin resistance syndrome. Furthermore, the hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de novo lipogenesis and ATP depletion. We hypothesize that increased fructose consumption contributes to the development of NAFLD. A dietary history and paired serum and liver tissue were obtained from patients with evidence of biopsy-proven NAFLD (n=49) without cirrhosis and controls (n=24) matched for gender, age (+/-5 years), and body mass index (+/-3 points). Consumption of fructose in patients with NAFLD was nearly 2- to 3-fold higher than controls [365 kcal vs 170 kcal (p<0.05)]. In patients with NAFLD (n=6), hepatic mRNA expression of fructokinase (KHK), an important enzyme for fructose metabolism, and fatty acid synthase, an important enzyme for lipogenesis were increased (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively). In an AML hepatocyte cell line, fructose resulted in dose-dependent increase in KHK protein and activity. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the development of NAFLD may be associated with excessive dietary fructose consumption.

  19. Ethanol Extract of Crataegus Oxyacantha L. Ameliorate Dietary Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rat.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Golbahar; Jeivad, Fereshteh; Goharbari, Mohammadhadi; Gheshlaghi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh; Sabzevari, Omid

    2018-05-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is one the most prevalent disease worldwide which characterized by fat accumulation in liver with no established efficient therapy. We designed this study to investigate protective and therapeutic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha L. (C. oxyacantha) on NAFLD induced by high fat diet in rat models. NAFLD was induced by High Fat Diet+fructose (HFD), 45 Wistar rats were divided to 8 groups including control, HFD, HFD+diet change, HFD+diet change+C. oxyacantha 20 mg/kg, co treatment of HFD+C. oxyacantha 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, and normal diet+C. oxyacantha 40 mg. C. oxyacantha was administered orally. Effectiveness of the C. oxyacantha was assessed through measuring the biochemical factors, and oxidative stress marker (FRAP, GSH, and MDA). Histopathological study was performed using H & E staining. The diet change from high fat to low fat ameliorated liver damage. However, consumption of C. oxyacantha (10 & 20 mg/kg) caused significant reduction in the level of all examined liver biomarkers specially LDH, that showed C. oxyacantha can restore the hepatocyte damage due to HFD. The C. oxyacantha showed a protective effect which was more prominent in the animals treated with the 20 mg/kg C. oxyacantha. The administration of C. oxyacantha caused increased antioxidant status (GSH and FRAP levels) and decreased lipid peroxidation in treated animals. Accordingly, C. oxyacantha have both therapeutic and protective effect for NAFLD and may be a potential candidate for further assessments in clinical studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with high prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miele, Luca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Vero, Vittoria; Racco, Simona; Cefalo, Consuelo; Marrone, Giuseppe; Pompili, Maurizio; Rapaccini, Gianlodovico; Bianco, Alessandro; Landolfi, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms are usually reported by patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cross-sectional, case-control study of 185 consecutive patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an age- and sex-matched control group of 112 healthy volunteers. Participants were interviewed with the aid of a previously validated questionnaire to assess lifestyle and reflux symptoms in the 3 months preceding enrolment. Odds ratios were determined before and after adjustment for body mass index, increased waist circumference, physical activity, metabolic syndrome and proton pump inhibitors and/or antiacid medication. The prevalence of heartburn and/or regurgitation and of at least one of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms was significantly higher in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects were associated to higher prevalence of heartburn (adjusted odds ratios: 2.17, 95% confidence intervals: 1.16-4.04), regurgitation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.61, 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-5.48) and belching (adjusted odds ratios: 2.01, 95% confidence intervals: 1.12-3.59) and had higher prevalence of at least one GER symptom (adjusted odds ratios: 3.34, 95% confidence intervals: 1.76-6.36). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with a higher prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral Probiotic Microcapsule Formulation Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Bio F1B Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bhathena, Jasmine; Martoni, Christopher; Kulamarva, Arun; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Paul, Arghya; Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effect of a microencapsulated feruloyl esterase producing Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11976 formulation for use in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was investigated. For which Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a methionine deficient/choline devoid diet to induce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results, for the first time, show significant clinical benefits in experimental animals. Examination of lipids show that concentrations of hepatic free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly lowered in treated animals. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and insulin resistance were found to decrease in treated animals. Liver histology evaluations showed reduced fat deposits. Western blot analysis shows significant differences in expression levels of key liver enzymes in treated animals. In conclusion, these findings suggest the excellent potential of using an oral probiotic formulation to ameliorate NAFLD. PMID:23554890

  3. Dietary sodium and potassium intake in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Mi Kyung; Sung, Eunju; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-10-01

    A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of intakes of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of Na and K with the prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD. We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 177 participants (46 596 men and 53 581 women) who underwent a health screening examination and completed a FFQ at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea, between 2011 and 2013. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of fatty liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake or other known causes of liver disease. The proportion of NAFLD was 35·6 % for men and 9·8 % for women. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD was observed with increasing Na intake. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of NAFLD comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted Na intake were 1·25 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·32; P trend<0·001) in men and 1·32 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·47; P trend <0·001) in women. However, when we additionally adjusted for body fat percentage, the association became attenuated; the corresponding PR of NAFLD were 1·15 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·21) in men and 1·06 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·17) in women. No inverse association was observed for energy-adjusted K intake. Our findings suggest that higher Na intake is associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults, which might be partly mediated by adiposity.

  4. Gut-Liver Axis, Nutrition, and Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirpich, Irina A.; Marsano, Luis S.; McClain, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of diseases involving hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation with the potential progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis over time. NAFLD is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The interactions between the liver and the gut, the so-called ”gut-liver axis”, play a critical role in NAFLD onset and progression. Compelling evidence links the gut microbiome, intestinal barrier integrity, and NAFLD. The dietary factors may alter the gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, favoring the occurrence of metabolic endotoxemia and low grade inflammation, thereby contributing to the development of obesity and obesity-associated fatty liver disease. Therapeutic manipulations with prebiotics and probiotics to modulate the gut microbiota and maintain intestinal barrier integrity are potential agents for NAFLD management. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the complex interplay between the gut microbiota, intestinal barrier, and dietary factors in NAFLD pathogenesis. The concepts addressed in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to understand how dietary factors affect the gut barrier and microbiota, and to comprehend how microbe-derived components may interfere with the host’s metabolism contributing to NAFLD development. PMID:26151226

  5. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Lean Subjects: Characteristics and Implications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Mohan, Shantam

    2017-09-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance. Some data suggest that the prevalence of steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis do not differ significantly between lean and obese NAFLD; however, the former tend to have less severe disease at presentation. The underlying pathophysiology of lean NAFLD may be quite different. Genetic predispositions, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia have potential roles in the pathogenic underpinnings. Lean NAFLD may pose a risk for metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular morbidity or overall mortality. Secondary causes of hepatic steatosis are also needed to be ruled out in lean subjects with NAFLD. The effectiveness of various treatment modalities, such as exercise and pharmacotherapy, on lean NAFLD is not known. Weight loss is expected to help lean NAFLD patients who have visceral obesity. Further investigation is needed for many aspects of lean NAFLD, including mechanistic pathogenesis, risk assessment, natural history and therapeutic approach.

  6. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Lean Subjects: Characteristics and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Mohan, Shantam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance. Some data suggest that the prevalence of steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis do not differ significantly between lean and obese NAFLD; however, the former tend to have less severe disease at presentation. The underlying pathophysiology of lean NAFLD may be quite different. Genetic predispositions, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia have potential roles in the pathogenic underpinnings. Lean NAFLD may pose a risk for metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular morbidity or overall mortality. Secondary causes of hepatic steatosis are also needed to be ruled out in lean subjects with NAFLD. The effectiveness of various treatment modalities, such as exercise and pharmacotherapy, on lean NAFLD is not known. Weight loss is expected to help lean NAFLD patients who have visceral obesity. Further investigation is needed for many aspects of lean NAFLD, including mechanistic pathogenesis, risk assessment, natural history and therapeutic approach. PMID:28936403

  7. Activation of proteinase 3 contributes to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Erik J M; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine T N; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-05-24

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human alpha-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after fed a high fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1(-/-) mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 days of a 16 week high fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential.

  8. Relationship of sitting time and physical activity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Choi, Yuni; Kim, Chan-Won; Cho, Juhee; Suh, Byung-Seong; Cho, Yong Kyun; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association of sitting time and physical activity level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Korean men and women and to explore whether any observed associations were mediated by adiposity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,056 Koreans, who underwent a health examination between March 2011 and December 2013. Physical activity level and sitting time were assessed using the validated Korean version of the international Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasonographic findings. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to evaluate the association of sitting time and physical activity level with NAFLD. Of the 139,056 subjects, 39,257 had NAFLD. In a multivariable-adjusted model, both prolonged sitting time and decreased physical activity level were independently associated with increasing prevalence of NAFLD. The prevalence ratios (95% CIs) for NAFLD comparing 5-9 and ⩾10 h/day sitting time to <5h/day were 1.04 (1.02-1.07) and 1.09 (1.06-1.11), respectively (p for trend <0.001). These associations were still observed in subjects with BMI <23 kg/m(2). The prevalence ratios (95% CIs) for NAFLD comparing minimally active and health-enhancing physically active groups to the inactive group were 0.94 (0.92-0.95) and 0.80 (0.78-0.82), respectively (p for trend <0.001). Prolonged sitting time and decreased physical activity level were positively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in a large sample of middle-aged Koreans, supporting the importance of reducing time spent sitting in addition to promoting physical activity. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatic NAD(+) deficiency as a therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Can-Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao-Bing; Li, Guo-Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Zhi-Yong; Guan, Yun-Feng; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is an important risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Hepatic concentrations of NAD(+) , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD(+) biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD(+) decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Hepatic NAD(+) level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD(+) salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD(+) reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD(+) deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. These results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD(+) deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD(+) substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  11. Stage of change and motivation to healthier lifestyle in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Centis, Elena; Moscatiello, Simona; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bellentani, Stefano; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Calugi, Simona; Petta, Salvatore; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    Healthy diet and physical activity are the treatment cornerstones of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); their effectiveness is however limited by difficulties in implementing lifestyle changes. We aimed at determining the stage of change and associated psychological factors as a prerequisite to refine strategies to implement behavior changes. We studied 138 consecutive NAFLD patients (73% male, age 19-73 years). The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy in 64 cases (steatohepatitis, 47%). All cases completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments (for diet and physical activity, respectively) and providing stages of change according to transtheoretical model. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with stages making behavioral changes more demanding. The individual profiles were variable; for diet, no cases had precontemplation as prevalent stage of change (highest score in individual profiles); 36% had contemplation. For physical activity, 50% were classified in either precontemplation or contemplation. Minor differences were recorded in relation to associated metabolic complications or steatohepatitis. Logistic regression identified male sex (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-12.08) and age (1.70; 1.20-2.43 per decade) as the independent parameters predicting precontemplation or contemplation for diet. No predictors were identified for physical activity. NAFLD cases have scarce readiness to lifestyle changes, particularly with regard to physical activity. Defining stages of change and motivation offers the opportunity to improve clinical care of NAFLD people through individual programs exploiting the powerful potential of behavioral counseling, an issue to be tested in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Weka environment to determine factors that stand behind non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plutecki, Michal M.; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2009-06-01

    The paper describes an innovative approach to discover new knowledge in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to determine the factors that may cause the disease a number of classification and attribute selection algorithms have been applied. Only those with the best classification results were chosen. Several interesting facts associated with this unclear disease have been discovered. All data mining computations were made in Weka environment.

  13. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Osamah; Grosovski, Masha; Lasri, Etti; Svalb, Sergio; Ravid, Uzi; Assy, Nimer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n = 6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters. RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, p < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95 ± 0.07, p < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09 ± 0.1, p < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by 10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group (0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group, ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group (1.58 ± 0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil (3.3 ± 0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0 ± 0.4), and MCDD + butter group (2.9 ± 0.36) were increased by 108%, 91% and 87%, respectively (p < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all

  14. Procoagulant imbalance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Fracanzani, Anna L; Primignani, Massimo; Chantarangkul, Veena; Clerici, Marigrazia; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora; Bertelli, Cristina; Valenti, Luca; Fargion, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by increased risk of cardiovascular events and liver-fibrosis. Both could be explained by a procoagulant-imbalance that was surmised but never directly demonstrated. We investigated 113 patients with varying histological liver damage [steatosis (n=32), steatohepatitis (n=51), metabolic-cirrhosis (n=30)], 54 with alcoholic/viral-cirrhosis and 179 controls. Plasma was evaluated for levels of pro- and anti-coagulants, and for thrombin-generation assessed as endogenous-thrombin-potential (ETP) with and without thrombomodulin or Protac® as protein C activators. The procoagulant-imbalance was defined as ETP-ratio (with-to-without thrombomodulin) or as Protac®-induced-coagulation-inhibition (PICI%). High ETP-ratios or low PICI% indicate resistance to thrombomodulin or Protac® and hence a procoagulant-imbalance. ETP-ratio increased from controls [0.57 (0.11-0.89)] to steatosis [0.72 (0.33-0.86)] and metabolic-cirrhosis [0.80 (0.57-0.95)], (p<0.001), the latter being comparable to that for alcoholic/viral-cirrhosis [0.80 (0.57-0.95) vs. 0.80 (0.44-0.96)]. Factor VIII (a potent procoagulant for thrombin-generation) increased from steatosis [99% (71-150)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [157% (64-232)], p<0.001. Protein C (a powerful anticoagulant) decreased from steatosis [103% (77-228)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [77 (17-146)], p<0.001. As a consequence, factor VIII-to-protein C ratio increased from steatosis [0.96 (0.36-1.60)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [2.05 (0.81-12.1)], p<0.001 and was correlated with the ETP-ratio (rho=0.543, p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for PICI%. Patients with procoagulant-imbalance detected as ETP-ratio greater or PICI% lower than the median value of controls tended to have a higher risk of metabolic-syndrome, higher intima-media thickness, fibrosis, steatosis or lobular inflammation, all considered clinical manifestations of NAFLD. NAFLD is characterized by a procoagulant-imbalance progressing

  15. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Nigerian population with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Titilola Osawaye; Lesi, Olufunmilayo Adenike; Adeyomoye, Adekunle Ayokunle; Fasanmade, Olufemi Adetola

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an important cause of chronic liver disease and cardiovascular morbidity, even more so in subjects with Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of NAFLD in an African population with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. We performed a case control study and evaluated anthropometric and biochemical risk factors for NAFLD in 336 subjects (T2DM and non-diabetic controls). Parameters assessed included estimation of BMI (Body Mass Index), measurement of waist circumference (WC), serum cholesterol including HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride and serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Hepatitis B and C viral antibody screening was also performed. The diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed by identification of hepatic steatosis on abdominal ultrasound scan evaluation and exclusion of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD was identified in 16.7% (28 of 168) patients with T2DM compared with 1.2% (2 of 168) non-diabetic controls (Odds Ratio 16.6; p < 0.001). Central obesity (WC > 102cm) and dyslipidaemia (HDL-c < 40mg/dl) were independently associated with NAFLD in male subjects with T2DM (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04 respectively). NAFLD occurred more frequently in patients with T2DM than controls and was associated with central obesity and dyslipidaemia. The diabetic subjects with NAFLD will require more intensive therapy to decrease the risk of hepatic, cardiovascular and other adverse events.

  16. [Association between APOC3 promoter region polymorphisms and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Niu, Tonghong; Jiang, Man; Liu, Haogang; Jiang, Xiangjun; Lin, Zhonghua; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Jian; Geng, Ning; Xin, Yongning; Xuan, Shiying

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between two polymorphisms of the APOC3 gene (T-455C and C-482T) and hereditary risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 287 patients with NAFLD and 310 control subjects were genotyped by PCR and direct sequencing. Serum lipid profiles were also detected by standard biochemical One-hundred-and-eighty of the study participants were used to measure the APOC3 content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Inter-group differences and associations were assessed statistically using Chi square and t tests and logistic and linear regression analyses. The frequencies of neither the genotypes or alleles were significantly different between the NAFLD cases and the controls. Compared with the most common genotypes-455TT or-482CC, none of the variants showed a significant increase in risk of NAFLD or for the clinical and biochemical parameters. The adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) of NAFLD were 1.25 (0.79-1.96) and 1.20 (0.76-1.89) for carriers of the APOC3-455C and-482 T variants respectively (P more than 0.05). The T-455C and C-482T polymorphisms of the APOC3 gene are not associated with risk of NAFLD, pathogenic changes in lipid profiles, or insulin resistance in Han Chinese.

  17. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi

    2017-01-01

    Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a “high quality healthy diet” to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients. PMID:28933748

  18. Nutritional Status and Nutrition Quality in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Nutrizio, Marinela; Jošić, Mirja; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Karas, Irena; Premužić, Marina; Domislović, Viktor; Rotim, Cecilija; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major health burden with increasing prevalence worldwide due to its close association with the epidemic of obesity. Currently there is no standardized pharmacological treatment, and the only proven effective therapeutic strategy is lifestyle modification, therefore it is important to determine the potential dietary targets for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We assessed nutritional status in 30 patients diagnosed with NAFLD using anthropometric parameters, hand grip strength, and lifestyle and dietetic parameters (physical activity, NRS2002 form and three-day food diary). The mean body mass index was 29.62±4.61 kg/m2, yielding 86.67% of obese or overweight patients. Physical activity results indicat-ed poorly active subjects. Excessive energy intake was recorded in 27.78% of patients. The mean in-take of macronutrients was as follows: 15.5% of proteins, 42.3% of carbohydrates and 42.2% of fat, with -deficient micronutrient intake of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, B1 and B2. The -results showed that the quality of nutrition in study subjects was not accordant to current rec-ommendations and that they consumed a high proportion of fat, especially saturated fatty acids, along with low micronutrient intake. The results obtained might point to the importance of unbalanced diet as a contributing factor in NAFLD development.

  19. Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christopher; Yeoh, Sern Wei; Patrick, Desmond; Ket, Shara; Marion, Kaye; Gow, Paul; Angus, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine characteristics and prognostic predictors of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients with NAFLD associated HCC between 2000 and 2012. Data collected included demographics; histology; presence or absence of cirrhosis, size and number of HCC, alpha-fetoprotein, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with NAFLD associated HCC were identified. Mean age was 64 years with 87% male. Fifteen percent (8/54) were not cirrhotic. 11%, 24% and 50% had a BMI of < 25 kg/m2, 25-29 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 respectively. Fifty-nine percent were diabetic, 44% hypertensive and 26% hyperlipidaemic. Thirty-four percent of the patients had ≤ 1 of these risk factors. Non-cirrhotics had a significantly larger mean tumour diameter at diagnosis than cirrhotics (P = 0.041). Multivariate analysis did not identify any other patient characteristics that predicted the size or number of HCC. CONCLUSION: HCC can develop in NAFLD without cirrhosis. At diagnosis such tumours are larger than those in cirrhotics, conferring a poorer prognosis. PMID:25632192

  20. Influence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on the development of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Weerasinghe, Sanjaya; Dassanayake, Anuradha S; Rajindrajith, Shaman; de Silva, Arjuna P; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; de Silva, H Janaka

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to metabolic syndrome, and is known to be associated with impaired fasting glycemia and diabetes mellitus. This prospective community-based study was conducted to determine the association between NAFLD and incidence of diabetes mellitus in an urban adult population in Sri Lanka. Participants of the Ragama Health Study cohort were assessed for NAFLD using established ultrasound criteria in 2007. Those who were free of diabetes at baseline were followed up for 3 years. Incidence rates of diabetes mellitus were compared between subjects with and without NAFLD at baseline. Out of 2984 subjects, 926 had NAFLD and 676 had diabetes in 2007. Of the 2276 subjects who were free of diabetes in 2007, 1914 were re-assessed in 2010. After 3 years, 104 out of 528 subjects with NAFLD and 138 out of 1314 subjects without NAFLD had developed diabetes mellitus de novo. Incidence rates of diabetes were respectively 64.2 and 34 per 1000 person-years of follow up for those with and without NAFLD. NAFLD was an independent predictor of developing diabetes mellitus. Other independent predictors were impaired fasting glycemia and dyslipidemia. Subjects with ultrasonically diagnosed NAFLD have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Intervention for NAFLD through lifestyle modification may prevent progression of the current diabetes epidemic. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, Guntur; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Hasan, Irsan

    2017-04-01

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; p<0.00001). Subgroup analyses were done based on study design, gender, non-diabetic subjects, non-obese subjects. All subgroup analyses showed statistically significant adjusted OR and most of which having low to moderate heterogeneity. Two studies revealed relationship between increased serum uric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  2. Oral Fructose Absorption in Obese Children with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Le, MyPhuong T; Pan, Zhaoxing; Rivard, Christopher; Love-Osborne, Kathryn; Robbins, Kristen; Johnson, Richard J; Sokol, Ronald J; Sundaram, Shikha S

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructose intake is associated with NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) development. Objective To measure fructose absorption/metabolism in pediatric NAFLD compared to obese and lean controls. Methods Children with histologically proven NAFLD, and obese and lean controls received oral fructose (1 gm/kg ideal body weight). Serum glucose, insulin, uric acid, and fructose, urine uric acid, urine fructose, and breath hydrogen levels were measured at baseline and multiple points until 360 minutes after fructose ingestion. Results Nine NAFLD (89% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 35.3 kg/m2), 6 Obese Controls (67% Hispanic, mean age 12.7 years, mean BMI 31.0 kg/m2), and 9 Lean Controls (44% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 19.4 kg/m2) were enrolled. Following fructose ingestion, NAFLD vs. Lean Controls had elevated serum glucose, insulin, and uric acid (p<0.05), higher urine uric acid (p=0.001) but lower fructose excretion (p=0.002) and lower breath hydrogen 180-min AUC (p=0.04). NAFLD vs. Obese Controls had similar post-fructose serum glucose, insulin, urine uric acid, and breath hydrogen, but elevated serum uric acid (p<0.05) and lower urine fructose excretion (p=0.02). Conclusions Children with NAFLD absorb and metabolize fructose more effectively than lean subjects, associated with an exacerbated metabolic profile following fructose ingestion. PMID:24961681

  3. Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in Japanese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken-Ichiro; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Zen, Yoh; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between liver histological features and organ-specific insulin resistance indices calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 72 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and were scored for steatosis, grade and stage. Hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance indices (hepatic insulin resistance index and Matsuda index, respectively) were calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data, and metabolic clearance rate was measured using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp method. The degree of hepatic steatosis, and grade and stage of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were significantly correlated with Matsuda index (steatosis r = -0.45, P < 0.001; grade r = -0.54, P < 0.001; stage r = -0.37, P < 0.01), but not with hepatic insulin resistance index. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and each histological score showed that the degree of hepatic steatosis (coefficient = -0.22, P < 0.05) and grade (coefficient = -0.40, P < 0.01) were associated with Matsuda index, whereas the association between stage and Matsuda index (coefficient = -0.07, P = 0.593) was no longer significant. A similar trend was observed for the association between steatosis and metabolic clearance rate (coefficient = -0.62, P = 0.059). Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting a central role of fatty liver in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and the existence of a network between the liver and skeletal muscle.

  4. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Baumgardner, January N; Sharma, Neha; Vantrease, Jamie; Ferguson, Matthew; Tong, Yudong; Wu, Xianli; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been shown to protect against steatosis and alcoholic liver injury. The current study was designed to determine if a similar beneficial effect of MCT occurs in a rat model of NAFLD. Groups of male rats were isocalorically overfed diets containing 10%, 35% or 70% total energy as corn oil or a 70% fat diet in which corn oil was replaced with increasing concentrations of saturated fat (18:82, beef tallow:MCT oil) from 20% to 65% for 21 days using total enteral nutrition (TEN). As dietary content of corn oil increased, hepatic steatosis and serum alanine amino transferases were elevated (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by greater expression of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) and higher concentrations of polyunsaturated 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (FA) in the hepatic lipid fractions (P < 0.05). Keeping the total dietary fat at 70%, but increasing the proportion of MCT-enriched saturated fat resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steatosis and necrosis without affecting CYP2E1 induction. There was no incorporation of C8-C10 FAs into liver lipids, but increasing the ratio of MCT to corn oil: reduced liver lipid 18:2 and 20:4 concentrations; reduced membrane susceptibility to radical attack; stimulated FA β- and ω-oxidation as a result of activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α, and appeared to increase mitochondrial respiration through complex III. These data suggest that replacing unsaturated fats like corn oil with MCT oil in the diet could be utilized as a potential treatment for NAFLD.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not associated with a lower health perception.

    PubMed

    Mlynarsky, Liat; Schlesinger, Dalit; Lotan, Roni; Webb, Muriel; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Shibolet, Oren; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2016-05-07

    To examine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and general health perception. This cross sectional and prospective follow-up study was performed on a cohort of a sub-sample of the first Israeli national health and nutrition examination survey, with no secondary liver disease or history of alcohol abuse. On the first survey, in 2003-2004, 349 participants were included. In 2009-2010 participants from the baseline survey were invited to participate in a follow-up survey. On both baseline and follow-up surveys the data collected included: self-reported general health perception, physical activity habits, frequency of physician's visits, fatigue impact scale and abdominal ultrasound. Fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography using standardized criteria and the ratio between the median brightness level of the liver and the right kidney was calculated to determine the Hepato-Renal Index. Out of 349 eligible participants in the first survey, 213 volunteers participated in the follow-up cohort and were included in the current analysis, NAFLD was diagnosed in 70/213 (32.9%). The prevalence of "very good" self-reported health perception was lower among participants diagnosed with NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. However, adjustment for BMI attenuated the association (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.36-1.50, P = 0.392). Similar results were observed for the hepato-renal index; it was inversely associated with "very good" health perception but adjustment for BMI attenuated the association. In a full model of multivariate analysis, that included all potential predictors for health perception, NAFLD was not associated with the self-reported general health perception (OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.40-1.86, P = 0.704). The odds for "very good" self-reported general health perception (compared to "else") increased among men (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.26-4.66, P = 0.008) and those with higher performance of leisure time physical activity (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not associated with a lower health perception

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarsky, Liat; Schlesinger, Dalit; Lotan, Roni; Webb, Muriel; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Shibolet, Oren; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and general health perception. METHODS: This cross sectional and prospective follow-up study was performed on a cohort of a sub-sample of the first Israeli national health and nutrition examination survey, with no secondary liver disease or history of alcohol abuse. On the first survey, in 2003-2004, 349 participants were included. In 2009-2010 participants from the baseline survey were invited to participate in a follow-up survey. On both baseline and follow-up surveys the data collected included: self-reported general health perception, physical activity habits, frequency of physician's visits, fatigue impact scale and abdominal ultrasound. Fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography using standardized criteria and the ratio between the median brightness level of the liver and the right kidney was calculated to determine the Hepato-Renal Index. RESULTS: Out of 349 eligible participants in the first survey, 213 volunteers participated in the follow-up cohort and were included in the current analysis, NAFLD was diagnosed in 70/213 (32.9%). The prevalence of "very good" self-reported health perception was lower among participants diagnosed with NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. However, adjustment for BMI attenuated the association (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.36-1.50, P = 0.392). Similar results were observed for the hepato-renal index; it was inversely associated with "very good" health perception but adjustment for BMI attenuated the association. In a full model of multivariate analysis, that included all potential predictors for health perception, NAFLD was not associated with the self-reported general health perception (OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.40-1.86, P = 0.704). The odds for "very good" self-reported general health perception (compared to "else") increased among men (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.26-4.66, P = 0.008) and those with higher performance of leisure time physical activity

  7. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of lycopene on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Guo, Mei-Hua; Hai, Xin

    2016-12-14

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of lycopene (Ly) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rat. A rat model of NAFLD was first established by feeding a high-fat diet for 14 wk. Sixty-five rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group and Ly treatment groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) in serum and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue were evaluated, respectively. While the hepatoprotective effect was also confirmed by histopathological analysis, the expression levels of TNF-α and cytochrome P 450 (CYP) 2E1 in rat liver were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. A significant decrease was observed in the levels of serum AST (2.07-fold), ALT (2.95-fold), and the blood lipid TG (2.34-fold) and TC (1.66-fold) in the dose of 20 mg/kg Ly-treated rats ( P < 0.01), compared to the model group. Pretreatment with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of Ly significantly raised the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD in a dose-dependent manner, to 90.95 ± 9.56, 109.52 ± 11.34 and 121.25 ± 10.68 ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01), as compared with the model group. Similarly, the levels of GSH were significantly increased ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01) after the Ly treatment. Meanwhile, pretreatment with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of Ly significantly reduced MDA amount by 30.87, 45.51 and 54.49% in the liver homogenates, respectively ( P < 0.01). The Ly treatment group showed significantly decreased levels of lipid products LDL-C ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01), improved HDL-C level and significantly decreased content of FFA, compared to the model group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the Ly-treated group also exhibited a down-regulated TNF-α and CYP2E1 expression, decreased infiltration of liver fats and reversed histopathological changes, all in a dose

  8. Biochemical Predictors of Early Onset Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Young Children with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Young; Cho, Jinmin; Yang, Hye Ran

    2018-04-16

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects. National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria for MS diagnosis and liver enzymes and USG for NAFLD diagnosis were assessed. A total of 356 children with obesity (233 boys, 123 girls) were included, with 172 children age ≤ 10 years and 184 adolescents. The prevalence of MS was 23.3% in young children and 35.3% in adolescents (P = 0.020); while the prevalence of NAFLD was 36.0% and 70.7%, respectively (P = 0.001). In obese children aged 10 years or less, there were significant differences in levels of serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γGT) (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.042), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001) between the non-NAFLD and the NAFLD group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant increase in serum γGT and uric acid levels in young children. Although MS and NAFLD were more prevalent in adolescents, young children also demonstrated MS and NAFLD as obesity-related complications. Elevated serum γGT and uric acid levels may serve as biochemical predictors in detecting NAFLD in young children with obesity before investigation with abdominal USG. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Does propolis have any effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed

    Kismet, Kemal; Ozcan, Cigdem; Kuru, Serdar; Gencay Celemli, Omur; Celepli, Pinar; Senes, Mehmet; Guclu, Tuncay; Sorkun, Kadriye; Hucumenoglu, Sema; Besler, Tanju

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of propolis on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 as the NAFLD, NAFLD+100 and NAFLD+200 groups. The rats were fed with a fatty diet (25g/kg/day) to provoke NAFLD. Then after the formation of fatty liver, a standard diet (SD) (25g/kg/day) was given to the NAFLD group and the other two groups were fed with SD and 100mg/kg (NAFLD+100 Group) or 200mg/kg propolis (NAFLD+200 Group) for two weeks. At the end of two weeks the animals were sacrificed. Blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. The propolis-treated groups had better results in serum lipids (total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglyceride), ALT, and ALP values. When compared with the NAFLD group, IL-6 and TNF-α values decreased in the NAFLD+100 and NAFLD+200 groups. The administration of propolis to the rats significantly reduced serum and tissue MDA and GPX values and increased SH in serum when compared with the NAFLD group. No difference was determined between the groups treated with two different doses of propolis in respect of biochemical values. When the mean histological scores of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found between the NAFLD group and the propolis-treated groups. No difference was determined between the groups treated with the two different doses of propolis in respect of histopathological results. Propolis had positive effects on histopathological and biochemical parameters of NAFLD and these effects were related to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of propolis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal microbiota determines development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Tiphaine; Llopis, Marta; Lepage, Patricia; Bruneau, Aurélia; Rabot, Sylvie; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Martin, Patrice; Philippe, Catherine; Walker, Francine; Bado, André; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Cassard-Doulcier, Anne-Marie; Gérard, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent among obese people and is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, not all obese individuals develop NAFLD. Our objective was to demonstrate the role of the gut microbiota in NAFLD development using transplantation experiments in mice. Two donor C57BL/6J mice were selected on the basis of their responses to a high-fat diet (HFD). Although both mice displayed similar body weight gain, one mouse, called the 'responder', developed hyperglycaemia and had a high plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The other, called a 'non-responder', was normoglycaemic and had a lower level of systemic inflammation. Germ-free mice were colonised with intestinal microbiota from either the responder or the non-responder and then fed the same HFD. Mice that received microbiota from different donors developed comparable obesity on the HFD. The responder-receiver (RR) group developed fasting hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia, whereas the non-responder-receiver (NRR) group remained normoglycaemic. In contrast to NRR mice, RR mice developed hepatic macrovesicular steatosis, which was confirmed by a higher liver concentration of triglycerides and increased expression of genes involved in de-novo lipogenesis. Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes revealed that RR and NRR mice had distinct gut microbiota including differences at the phylum, genera and species levels. Differences in microbiota composition can determine response to a HFD in mice. These results further demonstrate that the gut microbiota contributes to the development of NAFLD independently of obesity.

  11. Review article: coffee consumption, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yesil, A; Yilmaz, Y

    2013-11-01

    Coffee consumption may modulate the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To review the experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS and NAFLD. A literature search was conducted with the aim of finding original experimental, epidemiological and clinical articles on the association between coffee consumption, MetS and NAFLD. The following databases were used: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Science Direct. We included articles written in English and published up to July 2013. Three experimental animal studies investigated the effects of coffee in the MetS, whereas five examined whether experimental coffee intake may modulate the risk of fatty liver infiltration. All of the animal studies showed a protective effect of coffee towards the development of MetS and NAFLD. Moreover, we identified eleven epidemiological and clinical studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of them, six were carried out on the risk of the MetS and five on the risk of NAFLD. Four of the six studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS. The two studies showing negative results were from the same study cohort consisting of young persons with a low prevalence of the MetS. All of the epidemiological and clinical studies on NAFLD reported a protective effect of coffee intake. Coffee intake can reduce the risk of NAFLD. Whether this effect may be mediated by certain components of the MetS deserves further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The association between missing teeth and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Feng; Fu, Kaiyu; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2018-05-19

    Long-term oral chronic inflammatory process is closely related to systemic inflammation, which is a main mechanism involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tooth loss could reflect the accumulation of oral local inflammation, implying that number of missing teeth may associate with NAFLD. This study evaluated the association between missing teeth and presence of NAFLD in a general population. A cross-sectional study of 24,470 adults was carried out from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study. The self-reported number of missing teeth (excluding third molars) was recorded and classified into four categories: 0, 1-2, 3-5, and ≥6. The NAFLD was diagnosed by the liver ultrasonography. Associations were analyzed by adjusted multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of NAFLD across the categories of missing teeth were as follows: in males, 1.00(reference), 1.04(0.93-1.16), 1.06(0.90-1.24), and 1.40(1.09-1.81) (P for trend=0.04); in females, 1.00(reference), 0.98(0.83-1.15), 1.11(0.90-1.37), and 1.07(0.77-1.48) (P for trend=0.45). The number of missing teeth was associated with a higher presence of NAFLD in males but not females. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Angela M; King, Adrienne L; Fetterman, Jessica L; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D; Oliva, Claudia R; Crowe, David R; Ballinger, Scott W; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-07-15

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. In the present study, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, MNX (mitochondrial-nuclear exchange) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared with wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR (respiratory control ratio) when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD.

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming”

    PubMed Central

    Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The "two hits" hypothesis is widely accepted for its pathogenesis: the first hit is an increased fat flux to the liver, which predisposes our patient to a second hit where increasing free fatty acid oxidation into the mitochondria leads to oxidative stress, lipoperoxidation and a chain reaction with increased ROS. Clinical indications include abdominal cramps, meteorism and fatigue. Most patients, however, are asymptomatic, and diagnosis is based on aminotransferase elevation and ultrasonography (or "brilliant liver"). Spirulina maxima has been experimentally proven to possess in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective properties by maintaining the liver lipid profile. This case report evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of orally supplied Spirulina maxima. Case presentation Three Hispanic Mexican patients (a 43-year-old man, a 77-year-old man and a 44-year-old woman) underwent ultrasonography and were treated with 4.5 g/day of Spirulina maxima for three months. Their blood samples before and after the treatment determined triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results were assessed using ultrasound. Conclusion Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder. PMID:20370930

  16. Genetic variation in PNPLA3 but not APOC3 influences liver fat in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hyysalo, Jenni; Stojkovic, Ivana; Kotronen, Anna; Hakkarainen, Antti; Sevastianova, Ksenia; Makkonen, Janne; Lundbom, Nina; Rissanen, Aila; Krauss, Ronald M; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2012-05-01

    A recent study in Indian subjects suggested common variants in apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) (T-455C at rs2854116 and C-482T at rs2854117) to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), plasma apoC3 and triglyceride concentrations. Our aim was to determine the contribution of genetic variation in APOC3 on liver fat content and plasma triglyceride and apoC3 concentrations in a larger European cohort. A total of 417 Finnish individuals were genotyped for rs2854116 and rs2854117 in APOC3 and the known rs738409 in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) influencing liver fat. Plasma apoC3 concentration was measured enzymatically, and liver fat by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. APOC3 wild-type homozygotes and variant allele (T-455C or C-482T or both) carriers did not differ with regard to liver fat, apoC3 concentrations, triglyceride-, high density lipoprotein-, fasting plasma glucose, insulin-, alanine aminotransferase- and aspartate aminotransferase-concentrations, nor was there a difference in prevalence of NAFLD. In contrast, carriers of the PNPLA3 GG genotype at rs738409 had a 2.7-fold (median 11.3%) higher liver fat than those with the CC (median 4.2%) genotype. The PNPLA3 rs738409 was also an independent predictor of liver fat, together with age, gender, and body mass index. Genetic variants in PNPLA3 but not APOC3 contribute to the variance in liver fat content due to NAFLD. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Performance of non-invasive models of fibrosis in predicting mild to moderate fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Patidar, Kavish R; Boyett, Sherry; Luketic, Velimir A; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-04-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, presence of fibrosis is predictive of long-term liver-related complications. Currently, there are no reliable and non-invasive means of quantifying fibrosis in those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of a panel of non-invasive models in predicting fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The accuracy of FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis 4 and four other non-invasive models in predicting fibrosis in those with biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was compared. These models were constructed post hoc in patients who had necessary clinical information collected within 2 months of a liver biopsy. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves were compared for each model using Delong analysis. Optimum cut-off for each model and fibrosis stage were calculated using the Youden index. The area under receiver operating characteristics curves for F ≥ 1 fibrosis for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 0.821 and 0.801 respectively. For F ≥ 3, the area under receiver operating characteristics curves was 0.866 for fibrosis 4 and 0.862 for FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Delong analysis showed the area under receiver operating characteristics curves was statistically different for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared with BARD, BAAT and aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio for F ≥ 1 and F ≥ 3. Area under receiver operating characteristics curves were significantly different for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for F ≥ 3 compared with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score. At a fixed sensitivity of 90%, FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease had the highest specificity for F ≥ 1 (52.4%) and F ≥ 3 (63.8%). In contrast, at a fixed specificity of 90%, fibrosis 4 outperformed other models with a

  18. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Effect on Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Bucci, Tommaso; Ceci, Fabrizio; Calabrese, Cinzia; Ernesti, Ilaria; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is increasing in western countries, because of changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Mediterranean Diet (Med-Diet) is effective for cardiovascular prevention, but its relationship with NAFLD has been scarcely investigated. We included 584 consecutive outpatients presenting with one or more cardiovascular risk factor such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, and dyslipidemia. Liver steatosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Med-Diet adherence was investigated by a validated semiquantitative nine-item dietary questionnaire; patients were divided into low, intermediate, and high adherence. Insulin resistance was defined by the 75th percentile of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; ≥3.8). The mean age was 56.2±12.4 years and 38.2% were women. Liver steatosis was present in 82.7%, and its prevalence decreased from low to high adherence group (96.5% vs. 71.4%, P<0.001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio (OR): 2.913; P=0.002), log (ALT) (OR: 6.186; P<0.001), Med-Diet adherence (intermediate vs. low OR: 0.115; P=0.041, high vs. low OR: 0.093; P=0.030), T2DM (OR: 3.940; P=0.003), and high waist circumference (OR: 3.012; P<0.001) were associated with NAFLD. Among single foods, low meat intake (OR: 0.178; P<0.001) was inversely significantly associated with NAFLD. In 334 non-diabetic NAFLD patients, age (OR: 1.035, P=0.025), high waist circumference (OR: 7.855, P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 2.152, P=0.011), and Log (ALT) (OR: 2.549, P=0.002) were directly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas Med-Diet score was inversely associated (OR: 0.801, P=0.018). We found an inverse relationship between Med-Diet and NAFLD prevalence. Among NAFLD patients, good adherence to Med-Diet was associated with lower insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that Med-Diet may be a beneficial

  19. Abnormality of autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Yuka; Yamashina, Shunhei; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Nakadera, Eisuke; Aoyama, Tomonori; Uchiyama, Akira; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that hepatic steatosis suppresses autophagic proteolysis. The present study evaluated the correlation between autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with chronic liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C [CHC; n = 20], chronic hepatitis B [CHB; n = 16], primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC; n = 23], NAFLD [n = 22] and control [n = 14]). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was counted by using transmission electron microscopy. Expression of cathepsin B, D, L and p62 in the liver section was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The histological severity of NAFLD is assessed by NAFLD activity score (NAS). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was significantly increased in both CHC and NAFLD groups, but not CHB and PBC, more than control. Although hepatocytes with aggregation of p62 were observed in less than 15% of CHC, p62 aggregation was detected in approximately 65% of NAFLD. Cathepsin B, D and L expression was significantly suppressed in the liver from NAFLD patients. Suppression of cathepsin B, D and L expression was not observed in CHB, CHC and PBC. In NAFLD patients, p62 aggregation was correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase value and inflammatory activity by NAS. These results indicate that a decrease in hepatic cathepsin expression in NAFLD is associated with autophagic dysfunction. Hepatic inflammation correlates with autophagic dysfunction in NAFLD. These findings indicate that the suppression of autophagic proteolysis by hepatic steatosis is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. Self-reported eating speed in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saehyun; Ko, Byung-Joon; Gong, Younghoon; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Anna; Han, Byoung-Duck; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Park, Siyoung; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), known to be related to insulin resistance, has been the focus of intensive research efforts due to its increasing prevalence and clinical significance. Rapid eating behavior is another emerging health issue associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to clarify the correlation between self-reported eating speed and NAFLD, both known to be related to insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted during routine medical checkups on 7,917 consecutively enrolled participants. Anthropometric, biochemical, nutritional, and social parameters were checked. The self-reported eating speed per their usual meal (<5, 5-10, 10-15, and more than 15 min) was recorded by a registered dietitian. The faster eating groups had a higher proportion of NAFLD, and the grade of NAFLD was advanced. After controlling for anthropometric, cardiometabolic, social, and nutritional parameters, the fastest eating group (<5 min) showed an increased risk of NAFLD compared with the lowest eating speed group (≥15 min) both in total [odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.63] and the participants with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.61). As the self-reported eating speed increased, the risk of NAFLD also increased in total and those with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (P for trend <0.001). Fast eating is associated with an increased risk of the presence and grade of NAFLD in Korean adults, especially those with BMI < 25 kg/m(2), since presence of overweight or obesity may be overwhelming the effect on NAFLD.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs. PMID:26052390

  2. Efficacy of Probiotics and Smectite in Rats with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Beregova, Tetyana

    2018-01-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Smectite is a natural silicate that binds to digestive mucous and has the ability to bind endo- and exotoxins. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus smectite is superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into 4 groups 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborns rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter+Smectite) groups received "Symbiter Forte" combination of probiotic biomass with smectite gel (250 mg). In both interventional groups reduction of total NAS score as compared to MSG-obesity was observed. Indeed similar values of steatosis score (0.93 ± 0.22 vs. 0.87 ± 0.16) in both treatment groups, we observed that lower total score for Symbiter+ Smectite are associated with more pronounced reduction of lobular inflammation (0.13 ± 0.09 vs. 0.33 ± 0.15) as compared to administration of probiotic alone. This data accompanied with significant reduction of IL-1 and restoration of IL-10 between these 2 groups. Additional to alive probiotic administration of smectite gel due to his absorbent activity and mucus layer stabilization properties can impact on synergistic enhancement of single effect which manifested with reduction of lobular inflammation and at list partly steatohepatitis prevention.

  3. Effect of specific amino acids on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Sarfati, Gilles; Nubret, Esther; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Bergheim, Ina; Cynober, Luc; De-Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Fructose diets have been shown to induce insulin resistance and to alter liver metabolism and gut barrier function, ultimately leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Citrulline, Glutamine and Arginine may improve insulin sensitivity and have beneficial effects on gut trophicity. Our aim was to evaluate their effects on liver and gut functions in a rat model of fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) received a 4-week fructose (60%) diet or standard chow with or without Citrulline (0.15 g/d) or an isomolar amount of Arginine or Glutamine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of non-essential amino acids. At week 4, nutritional and metabolic status (plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and amino acids, net intestinal absorption) was determined; steatosis (hepatic triglycerides content, histological examination) and hepatic function (plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin) were assessed; and gut barrier integrity (myeloperoxidase activity, portal endotoxemia, tight junction protein expression and localization) and intestinal and hepatic inflammation were evaluated. We also assessed diets effects on caecal microbiota. In these experimental isonitrogenous fructose diet conditions, fructose led to steatosis with dyslipidemia but without altering glucose homeostasis, liver function or gut permeability. Fructose significantly decreased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and tended to increase endotoxemia. Arginine and Glutamine supplements were ineffective but Citrulline supplementation prevented hypertriglyceridemia and attenuated liver fat accumulation. While nitrogen supply alone can attenuate fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Citrulline appears to act directly on hepatic lipid metabolism by partially preventing hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  4. Induction of CYP2E1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aljomah, Ghanim; Baker, Susan S.; Liu, Wensheng; Kozielski, Rafal; Oluwole, Janet; Lupu, Benita; Baker, Robert D.; Zhu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a contribution of endogenous alcohol metabolism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not known whether the expression of alcohol metabolism genes is altered in the livers of simple steatosis. There is also a current debate on whether fatty acids induce CYP2E1 in fatty livers. In this study, expression of alcohol metabolizing genes in the liver biopsies of simple steatosis patients was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in comparison to biopsies of NASH livers and normal controls. Induction of alcohol metabolizing genes was also examined in cultured HepG2 cells treated with ethanol or oleic acid, by qRT-PCR and Western blots. We found that the mRNA expression of alcohol metabolizing genes including ADH1C, ADH4, ADH6, catalase and CYP2E1 were elevated in the livers of simple steatosis, to similar levels found in NASH livers. In cultured HepG2 cells, ethanol induced the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein, but not ADH4 or ADH6; oleic acid did not induce any of these genes. These results suggest that elevated alcohol metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD at the stage of simple steatosis as well as more severe stages. Our in vitro data support that CYP2E1 is induced by endogenous alcohol but not by fatty acids. PMID:26551085

  5. Analyses of risk factors for polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Chunxia; Jiao, Yanni; Kong, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The risk factors related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. A total of 188 PCOS patients treated in Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital (Dongying, China) from February 2014 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed as PCOS group, and PCOS group was further divided into NAFLD group and non-NAFLD (N-NAFLD) group according to the liver B ultrasound. In the same time-period, 65 healthy people were selected as normal control group. The differences of clinical, biochemical and metabolic indexes were compared. The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), fasting insulin (FINS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in PCOS group were higher than those in normal control group, but the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level was lower than that in normal control group (P<0.05); there were no statistically significant differences in comparisons of age, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), FSH, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) between the two groups (P>0.05). The prevalence rate of NAFLD in PCOS group (44.68%) was significantly higher than that in control group (24.62%) (P<0.05). The proportion of NAFLD in PCOS patients in obesity group (63.51%) was significantly higher than that in non-obesity group (15.79%) (P<0.05). In PCOS group, NAFLD patients had more obvious metabolic abnormalities [high BMI, WHR, FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR index, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein HDL and SHBG] and androgen excess compared with those in N-NAFLD patients (P<0.05). The levels of LH, LH/FSH, FINS and HOMA-IR index in PCOS group complicated with NAFLD were higher than those in control group complicated with NAFLD (P<0.05), but the differences in age, BMI, WHR, FSH and FBG levels were not statistically

  6. Low Birthweight Increases the Likelihood of Severe Steatosis in Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Rosso, Chiara; Mosca, Antonella; Panera, Nadia; Veraldi, Silvio; Dotta, Andrea; Giannone, Germana; Raponi, Massimiliano; Cappa, Marco; Alisi, Anna; Nobili, Valerio

    2017-08-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age. In the whole NAFLD cohort, 12.2% of patients were SGA, 62.8% appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and 25% large for gestational age (LGA). SGA children had a higher prevalence of severe steatosis (69%) and severe portal inflammation (14%) compared with the AGA and LGA groups. Notably, severe steatosis (>66%) was decreasing from SGA to AGA and LGA, whereas the prevalence of moderate steatosis (33-66%) was similar in three groups. The prevalence of type 1 NAFLD is higher in the LGA group with respect to the other two groups (25% vs.5.2% vs.9.4%), whereas the SGA group shows a higher prevalence of overlap type (85.8%) with respect to the LGA group (51.4%) but not compared with the AGA group (75%). At multivariable regression analysis, SGA at birth increased fourfold the likelihood of severe steatosis (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-10.9, P=0.008) and threefold the likelihood of NAFLD Activity Score (NAS)≥5 (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.33, P=0.037) independently of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and PNPLA3 genotype. The PNPLA3-CC wild-type genotype was the strongest independent predictor of the absence of significant fibrosis (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13-0.52, P=<0.001). In children with NAFLD, the risk of severe steatosis is increased by SGA at birth, independent of and in addition to other

  7. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) potentiates autoimmune hepatitis in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Peter; Messmer, Marie; Bayer, Monika; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hintermann, Edith; Christen, Urs

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe development non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasing worldwide. In particular NASH, which is characterized by an active hepatic inflammation, has often severe consequences including progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we investigated how metabolic liver injury is influencing the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We used the CYP2D6 mouse model in which wild type C57BL/6 mice are infected with an Adenovirus expressing the major liver autoantigen cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Such mice display several features of human AIH, including interface hepatitis, formation of LKM-1 antibodies and CYP2D6-specific T cells, as well as hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that pre-existing NAFLD potentiates the severity of AIH. Mice fed for 12 weeks with a HFD displayed increased cellular infiltration of the liver, enhanced hepatic fibrosis and elevated numbers of liver autoantigen-specific T cells. Our data suggest that a pre-existing metabolic liver injury constitutes an additional risk for the severity of an autoimmune condition of the liver, such as AIH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Caballería, Llorenç; Arteaga, Ingrid; Pera, Guillem; Rodríguez, Lluís; Alumà, Alba; Auladell, Maria Antònia; Torán, Pere

    2013-09-21

    To establish the factors associated with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and evaluate the influence of each component constituting the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the risk of developing NAFLD. We performed a multicenter, population-based, observational, analytical study of cases and controls. A case was defined as any patient fulfilling the inclusion criteria and presenting NAFLD by abdominal echography for any reason. A control was randomly selected for each case, from the same health center and of the same age and sex. All the cases underwent anamnesis, physical examination, complete biochemical analyses and determination of MS according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. All the controls also underwent an abdominal echography. We included 327 cases and 377 controls with a mean age of 56 ± 12 years for the cases and of 55 ± 13 years for the controls (range: 17 and 80 years); 52.0% of the cases were males and 49.1% of males were controls. The risk factors associated with NAFLD were obesity (odds ratio [OR] 3.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.19-6.66), MS (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.09-2.75), insulin resistance (OR 3.65, 95% CI 2.18-6.12), and an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR 4.72, 95% CI 2.58-8.61) and gamma glutamyl transferase values (GGT) (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.14-3.34). The components of the MS best predicting NAFLD were hyperglycemia (OR 1.65, 95% CI1.06-2.56) and triglyceride values (OR 1.75, 95% CI1.13-2.72). The independent variables associated with NAFLD were obesity, insulin resistance and elevated ALT and GGT. The components of MS best predicting NAFLD were hyperglycemia and an increase in triglyceride values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and non-alcoholic liver disease

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), formerly called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is characterized by hepatic steatosis and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in liver cells. Its etiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Some have suggested that the increased in...

  10. Correlation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Saini

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver means the presence of hepatosteatosis without significant alcohol consumption; it is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic disorder like type 2 diabetes and dyslipideamia. NASH may progress to advanced stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Increased body mass index and viral genotype contribute to steatosis in chronic hepatitis. The sonographic features of NAFLD include the presence of bright hepatic echotexture deep attenuation, and vascular blurring either singly or in combination. Dyslipidemia in patients with NAFLD is atherogenic in nature and it is characterized by increased levels of serum triglycerides and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol. Statins are potent lipid-lowering agents which decrease LDL cholesterol by 20-60%, decrease triglycerides by 10-33% and increase HDL cholesterol by 5-10% for the patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive imaging techniques in assessing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a current status of available methods

    PubMed Central

    Lăpădat, AM; Jianu, IR; Ungureanu, BS; Florescu, LM; Gheonea, DI; Sovaila, S; Gheonea, IA

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an ailment affecting and increasing a number of people worldwide diagnosed via non-invasive imaging techniques, at a time when a minimum harm caused by medical procedures is rightfully emphasized, more sought after, than ever before. Liver steatosis should not be taken lightly even if its evolution is largely benign as it has the potential to develop into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or even more concerning, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Traditionally, liver biopsy has been the standard for diagnosing this particular liver disease, but nowadays, a consistent number of imagistic methods are available for diagnosing hepatosteatosis and choosing the one appropriate to the clinical context is the key. Although different in sensitivity and specificity when it comes to determining the hepatic fat fraction (FF), these imaging techniques possessing a diverse availability, operating difficulty, cost, and reproducibility are invaluable to any modern physician. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), elastography, and spectroscopy will be discussed in order to lay out the advantages and disadvantages of their diagnostic potential and application. Although imagistics has given physicians a valuable insight into the means of managing NAFLD, the current methods are far from perfect, but given the time, they will surely be improved and the use of liver biopsy will be completely removed. PMID:28255371

  12. Prevalence and outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents and young adults undergoing weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Corey, K E; Stanley, T L; Misdraji, J; Scirica, C; Pratt, J; Hoppin, A; Misra, M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 27 adolescents referred for weight loss surgery (WLS). On biopsy, 18 patients (66.7%) had NAFLD, and of those, 10 (37.0%) had NASH and 11 (40.7%) had fibrosis. Insulin, HbA1C and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in patients with NASH than those without NASH. Following WLS, 40% of patients with NASH had persistently elevated aminotransferase levels despite weight loss. We found that NASH is underdiagnosed in adolescents referred for WLS, and that hyperinsulinaemia, HOMA-IR and HbA1c can aid in identifying high-risk patients. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. FT3/FT4 ratio predicts non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of metabolic parameters in patients with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Fatma Yahyaoğlu; Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Türker, Betül Çavuşoğlu; Çetin, Faik; Türker, Fatih; Mamaç, Rabia Yahyaoğlu; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of metabolic parameters and thyroid dysfunction on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The current study evaluated a total of 115 patients, 75 female and 40 male. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were applied to all participants. Hypothyroidism was considered at a thyroid stimulating hormone level ≥ 4.1 mIU/L. Patients with euthyroidism and patients with hypothyroidism were compared. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were further compared with regard to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and independent variables, such as metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was identified in 69 patients. The mean waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and FT3/FT4 ratio (p=0.01) values were significantly higher in the patients with NAFLD compared to those without it. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FT3/FT4 ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, enlarged waist circumference, elevated body mass index, higher FT3/FT4 ratio and hypertriglyceridemia are independent risk factors for NADLF, whereas hypothyroidism is not directly related to the condition. PMID:27166773

  14. Thermoneutral housing exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and allows for sex-independent disease modeling

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Daniel A; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E; Stankiewicz, Traci E; Graspeuntner, Simon; Cappelletti, Monica; Wu, David; Mukherjee, Rajib; Chan, Calvin C; Lawson, Matthew J; Klarquist, Jared; Sünderhauf, Annika; Softic, Samir; Kahn, C Ronald; Stemmer, Kerstin; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Aronow, Bruce J; Karns, Rebekah; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Karp, Christopher L; Sheridan, Rachel; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; Reynaud, Damien; Haslam, David B; Sina, Christian; Rupp, Jan; Hogan, Simon P; Divanovic, Senad

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Defining the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD has been hampered by a lack of animal models that closely recapitulate the severe end of the human disease spectrum, including bridging hepatic fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate that a novel experimental model employing thermoneutral housing, as opposed to standard housing, resulted in lower stress-driven production of corticosterone, augmented mouse proinflammatory immune responses and markedly exacerbated high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD pathogenesis. Disease exacerbation at thermoneutrality was conserved across multiple mouse strains and was associated with augmented intestinal permeability, an altered microbiome and activation of inflammatory pathways associated with human disease. Depletion of Gram-negative microbiota, hematopoietic cell deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inactivation of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis resulted in altered immune responsiveness and protection from thermoneutral housing-driven NAFLD amplification. Finally, female mice, typically resistant to HFD-induced obesity and NAFLD, develop full-blown disease at thermoneutrality. Thus, thermoneutral housing provides a sex-independent model of exacerbated NAFLD in mice and represents a novel approach for interrogation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. PMID:28604704

  15. PNPLA3 I148M variant affects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Tao; Chen, Tian-Chi; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Cheng, Jun; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2015-09-14

    De novo non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common late complication for long-term survivors after liver transplantation. Genomic studies confirmed that PNPLA3 I148M and TM6SF2 E167K polymorphisms affected NAFLD susceptibility in the general population. However, this association was not validated in survivors after liver transplantation (LT). We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate this relationship. A comprehensive survey, including anthropometric measurements, fasting venous blood sampling, ultrasound, and questionnaires was performed in the short-term. The clinical indications and patient's steatosis status before LT were collected from inpatient medical records. Sixty-five long-term recipients with a survival exceeding 10 years were enrolled in the final analysis. De novo NAFLD was more frequent in PNPLA3 GG carriers (0.33 vs 0.10 for GG vs CC + CG carriers, P = 0.018), while the genetic impact on NAFLD susceptibility was insignificant when categorized by the TM6SF2 polymorphism (0.19 in CC vs 0.14 in CT + TT carriers, P = 0.883). Multi-covariate analysis revealed that PNPLA3 exerted a significant genetic effect on de novo NAFLD following a recessive model (GG vs CC + CG, OR = 14.2, 95%CI: 1.78-113, P = 0.012). Compared to recipients with only the PNPLA3 GG allele or obesity (defined as body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)), steatosis was highly prevalent (71.4%) in PNPLA3 GG carriers with obesity. In conclusion, PNPLA3 I148M, but not TM6SF2 E167K, affects de novo NAFLD occurrence with a prominent interaction with obesity. Weight control might be a meaningful method to reduce the genetic susceptibility to NAFLD exerted by PNPLA3 variants.

  16. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwimmer, J B; Newton, K P; Awai, H I; Choi, L J; Garcia, M A; Ellis, L L; Vanderwall, K; Fontanesi, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening overweight and obese children for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recommended by paediatric and endocrinology societies. However, gastroenterology societies have called for more data before making a formal recommendation. Aim To determine whether the detection of suspected NAFLD in overweight and obese children through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology resulted in a correct diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods Information generated in the clinical evaluation of 347 children identified with suspected NAFLD through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology was captured prospectively. Diagnostic outcomes were reported. The diagnostic performance of two times the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was assessed. Results Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 55% of children identified by screening and referral. Liver disease other than NAFLD was present in 18% of those referred. Autoimmune hepatitis was the most common alternative diagnosis. Children with NAFLD had significantly (P < 0.05) higher screening ALT (98 ± 95) than children with liver disease other than NAFLD (86 ± 74). Advanced fibrosis was present in 11% of children. For the diagnosis of NAFLD, screening ALT two times the clinical ULN had a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 71%. Conclusions Screening of overweight and obese children in primary care for NAFLD with referral to paediatric gastroenterology has the potential to identify clinically relevant liver pathology. Consensus is needed on how to value the risk and rewards of screening and referral, to identify children with liver disease in the most appropriate manner. PMID:24117728

  17. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, J B; Newton, K P; Awai, H I; Choi, L J; Garcia, M A; Ellis, L L; Vanderwall, K; Fontanesi, J

    2013-11-01

    Screening overweight and obese children for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recommended by paediatric and endocrinology societies. However, gastroenterology societies have called for more data before making a formal recommendation. To determine whether the detection of suspected NAFLD in overweight and obese children through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology resulted in a correct diagnosis of NAFLD. Information generated in the clinical evaluation of 347 children identified with suspected NAFLD through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology was captured prospectively. Diagnostic outcomes were reported. The diagnostic performance of two times the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was assessed. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 55% of children identified by screening and referral. Liver disease other than NAFLD was present in 18% of those referred. Autoimmune hepatitis was the most common alternative diagnosis. Children with NAFLD had significantly (P < 0.05) higher screening ALT (98 ± 95) than children with liver disease other than NAFLD (86 ± 74). Advanced fibrosis was present in 11% of children. For the diagnosis of NAFLD, screening ALT two times the clinical ULN had a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 71%. Screening of overweight and obese children in primary care for NAFLD with referral to paediatric gastroenterology has the potential to identify clinically relevant liver pathology. Consensus is needed on how to value the risk and rewards of screening and referral, to identify children with liver disease in the most appropriate manner. © 2013 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cardiovascular risk across the histological spectrum and the clinical manifestations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An update

    PubMed Central

    Athyros, Vasilios G; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsiki, Niki; Doumas, Michael; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, simple steatosis has a benign clinical course without excess mortality. In contrast, the advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis increases mortality by approximately 70%, due to an increase in CVD mortality by approximately 300%. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be caused by NAFLD/NASH and it substantially increases CVD risk, especially in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, CKD may trigger NAFLD/NASH deterioration in a vicious cycle. NAFLD/NASH is also related to increased arterial stiffness (AS), an independent CVD risk factor that further raises CVD risk. Diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (mainly by simple non-invasive tests), CKD, and increased AS should be made early in the course of NAFLD and treated appropriately. Lifestyle measures and statin treatment may help resolve NAFLD/NASH and beneficially affect the CVD risk factors mentioned above. PMID:26078558

  19. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Abu, Emmanuel O; Byrne, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of hepatic dysfunction encountered in general practice. A large proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome develop NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with severe insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and can progress to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Currently the only known effective treatments for NAFLD are lifestyle changes including stable weight loss and a diet low in calories. General practitioners will increasingly play a key role in dealing with this evolving but serious epidemic of NAFLD and associated metabolic complications. However, success will depend on the appropriate systems and mechanisms being in place in primary care and the proper motivation, support and education of the patient. This review provides the primary care physician with: (a) a step-by step guide of how to identify NAFLD, (b) information to exclude common other causes of liver fat accumulation and (c) additional insight into relationships between NAFLD and other conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Care standards for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the United Kingdom 2016: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David A; Aithal, Guru; Alazawi, William; Allison, Michael; Anstee, Quentin; Cobbold, Jeremy; Khan, Shahid; Fowell, Andrew; McPherson, Stuart; Newsome, Philip N; Oben, Jude; Tomlinson, Jeremy; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil

    2017-10-01

    Guidelines for the assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been published in 2016 by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and European Associations for the study of the Liver-European Association for the study of Diabetes-European Association for the study of Obesity. Prior to publication of these guidelines, we performed a cross-sectional survey of gastroenterologists and hepatologists regarding NAFLD diagnosis and management. An online survey was circulated to members of British Association for the Study of the Liver and British Society of Gastroenterology between February 2016 and May 2016. 175 gastroenterologists/hepatologists responded, 116 completing the survey, representing 84 UK centres. 22% had local NAFLD guidelines. 45% received >300 referrals per year from primary care for investigation of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs). Clinical assessment tended to be performed in secondary rather than primary care including body mass index (82% vs 26%) and non-invasive liver screen (86% vs 32%) and ultrasound (81% vs 37%). Widely used tools for non-invasive fibrosis risk stratification were aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratio (53%), Fibroscan (50%) and NAFLD fibrosis score (41%). 78% considered liver biopsy in selected cases. 50% recommended 10% weight loss target as first-line treatment. Delivery of lifestyle interventions was mostly handed back to primary care (56%). A minority have direct access to community weight management services (22%). Follow-up was favoured by F3/4 fibrosis (72.9%), and high-risk non-invasive fibrosis tests (51%). Discharge was favoured by simple steatosis at biopsy (30%), and low-risk non-invasive scores (25%). The survey highlights areas for improvement of service provision for NAFLD assessment including improved recognition of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in people with type 2 diabetes, streamlining abnormal LFT referral pathways, defining non-invasive liver fibrosis

  1. Prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are underestimated in clinical practice: impact of a dedicated screening approach at a large university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Marjot, T; Sbardella, E; Moolla, A; Hazlehurst, J M; Tan, G D; Ainsworth, M; Cobbold, J F L; Tomlinson, J W

    2018-01-01

    To define the attitudes and current clinical practice of diabetes specialists with regard to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, based on the results, implement an evidenced-based pathway for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessment. An online survey was disseminated to diabetes specialists. Based on findings from this survey, we sought a local solution by launching an awareness campaign and implementing a screening algorithm across all diabetes clinics at a secondary/tertiary referral centre. A total of 133 diabetes specialists responded to the survey. Fewer than 5% of responders correctly assessed the prevalence and severity of advanced fibrotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in people with diabetes as 50-75%. Whilst most clinicians performed liver function tests, only 5.7% responded stating that they would use, or had used, a non-invasive algorithm to stage the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Implementing a local non-alcoholic fatty liver disease awareness campaign and screening strategy using pre-printed blood request forms, we ensured that 100% (n=395) of all people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus attending secondary/tertiary care diabetes clinics over a 6-month period were appropriately screened for advanced fibrotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using the Fib-4 index; 17.9% required further investigation or assessment. The prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are underestimated among diabetes specialists. The Fib-4 index can easily be incorporated into clinical practice in secondary/tertiary care to identify those individuals at risk of advanced fibrosis who require further assessment and who may benefit from a dedicated multidisciplinary approach to their management. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  2. Inhibition of p53 attenuates steatosis and liver injury in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Derdak, Zoltan; Villegas, Kristine A; Harb, Ragheb; Wu, Annie M; Sousa, Aryanna; Wands, Jack R

    2013-04-01

    p53 and its transcriptional target miRNA34a have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fatty liver. We tested the efficacy of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α p-nitro (PFT) in attenuating steatosis, associated oxidative stress and apoptosis in a murine model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (HFD) or control diet for 8 weeks; PFT or DMSO (vehicle) was administered three times per week. Markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as mediators of hepatic fatty acid metabolism were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real-time PCR, and biochemical assays. PFT administration suppressed HFD-induced weight gain, ALT elevation, steatosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PFT treatment blunted the HFD-induced upregulation of miRNA34a and increased SIRT1 expression. In the livers of HFD-fed, PFT-treated mice, activation of the SIRT1/PGC1α/PPARα axis increased the expression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MLYCD), an enzyme responsible for malonyl-CoA (mCoA) degradation. Additionally, the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway (upstream activator of MLYCD) was promoted by PFT. Thus, induction of these two pathways by PFT diminished the hepatic mCoA content by enhancing MLYCD expression and function. Since mCoA inhibits carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the decrease of hepatic mCoA in the PFT-treated, HFD-fed mice increased CPT1 activity, favored fatty acid oxidation, and decreased steatosis. Additionally, we demonstrated that PFT abrogated steatosis and promoted MLYCD expression in palmitoleic acid-treated human HepaRG cells. The p53 inhibitor PFT diminished hepatic triglyceride accumulation and lipotoxicity in mice fed a HFD, by depleting mCoA and favoring the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in drug transport and metabolism and their clinical implications in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Rau, Monika; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, especially in Western countries. Drug treatment in patients with NAFLD is common since it is linked to other conditions like diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, changes in drug metabolism may have serious clinical implications. Areas covered: A literature search for studies in animal models or patients with obesity, fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH cirrhosis published before November 2016 was performed. After discussing epidemiology and animal models for NAFLD, we summarized both basic as well as clinical studies investigating changes in drug transport and metabolism in NAFLD. Important drug groups were assessed separately with emphasis on clinical implications for drug treatment in patients with NAFLD. Expert opinion: Given the frequency of NAFLD even today, a high degree of drug treatment in NAFLD patients appears safe and well-tolerated despite considerable changes in hepatic uptake, distribution, metabolism and transport of drugs in these patients. NASH causes changes in biliary excretion, systemic concentrations, and renal handling of drugs leading to alterations in drug efficacy or toxicity under specific circumstances. Future clinical drug studies should focus on this special patient population in order to avoid serious adverse events in NAFLD patients.

  6. An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Perumpail, Brandon J; Cholankeril, Rosann; Yoo, Eric R; Kim, Donghee; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-10-22

    Aim : To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method : A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results : Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions : Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD.

  7. An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perumpail, Brandon J.; Cholankeril, Rosann

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results: Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions: Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD. PMID:29065499

  8. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as a component of the metabolic syndrome, and its causal correlations with other extrahepatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Halmos, Tamás; Suba, Ilona

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Its development is promoted by sedentary life-style, over-feeding, and certain genetic predisposition. Prevalence in the adult population, even in Hungary is ~30%. In a part of cases, this disease may pass into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, later into fibrosis, rarely into primary hepatocellular cancer. Fatty liver is closely and bidirectionally related to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and nowadays there is a general consensus that fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic sycndrome. The importance of the fatty liver has been highly emphasized recently. In addition to the progression into steatohepatitis, its causal relationship with numerous extrahepatic disorders has been discovered. In our overview, we deal with the epidemiology, pathomechanism of the disease, discuss the possibilities of diagnosis, its relationship with the intestinal microbiota, its recently recognized correlations with bile acids and their receptors, and its supposed correlations with the circadian CLOCK system. Hereinafter, we overview those extrahepatic disorders, which have been shown to be causal link with the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Among these, we emphasize the metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, sleep apnea/hypoventilation syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and psoriasis, as well. Based on the above, it can be stated, that high risk individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease need systemic care, and require the detection of other components of this systemic pathological condition. While currently specific therapy for the disease is not yet known, life-style changes, adequate use of available medicines can prevent disease progression. Promising research

  9. PNPLA3 as a Genetic Determinant of Risk for and Severity of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Habeeb; Hanayneh, Muhannad Al; Masadeh, Maen; Naseemuddin, Mohammed; Matin, Tasnia; Erwin, Angelika; Singal, Ashwani K

    2016-09-28

    Background and Aims: Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 ( PNPLA3 ) polymorphisms ( rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 393 potentially relevant studies, 35 on NAFLD were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the pooled ORs for rs738409 CG and GG compared to CC among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were 1.46 (1.16-1.85) and 2.76 (2.30-3.13), and were 1.75 (1.24-2.46) and 4.44 (2.92-6.76) among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis respectively. The respective ORs for CG and GG compared to the CC genotype were 2.35 (0.90-6.13) and 5.05 (1.47-17.29) when comparing non-alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma to NAFL patients. Among the NAFLD patients, the ORs for G allele frequency when comparing steatosis grade 2-3 to grade 0-1 NAFL, when comparing the NAFLD activity score of ≥ 4 to score ≤ 3, when comparing NASH to NAFLD, when comparing the presence of lobular inflammation to absence, and when comparing the presence of hepatocyte ballooning to absence were 2.33 (1.43-3.80), 1.80 (1.36-2.37), 1.66 (1.42-1.94), 1.58 (1.19-2.10), and 2.63 (1.87-3.69) respectively. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions: PNPLA3 polymorphisms have strong association with the risk for and severity of NAFLDs. PNPLA3 polymorphism plays an evolving role in diagnosis and treatment decisions in patients with NAFLD.

  10. PNPLA3 as a Genetic Determinant of Risk for and Severity of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Habeeb; Hanayneh, Muhannad Al; Masadeh, Maen; Naseemuddin, Mohammed; Matin, Tasnia; Erwin, Angelika; Singal, Ashwani K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms (rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 393 potentially relevant studies, 35 on NAFLD were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the pooled ORs for rs738409 CG and GG compared to CC among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were 1.46 (1.16–1.85) and 2.76 (2.30–3.13), and were 1.75 (1.24–2.46) and 4.44 (2.92–6.76) among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis respectively. The respective ORs for CG and GG compared to the CC genotype were 2.35 (0.90–6.13) and 5.05 (1.47–17.29) when comparing non-alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma to NAFL patients. Among the NAFLD patients, the ORs for G allele frequency when comparing steatosis grade 2–3 to grade 0–1 NAFL, when comparing the NAFLD activity score of ≥ 4 to score ≤ 3, when comparing NASH to NAFLD, when comparing the presence of lobular inflammation to absence, and when comparing the presence of hepatocyte ballooning to absence were 2.33 (1.43–3.80), 1.80 (1.36–2.37), 1.66 (1.42–1.94), 1.58 (1.19–2.10), and 2.63 (1.87–3.69) respectively. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions: PNPLA3 polymorphisms have strong association with the risk for and severity of NAFLDs. PNPLA3 polymorphism plays an evolving role in diagnosis and treatment decisions in patients with NAFLD. PMID:27777887

  11. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Bile Acids and Nor-Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Steinacher, Daniel; Claudel, Thierry; Trauner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most rapidly rising clinical problems in the 21st century. So far no effective drug treatment has been established to cure this disease. Bile acids (BAs) have a variety of signaling properties, which can be used therapeutically for modulating hepatic metabolism and inflammation. A side-chain shorted derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is 24 nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) and it represents a new class of drugs for treatment of liver diseases. NorUDCA has unique biochemical and therapeutic properties, since it is relatively resistant to conjugation with glycine or taurine compared to UDCA. NorUDCA undergoes cholehepatic shunting, resulting in ductular targeting, bicarbonate-rich hypercholeresis, and cholangiocyte protection. Furthermore, it showed anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-lipotoxic properties in several animal models. As such, NorUDCA is a promising new approach in the treatment of cholestatic and metabolic liver diseases. This review is a summary of current BA-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of the fatty liver disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Connection of Nicotine to Diet-Induced Obesity and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cellular and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20–40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Multiple mechanisms can be involved in nicotine plus high-fat diet-induced (HFD) hepatic steatosis. Emerging evidence now suggests that nicotine exacerbates hepatic steatosis triggered by HFD, through increased oxidative stress and hepatocellular apoptosis, decreased phosphorylation (inactivation) of adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase and, in turn, up-regulation of sterol response-element binding protein 1-c, fatty acid synthase, and activation of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase, leading to increased hepatic lipogenesis. There is also growing evidence that chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of several pathways leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, perturbed hepatic lipid homeostasis, apoptosis, and autophagy can induce hepatic steatosis and its progression to NASH. Evidence also suggests a central role of the gut microbiota in obesity and its related disorders, including NAFLD. This review explores the contribution of nicotine and obesity to the development of NAFLD and its molecular underpinning. PMID:28239368

  13. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Fishbein, Mark H; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Zhang, Gang; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Donaldson, James S

    2014-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*W) and fat (T2*F) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P < 0.0001). With increasing fat fraction, T2*W (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*F (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*W and T2*F became increasingly more similar when fat fraction was higher than

  14. Impact of dietary fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Ldlr−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity and is now the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD is defined as excessive accumulation of lipid in the liver, i.e. hepatosteatosis. The severity of NAFLD ranges from simple fatty liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Simple steatosis is relatively benign until it progresses to NASH, which is characterised by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is a risk factor for cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Our studies have focused on the impact of diet on the onset and progression of NASH. We developed a mouse model of NASH by feeding Ldlr−/− mice a western diet (WD), a diet moderately high in saturated and trans-fat, sucrose and cholesterol. The WD induced a NASH phenotype in Ldlr−/− mice that recapitulates many of the clinical features of human NASH. We also assessed the capacity of the dietary n-3 PUFA, i.e. EPA (20 : 5,n-3) and DHA (22 : 6,n-3), to prevent WD-induced NASH in Ldlr−/− mice. Histologic, transcriptomic, lipidomic and metabolomic analyses established that DHA was equal or superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Dietary n-3 PUFA, however, had no significant effect on WD-induced changes in body weight, body fat or blood glucose. These studies provide a molecular and metabolic basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of using dietary n-3 PUFA to prevent NASH in human subjects. PMID:26282529

  15. Fructose: A Dietary Sugar in Crosstalk with Microbiota Contributing to the Development and Progression of Non-Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Jessica; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Landert, Silvano; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation. Dysbalanced intestinal microbiota composition influences a variety of NAFLD-associated clinical conditions. Conversely, nutritional supplementation with probiotics and preobiotics impacting composition of gut microbiota can improve the outcome of NAFLD. In crosstalk with the host immune system, the gut microbiota is able to modulate inflammation, insulin resistance, and intestinal permeability. Moreover, the composition of microbiota of an individual is a kind of fingerprint highly influenced by diet. In addition, not only the microbiota itself but also its metabolites influence the metabolism and host immune system. The gut microbiota can produce vitamins and a variety of nutrients including short-chain fatty acids. Holding a healthy balance of the microbiota is therefore highly important. In the present review, we discuss the impact of long-term intake of fructose on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and its biological consequences in regard to liver homeostasis and disease. In particular, we will refer about fructose-induced alterations of the tight junction proteins affecting the gut permeability, leading to the translocation of bacteria and bacterial endotoxins into the blood circulation. PMID:28970836

  16. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva; Silvares, Raquel Rangel; Flores, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita; Rodrigues, Karine Lino; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; da Silva, Igor José; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de Castro; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Daliry, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA. The participation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and its receptor RAGE was evaluated by the measurement of gene and protein expression of RAGE by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively and by liver and serum quantification of fluorescent AGEs. Wistar rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) showed increase in epididymal and abdominal fat content, systolic arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and impairment of glucose and insulin metabolisms. Liver histology confirmed the presence of steatosis and ultrasound analysis revealed increased liver size and parenchymal echogenicity in HFD-fed rats. HFD causes significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on hepatic microcirculation and decrease in liver microvascular blood flow. Liver tissue presented increase in oxidative stress and inflammtion. At 20 weeks, there was a significantly increase in AGE content in the liver and serum of HFD-fed rats and an increase in RAGE gene expression in the liver. The increase in liver AGE levels and microcirculatory disturbances could play a role in the pathogenesis of liver injury and are key components of NAFLD.

  17. Association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and peripheral artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yaowu; Li, Xinde; Wang, Can; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Ma, Lidan; You, Wenjun; Li, Changgui

    2017-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases; however, the relationship between NAFLD and peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been investigated. To investigate the association between NAFLD and PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes. We carried out a cross-sectional study on 2646 type 2 diabetes patients ≥ 40 years. All patients provided fasting blood samples and underwent a liver ultrasonography and ankle-brachial index (ABI) test. PAD was defined as an ABI <0.9. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the odds ratio (OR) for PAD associated with NAFLD. Our analyses showed that patients with NAFLD had a significantly higher prevalence of PAD compared with those without NAFLD (12.8% vs 7.8%). NAFLD was associated with a 75% (OR 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.28) increased risk of PAD after adjustment for demographic factors. Addition of various metabolic risk factors as confounders attenuated the association (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12-2.00). Further adjustment for C-reactive protein led the association to be marginally significant (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.80). Analyses stratified by gender suggested the association was much stronger among women than among men. Type 2 diabetes patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of PAD, and this association was partly, but not entirely, explained by metabolic risk factors and inflammation. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (SFL model) or a methionine-choline-deficient diet (NASH model) for eight weeks. Hepatic uptake transporter function was determined by bromosulfophthalein (BSP) disposition. Transporter expression was determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and western blotting; inflammation was identified by immunostaining of liver slices for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). MC- rats showed significant retention of BSP in the plasma when compared to control rats. Hepatic NTCP, OATP1a1, 1a4, 1b2 and 2b1; and OAT 2 and 3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in high-fat and MC- diet rats when compared to control. Protein expression of OATP1a1 was significantly decreased in high-fat animals, while OATP1a1 and OATP1b2 expression was significantly lower in MC- rats when compared to control. Liver tissue from high-fat and MC- rats stained positive for IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to decrease expression of NTCP, OATP and OAT transporters, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the observed transporter alterations. These data suggest that different stages of NAFLD result in altered hepatic uptake transporter expression that can lead to a functional impairment of xenobiotic uptake from the blood. Furthermore, NAFLD may alter the plasma retention time of clinically relevant drugs that are reliant on these transporters and may increase the potential drug toxicity. PMID:19358839

  19. Hepatic ceramides dissociate steatosis and insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Panu K; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Leivonen, Marja; Arola, Johanna; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2016-05-01

    Recent data in mice have identified de novo ceramide synthesis as the key mediator of hepatic insulin resistance (IR) that in humans characterizes increases in liver fat due to IR ('Metabolic NAFLD' but not that due to the I148M gene variant in PNPLA3 ('PNPLA3 NAFLD'). We determined which bioactive lipids co-segregate with IR in the human liver. Liver lipidome was profiled in liver biopsies from 125 subjects that were divided into equally sized groups based on median HOMA-IR ('High and Low HOMA-IR', n=62 and n=63) or PNPLA3 genotype (PNPLA3(148MM/MI), n=61 vs. PNPLA3(148II), n=64). The subjects were also divided into 4 groups who had either IR, the I148M gene variant, both of the risk factors or neither. Steatosis and NASH prevalence were similarly increased in 'High HOMA-IR' and PNPLA3(148MM/MI) groups compared to their respective control groups. The 'High HOMA-IR' but not the PNPLA3(148MM/MI) group had features of IR. The liver in 'High HOMA-IR' vs. 'Low HOMA-IR' was markedly enriched in saturated and monounsaturated triacylglycerols and free fatty acids, dihydroceramides (markers of de novo ceramide synthesis) and ceramides. Markers of other ceramide synthetic pathways were unchanged. In PNPLA3(148MM/MI)vs. PNPLA3(148II), the increase in liver fat was due to polyunsaturated triacylglycerols while other lipids were unchanged. Similar changes were observed when data were analyzed using the 4 subgroups. Similar increases in liver fat and NASH are associated with a metabolically harmful saturated, ceramide-enriched liver lipidome in 'Metabolic NAFLD' but not in 'PNPLA3 NAFLD'. This difference may explain why metabolic but not PNPLA3 NAFLD increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Mediterranean Diet and Antioxidant Formulation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Greco, Marta; Milic, Natasa; Accattato, Francesca; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-08-12

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Mediterranean diet, with or without an antioxidant complex supplement, in overweight patients suffering from NAFLD. In this prospective study, fifty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups (Groups A-C). A personalized moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet was prescribed to all patients included in the A and B groups. In addition to the diet, Group B was administered antioxidant supplementation daily and for the period of six months. Group C did not have any type of treatment. The study proved that the Mediterranean diet alone or in association with the antioxidant complex improved anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and reduced hepatic fat accumulation and liver stiffness. However, Group B patients, in which the diet was associated with antioxidant intake, showed not only a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, but also a more consistent reduction of anthropometric parameters when compared with Group A patients. Taken together, these results support the benefit of antioxidant supplementation in overweight patients with NAFLD.

  1. Serum immunoglobulin levels predict fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Stuart; Henderson, Elsbeth; Burt, Alastair D; Day, Christopher P; Anstee, Quentin M

    2014-05-01

    A third of the population are estimated to have NAFLD of varying severity. Serum immunoglobulins are frequently elevated in patients with chronic liver disease, but little is known about serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and determine if immunoglobulin levels are associated with clinical or histological features. Patients seen in a tertiary fatty liver clinic between 1999 and 2009 were included. Liver biopsies were assessed using the Kleiner score. Immunoglobulin levels and other blood tests were taken at time of biopsy. 285 patients (110 simple steatosis and 175 NASH) had serum immunoglobulins measured within 6months of liver biopsy. 130 (46%) patients had elevated (>1× upper limit of normal) serum IgA levels, 28 (10%) patients had elevated IgG and 22 (8%) raised IgM. Serum IgA levels were elevated more frequently in patients with NASH compared with subjects with simple steatosis (55% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Overall, 55 (19%) patients had advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage 3-4). There was a significant positive association between serum IgA levels and the stage of fibrosis (p<0.001). Serum IgA, age, platelets, AST/ALT ratio and BMI were all independently with advanced fibrosis following multivariate analysis. A model constructed from these independent predictors accurately predicted advanced fibrosis (AUROC 0.87). The serum IgA level was frequently elevated in patients with NAFLD and was an independent predictor of advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Multi-Ingredient-Based Interventions for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Manuel; Boqué, Noemí; del Bas, Josep M.; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology for their treatment other than weight loss and a change in lifestyle habits, such as a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise. In this framework, there is increasing evidence that several food bioactives and dietary patterns are effective for reversing and preventing the onset of these pathologies. Some studies have claimed that better responses are obtained when treatments are performed under a multifaceted approach, using different bioactive compounds that act against complementary targets. Thus, in this work, current strategies for treating NAFLD and NASH based on multi-ingredient-based supplements or the Mediterranean diet, a dietary pattern rich in bioactive compounds, are reviewed. Furthermore, the usefulness of omics techniques to design effective multi-ingredient nutritional interventions and to predict and monitor their response against these disorders is also discussed. PMID:28937599

  3. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal group. This was accompanied with reduction of hepatic GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD and serum adiponectin. These changes were to a less degree in NAFLD-RD group. Combined administration of garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  4. Underappreciation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by primary care clinicians: limited awareness of surrogate markers of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preya J; Banh, Xuan; Horsfall, Leigh U; Hayward, Kelly L; Hossain, Fabrina; Johnson, Tracey; Stuart, Katherine A; Brown, Nigel N; Saad, Nivene; Clouston, Andrew; Irvine, Katharine M; Russell, Anthony W; Valery, Patricia C; Williams, Suzanne; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2018-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of incidental liver test abnormalities. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in identifying people with NAFLD at risk of significant liver disease. Recent specialist guidelines emphasise the use of fibrosis algorithms or serum biomarkers rather than routine liver tests, to assess advanced fibrosis. To evaluate primary care clinicians' current approach to diagnosis, management and referral of NAFLD. A cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians was undertaken through a structured questionnaire about NAFLD. A convenience sample of general practice clinics and general practice conferences in Metropolitan Brisbane and regional south east Queensland was selected. A total of 108 primary care clinicians completed the survey (participation rate 100%). Fifty-one percent of respondents considered the prevalence of NAFLD in the general population to be ≤10%. Twenty-four percent of respondents felt that liver enzymes were sufficiently sensitive to detect underlying NAFLD. Most respondents were unsure whether the Fibrosis 4 score (62.7% unsure) or Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (63.7% unsure) could help to identify advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Although 47% of respondents said they would refer a patient to a Gastroenterologist/Hepatologist if they suspect the patient has NAFLD, 44.1% do not make any referrals. Of concern, 70.6% of clinicians said they were unlikely to refer a patient to Hepatology unless liver function tests are abnormal. Our findings demonstrate that many primary care clinicians underestimate the prevalence of NAFLD and under-recognise the clinical spectrum of NAFLD and how this is assessed. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis in adults with cystic fibrosis: Similarities to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Fares; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar; Morelli, Giuseppe; Lascano, Jorge

    2018-01-27

    To investigate the clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hepatic steatosis as compared to normal CF controls. We performed a retrospective review of adult CF patients in an academic outpatient setting during 2016. Baseline characteristics, genetic mutation analysis as well as laboratory values were collected. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) was used to determine presence of hepatic steatosis. We compare patients with hepatic steatosis to normal controls. Data was collected on 114 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventeen patients (14.9%) were found to have hepatic steatosis on imaging. Being overweight (BMI > 25) ( P = 0.019) and having a higher ppFEV1 (75 vs 53, P = 0.037) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Patients with hepatic steatosis had a significantly higher median alanine aminotransferase level (27 vs 19, P = 0.048). None of the hepatic steatosis patients had frank CF liver disease, cirrhosis or portal hypertension. We found no significant association with pancreatic insufficiency or CF related diabetes. Hepatic steatosis appears to be a clinically and phenotypically distinct entity from CF liver disease. The lack of association with malnourishment and the significant association with higher BMI and higher ppFEV1 demonstrate similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether CF hepatic steatosis progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  6. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis in adults with cystic fibrosis: Similarities to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fares; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar; Morelli, Giuseppe; Lascano, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hepatic steatosis as compared to normal CF controls. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of adult CF patients in an academic outpatient setting during 2016. Baseline characteristics, genetic mutation analysis as well as laboratory values were collected. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) was used to determine presence of hepatic steatosis. We compare patients with hepatic steatosis to normal controls. RESULTS Data was collected on 114 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventeen patients (14.9%) were found to have hepatic steatosis on imaging. Being overweight (BMI > 25) (P = 0.019) and having a higher ppFEV1 (75 vs 53, P = 0.037) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Patients with hepatic steatosis had a significantly higher median alanine aminotransferase level (27 vs 19, P = 0.048). None of the hepatic steatosis patients had frank CF liver disease, cirrhosis or portal hypertension. We found no significant association with pancreatic insufficiency or CF related diabetes. CONCLUSION Hepatic steatosis appears to be a clinically and phenotypically distinct entity from CF liver disease. The lack of association with malnourishment and the significant association with higher BMI and higher ppFEV1 demonstrate similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether CF hepatic steatosis progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:29399276

  7. Adverse effects of chronic exposure to nonylphenol on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Ya; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Mengxue; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Feng; He, Liting; Xu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) has been thought to play a role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the toxic effects of Nonylphenol (NP), an EDC, on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have never been elaborated. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to NP could induce NAFDL, a promoting effect of high-sucrose-high-fat diet (HSHFD) on the adverse effects caused by NP was evaluated. Fourth eight male rats were assigned to four groups and each group was treated with a specific testing sample: normal-diet (ND) control group (C-ND); normal diet plus NP (180mg/kg/day) group (NP-ND); high-sucrose-high-fat-diet control group (C-HSHFD); HSHFD plus NP (180mg/kg/day) group (NP-HSHFD). At the age of 80 day, sonogram presents diffusely increased hepatic echogenicity in the NP-HSHFD group. The oblique diameter of liver in the NP-HSHFD group was significantly bigger than that in both the C-ND and NP-ND groups. At the age of 90 day, exposure to NP-HSHFD and NP-ND caused a significant increase in NP concentration in liver as compared to the C-ND group. The rats in the groups treated with NP+ND, HSHFD and NP+HSHFD produced significant increases in the body weight, fat weight and FMI, respectively, when compared to the C-ND group. The liver weight and hepatosomatic indexes (HIS) of rats in the NP-HSHFD group are higher than those in the C-HSHFD group. Exposure to NP-HSHFD induced the increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as compared to the C-ND group. Morphological examination of liver tissue from rats exposed to NP+HSHFD shown steatosis with marked accumulation of lipid droplets, hepatocellular ballooning degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Chronic exposure to NP might induce NAFLD in male rats. The high-sucrose-high-fat diet accelerates and exacerbates the development of NAFLD caused by NP exposure. PMID:28686624

  8. The impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score on cardiac prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tetsu; Shishido, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Ken; Sugai, Takayuki; Toshima, Taku; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Miyuki; Tamura, Harutoshi; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Tamon; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kubota, Isao

    2018-07-01

    Liver abnormalities have a strong impact on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), and are known as cardio-hepatic syndrome. The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score (NFS) has been developed to identify liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. It remains to be determined whether NFS is associated with cardiovascular prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We calculated NFS in 516 patients with CHF admitted to our hospital. The clinical endpoints were deaths due to progressive HF, myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death, and rehospitalization for worsening HF. There were 173 cardiovascular events noted during a median follow-up of 464 days. Patients with cardiovascular events showed a higher NFS as compared with those without. We divided the patients into four groups according to quartiles of NFS. The proportion of New York Heart Association functional class III/IV and serum brain natriuretic peptide levels were increased with increasing NFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that cardiovascular event rate was increased with increasing NFS in patients with CHF. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, NFS was independently associated with cardiovascular events after adjustment for confounding factors. Elevated NFS was associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with CHF. Liver fibrosis assessed by NFS may provide valuable prognostic information in patients with CHF.

  9. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance--ROS and PKCε activity--were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD.

  10. Relationship between adipose tissue dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency and the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Flavia A; Barchetta, Ilaria; Carotti, Simone; Bertoccini, Laura; Baroni, Marco G; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Cavallo, Maria-Gisella; Morini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Its pathogenesis is complex and not yet fully understood. Over the years many studies have proposed various pathophysiological hypotheses, among which the currently most widely accepted is the “multiple parallel hits” theory. According to this model, lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes and insulin resistance increase the vulnerability of the liver to many factors that act in a coordinated and cooperative manner to promote hepatic injury, inflammation and fibrosis. Among these factors, adipose tissue dysfunction and subsequent chronic low grade inflammation play a crucial role. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D exerts an immune-regulating action on adipose tissue, and the growing wealth of epidemiological data is demonstrating that hypovitaminosis D is associated with both obesity and NAFLD. Furthermore, given the strong association between these conditions, current findings suggest that vitamin D may be involved in the relationship between adipose tissue dysfunction and NAFLD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent advances in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in relation to adipose tissue dysfunction, and in the pathophysiology linking vitamin D deficiency with NAFLD and adiposity, together with an overview of the evidence available on the clinical utility of vitamin D supplementation in cases of NAFLD. PMID:28596677

  11. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shanshan; Jiang, Suwen; Hu, Airong

    2018-01-15

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an issue of great concern. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of OSA on the levels of liver enzymes including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The secondary purpose was to estimate the effect of OSA on the histological lesions of NAFLD, such as steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration, fibrosis, as well as NAFLD activity score (NAS). A systematic literature review using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Ovid technologies from January 2007 to April 2017 was performed, and 9 studies (2272 participants) that met the selection criteria were evaluated. The present study demonstrated that OSA was related to ALT levels, but no significant correlation was found with AST levels. The subgroup analysis showed that the severity of OSA was associated with ALT levels, not with AST levels. The meta-regression analysis showed that age, sex, homeostasis model assessment, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and waist circumference did not have a significant effect on the levels of ALT and AST. OSA was also found to be significantly correlated with steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration, and fibrosis, but was not correlated with NAS. OSA was independently related to the development and progression of NAFLD in terms of liver enzyme level and histological alterations. Future studies should investigate the possible relevant mechanisms, thereby guiding the exploration of potential therapeutic implications to prevent the progression of disease.

  12. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - histological scoring systems: a large cohort single-center, evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archana; Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Agarwal, Ayushi; Bihari, Chhagan; Jain, Priyanka; Jindal, Ankur; Sarin, Shiv

    2017-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease. Till date, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for identification and quantification of the wide histological spectra of NAFLD. Histological scorings are very useful and widely applied for the diagnosis and management in clinical trials and follow-up studies of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, in view of scarce published literature, there is a need to evaluate them in large cohort of NAFLD. This study was aimed to evaluate the two histological scoring systems (NAS-CRN, SAF) in the diagnosis of NAFLD and to assess the role of histological characteristics as injury markers in NAFLD. Retrospective histological study of liver biopsies of 1000 patients diagnosed as NAFLD, between 2010 and 2016, was conducted. Histopathologic evaluation and semiquantiative scoring based on NAS-CRN and SAF algorithm and their correlation with serum aminotransferase and fibrosis were performed. Liver biopsies were classified according to the NAS-CRN scoring, as NAS <3 (not NASH) in 72 (7.2%), NAS 3-4 (borderline NASH) in 310 (31%), and NAS ≥5 (definite NASH) in 618 (61.8%), and SAF classified 117 (11.7%) not NASH and 883 (88.3%) definite NASH. There was excellent concordance for definite NASH and not NASH; however, 88.06% of borderline NASH was classified as NASH by SAF. 76.39% by NAS and 78.63% by SAF algorithm who were diagnosed as not NASH showed the presence of fibrosis; however, higher stages of fibrosis were significantly more prevalent in definite NASH, excluding burnt-out cirrhosis. Serum ALT was significantly associated with increasing stages of fibrosis (p < 0.001) and the three categories (not NASH, borderline NASH, and definite NASH) when classified as with/without fibrosis (p < 0.001). Steatosis of higher grades, more ballooned cells, and more foci of Lobular Inflammation were found in significantly higher proportion of patients with NASH (p < 0

  13. Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Tabibian, James H.; Ekstedt, Mattias; Kechagias, Stergios; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Hagström, Hannes; Yoon, Seung Kew; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; George, Jacob; Barrera, Francisco; Hafliðadóttir, Svanhildur; Björnsson, Einar Stefan; Armstrong, Matthew J.; Hopkins, Laurence J.; Gao, Xin; Francque, Sven; Verrijken, An; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Lindor, Keith D.; Charlton, Michael; Haring, Robin; Lerch, Markus M.; Rettig, Rainer; Völzke, Henry; Ryu, Seungho; Li, Guolin; Wong, Linda L.; Machado, Mariana; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent, under-recognized condition and a risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to CKD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with the presence and severity of CKD. Methods and Findings English and non-English articles from international online databases from 1980 through January 31, 2014 were searched. Observational studies assessing NAFLD by histology, imaging, or biochemistry and defining CKD as either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria were included. Two reviewers extracted studies independently and in duplicate. Individual participant data (IPD) were solicited from all selected studies. Studies providing IPD were combined with studies providing only aggregate data with the two-stage method. Main outcomes were pooled using random-effects models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity and the effect of potential confounders. The influences of age, whole-body/abdominal obesity, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and duration of follow-up on effect estimates were assessed by meta-regression. Thirty-three studies (63,902 participants, 16 population-based and 17 hospital-based, 20 cross-sectional, and 13 longitudinal) were included. For 20 studies (61% of included studies, 11 cross-sectional and nine longitudinal, 29,282 participants), we obtained IPD. NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% CI 1.69–2.66) and incident (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.65–1.95) CKD. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.58–4.05) and incidence (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.42–3.17) of CKD than simple steatosis. Advanced fibrosis was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.14–8

  14. Pomegranate juice prevents development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Maryam; Jafari, Bahar; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2017-06-01

    The effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been reported previously; however, the effects on NAFLD and its prevention have not yet been clarified. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption with respect to the prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat, high sugar diet (model group); a high-fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ); or a chow diet ad libitum for 7 weeks. Serum levels of fasting glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, liver enzymes, insulin and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α and tissue growth factor-β gene expression were determined. Hepatic histology was examined by hemotoxylin and eosin staining. The model+PJ group had significantly lower hepatic steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation and portal inflammation (P < 0.001); lower hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression (P < 0.001); and lower plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.026), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.041), insulin (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.041) and glucose (P = 0.009) compared to the model group; however, weight gain, food intake and plasma high-density lipoprotein levels were not significantly different between these two groups. The data obtained in the present study indicate that the regular consumption of PJ can prevent NAFLD even in the presence of the other risk factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and high energy, fat and sugar intakes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Bashar; Shah, Vaishal; Onyshchenko, Mykola; Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Lopez, Rocio; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Alhaddad, Razan; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has increased significantly in United States over the last few decades in parallel with the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Limited data suggests that HCC could arise in steatotic liver without the presence of cirrhosis. The present study was conducted to characterize patients with NAFLD presenting with HCC in non-cirrhotic liver (NCL) compared to the NAFLD- HCC patients in association with cirrhotic liver (CL). A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with HCC and NAFLD diagnosis seen at our institution between 2003 and 2012 was done. The patients were characterized based on demographic and clinical variables as well as histological and tumor features. Comparisons between the NCL and CL groups were done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Pearson's chi-square tests or Fisher's Exact tests as appropriate. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thirty-six patients with NAFLD and HCC in NCL (HCC-NCL group) were identified and compared to 47 patients with NAFLD-HCC and Liver Cirrhosis (HCC-LC group). Liver fibrosis was not present in 55.9 % of patients in the HCC-NCL group (F0), stage 1 was present in 17.6 %, stage 2 in 8.8 % and stage 3 in 17.6 %. Lobular inflammation was present in 63.6 % of non-cirrhotic patients. Patients in the HCC-NCL were older (67.5 ± 12.3 vs. 62.7 ± 8.1 years), and less likely to be obese (52 % vs. 83 %) or have type 2 diabetes (38 % vs. 83 %), with p value <0.05 for all. More importantly, compared with the HCC-CL group, those in the HCC-NCL group were more likely to present with a single nodule (80.6 % vs. 52.2 %), larger nodule size (>5 cm) (77.8 % vs. 10.6 %), and receive hepatic resection as the modality of HCC treatment (66.7 % vs. 17 %); and were less likely to receive loco-regional therapy (22.3 % vs. 61.7 %) or orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) (0 % vs. 72.3 %), with p value <0

  16. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females (p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, M or XL probe, and disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness (p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect (p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease. PMID:28075394

  17. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-10

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females ( p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, M or XL probe, and disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness ( p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect ( p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease.

  18. Hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are not associated with decline in renal function in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jenks, S J; Conway, B R; Hor, T J; Williamson, R M; McLachlan, S; Robertson, C; Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Price, J F

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether the presence of hepatic steatosis and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decline in renal function or onset of microalbuminuria in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes, including those managed in both primary and secondary care. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, a cohort of Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with Type 2 diabetes, underwent assessment for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography 1 year after recruitment. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as the presence of steatosis following exclusion of secondary causes of liver disease. Patients were followed for 4 years and decline in renal function was assessed by the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time. Of the 933 subjects, 530 had hepatic steatosis and, of those with hepatic steatosis, 388 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were significantly associated with rate of decline in renal function, with the mean rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate being -1.55 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year for participants with hepatic steatosis compared with -1.84 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) for those without steatosis (P = 0.19). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to participants with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (-1.44 vs. -1.64 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year, respectively; P = 0.44). Additionally, neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were associated with the onset or regression of albuminuria during follow-up (all P ≥ 0.05). The presence of hepatic steatosis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not associated with decline in renal function during a 4-year follow-up in our cohort of older people with Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  19. Somatotropic Axis Dysfunction in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Hepatic and Systemic Effects of Hormone Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Daniel; Solís, Nancy; San Martín, Diego; Cofré, Catalina; Pizarro, Margarita; Abrigo, Johanna; Campos, Fabián; Irigoyen, Betzabé; Carrasco-Avino, Gonzalo; Bezares, Katiuska; Riquelme, Valentina; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Arrese, Marco; Barrera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Background: Somatotropic axis dysfunction associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has potential multisystemic detrimental effects. Here, we analysed the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) supplementation on liver histology, adipokine profile and muscle function in an NAFLD model. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and were separated into three groups treated for 4 weeks with: (1) High fat diet (HFD) (n = 10); (2) HFD + GH 9 μg/g/d (n = 10); (3) HFD + IGF-1 0.02 µg/g/d (n = 9). A control group fed a chow diet was included (n = 6). Liver histology, liver triglycerides content, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, adiponectin and leptin serum levels, in vivo muscle strength, tetanic force and muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. Results: HFD + GH and HFD + IGF-1 groups showed significantly lower ALT activity compared to HFD (p < 0.01). Liver triglyceride content in HFD + GH was decreased compared to HFD (p < 0.01). Histologic steatosis score was increased in HFD and HFD + GH group (p < 0.01), whereas HFD + IGF-1 presented no difference compared to the chow group (p = 0.3). HFD + GH group presented lower serum leptin and adiponectin levels compared to HFD. GH and IGF-1 supplementation therapy reverted HFD-induced reduction in muscle strength and CSA (sarcopenia). Conclusions: GH and IGF-1 supplementation induced significant improvement in liver steatosis, aminotransferases and sarcopenia in a diet-induced NAFLD model. PMID:29724029

  20. Effect of severity of steatosis as assessed ultrasonographically on hepatic vascular indices in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Zahedi, Hengameh; Toldi, Gergely; Alinia, Tahereh

    2011-09-01

    Early monitoring of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression in obese patients is important to avoid the development of complications associated with fatty infiltration. of this study was to investigate the relationship between the degrees of fatty infiltration and reduced vascular compliance in NAFLD patients in the three main hepatic vessels. Two hundred and fourty subjects were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 4 groups: 60 controls, 60 grade 1 NAFLD patients, 60 grade 2 NAFLD patients and 60 grade 3 NAFLD patients. After US confirmation of the presence and grade of NAFLD, the peak and mean portal vein velocity (PPVV and MPVV, respectively), the hepatic artery resistance index (HARI), and the phasicity of the hepatic vein were measured. The PPVV was 19.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 17.6 +/- 1.2 cm/sec in grade 2 and 15.4 +/- 1.1 cm/sec in grade 3. The MPVV was 16.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 16.6 +/- 2.9 cm/sec in grade 2 and 12.7 +/- 0.7 cm/sec in grade 3. The HARI was 0.75 in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 0.68 in grade 2 and 0.64 in grade 3. There was an inverse relationship between PPVV, MPVV and HARI and different grades of fatty liver in patients (p = 0.001 for PPVV (Figure 7) and HARI, p = 0.006 for MPVV. The values of the investigated liver blood flow parameters were inversely correlated with the fatty infiltration grading. Fatty infiltration can severely influence hepatic blood flow, pointing attention to the importance of early diagnosis and the need for hepatic vessel flow abnormalities characterization in the NAFLD population.

  1. Metabolic effects of Crocus sativus and protective action against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Doulamis, Ilias P.; Tzani, Aspasia; Korou, Maria-Laskarina; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Verikokos, Christos; Mastorakos, George; Katsilambros, Nicholas L.; Perrea, Despina N.

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the result of the accumulation of adipose tissue deposits in the liver and it is associated with type 2 diabetes. Crocus sativus (saffron) is known for its antioxidant and its potential hypoglycemic effects. We investigated the role of saffron on NAFLD in diabetic rats. Thirty adult male rats were allocated into three groups; control (n=10), which received normal diet; streptozotocin (STZ) group (n=10), which received normal chow diet, 10% fructose in their drinking water and STZ (40 mg/kg body weight; STZ-saffron group (n=10), which followed the same dietary and pharmacological pattern as STZ group and were additionally supplemented with saffron (100 mg/kg/day). Metabolic profile was measured and histopathological examination of the liver was evaluated. STZ group exhibited the highest glucose levels at the end of the experiment (P<0.05), while there was no difference between control and STZ-saffron group (584 vs. 213 mg/dl vs. 209 mg/dl, respectively). STZ group revealed higher percentage of steatosis (5–33%) when compared to the other two groups (P<0.005). Saffron exhibits both hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective actions. Yet, further studies enlightening the exact mechanisms of saffron's mode of actions are required. PMID:28529733

  2. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors for advanced fibrosis and mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Le, Michael H; Devaki, Pardha; Ha, Nghiem B; Jun, Dae Won; Te, Helen S; Cheung, Ramsey C; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and associated with higher mortality according to data from earlier National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994. Our goal was to determine the NAFLD prevalence in the recent 1999-2012 NHANES, risk factors for advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) and mortality. NAFLD was defined as having a United States Fatty Liver Index (USFLI) > 30 in the absence of heavy alcohol use and other known liver diseases. The probability of low/high risk of having advanced fibrosis was determined by the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS). In total, 6000 persons were included; of which, 30.0% had NAFLD and 10.3% of these had advanced fibrosis. Five and eight-year overall mortality in NAFLD subjects with advanced fibrosis was significantly higher than subjects without NAFLD ((18% and 35% vs. 2.6% and 5.5%, respectively) but not NAFLD subjects without advanced fibrosis (1.1% and 2.8%, respectively). NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (but not those without) is an independent predictor for mortality on multivariate analysis (HR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.93-5.08, p<0.001). In conclusion, in this most recent NHANES, NAFLD prevalence remains at 30% with 10.3% of these having advanced fibrosis. NAFLD per se was not a risk factor for increased mortality, but NAFLD with advanced fibrosis was. Mexican American ethnicity was a significant risk factor for NAFLD but not for advanced fibrosis or increased mortality.

  3. Pilot study of the prevalence of binge eating disorder in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyu; Abbasi, Omair; Malevanchik, Lev; Mohan, Neena; Denicola, Richard; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the United States. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common form of eating disorder. NAFLD and BED have similar risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to examine prevalence of BED in NAFLD patients. We administered the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a questionnaire validated to screen for BED, to NAFLD patients at our Fatty Liver Center. Demographics were retrieved retrospectively from our electronic medical record. Of the total 95 NAFLD patients screened, 22 (23.1%) had binge eating tendencies; 6 of the 22 (6.3%) scored 27 or more points, suggestive of severe binge eating. Patient demographics included 59 females and 36 males (14 females and 8 males positive for BED). Liver disease severity and of metabolic syndrome presence were similar in both groups: 45 patients had steatosis, 25 steatohepatitis, and 24 cirrhosis, of which 10 steatosis, 5 steatohepatitis, and 7 cirrhosis patients screened positive for BED. Of the NAFLD patients with BED, 50.0% had insulin resistance, 68.2% hypertension, and 50.0% hyperlipidemia, whereas among non-BED NAFLD patients 58.9% had insulin resistance, 63.0% hypertension, and 67.1% hyperlipidemia. This pilot study suggests that BED may have a higher prevalence among NAFLD patients than in the general population. Based on these preliminary results, further study into the prevalence of BED is recommended. More data is need to identify effects of BED on the progression of NAFLD and role of BED treatment.

  4. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: Consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%–33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%–30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:23560695

  5. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%-33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%-30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  7. Relationship between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Psoriasis: A Novel Hepato-Dermal Axis?

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Alessandro; Gisondi, Paolo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-02-05

    Over the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystem disease that affects multiple extra-hepatic organ systems and interacts with the regulation of several metabolic and immunological pathways. In this review we discuss the rapidly expanding body of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a strong association between NAFLD and chronic plaque psoriasis. We also briefly discuss the possible biological mechanisms underlying this association, and discuss treatment options for psoriasis that may influence NAFLD development and progression. Recent observational studies have shown that the prevalence of NAFLD (as diagnosed either by imaging or by histology) is remarkably higher in psoriatic patients (occurring in up to 50% of these patients) than in matched control subjects. Notably, psoriasis is associated with NAFLD even after adjusting for metabolic syndrome traits and other potential confounding factors. Some studies have also suggested that psoriatic patients are more likely to have the more advanced forms of NAFLD than non-psoriatic controls, and that psoriatic patients with NAFLD have more severe psoriasis than those without NAFLD. In conclusion, the published evidence argues for more careful evaluation and surveillance of NAFLD among patients with psoriasis.

  8. Gut microbiota manipulation with prebiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer E; Parnell, Jill A; Eksteen, Bertus; Raman, Maitreyi; Bomhof, Marc R; Rioux, Kevin P; Madsen, Karen L; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-12-03

    Evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging. Strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a healthier community structure are actively being investigated. Based on their ability to favorably modulate the gut microbiota, prebiotics may provide an inexpensive yet effective dietary treatment for NAFLD. Additionally, prebiotics have established benefits for glucose control and potentially weight control, both advantageous in managing fatty liver disease. Our objective is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic supplementation, adjunct to those achieved with diet-induced weight loss, on heptic injury and liver fat, the gut microbiota, inflammation, glucose tolerance, and satiety in patients with NAFLD. In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (BMI ≥25) with confirmed NAFLD will be randomized to either a 16 g/d prebiotic supplemented group or isocaloric placebo group for 24 weeks (n = 30/group). All participants will receive individualized dietary counseling sessions with a registered dietitian to achieve 10 % weight loss. Primary outcome measures include change in hepatic injury (fibrosis and inflammation) and liver fat. Secondary outcomes include change in body composition, appetite and dietary adherence, glycemic and insulinemic responses and inflammatory cytokines. Mechanisms related to prebiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (shot-gun sequencing) and their metabolic by-products (volatile organic compounds) and de novo lipogenesis (using deuterium incorporation) will also be investigated. There are currently no medications or surgical procedures approved for the treatment of NAFLD and weight loss via lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of current care recommendations. Given that prebiotics target multiple metabolic impairments associated with NAFLD, investigating their ability to modulate the gut microbiota and hepatic health in patients

  9. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Thodis, Tania; Ward, Glenn; Trost, Nicholas; Hofferberth, Sophie; O'Dea, Kerin; Desmond, Paul V; Johnson, Nathan A; Wilson, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30% of the population and signifies increased risk of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therapies are limited. Weight loss is of benefit but is difficult to maintain. We aimed at examining the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD), a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids, on steatosis and insulin sensitivity, using gold standard techniques. Twelve non-diabetic subjects (6 Females/6 Males) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were recruited for a randomised, cross-over 6-week dietary intervention study. All subjects undertook both the MD and a control diet, a low fat-high carbohydrate diet (LF/HCD), in random order with a 6-week wash-out period in- between. Insulin sensitivity was determined with a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study and hepatic steatosis was assessed with localized magnetic resonance (1)H spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). At baseline, subjects were abdominally obese with elevated fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, ALT, and GGT. Insulin sensitivity at baseline was low (M=2.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg/min(-1)). Mean weight loss was not different between the two diets (p=0.22). There was a significant relative reduction in hepatic steatosis after the MD compared with the LF/HCD: 39 ± 4% versus 7 ± 3%, as measured by (1)H-MRS (p=0.012). Insulin sensitivity improved with the MD, whereas after the LF/HCD there was no change (p=0.03 between diets). Even without weight loss, MD reduces liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant population with NAFLD, compared to current dietary advice. This diet should be further investigated in subjects with NAFLD. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low hepatic copper content and PNPLA3 polymorphism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients without metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stättermayer, Albert Friedrich; Traussnigg, Stefan; Aigner, Elmar; Kienbacher, Christian; Huber-Schönauer, Ursula; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Stadlmayr, Andreas; Wrba, Friedrich; Trauner, Michael; Datz, Christian; Ferenci, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is multifactorial including metabolic, genetic (e.g. PNPLA3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene]), viral factors and drugs. Besides, there is evidence for a role of copper deficiency. Aim of the study was to evaluate the role of hepatic copper content, PNPLA3 in NAFLD patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). One-hundred seventy-four NAFLD patients, who underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic work-up, were studied. Diagnosis of MetS was based on the WHO Clinical Criteria. Steatosis was semiquantified as percentage of fat containing hepatocytes and was graded according to Brunt. Histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were assessed using the Bedossa classification. Hepatic copper content (in μg/g dry weight) was measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. SNP rs738409 in PNPLA3 was investigated by RT-PCR. Mean hepatic copper content was 22.3 (19.6-25.1) μg/g. The mean percentage of histologically lipid containing hepatocytes was 42.2% (38.3-46.0) and correlated inversely with hepatic copper content (ρ=-0.358, P<0.001). By subgroup analysis this inverse correlation remained significant only in patients without MetS (OR: 0.959 [CI95%: 0.926-0.944], P=0.020). Presence of minor allele (G) of PNPLA3 was also associated with moderate/severe steatosis (≥33%) both in patients with (OR: 2.405 [CI95%: 1.220-4.744], P=0.011) and without MetS (OR: 2.481 [CI95%: 1.172-5.250], P=0.018), but was only associated with NASH (OR: 2.002 [CI95%: 1.062-3.772], P=0.032) and liver fibrosis (OR: 2.646 [CI95%: 1.299-5.389], P=0.007) in patients without MetS. Hepatic copper content and PNPLA3 mutations are associated with disease activity in NAFLD patients without MetS. Presence of MetS appears to mask the effects of hepatic copper and PNPLA3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Portal Venous and Hepatic Artery Haemodynamic Variation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Patients.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Boopathy, Vinoth; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai; Venkatesh, Basavaiya Prabhu

    2016-08-01

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has various spectrums of liver diseases like isolated fatty liver, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis usually progressing in a linear fashion. In this process they are known to cause certain haemodynamic changes in the portal flow and hepatic artery flow. The aim of the study was to study these haemodynamic changes in patients with NAFLD and to correlate it with the disease severity. Ninety patients diagnosed to have NAFLD based on ultrasound abdomen (30 each in grade1, grade2 and grade3 NAFLD) and 30 controls (Normal liver on ultrasound abdomen) were subjected to portal vein and hepatic artery Doppler study. Peak maximum velocity (Vmax), Peak minimum velocity (Vmin), Mean flow velocity (MFV), and Vein pulsality index (VPI) of the portal vein and hepatic artery resistivity index (HARI) of the hepatic artery were the doppler parameters which were assessed. Liver span was also assessed both for the fatty liver and controls. The mean Vmax, Vmin, MFV and VPI of the portal vein in patients with NAFLD was 12.23±1.74cm/sec, 9.31±1.45cm/sec, 10.76±1.48cm/sec, and 0.24±0.04 as compared to 14.05±2.43cm/sec, 10.01±2.27cm/sec, 12.23±2.47cm/sec, 0.3±0.08 in controls respectively. All these differences were statistically significant except for Vmin. The Mean HARI in patients with fatty liver was 0.65±0.06 when compared to controls of 0.75±0.06 (p=0.001). HARI (r-value of -0.517) had a better negative correlation followed by VPI (r-value of -0.44) and Vmax (r-value of -0.293) with the severity of NAFLD. MFV had a very weak negative correlation (r-value of -0.182) with the severity of NAFLD. The Vmax, MFV, VPI and HARI were significantly less when compared to controls suggesting a reduced portal flow and an increased hepatic arterial flow in patients with NAFLD. Among the parameters, HARI correlated better with the severity of NAFLD followed by VPI.

  12. Turning up the heat against metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Festuccia, William T

    2017-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), an organ specialized in the conversion of chemical energy from nutrients into heat through a process denominated as nonshivering thermogenesis, plays an important role in defence of body weight and homoeothermy in mammals. BAT nonshivering thermogenesis relies on the activity of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), a mitochondrial protein that, on demand, deviates proton gradient from ATP synthesis to heat generation. Energetically, this process is supported by BAT-elevated mitochondrial density and outstanding capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glucose. These unique features place BAT as an important determinant of whole-body energy, lipid and glucose homoeostases. In the present issue of Clinical Science, Poekes et al. have gathered supporting evidence indicating that, along with hyperphagia, impaired BAT diet-induced thermogenesis is an important factor driving the exacerbated diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis featured by foz/foz, a mouse strain that carries mutations in Alström syndrome protein 1 (ALMS1) gene mimicking human Alström syndrome. They also show that restoration of BAT nonshivering thermogenesis by intermittent cold exposure attenuated foz/foz mice obesity, glucose intolerance and liver steatosis. Altogether, these findings highlight the important contribution of BAT nonshivering thermogenesis to whole-body energy expenditure, lipid and glucose homoeostases and further support its potential utilization as a therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic diseases. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue in MCD diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Oh, Ji Youn; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Higher susceptibility to metabolic disease in male exemplifies the importance of sexual dimorphism in pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in males involves sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. In the present study, we used a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced fatty liver mouse model to investigate sex differences in the metabolic response of the liver and adipose tissue. After 2 weeks on an MCD-diet, fatty liver was induced in a sex-specific manner, affecting male mice more severely than females. The MCD-diet increased lipolytic enzymes in the gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) of male mice, whereas it increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other brown adipocyte markers in the gWAT of female mice. Moreover, gWAT from female mice demonstrated higher levels of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial content compared to gWAT from male mice. FGF21 expression was increased in liver tissue by the MCD diet, and the degree of upregulation was significantly higher in the livers of female mice. The endocrine effect of FGF21 was responsible, in part, for the sex-specific browning of gonadal white adipose tissue. Collectively, these data demonstrated that distinctively female-specific browning of white adipose tissue aids in protecting female mice against MCD diet-induced fatty liver disease. PMID:27409675

  14. Sevelamer Improves Steatohepatitis, Inhibits Liver and Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), and Reverses Innate Immune Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    McGettigan, Brett M; McMahan, Rachel H; Luo, Yuhuan; Wang, Xiaoxin X; Orlicky, David J; Porsche, Cara; Levi, Moshe; Rosen, Hugo R

    2016-10-28

    Bile acid sequestrants are synthetic polymers that bind bile acids in the gut and are used to treat dyslipidemia and hyperphosphatemia. Recently, these agents have been reported to lower blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity by altering bile acid signaling pathways. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of sevelamer in treating mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We also analyzed how sevelamer alters inflammation and bile acid signaling in NAFLD livers. Mice were fed a low-fat or Western diet for 12 weeks followed by a diet-plus-sevelamer regimen for 2 or 12 weeks. At the end of treatment, disease severity was assessed, hepatic leukocyte populations were examined, and expression of genes involved in farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the liver and intestine was analyzed. Sevelamer treatment significantly reduced liver steatosis and lobular inflammation. Sevelamer-treated NAFLD livers had notably fewer pro-inflammatory infiltrating macrophages and a significantly greater fraction of alternatively activated Kupffer cells compared with controls. Expression of genes involved in FXR signaling in the liver and intestine was significantly altered in mice with NAFLD as well as in those treated with sevelamer. In a mouse model of NAFLD, sevelamer improved disease and counteracted innate immune cell dysregulation in the liver. This study also revealed a dysregulation of FXR signaling in the liver and intestine of NAFLD mice that was counteracted by sevelamer treatment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue in MCD diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Oh, Ji Youn; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-07-26

    Higher susceptibility to metabolic disease in male exemplifies the importance of sexual dimorphism in pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in males involves sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. In the present study, we used a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced fatty liver mouse model to investigate sex differences in the metabolic response of the liver and adipose tissue. After 2 weeks on an MCD-diet, fatty liver was induced in a sex-specific manner, affecting male mice more severely than females. The MCD-diet increased lipolytic enzymes in the gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) of male mice, whereas it increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other brown adipocyte markers in the gWAT of female mice. Moreover, gWAT from female mice demonstrated higher levels of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial content compared to gWAT from male mice. FGF21 expression was increased in liver tissue by the MCD diet, and the degree of upregulation was significantly higher in the livers of female mice. The endocrine effect of FGF21 was responsible, in part, for the sex-specific browning of gonadal white adipose tissue. Collectively, these data demonstrated that distinctively female-specific browning of white adipose tissue aids in protecting female mice against MCD diet-induced fatty liver disease.

  16. Serum bile acid level and fatty acid composition in Chinese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li Ping; Wan, Yan Ping; Xun, Peng Cheng; Zhou, Ke Jun; Chen, Cheng; Cheng, Si Yang; Zhang, Min Zhong; Wu, Chun Hua; Lin, Wei Wei; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Hai Xia; Wang, Jia Lu; He, Ka; Cai, Wei

    2017-08-01

    To determine serum bile acid (BA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in Chinese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total 76 children aged 4-17 years were categorized into three groups according to the presence and absence of as well as the severity of NAFLD, that is, non-NAFLD (control), mild and moderate to severe NAFLD groups, respectively, based on their liver ultrasonography findings. Serum BA and FA profiles were quantified separately by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. General linear models were performed to assess the differences among the groups. After adjusted for potential confounders, children with NAFLD had higher levels of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), unconjugated primary BAs (CDCA + cholic acid) but lower levels of deoxycholic acid (DCA), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), total DCA (DCA + TDCA + GDCA), glycolithocholic acid (GLCA) and total lithocholic acid (GLCA + taurolithocholic acid) than children without NAFLD. As for FAs, children with mild and moderate to severe NAFLD had higher levels of n-7 monounsaturated FA. Circulating BA and FA profiles may change in children with NAFLD. Further studies are needed to determine their associations and to understand the underlying mechanism of action. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease connections with fat-free tissues: A focus on bone and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Lenzi, Andrea; Chiesa, Claudio; Pacifico, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The estimates of global incidence and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are worrisome, due to the parallel burden of obesity and its metabolic complications. Indeed, excess adiposity and insulin resistance represent two of the major risk factors for NAFLD; interestingly, in the last years a growing body of evidence tended to support a novel mechanistic perspective, in which the liver is at the center of a complex interplay involving organs and systems, other than adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis. Bone and the skeletal muscle are fat- free tissues which appeared to be independently associated with NAFLD in several cross-sectional studies. The deterioration of bone mineral density and lean body mass, leading to osteoporosis and sarcopenia, respectively, are age-related processes. The prevalence of NAFLD also increases with age. Beyond physiological aging, the three conditions share some common underlying mechanisms, and their elucidations could be of paramount importance to design more effective treatment strategies for the management of NAFLD. In this review, we provide an overview on epidemiological data as well as on potential contributors to the connections of NAFLD with bone and skeletal muscle. PMID:28348479

  18. Composite prognostic models across the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum: Clinical application in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Lückhoff, Hilmar K; Kruger, Frederik C; Kotze, Maritha J

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in clinical presentation, histological severity, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) necessitates the development of scientifically sound classification schemes to assist clinicians in stratifying patients into meaningful prognostic subgroups. The need for replacement of invasive liver biopsies as the standard method whereby NAFLD is diagnosed, graded and staged with biomarkers of histological severity injury led to the development of composite prognostic models as potentially viable surrogate alternatives. In the present article, we review existing scoring systems used to (1) confirm the presence of undiagnosed hepatosteatosis; (2) distinguish between simple steatosis and NASH; and (3) predict advanced hepatic fibrosis, with particular emphasis on the role of NAFLD as an independent cardio-metabolic risk factor. In addition, the incorporation of functional genomic markers and application of emerging imaging technologies are discussed as a means to improve the diagnostic accuracy and predictive performance of promising composite models found to be most appropriate for widespread clinical adoption. PMID:26019735

  19. Ultrasound, anthropometry and bioimpedance: a comparison in predicting fat deposition in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Vitturi, Nicola; Soattin, Marta; De Stefano, Fabio; Vianello, Daniela; Zambon, Alberto; Plebani, Mario; Busetto, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was the evaluation of anthropometric measurements [waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD)] and abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (ViScan, TANITA) in comparison to several abdominal ultrasonographic (US) measurements to estimate visceral fat deposition and liver steatosis in a population of 105 subjects. All 105 patients underwent a complete anthropometric evaluation, blood sample for the determination of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, BIA and US measurements (peritoneal, pre-peritoneal, peri-renal, para-renal and peri-hepatic fat thickness). All the ultrasonographic markers considered in our study are related to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and so is true for SAD. Comparing ROC curves, peritoneal fat tissue thickness, SAD and ViScan visceral index are significantly better than waist circumference in predicting the presence of NAFLD (AUC 0.79 ± 0.04; 0.81 ± 0.05; 0.82 ± 0.04 vs 0.76 ± 0.05, respectively). According to our data, various methods may be useful in evaluating NAFLD, but only ViScan visceral index, US peritoneal fat thickness and SAD are better than waist circumference. Among them, SAD is the most promising, due to its small cost and time consumption.

  20. The Association between Sleep Duration and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Japanese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanji, Nobuo; Abe, Kazumichi; Sato, Yuji; Anzai, Yukio; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated 3,968 subjects who underwent health check-ups from June 2012 to May 2013 at the Watari Hospital Health Center in Fukushima Prefecture in Japan. Fatty liver was detected by ultrasonography. Sleep duration and lifestyle factors were estimated using a questionnaire. Sleep duration was categorized into the following groups: ≤ 6, 6 to ≤ 7, >7 to ≤ 8, and >8 h. The four sleep duration groups were compared using the χ(2) test and Kruskal-Wallis test. In total, 2,172 subjects were enrolled. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 29.6% (men, 38.0%; women, 25.3%). The proportion of NAFLD tended to decrease as sleep duration increased in men. The proportion with NAFLD was lowest in the group with a sleep duration of 6 to ≤ 7 h and highest in the groups with sleep durations of ≤ 6 and >8 h in women. The distribution showed a U-shaped curve. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for subjects with NAFLD with a sleep duration ≤ 6 h compared to the reference (6 to ≤ 7 h) was 1.44 (1.06-1.96) in women. Sleep shortage tends to be associated with NAFLD in women and may be mediated by body adiposity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  2. [Effect of total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius on oxidative stress in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyin; Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Yuqing; Wu, Juan; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2011-09-01

    To study the effects of total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius (RAP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, compound methionine and choline bitartrate tablets (CMCB)group and three RAP groups treated respectively with low, middle and high dose of RAP. The NAFLD model was induced by feeding fat-rich food. NAFLD rats were administrated with 0.35 g x kg(-1) CMCB and 0.36, 0.72, 1.44 g x kg(-1) RAP for 4 weeks respectively. The weight index of liver was measured. Hepatic histolog ical changes were observed. The concentration in serum of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino tranferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined. The mRNA expressions of SOD, MDA, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in hepatic tissue were detected. Compared with the model group, degree of steatosis of hepatic lobule was improved, the weight index of liver was decreased, serum levels of ALT, AST, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were significantly lower in the high and middle dose RAP group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The levels of SOD and MDA in hepatic tissue were lower in the high dose RAP group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in hepatic tissue were decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). RAP can protect liver in experimental NAFLD, and its possible mechanisms may be concerned with clearing the oxygen free radical, reducing the product of lipid peroxidation, inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines and reducing nflammatory response.

  3. Expression of genes for microRNA-processing enzymes is altered in advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Haveesh; Estep, Michael; Birerdinc, Aybike; Afendy, Arian; Moazzez, Amir; Elariny, Hazem; Goodman, Zachary; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-08-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have been linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). First transcribed as pri-miRNA, these molecules are further processed by a complex of endonuclear and cytosolic RNA binding molecules to form mature miRNAs. The aim of this study is to investigate mechanisms of miRNA regulation in the visceral adipose of obese NAFLD patients via measuring expression of miRNA processing enzymes and pri-miRNA. Total RNAs were extracted from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery. All patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD (NASH patients [n = 12] and non-NASH NAFLD [n = 12]). For each patient, we profiled mRNA levels for three miRNA processing elements (Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer1) and seven pri-miRNAs (pri-miR-125b-2, pri-miR-16-2, pri-miR-26a-1, pri-miR-26a-2, pri-miR-7-1, pri-miR-7-2, and pri-miR-7-3). Expression of Dicer1, Drosha and DGCR8 was significantly increased within the NASH cohort along with expression of pri-miR-7-1. The presence of focal necrosis on the liver biopsy correlated significantly with levels of Dicer1 and DGRC8. Both NASH and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes correlated negatively with the expression levels of hsa-miR-125b. Histologic NASH correlated positively with the expression levels of pri-miR-16-2 and pri-miR-7-1. The presence of the hepatocyte's ballooning degeneration in the liver biopsy correlated positively with pri-miR-26a-1 and pri-miR-7-1. The expression profile of pri-miR-125b-2 also correlated positively with body mass index. Our findings support the hypothesis that VAT-derived miRNA may contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH in obese patients. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (Nafld) in obese children- effect of refined carbohydrates in diet.

    PubMed

    Félix, Deise Rosa; Costenaro, Fabiola; Gottschall, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta; Coral, Gabriela Perdomo

    2016-11-15

    The incidence of childhood obesity has increased progressively and, associated with this, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has often been diagnosed in this age group. To determine the risk factors associated with NAFLD in obese children, with special emphasis on diet. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted with obese children referred to the endocrinology outpatient clinic. Questions about dietary habits and physical activity were applied. In addition, two 24 h food recalls were collected. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasound were obtained. The study was approved by the institutional review board of Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre Hospital (ISCMPA). A 5% statistical significance level was considered statistically significant. Of 55 patients initially allocated, 39 were evaluated and 8 (20.5%) had a diagnosis of NAFLD, which was more prevalent among boys (87.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictive factors independently associated with the presence of NAFLD were male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.44; p = 0.038); high amount of refined carbohydrates in the diet (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.05 - 6.82; p = 0.038) and absence of routine physical activity (OR: 3.35; 95% CI:1.97 - 0.006; p = 0.006). The prevalence of NAFLD in obese children in our series was high. Furthermore, the high amount of refined carbohydrates in the diet, male gender and sedentary lifestyle were significant risk factors for its occurrence.

  5. Alcoholic liver disease confers a worse prognosis than HCV infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with cirrhosis: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Marot, Astrid; Henrion, Jean; Knebel, Jean-François; Moreno, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis is a heterogeneous clinical condition that includes patients at wide-ranging stages of severity. The role of the underlying liver disease on patient prognosis remains unclear. Aim To assess the impact of the underlying liver disease on the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. Methods Data related to the occurrence of HCC and death were collected during a 21-year period among patients with cirrhosis related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 529), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 145) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 78). Results At inclusion, ALD patients were younger than HCV and NAFLD patients (56 vs. 67 vs. 63 years; p<0.001) and had worse liver function (percent of patients with Child-Pugh stages B or C: 48% vs. 8% vs. 17%; p<0.001). During follow-up, 85 patients developed HCC and 379 died. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of HCC was lower in ALD patients than in HCV and NAFLD patients (8.4% vs. 22.0% vs. 23.7%; p<0.001). The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of mortality were not statistically different between ALD, HCV and NAFLD patients (58.1% vs. 47.7% vs. 49.9%; p = 0.078). Alcohol abstinence and viral eradication were associated with reduced mortality among ALD and HCV patients, respectively. In multivariate analyses, ALD was associated with a reduced risk of HCC (0.39; 95% CI, 0.20–0.76; p = 0.005) but with a higher risk of mortality (1.53; 95% CI, 1.20–1.95; p<0.001). ALD patients died more frequently from decompensation of cirrhosis. Conclusion Despite a lower incidence of HCC, patients with ALD-related cirrhosis have a worse outcome than those with chronic HCV infection or NAFLD-related cirrhosis. PMID:29077714

  6. Assessment of health utilities and quality of life in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Stepanova, Maria; Pham, Huong; Noor, Bashir; Walters, Mercedes; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease associated with increased liver-related mortality. Additionally, NAFLD could potentially impair health-related quality of life. Although an approved treatment for NAFLD does not exist, a number of new drugs for treatment of NAFLD are being developed. As the efficacy and safety of these regimens are being established, their cost-effectiveness, which requires the use of quality of life metrics and health utility scores to quality-adjusted outcomes, must also be assessed. The aim of this study was to report quality of life and health utilities in patients with NAFLD with and without cirrhosis for future use. Methods Patients with NAFLD were seen in an outpatient clinic setting. Each patient had extensive clinical data and completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36 V.1) questionnaire. The SF-6D health utility scores were calculated. Results There were 89 patients with the spectrum of NAFLD completed the SF-36 questionnaire: 59 with non-cirrhotic NAFLD and 30 with cirrhosis. Patients with NAFLD had significantly lower quality of life and health utility scores than the general population (all p<0.0001). Furthermore, patients with cirrhosis had lower quality of life and utility scores than non-cirrhotic NAFLD patients: SF-6D 0.660±0.107 in non-cirrhotic NAFLD vs 0.551±0.138 in cirrhotic NAFLD (p=0.0003). Conclusions Health utilities and quality of life scores are impaired in patients with cirrhotic NAFLD. These values should be used in cost-effectiveness analysis of the upcoming treatment regimens for advanced NAFLD. PMID:27648297

  7. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Methods: Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8±2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7±2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Results: Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23367495

  8. Association between insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8 ± 2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance.

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma is Associated with Gut Microbiota Profile and Inflammation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Bhoori, Sherrie; Castelli, Chiara; Putignani, Lorenza; Rivoltini, Licia; Del Chierico, Federica; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Morelli, Daniele; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Petito, Valentina; Reddel, Sofia; Calvani, Riccardo; Camisaschi, Chiara; Picca, Anna; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Pompili, Maurizio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2018-04-17

    The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the third cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the link between gut microbiota and hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be clarified. The aim of this study is to explore what features of the gut microbiota are associated with HCC in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD. A consecutive series of patients with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and HCC (group 1: 21 patients), NAFLD-related cirrhosis without HCC (group 2: 20 patients) and healthy controls (group 3: 20 patients) was studied for gut microbiota profile, intestinal permeability, inflammatory status and circulating mononuclear cells. We finally constructed a model depicting the most relevant correlations among these features, possibly involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC showed increased levels of fecal calprotectin, whilst intestinal permeability was similar to cirrhotic patients without HCC. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL) 8, IL13, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 3, CCL4 and CCL5 were higher in the HCC group and were associated with an activated status of circulating monocytes. The fecal microbiota of the whole group of cirrhotic patients showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus, and a reduction in Akkermansia. Bacteroides and Ruminococcaceae were increased in the HCC group, while Bifidobacterium was reduced. Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium were inversely correlated with calprotectin concentration, which in turn was associated with humoral and cellular inflammatory markers. A similar behavior was also observed for Bacteroides. Our results suggest that in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD gut microbiota profile and systemic inflammation are significantly correlated, and can concur in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Relationship between in vivo chlorzoxazone hydroxylation, hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 content and liver injury in obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Myriam; Rodrigo, Ramón; Varela, Nelson; Araya, Julia; Poniachik, Jaime; Csendes, Attila; Smok, Gladys; Videla, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is correlated both with the in vivo activity of the cytochrome and with the development of liver injury. For this purpose, the liver content of CYP2E1 was determined by Western blot and the CYP2E1 activity by the in vivo hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone (CLZ). The study groups were obese women with an average body mass index (BMI) of 40.3kg/m(2), who underwent therapeutic gastroplasty or gastrectomy with a gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Further, the hepatic histology was determined to establish the pathological score grouping the subjects into three categories: control, steatosis and steatohepatitis. The liver CYP2E1 content and the CLZ hydroxylation of obese patients with steatosis and, particularly, with steatohepatitis were significantly higher than controls and correlated positively with both the severity of the liver damage. These data provide evidence that CYP2E1 would be involved in the mechanism of liver injury found in obese NAFLD patients. Also, the correlation between liver CYP2E1 content and in vivo CLZ hydroxylation would validate the latter as a reliable indicator of liver injury in NAFLD, thus providing a simple and not invasive method to study these patients.

  11. Equivalent survival following liver transplantation in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with patients with other liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Redden, David; Gray, Stephen; Eckhoff, Devin; Massoud, Omar; McGuire, Brendan; Alkurdi, Basem; Bloomer, Joseph; DuBay, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in parallel with the obesity epidemic. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of LTs in NASH (n = 129) and non-NASH (n = 775) aetiologies carried out at a single centre between 1999 and 2009. Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in NASH (90%, 88% and 85%, respectively) were comparable with those in non-NASH (92%, 86% and 80%, respectively) patients. Mortality within 4 months of LT was twice as high in NASH as in non-NASH patients (8.5% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.04). Compared with non-NASH patients, post-LT mortality in NASH patients was more commonly caused by infectious (38% vs. 26%; P < 0.05) or cardiac (19% vs. 7%; P < 0.05) aetiologies. Five-year survival was lower in NASH patients with a high-risk phenotype (age >60 years, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), with hypertension and diabetes) than in NASH patients without these characteristics (72% vs. 87%; P = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that 5-year overall survival in NASH was equivalent to that in Laennec's cirrhosis (85% vs. 80%; P 0.87), but lower than that in cirrhosis of cryptogenic aetiology (85% vs. 96%; P = 0.04). Orthotopic LT in NASH was associated with increased early postoperative mortality, but 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were equivalent to those in non-NASH patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Hepatic FDG uptake is associated with future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Cho, Young Seok; Noh, Tae Soo; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the value of hepatic FDG uptake for predicting future cardiovascular events has not been explored. Study participants were 815 consecutive asymptomatic participants who underwent a health screening program that included FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), abdominal ultrasonography, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements (age 51.8 ± 6.0 year; males 93.9%). We measured hepatic FDG uptake and assessed the prognostic significance of this parameter with other cardiovascular risk factors including Framingham risk score and CIMT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses including all study participants revealed that NAFLD with high-hepatic FDG uptake was the only independent predictor for future cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 4.23; 95% CI 1.05-17.04; P = .043). Subgroup analysis conducted in the NAFLD group showed that high-hepatic FDG uptake was a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events (HR 9.29; 95% CI 1.05-81.04; P = .045). This exploratory study suggests that high-hepatic FDG uptake may be a useful prognostic factor for cardiovascular events in individuals with NAFLD.

  13. Infant nutrition and maternal obesity influence the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T; Oddy, Wendy H; Adams, Leon A; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Olynyk, John K

    2017-09-01

    The pathway to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents may have its origins in adiposity gains, nutrition and sedentary lifestyle established during childhood. There is inadequate knowledge regarding the associations between infant nutrition and subsequent NAFLD. We examined the association of maternal factors and infant nutrition, with the subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD in adolescents. Adolescents aged 17years in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort study had fatty liver assessment using liver ultrasound. Prospectively recorded data on maternal pregnancy and infant feeding were examined against a NAFLD outcome during late adolescence. NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.2% of the 1,170 adolescents examined. Ninety-four percent had been breastfed as infants. The duration of breastfeeding before starting supplementary milk was ⩾4months in 54.4% and ⩾6months in 40.6%. Breastfeeding without supplementary milk ⩾6months (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.94, p=0.02), maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (adjusted OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.21-4.32, p=0.01) and adolescent obesity (adjusted OR: 9.08; 95% CI: 6.26-13.17, p<0.001) were associated with NAFLD independent of a Western dietary pattern at 17years of age. Adolescents with NAFLD who had been breastfed for ⩾6months had a less adverse metabolic profile compared with adolescents breastfed for <6months. Supplementary milk intake starting before 6months was associated with a higher prevalence and ultrasound severity of NAFLD compared with intake starting after 6months (17.7% vs. 11.2%, p=0.003 and 7.8% vs. 3.4%, p=0.005 respectively). Though NAFLD is generally mediated through adiposity gains, breastfeeding for at least 6months, avoidance of early supplementary formula milk feeding, and normal maternal pre-pregnancy BMI may reduce the odds of a NAFLD diagnosis during adolescence. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disorder in which there is too

  14. Effects of Mediterranean diet supplemented with silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex in overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Greco, Marta; Nazionale, Immacolata; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa; Accattato, Francesca; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Luzza, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study is to compare the metabolic effects of the Mediterranean diet versus the diet associated with silybin, phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E complex in overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thirty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups of 10 (Groups A, B and C). A personalized Mediterranean diet was started in Group A and B patients. In association with the diet, Group B patients were given Realsil complex, daily, for 6 months. Group C patients refused any treatment. We showed that the Mediterranean diet alone, or in association with the Realsil complex, led to the significant variation in BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol and triglycerides. We also observed a statistically significant decrease in homeostasis model assessment technique in Group B patients.

  15. Circulating microRNA signature in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: from serum non-coding RNAs to liver histology and disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pirola, Carlos J; Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Castaño, Gustavo O; Mallardi, Pablo; San Martino, Julio; Mora Gonzalez Lopez Ledesma, María; Flichman, Diego; Mirshahi, Faridodin; Sanyal, Arun J; Sookoian, Silvia

    2015-05-01

    We used a screening strategy of global serum microRNA (miRNA) profiling, followed by a second stage of independent replication and exploration of liver expression of selected miRNAs to study: (1) the circulating miRNA signature associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression and predictive power, (2) the role of miRNAs in disease biology and (3) the association between circulating miRNAs and features of the metabolic syndrome. The study used a case-control design and included patients with NAFLD proven through biopsy and healthy controls. Among 84 circulating miRNAs analysed, miR-122, miR-192, miR-19a and miR-19b, miR-125b, and miR-375 were upregulated >2-fold (p<0.05) either in simple steatosis (SS) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The most dramatic and significant fold changes were observed in the serum levels of miR-122 (7.2-fold change in NASH vs controls and 3.1-fold change in NASH vs SS) and miR-192 (4.4-fold change in NASH vs controls); these results were replicated in the validation set. The majority of serum miR-122 circulate in argonaute2-free forms. Circulating miR-19a/b and miR-125b were correlated with biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Liver miR-122 expression was 10-fold (p<0.03) downregulated in NASH compared with SS and was preferentially expressed at the edge of lipid-laden hepatocytes. In vitro exploration showed that overexpression of miR-122 enhances alanine aminotransferase activity. miR-122 plays a role of physiological significance in the biology of NAFLD; circulating miRNAs mirror the histological and molecular events occurring in the liver. NAFLD has a distinguishing circulating miRNA profile associated with a global dysmetabolic disease state and cardiovascular risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Protective and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Al Humayed, Suliman

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) in NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rat models. Protective effect of Crataegus aronia or simvastatin was investigated in Wistar rats fed either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD. Liver histopathological examinations confirmed the development of NAFLD in rats fed HFD. In both protective and therapeutic treatments, C. aronia significantly reduced liver index (3.85 ± 0.21% in HFD plus aronia group versus 6.22 ± 0.58% in HFD model group), increased the HDL-cholesterol and reduced the LDL-cholesterol in blood. The hawthorn plant also significantly ameliorated oxidative stress biomarker (p < 0.002) and liver enzymes (p < 0.0001) that indicate liver damage. C. aronia exhibits therapeutic and protective effects on NAFLD in an animal model possibly by its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects; thus, may offer therapeutic potential in humans.

  17. The Mediterranean dietary pattern as the diet of choice for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Salomone, Federico; Mlynarsky, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major global health burden, leading to increased risk for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle intervention aiming at weight reduction is the most established treatment. However, changing the dietary composition even without weight loss can also reduce steatosis and improve metabolic alterations as insulin resistance and lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has been proposed as appropriate for this goal, and was recommended as the diet of choice for the treatment of NAFLD by the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines. The MD has an established superiority in long term weight reduction over low fat diet, but it improves metabolic status and steatosis even without it. However, the effect on liver inflammation and fibrosis was tested only in few observational studies with positive results. Furthermore, considering the strong association between NAFLD and diabetes and CVD, the MD has a highly established advantage in prevention of these diseases, demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. The individual components of the MD such as olive oil, fish, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, have been shown to beneficially effect or negatively correlate with NAFLD, while consumption of components that characterize a Western dietary pattern as soft drinks, fructose, meat and saturated fatty acids have been shown to have detrimental association with NAFLD. In this review we will cover the epidemiological evidence and the plausible molecular mechanisms by which the MD as a whole and each of its components can be of benefit in NAFLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The NAFLD Index: A Simple and Accurate Screening Tool for the Prediction of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ichino, Naohiro; Osakabe, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Keiko; Suzuki, Koji; Yamada, Hiroya; Takai, Hiroji; Sugiyama, Hiroko; Yukitake, Jun; Inoue, Takashi; Ohashi, Koji; Hata, Tadayoshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Nishikawa, Toru; Hashimoto, Senju; Kawabe, Naoto; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common debilitating condition in many industrialized countries that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to derive a simple and accurate screening tool for the prediction of NAFLD in the Japanese population. A total of 945 participants, 279 men and 666 women living in Hokkaido, Japan, were enrolled among residents who attended a health check-up program from 2010 to 2014. Participants with an alcohol consumption > 20 g/day and/or a chronic liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C or autoimmune hepatitis, were excluded from this study. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to identify predictive markers of NAFLD. A new predictive index for NAFLD, the NAFLD index, was constructed for men and for women. The NAFLD index for men = -15.5693+0.3264 [BMI] +0.0134 [triglycerides (mg/dl)], and for women = -31.4686+0.3683 [BMI] +2.5699 [albumin (g/dl)] +4.6740[ALT/AST] -0.0379 [HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)]. The AUROC of the NAFLD index for men and for women was 0.87(95% CI 0.88-1.60) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.66-1.02), respectively. The cut-off point of -5.28 for men predicted NAFLD with an accuracy of 82.8%. For women, the cut-off point of -7.65 predicted NAFLD with an accuracy of 87.7%. A new index for the non-invasive prediction of NAFLD, the NAFLD index, was constructed using available clinical and laboratory data. This index is a simple screening tool to predict the presence of NAFLD.

  19. Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Adeyinka Charles; Alliu, Samson; Ajayi, Tokunbo Opeyemi; Adejumo, Kelechi Lauretta; Adegbala, Oluwole Muyiwa; Onyeakusi, Nnaemeka Egbuna; Akinjero, Akintunde Micheal; Durojaiye, Modupeoluwa; Bukong, Terence Ndonyi

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and mouse disease models. Obesity and DM are a well-established independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent liver disease globally. The effects of cannabis use on NAFLD prevalence in humans remains ill-defined. Our objective is to determine the relationship between cannabis use and the prevalence of NAFLD in humans. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 5,950,391 patients using the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) discharge records of patients 18 years and older. After identifying patients with NAFLD (1% of all patients), we next identified three exposure groups: non-cannabis users (98.04%), non-dependent cannabis users (1.74%), and dependent cannabis users (0.22%). We adjusted for potential demographics and patient related confounders and used multivariate logistic regression (SAS 9.4) to determine the odds of developing NAFLD with respects to cannabis use. Our findings revealed that cannabis users (dependent and non-dependent) showed significantly lower NAFLD prevalence compared to non-users (AOR: 0.82[0.76-0.88]; p<0.0001). The prevalence of NAFLD was 15% lower in non-dependent users (AOR: 0.85[0.79-0.92]; p<0.0001) and 52% lower in dependent users (AOR: 0.49[0.36-0.65]; p<0.0001). Among cannabis users, dependent patients had 43% significantly lower prevalence of NAFLD compared to non-dependent patients (AOR: 0.57[0.42-0.77]; p<0.0001). Our observations suggest that cannabis use is associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD in patients. These novel findings suggest additional molecular mechanistic studies to explore the potential role of cannabis use in NAFLD development.

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score predicts hematological toxicity of chemotherapy including irinotecan for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yahagi, Masashi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Okabayashi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-04-01

    Liver dysfunction that may affect drug metabolism is a major concern in patients treated with chemotherapy. Thus, assessment of the degree of liver dysfunction is crucial for predicting the adverse events of chemotherapy. The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) is a non-invasive clinical scoring system constructed from routine clinical and laboratory variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NFS was useful for predicting the adverse events of chemotherapy including irinotecan (CPT-11) for colorectal cancer. Between January, 2007 and May, 2013, a total of 87 patients with unresectable/recurrent colorectal cancer who received first-line chemotherapy including CPT-11 were reviewed. Demographic variables, including pretreatment NFS, were retrospectively collected from medical records. The primary outcome was the association between pretreatment NFS and adverse events, such as hematological and non-hematological toxicity, of chemotherapy including CPT-11. The median pretreatment NFS was 1.302 (range, 5.158-2.620). Pretreatment NFS was an independent risk factor for hematological toxicity in a multivariate analysis (coefficient=0.932, 95% CI: 0.083-1.781; P=0.031). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified 0.347 as the optimal cut-off value associated with hematological toxicity. Using this cut-off, high NFS was found to be a significant risk factor for hematological toxicity (coefficient=2.019, 95% CI: 0.239-3.798, P=0.026), but not for non-hematological toxicity (P=0.546). Therefore, based on these results, NFS appears to be a significant predictor of hematological adverse events in chemotherapy including CPT-11 for colorectal cancer and it is a non-invasive, useful tool that may be used for determining regimens or doses of chemotherapy including CPT-11.

  1. Piloting a multidisciplinary clinic for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: initial 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Jeremy F L; Raveendran, Sarrah; Peake, Christopher M; Anstee, Quentin M; Yee, Michael S; Thursz, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Objective A multidisciplinary approach is advocated for the management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but few clinical data exist to support this. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic using surrogate markers of liver injury and cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective survey of clinical practice. Setting The multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic in a secondary/tertiary care setting with hepatology, diabetology, dietetic and exercise therapy input: initial 5-years’ experience (2007–2012). Patients 180 patients with NAFLD but without hepatic comorbidities were followed up for a median of 19.5 (range 3–57) months. 52% had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 48% were Europoid Caucasian, 17% were South Asian. Interventions Multiple clinical interventions were employed including lifestyle (diet and exercise) advice, pharmacological intervention for cardiovascular risk factors, weight loss and exercise therapy. Main outcome measures Change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), weight, HbA1c, lipid profile and blood pressure. Results Median ALT fell from 61 (12–270) U/l to 50 (11–221) U/l, −18%, p<0.001, and weight fell from 90.5 (42.7–175.0) kg to 87.3 (45.9–175.3) kg, −3.5%, p<0.001. There were significant improvements in total cholesterol overall, triglycerides (among dyslipidaemic patients), HbA1c (among diabetic patients) and systolic blood pressure (among hypertensive patients). 24% of patients achieved ≥7% weight loss during follow-up and 17% maintained this weight loss throughout. Conclusions Improvement in liver biochemistry and cardiovascular risk factors was seen in patients attending the multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic. Refinement of this approach is warranted in light of these data, novel therapies and a growing evidence base. PMID:28839736

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciT

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growthmore » factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure

  3. "Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and eNOS dysfunction in humans".

    PubMed

    Persico, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Federico, Alessandro; Rosato, Valerio; Bucci, Tommaso; Carrizzo, Albino; Vecchione, Carmine

    2017-03-07

    NAFLD is associated to Insulin Resistance (IR). IR is responsible for Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) through the impairment of eNOS function. Although eNOS derangement has been demonstrated in experimental models, no studies have directly shown that eNOS dysfunction is associated with NAFLD in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate eNOS function in NAFLD patients. Fifty-four NAFLD patients were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and liver biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups by the presence of NAFL or NASH. We measured vascular reactivity induced by patients' platelets on isolated mice aorta rings. Immunoblot assays for platelet-derived phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS) and immunohistochemistry for hepatic p-eNOS have been performed to evaluate eNOS function in platelets and liver specimens. Flow-mediated-dilation (FMD) was also performed. Data were compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one (38, 8%) patients had NAFL and 33 (61, 7%) NASH. No differences were found between groups and controls except for HOMA and insulin (p < 0.0001). Vascular reactivity demonstrated a reduced function induced from NAFLD platelets as compared with controls (p < 0.001), associated with an impaired p-eNOS in both platelets and liver (p < 0.001). NAFL showed a higher impairment of eNOS phosphorylation in comparison to NASH (p < 0.01). In contrast with what observed in vitro, the vascular response by FMD was worse in NASH as compared with NAFL. Our data showed, for the first time in humans, that NAFLD patients show a marked eNOS dysfunction, which may contribute to a higher CV risk. eNOS dysfunction observed in platelets and liver tissue didn't match with FMD.

  4. Correlation of cell-free DNA plasma concentration with severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Karlas, Thomas; Weise, Lara; Kuhn, Stephanie; Krenzien, Felix; Mehdorn, Matthias; Petroff, David; Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Busse, Harald; Keim, Volker; Pratschke, Johann; Wiegand, Johannes; Splith, Katrin; Schmelzle, Moritz

    2017-05-19

    The assessment of fibrosis and inflammatory activity is essential to identify patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at risk for progressive disease. Serum markers and ultrasound-based methods can replace liver biopsy for fibrosis staging, whereas non-invasive characterization of inflammatory activity remains a clinical challenge. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a novel non-invasive biomarker for assessing cellular inflammation and cell death, which has not been evaluated in NAFLD. Patients and healthy controls from two previous studies were included. NAFLD disease activity and severity were non-invasively characterized by liver stiffness measurement (transient elastography, TE) including steatosis assessment with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), single-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) for determination of hepatic fat fraction, aminotransferases and serum ferritin. cfDNA levels (90 and 222 bp fragments) were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Fifty-eight NAFLD patients (age 62 ± 11 years, BMI 28.2 ± 3.5 kg/m 2 ) and 13 healthy controls (age 38 ± 12 years, BMI 22.4 ± 2.1 kg/m 2 ) were included. 90 bp cfDNA levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients compared to healthy controls: 3.7 (1.3-23.1) vs. 2.9 (1.4-4.1) ng/mL (p = 0.014). In the NAFLD cohort, circulating cfDNA correlated significantly with disease activity and severity, especially in patients with elevated liver stiffness (n = 13, 22%) compared to cases with TE values ≤7 kPa: cf90 bp 6.05 (2.41-23.13) vs. 3.16 (1.29-7.31) ng/mL (p < 0.001), and cf222 bp 14.41 (9.27-22.90) vs. 11.32 (6.05-18.28) ng/mL (p = 0.0041). Cell-free DNA plasma concentration correlates with established non-invasive markers of NAFLD activity and severity. Therefore, cfDNA should be further evaluated as biomarker for identifying patients at risk for progressive NAFLD.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian people who are not obese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) is prevalent in industrialized countries. It is typically linked to obesity, central obesity and the presence of metabolic syndrome. With the introduction of a Westernized lifestyle and the increasing frequency of obesity in the Asia-Pacific region, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasing over the past two decades. The risk factors are similar to those in other ethnic populations; but it is important to adopt the regional (ethnic-specific) anthropometric criteria to define overweight, obesity (including central obesity) and metabolic syndrome. To be noted, even using strict ethnic-specific criteria, a high percentage (15-21%) of Asia-Pacific NAFLD subjects in some series have been found to be non-obese, i.e. to have a normal body mass index (BMI) (17.5-22.4 kg/m(2)) or to be overweight (BMI 22.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Differential distribution of visceral adipose tissue, recent increase in body weight, intake of high cholesterol diet and genetic background are factors likely associated with the development of NAFLD in these non-obese (but often overweight) Asia-Pacific subjects. Furthermore, insulin resistance may be the underlying key mechanism. In addition, since NAFLD may be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, the presence of NAFLD is a predictor of future type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, interventions at the public health level are indicated to halt the trend of overweight as well as obesity in Asia-Pacific region, particularly among those with relevant family history. Since the pathophysiology of NAFLD is closely related to metabolic derangement, lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. High prevalence of apolipoprotein B dyslipoproteinemias in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The lifelines cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nass, Karlijn J; van den Berg, Eline H; Faber, Klaas Nico; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major adverse consequence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The association of NAFLD with various apolipoprotein B (apoB) dyslipoproteinemias is unclear. We determined the prevalence of specific apoB dyslipoproteinemias in subjects with suspected NAFLD. This study was conducted among 22,865 fasting adults living in the northern part of the Netherlands (Lifelines Cohort Study). Six apoB dyslipoproteinemias were defined using an algorithm derived from apoB, total cholesterol and triglycerides. NAFLD was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI) ≥60. Advanced hepatic fibrosis was defined as NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) ≥0.676. 4790 participants (20.9%) had an FLI≥60. NAFLD subjects were older, more likely to be men, more obese and more often had diabetes and metabolic syndrome (P<0.001 for each). Among NAFLD subjects, any apoB dyslipoproteinemia was present in 61.5% vs. 16.5% in subjects without NAFLD (P<0.001). Elevated chylomicrons were not observed in NAFLD. In univariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with a higher prevalence of each apoB dyslipoproteinemia vs. subjects with an FLI<60 (P<0.001), except for low density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipoproteinemia. Additionally, each apoB dyslipoproteinemia was independently associated with NAFLD in age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, including the apoB dyslipoproteinemias together (P<0.001). The prevalence of apoB dyslipoproteinemias was not altered in subjects with NFS ≥0.676. NAFLD rather than advanced hepatic fibrosis is independently associated with increased prevalence of chylomicrons+very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) remnants, VLDL, LDL and VLDL+LDL dyslipoproteinemias. ApoB dyslipoproteinemias may contribute to increased CVD risk associated with NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS).

    PubMed

    Fintini, D; Inzaghi, E; Colajacomo, M; Bocchini, S; Grugni, G; Brufani, C; Cappa, M; Nobili, V; Cianfarani, S; Crinò, A

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) may be at lower risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) because of a higher insulin sensitivity. Twenty-one PWS patients and 42 control subjects closely similar for age, gender, pubertal stage and body mass index (CNT), were studied. Metabolic profile and body composition were assessed. NAFLD was established by a validated method of US grading (range from G0 to G3). PWS patients showed a significantly better metabolic profile (lower waist circumference, fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, transaminase levels and trunk fat mass/fat mass ratio). Furthermore, NAFLD G1stage was significantly more frequent in PWS subjects (P < 0.05), whereas G2 stage was significantly more frequent in control patients (P < 0.05). NAFLD grading seems to correlate with body composition in PWS, also after adjustment for sex and GH treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting a reduced risk of NAFLD in PWS children. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  9. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  10. Liver fat content, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and ischaemic heart disease: Mendelian randomization and meta-analysis of 279 013 individuals.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Kristensen, Thomas Skårup; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Køber, Lars; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In observational studies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD is a causal risk factor for IHD. In a cohort study of the Danish general population (n = 94 708/IHD = 10 897), we first tested whether a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD was associated observationally with IHD. Subsequently, using Mendelian randomization, we tested whether a genetic variant in the gene encoding the protein patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 protein (PNPLA3), I148M (rs738409), a strong and specific cause of high liver fat content and NAFLD, was causally associated with the risk of IHD. We found that the risk of IHD increased stepwise with increasing liver fat content (in quartiles) up to an odds ratio (OR) of 2.41 (1.28-4.51)(P-trend = 0.004). The corresponding OR for IHD in individuals with vs. without NAFLD was 1.65 (1.34-2.04)(P = 3×10-6). PNPLA3 I148M was associated with a stepwise increase in liver fat content of up to 28% in MM vs. II-homozygotes (P-trend = 0.0001) and with ORs of 2.03 (1.52-2.70) for NAFLD (P = 3×10-7), 3.28 (2.37-4.54) for cirrhosis (P = 4×10-12), and 0.95 (0.86-1.04) for IHD (P = 0.46). In agreement, in meta-analysis (N = 279 013/IHD = 71 698), the OR for IHD was 0.98 (0.96-1.00) per M-allele vs. I-allele. The OR for IHD per M-allele higher genetically determined liver fat content was 0.98 (0.94-1.03) vs. an observational estimate of 1.05 (1.02-1.09)(P for comparison = 0.02). Despite confirming the known observational association of liver fat content and NAFLD with IHD, lifelong, genetically high liver fat content was not causally associated with risk of IHD. These results suggest that the observational association is due to confounding or reverse causation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate (<10%) for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004). Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002) whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3). Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  12. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  13. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) - Pathogenesis, Classification, and Effect on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Cobbina, Enoch; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver disorders. It is defined by the presence of steatosis in more than 5 % of hepatocytes with little or no alcohol consumption. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes and genetic variants of PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The pathological progression of NAFLD follows tentatively a ‘three-hit’ process namely steatosis, lipotoxicity and inflammation. The presence of steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators like TNF-α and IL-6 have been implicated in the alterations of nuclear factors such as CAR, PXR, PPAR-α in NAFLD. These factors may results in altered expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) or transporters. Existing evidence suggests that the effect of NAFLD on CYP3A4, CYP2E1 and MRP3 are more consistent across rodent and human studies. CYP3A4 activity is down-regulated in NASH whereas the activity of CYP2E1 and the efflux transporter MRP3 are up-regulated. However, it is not clear how the majority of CYPs, UGTs, SULTs and transporters are influenced by NAFLD either in vivo or in vitro. The alterations associated with NAFLD could be a potential source of drug variability in patients and could have serious implications for the safety and efficacy of xenobiotics. In this review, we summarize the effects of NAFLD on the regulation, expression and activity of major drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We also discuss the potential mechanisms underlying these alterations. PMID:28303724

  14. P-selectin, endocan, and some adhesion molecules in obese children and adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ustyol, Ala; Aycan Ustyol, Esra; Gurdol, Figen; Kokali, Funda; Bekpınar, Seldag

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Obese patients with NAFLD presented higher ALT and insulin levels, as well as more profound dyslipidemia when compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were found increased in both obese groups, regardless of NAFLD. In obese subjects with NAFLD, decreased P-selectin levels (51.6 ± 4.14 ng/mL) were detected as compared with the obese (72.3 ± 4.23) and control (74.2 ± 6.97) subjects. Furthermore, circulating P-selectin levels were closely associated with endocan levels (r = 0.852, p < 0.001). Childhood obesity leads to vascular inflammation and therefore may cause a predisposition to atherosclerosis at an early age. The possible outcome of decreased P-selectin levels with NAFLD development must be further investigated.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - pathogenesis, classification, and effect on drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Enoch; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver disorders. It is defined by the presence of steatosis in more than 5% of hepatocytes with little or no alcohol consumption. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes and genetic variants of PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The pathological progression of NAFLD follows tentatively a "three-hit" process namely steatosis, lipotoxicity and inflammation. The presence of steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators like TNF-α and IL-6 has been implicated in the alterations of nuclear factors such as CAR, PXR, PPAR-α in NAFLD. These factors may result in altered expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) or transporters. Existing evidence suggests that the effect of NAFLD on CYP3A4, CYP2E1 and MRP3 is more consistent across rodent and human studies. CYP3A4 activity is down-regulated in NASH whereas the activity of CYP2E1 and the efflux transporter MRP3 is up-regulated. However, it is not clear how the majority of CYPs, UGTs, SULTs and transporters are influenced by NAFLD either in vivo or in vitro. The alterations associated with NAFLD could be a potential source of drug variability in patients and could have serious implications for the safety and efficacy of xenobiotics. In this review, we summarize the effects of NAFLD on the regulation, expression and activity of major DMEs and transporters. We also discuss the potential mechanisms underlying these alterations.

  16. Spleen dimensions are inversely associated with lysosomal acid lipase activity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Licia; Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Tozzi, Giulia; Novo, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Troisi, Giovanni; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Ceci, Fabrizio; Scardella, Laura; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver and splenomegaly are typical features of genetic lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency. No data in adult patients with non-genetic reduction of LAL activity are available. We investigate the association between spleen dimensions and LAL activity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, in whom a reduced LAL activity has been reported. We include 425 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound to evaluate hepatic steatosis and spleen dimensions. LAL activity was measured with dried blood spot method (Lalistat2). NAFLD was present in 74.1% of screened patients. Higher median spleen longitudinal diameter (10.6 vs. 9.9 cm; p < 0.001) and spleen area (SA) (32.7 vs. 27.7 cm 2 ; p < 0.001), together with a higher and proportion of splenomegaly (17.8 vs. 5.5%, p = 0.001), are present in patients with NAFLD compared to those without. In NAFLD patients, median LAL activity is 0.9 nmol/spot/h. LAL activity is lower in 56 patients with splenomegaly, as compared to those without (p = 0.009). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (above median, OR 0.344; p = 0.003), LAL activity (below median, OR 2.206, p = 0.028), and platelets (OR 0.101, p = 0.002) are significantly associated with splenomegaly. NAFLD patients disclose a relatively high prevalence of spleen enlargement and splenomegaly, which are significantly associated with a reduced LAL activity, suggesting that LAL may contribute to spleen enlargement in this setting.

  17. Bone marrow fat content is correlated with hepatic fat content in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, N Y; Wolfson, T; Middleton, M S; Hamilton, G; Gamst, A; Angeles, J E; Schwimmer, J B; Sirlin, C B

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between bone marrow fat content and hepatic fat content in children with known or suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, cross-sectional, prospective analysis of data collected between October 2010 to March 2013 in 125 children with known or suspected NAFLD. Written informed consent was obtained for same-day research magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, liver, and abdominal adiposity. Lumbar spine bone marrow proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and hepatic PDFF were estimated using complex-based MRI (C-MRI) techniques and magnitude-based MRI (M-MRI), respectively. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using high-resolution MRI. All images were acquired by two MRI technologists. Hepatic M-MRI images were analysed by an image analyst; all other images were analysed by a single investigator. The relationship between lumbar spine bone marrow PDFF and hepatic PDFF was assessed with and without adjusting for the presence of covariates using correlation and regression analysis. Lumbar spine bone marrow PDFF was positively associated with hepatic PDFF in children with known or suspected NAFLD prior to adjusting for covariates (r=0.33, p=0.0002). Lumbar spine bone marrow PDFF was positively associated with hepatic PDFF in children with known or suspected NAFLD (r=0.24, p=0.0079) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index z-score, VAT, and SCAT in a multivariable regression analysis. Bone marrow fat content is positively associated with hepatic fat content in children with known or suspected NAFLD. Further research is needed to confirm these results and understand their clinical and biological implications. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  18. High red and processed meat consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Ivancovsky-Wajcman, Dana; Fliss Isakov, Naomi; Webb, Muriel; Orenstein, Dana; Shibolet, Oren; Kariv, Revital

    2018-06-01

    High red and processed meat consumption is related to type 2 diabetes. In addition, cooking meat at high temperatures for a long duration forms heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are related to oxidative stress. However, the association between meat consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is yet to be thoroughly tested. Therefore, we aimed to test the association of meat type and cooking method with NAFLD and insulin resistance (IR). This was a cross-sectional study in individuals who were 40-70 years old and underwent screening colonoscopy between 2013 and 2015 in a single center in Israel. NAFLD and IR were evaluated by ultrasonography and homeostasis model assessment. Meat type and cooking method were measured by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a detailed meat questionnaire. Unhealthy cooking methods were considered as frying and grilling to a level of well done and very well done. Dietary HCA intake was calculated. A total of 789 individuals had a valid FFQ and 357 had a valid meat questionnaire. High consumption of total meat (portions/day above the median) (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95% CI 1.05-2.13; p = 0.028; OR 1.63; 1.12-2.37; p = 0.011), red and/or processed meat (OR1.47; 95% CI 1.04-2.09; p = 0.031; OR1.55; 1.07-2.23; p = 0.020) was independently associated with higher odds of NAFLD and IR, respectively, when adjusted for: body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy, saturated fat and cholesterol intake. High intake of meat cooked using unhealthy methods (OR1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.30; p = 0.018) and HCAs (OR2.22; 95% CI 1.28-3.86; p = 0.005) were independently associated with higher odds of IR. High consumption of red and/or processed meat is associated with both NAFLD and IR. High HCA intake is associated with IR. If confirmed in prospective studies, limiting the consumption of unhealthy meat types and improving preparation methods may be considered as part of NAFLD lifestyle treatment. High

  19. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P < 0.05). The aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Amiri Dash Atan, Nasrin; Koushki, Mehdi; Motedayen, Morteza; Dousti, Majid; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Vafaee, Reza; Norouzinia, Mohsen; Gholami, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging disease with high prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have reported the prevalence of NAFLD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. However, these results are inconsistent. A Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, web of science and Science Direct from 2005 to August 2017. The necessary information was extracted. Heterogeneity was evaluated using I 2 statistic. Meta-regression analyses were performed to the estimation of the relationship between the year of study and sample size with the prevalence of NAFLD. Publication bias was assessed by both Begg rank correlation and Egger tests. Subgroup analysis was performed for identification of sources heterogeneity. Seventeen studies involving 10897 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with NAFLD were included in this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of NAFLD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients by random effects models was 54% (95% CI, 45%- 64%). There is a significant heterogeneity across studies with (I 2 = 99%, p> 0.01). The funnel plot as graphically and Begg and Egger as statistically showed no publication bias among studies. Subgroup analysis indicated that the prevalence of NAFLD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients differed in predictive factors such as lipid profile, BMI, HbA1c, AST, and ALT. This finding in spite of heterogeneity of documents is corresponding to the positive correlation between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The findings indicated that the overall prevalence of NAFLD among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is significantly higher. It can be concluded that type 2 diabetes mellitus patients should be managed to prevent NAFLD.

  1. Hepatic fat quantification using the two-point Dixon method and fat color maps based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Takahashi, Junji; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kawamura, Yusuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Inoue, Masafumi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-04-01

    The two-point Dixon method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to non-invasively measure fat deposition in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of MRI-fat fraction (MRI-FF) using the two-point Dixon method based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent liver MRI and MR spectroscopy, and 201 patients who underwent liver MRI and histological assessment. The relationship between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction was used to estimate the corrected MRI-FF for hepatic multi-peaks of fat. Then, a color FF map was generated with the corrected MRI-FF based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. We defined FF variability as the standard deviation of FF in regions of interest. Uniformity of hepatic fat was visually graded on a three-point scale using both gray-scale and color FF maps. Confounding effects of histology (iron, inflammation and fibrosis) on corrected MRI-FF were assessed by multiple linear regression. The linear correlations between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction, and between corrected MRI-FF and histological steatosis were strong (R 2  = 0.90 and R 2  = 0.88, respectively). Liver fat variability significantly increased with visual fat uniformity grade using both of the maps (ρ = 0.67-0.69, both P < 0.001). Hepatic iron, inflammation and fibrosis had no significant confounding effects on the corrected MRI-FF (all P > 0.05). The two-point Dixon method and the gray-scale or color FF maps based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score were useful for fat quantification in the liver of patients without severe iron deposition. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  2. Clinical risk scoring for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome patients (NAFLD-MS score).

    PubMed

    Saokaew, Surasak; Kanchanasuwan, Shada; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Charoensak, Aphinya; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can progress from simple steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. None of tools have been developed specifically for high-risk patients. This study aimed to develop a simple risk scoring to predict NAFLD in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 509 patients with MetS were recruited. All were diagnosed by clinicians with ultrasonography-confirmed whether they were patients with NAFLD. Patients were randomly divided into derivation (n=400) and validation (n=109) cohort. To develop the risk score, clinical risk indicators measured at the time of recruitment were built by logistic regression. Regression coefficients were transformed into item scores and added up to a total score. A risk scoring scheme was developed from clinical predictors: BMI ≥25, AST/ALT ≥1, ALT ≥40, type 2 diabetes mellitus and central obesity. The scoring scheme was applied in validation cohort to test the performance. The scheme explained, by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC), 76.8% of being NAFLD with good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 =4.35; P=.629). The positive likelihood ratio of NAFLD in patients with low risk (scores below 3) and high risk (scores 5 and over) were 2.32 (95% CI: 1.90-2.82) and 7.77 (95% CI: 2.47-24.47) respectively. When applied in validation cohort, the score showed good performance with AuROC 76.7%, and illustrated 84%, and 100% certainty in low- and high-risk groups respectively. A simple and non-invasive scoring scheme of five predictors provides good prediction indices for NAFLD in MetS patients. This scheme may help clinicians in order to take further appropriate action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Laboratory parameter-based machine learning model for excluding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yip, T C-F; Ma, A J; Wong, V W-S; Tse, Y-K; Chan, H L-Y; Yuen, P-C; Wong, G L-H

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20%-40% of the general population in developed countries and is an increasingly important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Electronic medical records facilitate large-scale epidemiological studies, existing NAFLD scores often require clinical and anthropometric parameters that may not be captured in those databases. To develop and validate a laboratory parameter-based machine learning model to detect NAFLD for the general population. We randomly divided 922 subjects from a population screening study into training and validation groups; NAFLD was diagnosed by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the basis of machine learning from 23 routine clinical and laboratory parameters after elastic net regulation, we evaluated the logistic regression, ridge regression, AdaBoost and decision tree models. The areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of models in validation group were compared. Six predictors including alanine aminotransferase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, haemoglobin A 1c , white blood cell count and the presence of hypertension were selected. The NAFLD ridge score achieved AUROC of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.90) and 0.88 (0.84-0.91) in the training and validation groups respectively. Using dual cut-offs of 0.24 and 0.44, NAFLD ridge score achieved 92% (86%-96%) sensitivity and 90% (86%-93%) specificity with corresponding negative and positive predictive values of 96% (91%-98%) and 69% (59%-78%), and 87% of overall accuracy among 70% of classifiable subjects in the validation group; 30% of subjects remained indeterminate. NAFLD ridge score is a simple and robust reference comparable to existing NAFLD scores to exclude NAFLD patients in epidemiological studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kui; Lin, Lin; Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Chen, Yuhong; Ning, Guang

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between short sleep duration and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are no previous studies investigating the effect of daytime napping on NAFLD. In the present study we examined the associations between NAFLD and both nightly sleep duration and daytime napping in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. This cross-sectional community-based population study was performed on 8559 individuals aged ≥40 years. Sleep duration and the duration of daytime napping were self-reported using a standardized questionnaire; NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. In this study sample, the overall prevalence of NAFLD was 30.4%. There was an inverse association between sleep duration and the risk of prevalent NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prevalent NAFLD for decreasing sleep duration categories (≥9, 8.1-9, 7.1-8, 6.1-7, and ≤6.1 h) were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (1.13-1.70), 1.32 (1.08-1.61), 1.29 (1.04-1.60), and 1.66 (1.28-2.15), respectively (P trend  = 0.0073). Compared with participants without a daytime napping habit, nap takers with a longer nap duration (>0.5 h) had an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06-1.41). The associations of sleep duration and daytime napping duration with NAFLD were generally consistent across different categories of age and obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance status. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping were associated with an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Associations between longer habitual day napping and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an elderly Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Min; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2014-01-01

    Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored. To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012. Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of day nap duration with NAFLD. Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (P<0.001). Longer day napping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with NAFLD (P trend <0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.46) for those reporting 0.5-1 h and 1.49 (95% CI 1.01-2.19) for those reporting >1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all P<0.05). Longer-duration day nappers had higher levels of IL-6 and progranulin (PGRN) but lower levels of Secreted frizzled-related protein-5 (SFRP5, all P trend <0.001). After adjusting for IL-6, PGRN, and SFRP5, the association between day napping duration and NAFLD disappeared (all P>0.05). Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.

  6. Body composition and body fat distribution are related to cardiac autonomic control in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, N M; Santa-Clara, H; Cortez-Pinto, H; Silva-Nunes, J; da Lapa Rosado, M; Sousa, P J; Calé, R; Melo, X; Sardinha, L B; Fernhall, B

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR), a cardiac autonomic control marker, was shown to be related to body composition (BC), yet this was not tested in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine if, and to what extent, markers of BC and body fat (BF) distribution are related to cardiac autonomic control in NAFLD patients. BC was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 28 NAFLD patients (19 men, 51±13 years, and 9 women, 47±13 years). BF depots ratios were calculated to assess BF distribution. Subjects' HRR was recorded 1 (HRR1) and 2 min (HRR2) immediately after a maximum graded exercise test. BC and BF distribution were related to HRR; particularly weight, trunk BF and trunk BF-to-appendicular BF ratio showed a negative relation with HRR1 (r=-0.613, r=-0.597 and r=-0.547, respectively, P<0.01) and HRR2 (r=-0.484, r=-0.446, P<0.05, and r=-0.590, P<0.01, respectively). Age seems to be related to both HRR1 and HRR2 except when controlled for BF distribution. The preferred model in multiple regression should include trunk BF-to-appendicular BF ratio and BF to predict HRR1 (r2=0.549; P<0.05), and trunk BF-to-appendicular BF ratio alone to predict HRR2 (r2=0.430; P<0.001). BC and BF distribution were related to HRR in NAFLD patients. Trunk BF-to-appendicular BF ratio was the best independent predictor of HRR and therefore may be best related to cardiovascular increased risk, and possibly act as a mediator in age-related cardiac autonomic control variation.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea with excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jae Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it remains unclear whether the risk of NAFLD is independently related to OSA regardless of visceral obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether OSA alone or in combination with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or short sleep duration was associated with NAFLD independent of visceral fat in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 621 participants were selected from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and hepatic fat components of the participants were assessed using computed tomography scans and they were then categorized into four groups depending on the presence of OSA and EDS. Results: The proportions of NAFLD were 21.1%, 18.5%, 32.4%, and 46.7% in participants without OSA/EDS, with only EDS, with only OSA, and with both OSA and EDS, respectively. A combination of OSA and EDS increased the odds ratio (OR) for developing NAFLD (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 6.28) compared to those without OSA/EDS, and this association remained significant (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.59) even after adjusting for VFA. In short sleepers (< 5 hours) with OSA, the adjusted OR for NAFLD was 2.50 (95% CI, 1.08 to 5.75) compared to those sleeping longer than 5 hours without OSA. Conclusions: In the present study, OSA was closely associated with NAFLD in Korean adults. This association was particularly strong in those with EDS or short sleep duration regardless of VFA. PMID:26552460

  8. fat-1 mice prevent high-fat plus high-sugar diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Fei; Gao, Jin-Long; Li, Jiao-Mei; Li, Duo

    2017-11-15

    High-fat and high-sugar (HFS) diets have been suggested to play a causal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate whether fat-1 transgenic mice with a higher tissue content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could prevent HFS diet-induced NAFLD, compared with wild-type mice. The fat-1 and wild-type littermates had free access to a 15% fructose solution plus high-fat diet, a 15% glucose solution plus high-fat diet, or a 15% sucrose solution plus high-fat diet, respectively. Caloric intake, weight gain, biochemical parameters, histology, and gene and protein expression levels were measured after 8 weeks of intervention. Liquid intake in glucose- or sucrose-fed mice was about 2-fold compared with that in fructose-fed mice. The wild-type mice given glucose showed the highest total caloric intake and weight gain compared to the other groups. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly lowered in fat-1 groups compared with their paired wild-type groups. Histological analysis showed that the wild-type groups fed the HFS diets developed hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, compared with the fat-1 groups. The gene and protein expression levels involved in fatty acid synthesis and the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling pathway were significantly inhibited in the fat-1 groups compared with the wild-type groups. The endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs of the three fat-1 groups, which inhibit fatty acid synthesis and the TLR-4 signaling pathway, prevent HFS diet-induced NAFLD.

  9. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Wang, A-P; Lu, J-X; Chen, M-Y; Zhao, C-C; Tang, Z-H; Li, L-X; Jia, W-P

    2018-03-21

    As the prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still unknown in ketosis-onset diabetes, the present study compared the characteristics of NAFLD in type 1 diabetes (T1D), ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. This cross-sectional study was performed with newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 39 T1D, 165 ketosis-onset and 173 non-ketotic T2D, with 30 non-diabetics included as controls. NAFLD was determined by hepatic ultrasonography, then its clinical features were analyzed and its associated risk factors evaluated. NAFLD prevalence in patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (61.8%) was significantly higher than in controls (23.3%; P=0.003) and in T1D patients (15.4%; P<0.001). However, there was no difference in prevalence between ketosis-onset and non-ketotic T2D patients (52.6%; P=0.229), although BMI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) proved to be independent risk factors for the presence of NAFLD in both these groups whereas, in T1D patients, serum uric acid levels were independent risk factors. NAFLD prevalence and risk factors in ketosis-onset diabetes were similar to those in non-ketotic T2D, but different from those in T1D. These data provide further evidence that ketosis-onset diabetes should be classified as a subtype of T2D rather than idiopathic T1D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Absence of Cirrhosis in US Veterans is Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sahil; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Sada, Yvonne H.; Kanwal, Fasiha; Duan, Zhigang; Temple, Sarah; May, Sarah B.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Davila, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can develop in individuals without cirrhosis. We investigated risk factors for development of HCC in the absence of cirrhosis in a US population. Methods We identified a national cohort of 1500 patients with verified HCC during 2005–2010 in the US Veterans Administration (VA), and reviewed their full VA medical records for evidence of cirrhosis and risk factors for HCC. Patients without cirrhosis were assigned to categories of level 1 evidence for no cirrhosis (very high probability) or level 2 evidence for no cirrhosis (high probability), based on findings from histologic analyses, laboratory test results, markers of fibrosis from non-invasive tests, and imaging features. Results A total of 43 (2.9%) of the 1500 patients with HCC had level 1 evidence for no cirrhosis and 151 (10.1%) had level 2 evidence for no cirrhosis; the remaining 1203 patients (80.1%) had confirmed cirrhosis. Compared to patients with HCC in presence of cirrhosis, greater proportions of patients with HCC without evidence of cirrhosis had metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or no identifiable risk factors. Patients with HCC without evidence of cirrhosis were less likely to have abused alcohol or have HCV infection than patients with cirrhosis. Patients with HCC and NAFLD (unadjusted odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–8.5) or metabolic syndrome (unadjusted odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.1–7.8) had more than a 5-fold risk of having HCC in the absence of cirrhosis, compared to patients with HCV-related HCC. Conclusions Approximately 13% of patients with HCC in the VA system do not appear to have cirrhosis. NAFLD and metabolic syndrome are the main risk factors HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. PMID:26196445

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea with excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jae Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

    2015-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it remains unclear whether the risk of NAFLD is independently related to OSA regardless of visceral obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether OSA alone or in combination with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or short sleep duration was associated with NAFLD independent of visceral fat in Korean adults. A total of 621 participants were selected from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and hepatic fat components of the participants were assessed using computed tomography scans and they were then categorized into four groups depending on the presence of OSA and EDS. The proportions of NAFLD were 21.1%, 18.5%, 32.4%, and 46.7% in participants without OSA/EDS, with only EDS, with only OSA, and with both OSA and EDS, respectively. A combination of OSA and EDS increased the odds ratio (OR) for developing NAFLD (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 6.28) compared to those without OSA/EDS, and this association remained significant (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.59) even after adjusting for VFA. In short sleepers (< 5 hours) with OSA, the adjusted OR for NAFLD was 2.50 (95% CI, 1.08 to 5.75) compared to those sleeping longer than 5 hours without OSA. In the present study, OSA was closely associated with NAFLD in Korean adults. This association was particularly strong in those with EDS or short sleep duration regardless of VFA.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at the background of carbohydrate metabolism disorders.

    PubMed

    Feisa, Snizhana V; Chopei, Ivan V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is 25-30% in the general population and more than 75% among patients with carbohydrate metabolism disorders. One in six patients with NAFLD has concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism. The aim is to compare lipid and carbohydrate metabolism states in patients with NAFLD depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland. Materials and methods:215 patients with NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM) or pre-diabetes (PD) were involved in study and devided into 6 groups according to the functional state of the thyroid gland. Results: In cases of adding subclinical hypothyroidism systolic and diastolic blood pressure are rising. In patients with overt hypothyroidism average HOMA-IR index is 29,98±1,05, which exceeds the corresponding figure in patients with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism. In patients whose hypothyroidism has been compensated by levothyroxine, HOMA-IR index was reduced to 18,56±1,58, indicating a tendency to restore the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, on the assumption under the medicatedcorrection of thyroid functional status. Levels of common cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in cases of NAFLD with subclinical or overt hypothyroidism than in patients with NAFLD and normal thyroid function. Replacement therapy by levothyroxine leads to improving of lipid changes in patients with NAFLD and concomitant overt hypothyroidism: the levels of common cholesterol and triglycerides were reducing from 6,04±1,18 mmol/l and 3,96±1,34 mmol/l to 5,97±1,1 mmol/l and 3,45±1,13 mmol/l in accordance. Conclusions: Concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with NAFLD at the background of carbohydrate metabolism disorders leads to atherogenic dyslipidemia, increasing of blood atherogenicity. The index of lipid accumulated product (LAP) and the resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin also increases.

  13. Temporal Trends of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Veteran Affairs Population

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sahil; Sada, Yvonne H.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kanwal, Fasiha; Duan, Zhigang; Temple, Sarah; May, Sarah B.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Davila, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, no systemic studies from the United States have examined temporal trends, HCC surveillance practices, and outcomes of NAFLD-related HCC. Methods We identified a national cohort of 1500 patients who developed HCC from 2005 through 2010 from Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. We reviewed patients’ full VA medical records; NAFLD was diagnosed based on histologic evidence for, or the presence of, metabolic syndrome in the absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B, or alcoholic liver disease. We compared annual prevalence values for the main risk factors (NAFLD, alcohol abuse, HCV), as well HCC surveillance and outcomes, among HCC patients. Results NAFLD was the underlying risk factor for HCC in 120 patients (8.0%); the annual proportion of NAFLD-related HCC remained relatively stable (7.5%–12.0%). In contrast, the proportion of HCC cases associated with HCV increased from 61.0% in 2005 (95% confidence interval, 53.1%–68.9%) to 74.9% in 2010 (95% confidence interval, 69.0%–80.7%). The proportion of HCC cases associated with only alcohol abuse decreased from 21.9% in 2005 to 15.7% in 2010, and the annual proportion of HCC cases associated with hepatitis B remained relatively stable (1.4%–3.5%). A significantly lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC had cirrhosis (58.3%) compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-related HCC (72.4% and 85.6%, respectively; P<.05). A significantly higher percentage of patients with NAFLD-related HCC did not receive HCC surveillance in the 3 years before their HCC diagnosis, compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-associated HCC. A lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC received HCC-specific treatment (61.5%) than of patients with HCV-related HCC (77.5%; P<.01). However, 1-year survival did not differ among patients with HCC related to different risk factors

  14. Dissociation between exercise-induced reduction in liver fat and changes in hepatic and peripheral glucose homoeostasis in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Richardson, Paul; Kemp, Graham J; Barrett, Mark; Jackson, Nicola C; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Umpleby, A Margot

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multi-organ (hepatic, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance (IR). Exercise is an effective treatment for lowering liver fat but its effect on IR in NAFLD is unknown. We aimed to determine whether supervised exercise in NAFLD would reduce liver fat and improve hepatic and peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin sensitivity. Sixty nine NAFLD patients were randomized to 16 weeks exercise supervision (n=38) or counselling (n=31) without dietary modification. All participants underwent MRI/spectroscopy to assess changes in body fat and in liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride, before and following exercise/counselling. To quantify changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, a pre-determined subset (n=12 per group) underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp pre- and post-intervention. Results are shown as mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Fifty participants (30 exercise, 20 counselling), 51 years (IQR 40, 56), body mass index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2) (IQR 29, 35) with baseline liver fat/water % of 18.8% (IQR 10.7, 34.6) completed the study (12/12 exercise and 7/12 counselling completed the clamp studies). Supervised exercise mediated a greater reduction in liver fat/water percentage than counselling [Δ mean change 4.7% (0.01, 9.4); P<0.05], which correlated with the change in cardiorespiratory fitness (r=-0.34, P=0.0173). With exercise, peripheral insulin sensitivity significantly increased (following high-dose insulin) despite no significant change in hepatic glucose production (HGP; following low-dose insulin); no changes were observed in the control group. Although supervised exercise effectively reduced liver fat, improving peripheral IR in NAFLD, the reduction in liver fat was insufficient to improve hepatic IR. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne Jr, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient’s disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. METHODS A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients’ illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. RESULTS The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits

  16. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-03-14

    To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient's disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients' illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits. Most of the study

  17. The use of statins alone, or in combination with pioglitazone and other drugs, for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and related cardiovascular risk. An Expert Panel Statement.

    PubMed

    Athyros, Vasilios G; Alexandrides, Theodore K; Bilianou, Helen; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Doumas, Michael; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S; Goudevenos, John; Elisaf, Moses S; Germanidis, Georgios; Giouleme, Olga; Karagiannis, Asterios; Karvounis, Charalambos; Katsiki, Niki; Kotsis, Vasilios; Kountouras, Jannis; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Pitsavos, Christos; Polyzos, Stergios; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Richter, Dimitrios; Tsapas, Apostolos G; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Vasiliadis, Themistoklis G; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mantzoros, Christos

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. It is closely related to the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in NAFLD/NASH patients. Current guidelines suggest the use of pioglitazone both in patients with T2DM and in those without. The use of statins, though considered safe by the guidelines, have very limited use; only 10% in high CVD risk patients are on statins by tertiary centers in the US. There are data from several animal studies, 5 post hoc analyses of prospective long-term survival studies, and 5 rather small biopsy proven NASH studies, one at baseline and on at the end of the study. All these studies provide data for biochemical and histological improvement of NAFLD/NASH with statins and in the clinical studies large reductions in CVD events in comparison with those also on statins and normal liver. Ezetimibe was also reported to improve NAFLD. Drugs currently in clinical trials seem to have potential for slowing down the evolution of NAFLD and for reducing liver- and CVD-related morbidity and mortality, but it will take time before they are ready to be used in everyday clinical practice. The suggestion of this Expert Panel is that, pending forthcoming randomized clinical trials, physicians should consider using a PPARgamma agonist, such as pioglitazone, or, statin use in those with NAFLD/NASH at high CVD or HCC risk, alone and/or preferably in combination with each other or with ezetimibe, for the primary or secondary prevention of CVD, and the avoidance of cirrhosis, liver transplantation or HCC, bearing in mind that CVD is the main cause

  18. Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatitis C Virus Infection—Liver: The “Musketeer” in the Spotlight

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Baldelli, Enrica; Targher, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) involves chronic hyperinsulinemia due to systemic and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), which if uncorrected, will lead to progressive pancreatic beta cell failure in predisposed individuals. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of fatty (simple steatosis and steatohepatitis) and non-fatty liver changes (NASH-cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) that are commonly observed among individuals with multiple metabolic derangements, notably including visceral obesity, IR and T2D. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is also often associated with both hepatic steatosis and features of a specific HCV-associated dysmetabolic syndrome. In recent years, the key role of the steatotic liver in the development of IR and T2D has been increasingly recognized. Thus, in this comprehensive review we summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that links T2D with NAFLD and HCV infection. For each of these two liver diseases with systemic manifestations, we discuss the epidemiological burden, the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the clinical implications. To date, substantial evidence suggests that NAFLD and HCV play a key role in T2D development and that the interaction of T2D with liver disease may result in a “vicious circle”, eventually leading to an increased risk of all-cause mortality and liver-related and cardiovascular complications. Preliminary evidence also suggests that improvement of NAFLD is associated with a decreased incidence of T2D. Similarly, the prevention of T2D following HCV eradication in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents is a biologically plausible result. However, additional studies are required for further clarification of mechanisms involved. PMID:27005620

  19. Prevalence and Profile of Fibrosis in Diabetic Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Prasetya, Ignatius Bima; Hasan, Irsan; Wisnu, Wismandari; Rumende, Cleopas Martin

    2017-04-01

    the risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is increasing in patients with type-2 diabetes. Prevalence and factors related to the increased risk of NAFLD in diabetic patients in Indonesia has never been studied before. Data regarding the profile of fibrosis in the population has also been unknown. This study aimed to identify the difference on the profile of diabetic patients with and without NAFLD as well as the degree of fibrosis. the study was conducted using a cross-sectional method in type-2 diabetic patients who were treated at the outpatient clinic of endocrinology and metabolic division in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Sampling was done consecutively. Collected data comprised of age, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, HDL, triglyceride, and HbA1C levels. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted for all patients to determine the presence of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD were subsequently underwent transient elastography in order to assess their degree of liver fibrosis. Chi-square or Fisher's-Exact tests were used for bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. as many as 186 patients were analyzed in the study and 84 patients (45.2%) were demonstrated to have NAFLD. Transient elastography examinations were carried out in 68 patients and 17 patients (25.0%) were found with severe fibrosis. Univariate analysis showed significant differences on BMI (PR=1.878; 95%CI= 1.296-2.721; p<0.001) and waist circumference (PR=2.368; 95%CI= 1.117-5.017; p=0.018) between patients with and without NAFLD. However, the multivariate test showed that BMI was the only factor that had a significance difference between both groups (OR=2.989; 95%CI=1.625-5.499; p<0.001). prevalence of NAFLD among type-2 diabetic patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital has reached 45.2% and 25.0% among them had severe fibrosis. BMI is the only factor found to be associated with the occurrence of NAFLD.

  20. Effect of silymarin plus vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A randomized clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gómez, S; Tafur, C; González, G; Berroa, E; Mora, N; González, J M; de Luis, D A

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognized health problem. Various treatment strategies such as thiazolidinediones, metformin, lipid-lowering agents and antioxidants have been evaluated. So far, no single intervention has convincingly improved liver histology. Experience of using silymarin alone or in combination with other agents in patients with NAFLD is limited in the medical literature. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin plus vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD. A sample of 36 patients was enrolled. The diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed by percutaneous liver biopsy. All patients were randomized to one of the following intervention groups: group I: treated with 2 tablets per day of silymarin plus vitamin E (Eurosil 85®, MEDAS SL) and a lifestyle modification program consisting of hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% of carbohydrates, 25% of lipids and 23% of proteins) and exercise for 3 months and group II (only with the hypocaloric diet). Anthropometric variables as waist circumference, weight, body mass index (BMI) were measured. Biochemical parameters: Glucose, triglycerides, AST, ALT, GGt levels and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined under fasting conditions. Non-invasive NAFLD-index were applied before and after the treatments: Fatty liver index (FLI), liver accumulation product (LAP) and NAFLD-Fibrosis score (FS). The mean age was 47.4 ± 11.2 years old (range 18-67); 22 men and 14 women. In group I, 11 patients (61%) have a NAS-score > 5 and 10 (55.5%) in the group II (NS). Anthropometric parameters decreased after treatment in both groups. Patients in both groups showed a decrease in GGt levels after treatment (group I: 68 IU/L vs. 46.2 ± 27 IU/L; p < 0.05 and group II 80.5 ± 46 IU/L vs. 50.3 ± 27 IU/L; p < 0.05). Only in group II we observed a significant decrease in AST and ALT levels. In both groups, we observed a decrease in: FLI index (group I: 86.2 ± 19 vs. 76.9 + 20; p < 0

  1. Evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome are associated by necessity rather than chance: a novel hepato-ovarian axis?

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Rossini, Maurizio; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis, and liver tumors. On these grounds, we have hypothesized that NAFLD and PCOS occur more frequently than expected by chance alone. We have tested this hypothesis by reviewing the clinical and biological evidence that supports a significant association between NAFLD and PCOS. PubMed was extensively searched for articles published through March 2015 using the keywords "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" or "fatty liver" combined with "PCOS." Several cross-sectional and case-control studies have consistently demonstrated that the prevalence of NAFLD is remarkably increased in young women with PCOS, independent of overweight/obesity and other coexisting metabolic syndrome features, and that these women are more likely to have the more severe forms of NAFLD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis). Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD, especially its necro-inflammatory form, may exacerbate hepatic and systemic insulin resistance and releases multiple pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant, and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PCOS. These findings call for more active and systematic search for NAFLD among women with PCOS. Conversely, gastroenterologists/hepatologists need to be aware of the presence of PCOS among female patients with NAFLD and compatible clinical features. Finally, all these patients should undergo regular follow-up not only for liver-related complications but also for cardio-metabolic diseases.

  2. Controlled attenuation parameter is correlated with actual hepatic fat content in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with none-to-mild obesity and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Naoki; Shibata, Soichiro; Sano, Kenji; Yamazaki, Tomoo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Kitabatake, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Komatsu, Michiharu; Umemura, Takeji; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive steatosis-quantifying methods are required for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients in order to monitor disease severity and assess therapeutic efficacy. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) evaluated with vibration-controlled transient elastography can predict the presence of steatosis, but its application to absolute hepatic fat quantitation remains unclear. The aim of this st\\udy was to examine whether CAP is correlated with real hepatic fat content in NAFLD patients. Eighty-two NAFLD patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were enrolled. CAP was measured using FibroScan(®) just before liver biopsy. The percentage of fat droplet area to hepatocyte area in biopsied specimen was determined morphometrically using computerized optical image analyzing system. The correlation between CAP and liver histology was examined. CAP showed an excellent correlation with actual liver fat percentage in the NAFLD patients with body mass index (BMI) of less than 28 kg/m(2) (r = 0.579, P < 0.0001), especially less than 25 kg/m(2) (r = 0.708, P < 0.01), but the meaningful correlation disappeared in the patients with BMI of 28 kg/m(2) or more. In the patients with BMI of less than 28 kg/m(2) , CAP quantitativeness was affected by the presence of stage 2-4 fibrosis, but not the presence of hepatocyte ballooning and severity of lobular inflammation. CAP may be a promising tool for quantifying hepatic fat content in NAFLD patients with none-to-mild obesity and liver fibrosis. Further improvement of CAP performance is needed for the NAFLD patients with BMI of more than 28 kg/m(2) or significant hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  3. The role of the angiotensin II type I receptor blocker telmisartan in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Borém, Luciana M A; Neto, João F R; Brandi, Igor V; Lelis, Deborah F; Santos, Sergio H S

    2018-04-10

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered an important component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The spectrum of NAFLD includes conditions that range from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. NAFLD is correlated with liver-related death and is predicted to be the most frequent indication for liver transplantation by 2030. Insulin resistance is directly correlated to the central mechanisms of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients, which is strongly correlated to the imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system, that is involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Among the emerging treatment approaches for NAFLD is the anti-hypertensive agent telmisartan, which has positive effects on liver, lipid, and glucose metabolism, especially through its action on the renin-angiotensin system, by blocking the ACE/AngII/AT1 axis and increasing ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis activation. However, treatment with this drug is only recommended for patients with an established indication for anti-hypertensive therapy. Thus, there is an increased need for large randomized controlled trials with the aim of elucidating the effects of telmisartan on liver disease, especially NAFLD. From this perspective, the present review aims to provide a brief examination of the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH and the role of telmisartan on preventing liver disorders and thus to improve the discussion on potential therapies.

  4. Metformin-Induced Changes of the Coding Transcriptome and Non-Coding RNAs in the Livers of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Yafen; Fang, Weiwei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Lin, Yajun; Man, Yong; Guo, Lixin; Sun, Mingxiao; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that changes in non-coding mRNA play a key role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin is now recommended and effective for the treatment of NAFLD. We hope the current analyses of the non-coding mRNA transcriptome will provide a better presentation of the potential roles of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that underlie NAFLD and metformin intervention. The present study mainly analysed changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs after the application of a five-week metformin intervention. Liver samples from three groups of mice were harvested for transcriptome profiling, which covered mRNA, lncRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA), using a microarray technique. A systematic alleviation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced transcriptome alterations by metformin was observed. The metformin treatment largely reversed the correlations with diabetes-related pathways. Our analysis also suggested interaction networks between differentially expressed lncRNAs and known hepatic disease genes and interactions between circRNA and their disease-related miRNA partners. Eight HFD-responsive lncRNAs and three metformin-responsive lncRNAs were noted due to their widespread associations with disease genes. Moreover, seven miRNAs that interacted with multiple differentially expressed circRNAs were highlighted because they were likely to be associated with metabolic or liver diseases. The present study identified novel changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs in the livers of NAFLD mice after metformin treatment that might shed light on the underlying mechanism by which metformin impedes the progression of NAFLD. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Liver zonation in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Associations with dietary fructose and uric acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Mosca, Antonella; De Vito, Rita; Raponi, Massimiliano; Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-06-01

    As dietary components are delivered directly to the periportal zone of the liver lobule, there is the potential for greater injury in this zone (zone 1) compared to the perivenous zone (zone 3). We investigated the associations between dietary fructose consumption and uric acid concentrations and differential zonal injury in periportal and perivenous zones. A total of 271 children's histological images were scored in 5 periportal and 5 perivenous zones for steatosis, ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis severity. Dietary fructose consumption (g/d) was assessed and uric acid measured in serum. Logistic regression was undertaken to test associations between both high fructose consumption and hyperuricaemia, and histological disease in periportal and perivenous zones. Children with a mean age of 12.5 years were included in the study. Inflammation (mean ± SD) was increased in the periportal vs perivenous zones (0.78 ± 0.43 vs 0.41 ± 0.48, P = .041). There were non-significant trends towards greater steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis in the periportal zone. In the fully adjusted models, high fructose intake was associated with disease in both zones. Example for periportal and perivenous zones, respectively, steatosis 1.56 (1.12, 2.49) and 1.21 (1.09, 2.73); inflammation 4.29 (2.31, 5.88) and 3.69 (2.14, 4.56); and fibrosis 2.72 (1.43, 3.76) and 1.96 (1.24, 2.37). Hyperuricaemia (uric acid ≥5.9 mg/dL) was associated with inflammation in the periportal zone 1.71 (1.17, 2.35); and was associated with steatosis and fibrosis in both zones; for example, for periportal and perivenous zones, respectively, steatosis 2.98 (1.65, 3.23) and 1.14 (1.05, 1.99); and fibrosis, 2.65 (1.35, 2.99) and 1.31 (1.13, 2.17). High fructose consumption is associated with disease severity in both lobular zones and hyperuricaemia may be associated with more severe disease in the periportal zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Correlations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and serum uric acid with subclinical atherosclerosis in obese Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Changqin; Shi, Xiulin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yan, Bing; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Ningning; Lu, Shuhua; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun; Li, Zhibin

    2017-06-01

    Existing evidence about the associations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and serum uric acid (SUA) with subclinical atherosclerosis is controversial. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of NAFLD and SUA with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the present cross-sectional study, 1354 obese adults underwent hepatic ultrasonography and arteriosclerosis detection. Indices of subclinical atherosclerosis were brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Linear regression using multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) modeling was used to examine independent associations of NAFLD and SUA with a-PWV and ABI. Compared with controls, mean (± SD) ba-PWV was significantly higher in subjects with NAFLD (1534 ± 292 vs 1433 ± 259 cm/s; P < 0.001) and hyperuricemia (HUA; 1519 ± 275 vs 1476 ± 287 cm/s; P = 0.007). After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, NAFLD and SUA were both positively related to ba-PWV (β = 0.120 and 0.064, respectively; P < 0.05 for both). With further adjustment for insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the positive correlations were no longer significant (β = 0.017 and 0.006; P > 0.05 for both). In addition, NAFLD, but not SUA, was negatively correlated with ABI (β = -0.073; P = 0.015). Using MFP modeling, the best fractional polynomial (FP) transformation model showed that non-linear transformations were appropriate for two variables in their relationship with ba-PWV, namely age and fasting insulin as first-degree FP transformations (age 3 and 1/insulin 0.5 , respectively). Neither NAFLD nor SUA was related to ba-PWV with increases in insulin resistance and MetS, but NAFLD was independently and negatively correlated with ABI. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Associations between Longer Habitual Day Napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Elderly Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Min; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2014-01-01

    Context Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored. Objective To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Design and Setting We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012. Participants Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of day nap duration with NAFLD. Results Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (P<0.001). Longer day napping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with NAFLD (P trend <0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were 1.67 (95% CI 1.13–2.46) for those reporting 0.5–1 h and 1.49 (95% CI 1.01–2.19) for those reporting >1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all P<0.05). Longer-duration day nappers had higher levels of IL-6 and progranulin (PGRN) but lower levels of Secreted frizzled-related protein-5 (SFRP5, all P trend <0.001). After adjusting for IL-6, PGRN, and SFRP5, the association between day napping duration and NAFLD disappeared (all P>0.05). Conclusion Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD. PMID:25140521

  8. The Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Measured by Controlled Attenuation Parameter.

    PubMed

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Kwang Joon; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chon, Chae Yoon; Chung, Jae Bock; Park, Kyeong Hye; Bae, Ji Cheol; Han, Kwang Hyub

    2016-07-01

    The severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population compared with that in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals has not yet been quantitatively assessed. We investigated the prevalence and the severity of NAFLD in a T2DM population using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Subjects who underwent testing for biomarkers related to T2DM and CAP using Fibroscan® during a regular health check-up were enrolled. CAP values of 250 dB/m and 300 dB/m were selected as the cutoffs for the presence of NAFLD and for moderate to severe NAFLD, respectively. Biomarkers related to T2DM included fasting glucose/insulin, fasting C-peptide, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Among 340 study participants (T2DM, n=66; pre-diabetes, n=202; NGT, n=72), the proportion of subjects with NAFLD increased according to the glucose tolerance status (31.9% in NGT; 47.0% in pre-diabetes; 57.6% in T2DM). The median CAP value was significantly higher in subjects with T2DM (265 dB/m) than in those with pre-diabetes (245 dB/m) or NGT (231 dB/m) (all p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with moderate to severe NAFLD had a 2.8-fold (odds ratio) higher risk of having T2DM than those without NAFLD (p=0.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-6.64), and positive correlations between the CAP value and HOMA-IR (ρ0.407) or fasting C-peptide (ρ0.402) were demonstrated. Subjects with T2DM had a higher prevalence of severe NAFLD than those with NGT. Increased hepatic steatosis was significantly associated with the presence of T2DM, and insulin resistance induced by hepatic fat may be an important mechanistic connection.

  9. The impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in non-overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takuya; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kojima, Takao; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kato, Takahiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-overweight individuals with NAFLD. A population-based retrospective cohort study of 4629 participants who were enrolled in a health check-up programme for more than 10 years. A standardized questionnaire and abdominal ultrasonography were used to diagnose NAFLD. A cut-off point of BMI 23 kg/m(2) was used to define overweight (≥23.0 kg/m(2)) or non-overweight (<23.0 kg/m(2)). The primary outcome was incident T2DM. Over a mean follow-up of 12.8 years, 351 participants (7.6%) developed T2DM. The incidence rate of T2DM was 3.2% in the non-overweight without NAFLD group, 14.4% in the non-overweight with NAFLD group, 8.0% in the overweight without NAFLD group and 26.4% in the overweight with NAFLD group. The adjusted hazard ratios for incident T2DM compared with the non-overweight without NAFLD group were as follows: 3.59 (95% CI: 2.14-5.76) in the non-overweight with NAFLD group, 1.99 (95% CI: 1.47-2.69) in the overweight without NAFLD group and 6.77 (95% CI: 5.17-8.91) in the overweight with NAFLD group. The adjusted hazard ratio in the non-overweight with NAFLD group was significantly higher than that in the overweight without NAFLD group or that in the non-overweight without NAFLD group. Non-overweight individuals with NAFLD had a high risk of incident T2DM. Diagnosis of NAFLD is important in non-overweight individuals, and therefore it might be necessary to follow their health conditions on a long-term basis after detection of NAFLD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Man-Yi; Zhang, Li; Shi, Song-Li; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. Methods A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016), were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model. Results Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls) contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04) and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02), but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006), homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002), dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03) and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001), but not heterozygote model. Conclusion T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. PMID:27128842

  11. Free triiodothyronine levels are positively associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoli; Zheng, Xiao; Guan, Liying; Jiang, Zhi; Lin, Haiyan; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yikun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among euthyroid subjects have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and the presence of NAFLD in a large-sample middle-aged euthyroid subjects. A total of 2576 euthyroid subjects who underwent health check-up were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. Conventional risk factors for NAFLD were assessed as well as serum levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in NAFLD group (5.12 ± 0.58 versus 4.84 ± 0.58 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.000) than non-NAFLD group, while levels of TSH and FT4 were comparable between NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (TSH: 2.13 ± 0.90 versus 2.20 ± 0.93 mIU/L, adjusted p = 0.190; FT4: 16.41 ± 2.04 versus 16.18 ± 2.06 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.146, respectively). Levels of FT3 were positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high level of FT3 was an independent predictor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.253, p = 0.040). The relationship between FT4 and NAFLD in women was different according to menopausal status, with negative association in pre-menopausal women (OR: 0.777, 95% CI: 0.617-0.979, p = 0.032) and null association in post-menopausal women (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 0.841-1.277, p = 0.736). Our findings suggested that high levels of FT3 were significantly associated with NAFLD among middle-aged euthyroid subjects independently of known metabolic risk factors. A negative correlation of serum FT4 level with NAFLD was only observed in pre-menopausal women.

  12. Relationship between Hypothyroidism and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Weiwei; An, Xiaofei; Li, Ling; Shao, Xiaoqing; Li, Qian; Yao, Qiuming; Zhang, Jin-An

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies propose that hypothyroidism might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but findings from published studies on the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD are still controversial. Our study aimed to make a comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD through a meta-analysis. PubMed, China Dissertation Database, and EMBASE databases were searched to find observational studies assessing the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD through meta-analysis. Thirteen articles were ultimately included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the 13 studies found a high correlation between hypothyroidism and NAFLD (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.24-1.87, P  < 0.001). Meta-analysis of 9 studies providing adjusted ORs found that hypothyroidism was independently correlated with NAFLD (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.32-2.23, P  < 0.001). Subgroup analysis found that both overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were significantly correlated with NAFLD, and the pooled ORs were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.36, P  = 0.002) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.10-1.77, P  = 0.006), respectively. Besides, meta-analysis of studies providing adjusted ORs also found that both overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were independently correlated with NAFLD, and the pooled ORs were 1.81 (95% CI 1.30-2.52, P  < 0.001) and 1.63 (95% CI 1.19-2.24, P  = 0.002), respectively. The meta-analysis provides strong epidemiological evidence for the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Both individuals with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are at higher risk for NAFLD than euthyroid subjects.

  13. An observational study on the association between major dietary patterns and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaonan; Peng, Yan; Chen, Shuhong; Sun, Qingyun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Data on the association of dietary patterns with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among adolescents are scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of dietary patterns and key foods on NAFLD among adolescents in Shandong, China. Data were extracted from Linyi Nutrition and Health study during 2015 to 2016. This cross-sectional study population comprised 1639 participants aged between 16 and 23 years. Dietary intake was assessed by the use of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), containing 85 food items. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each quartile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using logistic regression analysis. Of 1639 participants, 221 (13.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Three major dietary patterns were derived from factor analysis: traditional Chinese, Western, and high-energy dietary patterns. There were significant differences in the intake of whole grains, tuber, and vegetable across quartiles of the traditional Chinese and Western pattern (P < .05). Besides, compared with adolescents in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile for whole grains intake had a lower OR for NAFLD (OR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.61–0.98; P < .05), and for red meat and soft drink consumption had greater OR for NAFLD (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06–1.72; OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.34–2.56; respectively, P < .05). After adjustment for several potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern scores had lower OR for NAFLD (OR = 0.726; 95% CI: 0.383–0.960, P < .05) than did those in the lowest quartile, whereas those in the highest quartile of the Western pattern score had greater OR for NAFLD (OR = 1.197; 95% CI: 1.013–1

  14. A potential link between polycystic ovary syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an update meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Yao, Xin-Yu; Shi, Ru-Xia; Liu, Su-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2018-05-10

    Epidemiological literature regarding the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains inconsistent. Furthermore, it remains debatable whether NAFLD is associated with PCOS as a consequence of shared risk factors or whether PCOS contributes to NAFLD in an independent fashion. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Relevant studies published before May 2017 were identified and retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science databases. The data were extracted, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. A total of 17 studies were included into the present analysis. Compared to the control group, the risk of NAFLD in the PCOS group was higher (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.95-2.60). When stratified by BMI and geographic location, the results indicated that the frequency of NAFLD risk was significantly higher in obese subjects (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.88-4.82), non-obese subjects (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.12-3.85), subjects from Europe (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.58-2.52), subjects from the Asia-Pacific Region, (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.89-2.84) and subjects from America (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.93-4.55). In addition, PCOS patients with hyperandrogenism (HA) had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD, compared with controls (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 2.58-4.24). However, there was no association between PCOS patients without HA and higher risk of NAFLD (OR = 1.46; 95% CI =0.55-3.87). The results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of observational studies and possible confounding factors. The meta-analysis results suggest that PCOS is significantly associated with high risk of NAFLD. Although this association was independent of obesity

  15. I148M variant of PNPLA3 increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by obesity and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Xia, M-F; Ling, Y; Bian, H; Lin, H-D; Yan, H-M; Chang, X-X; Li, X-M; Ma, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L-S; Wang, S-S; Wu, B-J; He, W-Y; Zhao, N-Q; Gao, X

    2016-03-01

    The patatin-like phospholipase 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 gene polymorphism is an important genetic determinant of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the associations between liver fat and metabolic traits in rs738409 G allele carriers and the allelic influence on this association have not been fully studied. To investigate the influence of the PNPLA3 gene polymorphism on the association of liver fat with serum metabolic factors and carotid atherosclerosis. Liver fat was measured by quantitative ultrasound in 4300 subjects in the Shanghai Changfeng community and analysed for its association with obesity and metabolic factors in individuals with the PNPLA3 CC, CG and GG genotypes. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurred in 37.9% and 28.8% of the subjects with the GG and CC genotypes respectively (P < 0.001). Liver fat was significantly associated with body mass index, waist circumference, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and insulin in the PNPLA3 rs738409 G allele carriers (P < 0.001). Compared with the CC homozygotes, the GG homozygotes presented higher liver fat and liver fibrosis scores despite their better metabolic status (comparison of regression line slopes, P < 0.05). An increase in liver fat was accompanied by a significant increase in the average and maximum carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with the PNPLA3 CC genotype but not in those with the GG genotype. PNPLA3 rs738409 G allele carriers were found to be more susceptible to the metabolic-related hepatic steatosis, and developed NAFLD and liver fibrosis despite presenting relatively better metabolic statuses and lower risks for carotid atherosclerosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fatty liver index and hepatic steatosis index for prediction of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sviklāne, Laura; Olmane, Evija; Dzērve, Zane; Kupčs, Kārlis; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Sokolovska, Jeļizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the diagnostic value of hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI), as well as their link to metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus. We have screened the effectiveness of FLI and HSI in an observational pilot study of 40 patients with type 1 diabetes. FLI and HSI were calculated for 201 patients with type 1 diabetes. Forty patients with FLI/HSI values corresponding to different risk of liver steatosis were invited for liver magnetic resonance study. In-phase/opposed-phase technique of magnetic resonance was used. Accuracy of indices was assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Twelve (30.0%) patients had liver steatosis. For FLI, sensitivity was 90%; specificity, 74%; positive likelihood ratio, 3.46; negative likelihood ratio, 0.14; positive predictive value, 0.64; and negative predictive value, 0.93. For HSI, sensitivity was 86%; specificity, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 1.95; negative likelihood ratio, 0.21; positive predictive value, 0.50; and negative predictive value, 0.92. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FLI was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [0.72; 0.99]); for HSI 0.75 [0.58; 0.91]. Liver fat correlated with liver enzymes, waist circumference, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. FLI correlated with C-reactive protein, liver enzymes, and blood pressure. HSI correlated with waist circumference and C-reactive protein. FLI ≥ 60 and HSI ≥ 36 were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and nephropathy. The tested indices, especially FLI, can serve as surrogate markers for liver fat content and metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. The overall computer/mobile devices usage time is related to newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Liu, Fangfang; Fang, Liyun; Li, Chunlei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Chen, Xin; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-11-01

    The computer/mobile devices usage time (CMD-UT) is closely related to a sedentary lifestyle, which is an important risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). But their direct relationship remains unclear. We aimed to examine the relationship between CMD-UT and newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 7516 adults in Tianjin, China. The CMD-UT was collected via a questionnaire included five categories. NAFLD [with normal or elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels] was diagnosed by at least twice liver ultrasonography examinations and serum ALT concentrations (>41 U/L in males and >33 U/L in females). The prevalence of overall NAFLD, NAFLD with normal or elevated ALT levels was 18.2, 14.2, and 4.0%, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having overall NAFLD by increasing CMD-UT levels were 1.00 for <1 h/d, 1.58 (1.22-2.05) for 1-3 h/d, 1.58 (1.18-2.11) for 3-5 h/d, 1.65 (1.21-2.27) for 5-10 h/d, and 1.99 (1.29-3.05) for ≥10h/d (P-trend for CMD-UT levels = 0.02), respectively. Similar relations were observed with the use of NAFLD with normal or elevated ALT levels. The present study is the first to find that CMD-UT levels are independently associated with NAFLD. Key Messages The computer/mobile devices usage time levels are independently associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induces signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in wild-type mice and accelerates pathological signs of AD in an AD model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Geun; Krenz, Antje; Toussaint, Leon E; Maurer, Kirk J; Robinson, Sudie-Ann; Yan, Angela; Torres, Luisa; Bynoe, Margaret S

    2016-01-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease afflicting about one third of the world's population and 30 % of the US population. It is induced by consumption of high-lipid diets and is characterized by liver inflammation and subsequent liver pathology. Obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet are known to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated NAFLD-induced liver inflammation in the pathogenesis of AD. WT and APP-Tg mice were fed with a standard diet (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2, 5 months, or 1 year to induce NAFLD. Another set of APP-Tg mice were removed from HFD after 2 months and put back on SD for 3 months. During acute phase NAFLD, WT and APP-Tg mice developed significant liver inflammation and pathology that coincided with increased numbers of activated microglial cells in the brain, increased inflammatory cytokine profile, and increased expression of toll-like receptors. Chronic NAFLD induced advanced pathological signs of AD in both WT and APP-Tg mice, and also induced neuronal apoptosis. We observed decreased brain expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) which is involved in β-amyloid clearance, in both WT and APP-Tg mice after ongoing administration of the HFD. LRP-1 expression correlated with advanced signs of AD over the course of chronic NAFLD. Removal of mice from HFD during acute NAFLD reversed liver pathology, decreased signs of activated microglial cells and neuro-inflammation, and decreased β-amyloid plaque load. Our findings indicate that chronic inflammation induced outside the brain is sufficient to induce neurodegeneration in the absence of genetic predisposition.

  19. Comparative clinical study between the effect of fenofibrate alone and its combination with pentoxifylline on biochemical parameters and liver stiffness in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohamed; Mostafa, Tarek Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common health problem associated with increased liver and vascular specific complications. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effect of fenofibrate alone or in combination with pentoxifylline on the measured biochemical parameters, inflammatory pathway and liver stiffness in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study design was randomized controlled trial. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited 90 non-alcoholic fatty liver patients from the Internal Medicine Department at Tanta University Hospital, Egypt. They were classified randomly into two groups to receive fenofibrate 300 mg daily or fenofibrate 300 mg daily plus pentoxifylline 1200 mg/day in three divided doses for 24 weeks. Fasting blood sample was obtained before and 24 weeks after treatment for biochemical analysis of liver and lipid panels, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, hyaluronic acid, transforming growth factor beta 1, fasting plasma insulin and fasting glucose. Liver stiffness measurement was carried out using fibro-scan. Data were statistically analyzed by paired and unpaired Student's t test. The data obtained suggests that adding pentoxifylline to fenofibrate does not provide a beneficial effect on lipid panel, but has a beneficial effect on indirect biochemical markers of hepatic fibrosis, a direct marker linked to matrix deposition (hyaluronic acid), a cytokine/growth factor linked to liver fibrosis (transforming growth factor beta 1), the inflammatory pathway, insulin resistance and liver stiffness as compared to fenofibrate alone. The combination pentoxifylline plus fenofibrate may represent a new therapeutic strategy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as it resulted in more beneficial effects on direct and indirect markers of liver fibrosis, liver stiffness, insulin resistance and inflammatory pathway implicated in NAFLD.

  20. Histopathological aspects of liver under variable food restriction: has the intense one-week food restriction a protective effect on non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) development?

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Vodickova, Ludmila; Slyskova, Jana; Svoboda, Miroslav; Rejhova, Alexandra; Vodicka, Pavel; Samasca, Gabriel; Kralova, Alena; Nagy, Melinda; Mydlarova-Blascakova, Marta; Poracova, Jana

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by a variety of hepatic injury patterns without significant alcohol use. It has a close association with obesity, so treatment includes weight loss, control of insulin sensitivity, interventions directed at inflammation and fibrosis. There is a certain relationship between the grade and duration of food restriction and hepatic function. The objective of this work was to describe the relationship between biochemistry, autoantibodies, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and liver morphology in experimental rabbit groups with food restriction as compared to controls with ad libitum food (ADL) income. The experiment was performed on a total of 24 rabbits of a weaning age of 25-81 days. The first group (R1) was restricted between 32 and 39 days of age to 50 g of food per rabbit a day. The second group (R2) was also restricted between 32 and 39 days, but the rabbits received 65 g of food per rabbit a day. At the end of the experiment, the blood and liver samples were collected at necropsy. NAFLD has developed in all three groups. There was any autoantibody positivity in all three groups. IGF-I is moderately higher in R1 and R2 group, as compared to the control group (P > 0.05). IGFBP-3 is without statistical significance in all three groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is the only liver biochemical parameter that has significantly increased following food restriction (P > 0.039). Single one-week restriction has any protective effect on NAFLD development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Liver Damage and Atherosclerosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petta, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Torres, Daniele; Buttacavoli, Maria; Cammà, Calogero; Di Marco, Vito; Licata, Anna; Lo Bue, Anna; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Salvaggio, Adriana; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Craxì, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We assessed whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and low prevalence of morbid obesity. Secondary aim was to explore the association of OSA and hypoxemia with NASH and severity of liver pathological changes. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 126) with chronically elevated ALT and NAFLD underwent STOP-BANG questionnaire to estimate OSA risk and ultrasonographic carotid assessment. In patients accepting to perform cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG, n = 50), OSA was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5. A carotid atherosclerotic plaque was defined as a focal thickening >1.3 mm. Results Prevalence of high OSA risk was similar in patients refusing or accepting PG (76% vs 68%, p = 0.17). Among those accepting PG, overall OSA prevalence was significantly higher in patients with F2-F4 fibrosis compared to those without (72% vs 44%; p = 0.04). Significant fibrosis was independently associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2)<95% (OR 3.21, 95%C.I. 1.02–7.34; p = 0.04). Prevalence of OSA tended to be higher in patients with, than in those without, carotid plaques (64% vs 40%; p = 0.08). Carotid plaques were independently associated with %time at SaO2<90% >1 (OR 6.30, 95%C.I. 1.02–12.3; p = 0.01). Conclusions In NAFLD patients with chronically elevated ALT at low prevalence of morbid obesity, OSA was highly prevalent and indexes of SaO2 resulted independently associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis. These data suggest to consider sleep disordered breathing as a potential additional therapeutic target in severe NAFLD patients. PMID:26672595

  2. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by thioredoxin-interacting protein in mouse Kupffer cells as a regulatory mechanism for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development

    PubMed Central

    He, Kun; Zhu, Xiwen; Liu, Yan; Miao, Chunmu; Wang, Tao; Li, Peizhi; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Yaxi; Gong, Junhua; Cai, Can; Li, Jinzheng; Li, Shengwei; Ruan, Xiong Z.; Gong, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    NOD-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been implicated in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It has been also shown that palmitic acid (PA) activates NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in Kupffer cells (KCs). However, the specific mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation is unclear. We studies the molecular mechanisms by investigating the roles of Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 on NAFLD development in patients, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFL and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH in wild type (WT), TXNIP−/− (thioredoxin-interacting protein) and NLRP3−/− mice, and isolated KCs. We found that the expressions of NLRP3 and TXNIP in human liver tissues were higher in NASH group than in NAFL group. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation analyses show that activation of the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome protein complex occurred in KCs of NASH WT mice rather than NAFL WT mice, thus suggesting that the formation and activation of this protein complex is mainly involved in the development of NASH. NLRP3−/− mice exhibited less severe NASH than WT mice in MCD diet model, whereas TXNIP deficiency enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and exacerbated liver injury. PA triggered the activation and co-localization of the NLRP3 inflammasome protein complex in KCs isolated from WT and TXNIP−/− but not NLRP3−/− mice, and most of the complex co-localized with mitochondria of KCs following PA stimulation. Taken together, our novel findings indicate that TXNIP plays a protective and anti-inflammatory role in the development of NAFLD through binding and suppressing NLRP3. PMID:28499273

  3. Multicausality in fatty liver disease: Is there a rationale to distinguish between alcoholic and non-alcoholic origin?

    PubMed Central

    Völzke, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Apart from alcohol, there are other factors that may induce complications, which resemble alcohol-related liver disorders. In particular, obesity has been brought into focus as a risk factor for fatty liver disease. The term “non-alcoholic” fatty liver disease is commonly used to distinguish between obesity-related and alcohol-related hepatic steatosis. This review uses the epidemiological perspective to critically assess whether it is necessary and useful to differentiate between alcoholic and “non-alcoholic” fatty liver disease. The MEDLINE database was searched using the PubMed search engine, and a review of reference lists from original research and review articles was conducted. The concept to distinguish between alcoholic and “non-alcoholic” fatty liver disease is mainly based on specific pathomechanisms. This concept has, however, several limitations including the common overlap between alcohol misuse and obesity-related metabolic disorders and the non-consideration of additional causal factors. Both entities share similar histopathological patterns. Studies demonstrating differences in clinical presentation and outcome are often biased by selection. Risk factor reduction is the main principle of prevention and treatment of both disease forms. In conclusion, alcoholic and “non-alcoholic” fatty liver diseases are one and the same disease caused by different risk factors. A shift from artificial categories to a more general approach to fatty liver disease as a multicausal disorder may optimize preventive strategies and help clinicians more effectively treat patients at the individual level. PMID:22826613

  4. Comparison of effects of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Dong; Fu, Kun-Fa; Li, Gui-Mei; Lian, Yan-Shu; Ren, Ai-Min; Chen, Yun-Jue; Xia, Jin-Rong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare and analyze the effects of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese subjects. METHODS: In 2008, a population of 4847 subjects was randomly sampled from 17 medical units for enrollment in this cohort study. Baseline information was obtained via a questionnaire on general information, physical examination (height, weight, and blood pressure), laboratory tests (triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, and creatinine), B-mode ultrasound, and ECG screening. The incidence of T2DM after four years of follow-up was calculated. Numeric variable data was tested for normality, with the data expressed as mean ± SD. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to calculate the cumulative incidence. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the relative risk (RR) of different body mass index (BMI) levels and NAFLD on T2DM, as well as analyzing the RR adjusted for age, sex, blood pressure, lipids, transaminases, uric acid, and creatinine. RESULTS: A total of 4736 (97.71%) subjects completed 4-year follow-up, with a median follow-up time of 3.85 years, totaling 17223 person-years. 380 subjects were diagnosed with T2DM, with a cumulative incidence of 8.0%. The cumulative incidence of T2DM in the NAFLD and control groups was 17.4% vs 4.1% (P < 0.001), respectively, while the incidence in overweight and obese subjects was 11.0% vs 15.8% (P < 0.001), respectively. The incidence of T2DM increased with an increase in baseline BMI. Cox regression analysis showed that the risk of T2DM in the NAFLD group (RR = 4.492, 95%CI: 3.640-5.542) after adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, lipids, ALT, uric acid, and creatinine was 3.367 (2.367-4.266), while the value (RR, 95%CI) in overweight and obese subjects after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, blood pressure, lipids and other factors was 1.274 (0.997-1.629) and 1.554 (1

  5. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathomechanism, new diagnostic markers].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Klupa, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex of a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenic concept of NAFLD covers overnutrition with fatty acids, underactivity. Insulin resistance is believed to play the main role in this process. NAFLD is mostly related to visceral adiposity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes melitus. The presented work is a review of in vitro and in vivo modern studies, as well as clinical observations on molecular mechanisms leading to development and progress of NAFLD. Up till today their is no treatment od NAFLD, and this pathology is not benign--it may lead to patients' death in 10 years. The clinical approach to NAFLD is prevention of it's development. The manuscript is a review of new biochemical markers allowing for early detection of metabolic disorders leading to NAFLD development, thus to sufficient prevention of this pathology in patients.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement by FibroScan in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Vergniol, Julien; Guillet, Anne; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Lannes, Adrien; Le Bail, Brigitte; Michalak, Sophie; Chermak, Faiza; Bertrais, Sandrine; Foucher, Juliette; Oberti, Frédéric; Charbonnier, Maude; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Calès, Paul; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2016-09-01

    NAFLD is highly prevalent but only a small subset of patients develop advanced liver fibrosis with impaired liver-related prognosis. We aimed to compare blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroScan for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and the evaluation of prognosis in NAFLD. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in a cross-sectional study including 452 NAFLD patients with liver biopsy (NASH-CRN fibrosis stage), LSM, and eight blood fibrosis tests (BARD, NAFLD fibrosis score, FibroMeter(NAFLD), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB4, FibroTest, Hepascore, FibroMeter(V2G)). Prognostic accuracy was evaluated in a longitudinal study including 360 NAFLD patients. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the two best-performing tests in the cross-sectional study: AUROCs for advanced fibrosis (F3/4) were, respectively, 0.831±0.019 and 0.817±0.020 (p⩽0.041 vs. other tests); rates of patients with ⩾90% negative/positive predictive values for F3/4 were 56.4% and 46.7% (p<0.001 vs. other tests); Obuchowski indexes were 0.834±0.014 and 0.798±0.016 (p⩽0.036 vs. other tests). Two fibrosis classifications were developed to precisely estimate the histological fibrosis stage from LSM or FibroMeter(V2G) results without liver biopsy (diagnostic accuracy, respectively: 80.8% vs. 77.4%, p=0.190). Kaplan-Meier curves in the longitudinal study showed that both classifications categorised NAFLD patients into subgroups with significantly different prognoses (p<0.001): the higher was the class of the fibrosis classification, the worse was the prognosis. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the most accurate of nine evaluated tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) fibrosis classifications help physicians estimate both fibrosis stage and patient prognosis in clinical practice. The amount of liver fibrosis is the main determinant of the liver-related prognosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver

  7. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Teneligliptin Attenuates Hepatic Lipogenesis via AMPK Activation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Takayasu; Shirakami, Yohei; Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2015-12-08

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, is increasingly a major cause of hepatic disorder. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, anti-diabetic agents, are expected to be effective for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we established a novel NAFLD model mouse using monosodium glutamate (MSG) and a high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the progression of NAFLD. Male MSG/HFD-treated mice were divided into two groups, one of which received teneligliptin in drinking water. Administration of MSG and HFD caused mice to develop severe fatty changes in the liver, but teneligliptin treatment improved hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evaluated by the NAFLD activity score. Serum alanine aminotransferase and intrahepatic triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in teneligliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes involved in de novo lipogenesis were significantly downregulated by teneligliptin (p < 0.05). Moreover, teneligliptin increased hepatic expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein. These findings suggest that teneligliptin attenuates lipogenesis in the liver by activating AMPK and downregulating the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis. DPP-4 inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of NAFLD and may be able to prevent its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  8. Correlation between liver histology and novel magnetic resonance imaging in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - MRI accurately quantifies hepatic steatosis in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Permutt, Z; Le, T-A; Peterson, M R; Seki, E; Brenner, D A; Sirlin, C; Loomba, R

    2012-07-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that measure hepatic steatosis are limited by T1 bias, T(2)* decay and multi-frequency signal-interference effects of protons in fat. Newer MR techniques such as the proton density-fat fraction (PDFF) that correct for these factors have not been specifically compared to liver biopsy in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To examine the association between MRI-determined PDFF and histology-determined steatosis grade, and their association with fibrosis. A total of 51 adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD underwent metabolic-biochemical profiling, MRI-determined PDFF measurement of hepatic steatosis and liver biopsy assessment according to NASH-CRN histological scoring system. The average MRI-determined PDFF increased significantly with increasing histology-determined steatosis grade: 8.9% at grade-1, 16.3% at grade-2, and 25.0% at grade-3 with P ≤ 0.0001 (correlation: r(2) = 0.56, P < 0.0001). Patients with stage-4 fibrosis, when compared with patients with stage 0-3 fibrosis, had significantly lower hepatic steatosis by both MRI-determined PDFF (7.6% vs. 17.8%, P < 0.005) and histology-determined steatosis grade (1.4 vs. 2.2, P < 0.05). NAFLD patients with grade 1 steatosis were more likely to have characteristics of advanced liver disease including higher average AST:ALT (0.87 vs. 0.60, P < 0.02), GGT (140 vs. 67, P < 0.01), and INR (1.06 vs. 0.99, P < 0.01), higher stage of fibrosis and hepatocellular ballooning. MRI-determined proton density-fat fraction correlates with histology-determined steatosis grade in adults with NAFLD. Steatosis is non-linearly related to fibrosis progression. In patients with NAFLD, a low amount of hepatic steatosis on imaging does not necessarily indicate mild disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. The value of different insulin resistance indices in assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.

    PubMed

    El-Karaksy, Hanaa M; El-Raziky, Mona S; Fouad, Hanan M; Anwar, Ghada M; El-Mougy, Fatma M; El-Koofy, Nehal M; El-Hennawy, Ahmad M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between insulin resistance (IR) and both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a group of Egyptian overweight/obese children and adolescents and to evaluate different IR indices in detection of NAFLD. The study included 76 overweight/obese children aged 2-15 years; 52.6% were males. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, liver biochemical profile, and liver ultrasound. IR was calculated using the following indices; the homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR), the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and hepatic insulin sensitivity. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to estimate prevalence of MetS. Liver biopsy was done when medically indicated and accepted by parents. IR was detected in 43.4% and 34.2% by using QUICKI and HOMA, respectively. MetS was detected in 36.8% and NAFLD was detected in 45.5% among those performing liver biopsy. Cases with NAFLD had more frequent IR than children with normal histology. QUICKI showed significant difference between normal subjects and both steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; while HOMA-IR was sensitive in cases with NASH only. MetS was present in 100% of patients with NASH and in 75% of those with steatosis and they were all obese. Patients with NASH had significantly higher ALT than those with normal histology. IR was significantly associated with NAFLD. QUICKI is considered more sensitive than HOMA-IR in differentiating simple steatosis from normal liver histology. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver and the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bashiardes, Stavros; Shapiro, Hagit; Rozin, Shachar; Shibolet, Oren; Elinav, Eran

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, up to 25% of NAFLD patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and its progression into NASH. Suggested microbiome-associated mechanisms contributing to NAFLD and NASH include dysbiosis-induced deregulation of the gut endothelial barrier function, which facilitates systemic bacterial translocation, and intestinal and hepatic inflammation. Furthermore, increased microbiome-modulated metabolites such as lipopolysaccharides, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids, and ethanol, may affect liver pathology through multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. Herein, we discuss the associations, mechanisms, and clinical implications of the microbiome's contribution to NAFLD and NASH. Understanding these contributions to the development of fatty liver pathogenesis and its clinical course may serve as a basis for development of therapeutic microbiome-targeting approaches for treatment and prevention of NAFLD and NASH. Intestinal host-microbiome interactions play diverse roles in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD and NASH. Elucidation of the mechanisms driving these microbial effects on the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH may enable to identify new diagnostic and therapeutic targets of these common metabolic liver diseases. This article is part of a special issue on microbiota.

  12. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Sebastian; Klee, Dirk; Kircheis, Gerald; Friedt, Michael; Schaper, Joerg; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI]). Of these, 82 (88.1%) had completely normal results in all examined aspects. Only one patient (1.1%) fulfilled the criteria as potential NAFLD with ALT > twice the upper limit of normal. Ten of the 93 patients (10.8%) showed any mild abnormality in at least one examined category including ALT, conventional ultrasounds and liver stiffness measurements. However, none of these ten fulfilled the NAFLD case definition criteria. Therefore, these slightly abnormal results were judged to be unspecific or at least of unknown significance in terms of NAFLD indication. Compared to data from the general population, our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort, and advocate against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM. What is Known: • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in adults with type 1 DM, and paediatric patients with type 1 DM in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. What is New: • Our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM from Germany compared to prevalence data from the general population. • This finding advocates against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM in western countries.

  13. Diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects expression of major cytochrome P450 genes in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Noji, Keiko; Shinozaki, Shohei; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with impaired liver function, and resveratrol could suppress NAFLD progression. This study examined the effects of NAFLD on the expression of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) subtypes in the liver and whether the expression could be attenuated by resveratrol. C57BL/6 mice (male, 10 weeks of age) were fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFHS) diet to induce NAFLD. Major Cyp subtype mRNA expression in the liver was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Body and liver weights at 4 and 12 weeks were significantly higher in mice fed the HFHS diet compared with control. The HFHS diet significantly increased the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides at 12 weeks. Under this condition, the HFHS diet increased the expression of Cyp1a2 and decreased that of Cyp3a11 at 1 week and thereafter. On the other hand, Cyp1a1, 2b10 and 2c29 mRNA expression levels in the liver were significantly increased at 12 weeks only. Resveratrol (0.05% (w/w) in diet) slightly suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver, but failed to recover impaired Cyp gene expression levels in NAFLD. Drug metabolism may be impaired in NAFLD, and each Cyp subtype is regulated in a different manner. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. The influence of hepatic steatosis on the evaluation of fibrosis with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by acoustic radiation force impulse.

    PubMed

    Yanrong Guo; Haoming Lin; Xinyu Zhang; Huiying Wen; Siping Chen; Xin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography is a non-invasive method for the assessment of liver by measuring liver stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of ARFI for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and to assess impact of steatosis on liver fibrosis stiffness measurement, in rats model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rat models were conducted in 59 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution. Liver mechanics were measured using shear wave velocity (SWV) induced by acoustic radiation force. In rats with NAFLD, the diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography in predicting severe fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F ≥ 4) had the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.993 and 0.985. Among rats mean SWV values were significantly higher in rats with severe steatosis by histology compared to those mild or without steatosis for F0-F2 fibrosis stages (3.07 versus 2.51 m/s, P = 0.01). ARFI elastography is a promising method for staging hepatic fibrosis with NAFLD in rat models. The presence of severe steatosis is a significant factor for assessing the lower stage of fibrosis.

  15. Models of non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Potential Translational Value: the Effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Grasselli, Elena; Canesi, Laura; Portincasa, Piero; Voci, Adriana; Vergani, Laura; Demori, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in industrialized countries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic diseases. Molecular mechanisms on the root of the disrupted lipid homeostasis in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies can benefit of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of fatty liver. Here, we describe the high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat in vivo model, and two in vitro models, the primary cultured rat fatty hepatocytes or the FaO rat hepatoma fatty cells, mimicking human NAFLD. Liver steatosis was invariably associated with increased number/size of lipid droplets (LDs) and modulation of expression of genes coding for key genes of lipid metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (Ppars) and perilipins (Plins). In these models, we tested the anti-steatotic effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine (T2), a metabolite of thyroid hormones. T2 markedly reduced triglyceride content and LD size acting on mRNA expression of both Ppars and Plins. T2 also stimulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of fatty acids. We conclude that in vivo and especially in vitro models of NAFLD are valuable tools to screen a large number of compounds counteracting the deleterious effect of liver steatosis. Because of the high and negative impact of liver steatosis on human health, ongoing experimental studies from our group are unravelling the ultimate translational value of such cellular models of NAFLD.

  16. Pro-inflammatory and atherogenic circulating factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Diego; Zago, Valeria; López, Graciela I; Graffigna, Mabel; Fainboim, Hugo; Miksztowicz, Verónica; Meroño, Tomás; Belli, Susana; Levalle, Oscar; Wikinski, Regina; Brites, Fernando; Berg, Gabriela; Schreier, Laura

    2011-01-14

    It is not elucidated if liver fat deposits associated to metabolic syndrome (MS) aggravate the atherogenic state. We evaluated, in MS patients, if the presence of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (HS) determines differences in inflammatory markers and VLDL characteristics. Seventy-five patients with MS were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of HS, assessed by ultrasound. Lipid profile, free fatty acids (FFA), VLDL composition, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were measured. HS patients presented increased triglycerides levels, HOMA-IR and FFA. Patients with HS showed a reduction in adiponectin (p = 0.04) and increase in hs-CRP (p = 0.02), independently of insulin-resistance (IR). FFA correlated positively with TNF-α (p = 0.04) and inversely with adiponectin (p = 0.01). hs-CRP correlated with all inflammatory markers, independently of IR: TNF-α (r = 0.34, p = 0.02), sVCAM-1 (r = 0.29 p = 0.03), sICAM-1 (r = 0.56, p = 0.01), adiponectin (r = -0.34, p = 0.04). HS patients presented higher VLDL mass and number of particles. Adiponectin correlated with VLDL cholesterol content (r = -0.47, p = 0.04), independently of IR. VLDL, once secreted, would suffer from changes, becoming more atherogenic. Simple HS would play an important role increasing cardiovascular risk, independently of IR. hs-CRP may represent a useful biomarker of this condition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic Role of Ursolic Acid on Ameliorating Hepatic Steatosis and Improving Metabolic Disorders in High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:24489777

  18. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Songtao; Liao, Xilu; Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  19. Lower levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score are associated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Mori, Kojiroh; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Imai, Shunsuke; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Tasuku; Seko, Yuya; Ishiba, Hiroshi; Okajima, Akira; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency may be associated with histological progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is mainly produced by hepatocytes and its secretion is stimulated by GH. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of IGF-1 in Japanese patients. Serum samples were obtained in 199 Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and in 2911 sex- and age-matched healthy people undergoing health checkups. The serum levels of IGF-1 were measured using a commercially available immunoradiometric assay. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of IGF-1 according to age and sex were also calculated in NAFLD patients. The serum IGF-1 levels in NAFLD patients were significantly lower (median, 112 ng/mL) compared with the control population (median, 121 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). IGF-1 SDS less than -2.0 SD from median were found in 11.6% of 199 patients. NASH patients exhibited significantly lower levels of IGF-1 SDS (n = 130; median, -0.7) compared with NAFL patients (n = 69; median, -0.3; P = 0.026). The IGF-1 SDS values decreased significantly with increasing lobular inflammation (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.001). In multiple regressions, the association between the IGF-1 SDS values and the severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age, sex and insulin resistance. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 may have a role in the development of advanced NAFLD, independent of insulin resistance. Supplementation with GH/IGF-1 may be a candidate for the treatment of NASH. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. CORRELATION OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE AND FEATURES OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS IN THE PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    de BARROS, Fernando; SETÚBAL, Sergio; MARTINHO, José Manoel; FERRAZ, Loraine; GAUDÊNCIO, Andressa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is an epidemic and chronic disease that can bring other comorbidities to the patient. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 90% of these patients and can progress to hepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. The relationship of this liver disease and obesity is already well known; however, it is possible that some parameters of the comorbidities are more related than others in the pathophysiology of the disease. Aim: Was analyzed the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the comorbidities of metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. Methods: Was involved ultrasonography and laboratory assessment of obese patients before bariatric surgery. NAFLD was assessed using the same sonography parameters for all patients. Based on the results, the patients were divided into groups with and without NAFLD. Comparisons between them involved clinical and laboratory variables such as fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance), glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, C-reactive protein, albumin and ferritin. Patients who reported alcohol abuse (defined as the consumption of >14 drinks per week) or who had hepatitis were excluded. Results: Eighty-two patients (74 women and 8 men) were studied, of whom 53 (64.6%) had NAFLD and 29 (35.4%) did not. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.05) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.01) were significantly altered in patients with NAFLD. However, weight, body mass index and excess weight did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.835, p=0.488 and p=0.727, respectively). Conclusions: Altered LDL cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin levels were related to the presence of NAFLD. PMID:28076482

  1. Increased Expression Profile and Functionality of TLR6 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Hepatocytes of Morbidly Obese Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Iruzubieta, Paula; Puente, Ángela; Ramos, David; Santa Cruz, Carolina; Estébanez, Ángel; Llerena, Susana; Alonso-Martín, Carmen; San Segundo, David; Álvarez, Lorena; López Useros, Antonio; Fábrega, Emilio; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Crespo, Javier

    2016-11-10

    Current evidence suggests that gut dysbiosis drives obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR6 specifically recognize components of Gram-positive bacteria. Despite the potential implications of TLR2 in NAFLD pathogenesis, the role of TLR6 has not been addressed. Our aim is to study a potential role of TLR6 in obesity-related NAFLD. Forty morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were prospectively studied. Cell surface expression of TLR2 and TLR6 was assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by flow cytometry. Freshly isolated monocytes were cultured with specific TLR2/TLR6 agonists and intracellular production of cytokines was determined by flow-cytometry. In liver biopsies, the expression of TLR2 and TLR6 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and cytokine gene expression using RT-qPCR. TLR6 expression in PBMCs from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients was significantly higher when compared to those from simple steatosis. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR2/TLR6 stimulation was also significantly higher in patients with lobular inflammation. Hepatocyte expression of TLR6 but not that of TLR2 was increased in NAFLD patients compared to normal liver histology. Deregulated expression and activity of peripheral TLR6 in morbidly obese patients can mirror the liver inflammatory events that are well known drivers of obesity-related NASH pathogenesis. Moreover, TLR6 is also significantly overexpressed in the hepatocytes of NAFLD patients compared to their normal counterparts. Thus, deregulated TLR6 expression may potentiate TLR2-mediated liver inflammation in NAFLD pathogenesis, and also serve as a potential peripheral biomarker of obesity-related NASH.

  2. Ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights of energy metabolism in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Traussnigg, Stefan; Kienbacher, Christian; Gajdošík, Martin; Valkovič, Ladislav; Halilbasic, Emina; Stift, Judith; Rechling, Christian; Hofer, Harald; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Ferenci, Peter; Wrba, Fritz; Trattnig, Siegfried; Krššák, Martin; Trauner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    With the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) non-invasive tools obtaining pathomechanistic insights to improve risk stratification are urgently needed. We therefore explored high- and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to obtain novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights into alterations of hepatic lipid, cell membrane and energy metabolism across the spectrum of NAFLD. MRS and liver biopsy were performed in 30 NAFLD patients with NAFL (n=8) or NASH (n=22). Hepatic lipid content and composition were measured using 3-Tesla proton ( 1 H)-MRS. 7-Tesla phosphorus ( 31 P)-MRS was applied to determine phosphomonoester (PME) including phosphoethanolamine (PE), phosphodiester (PDE) including glycerophosphocholine (GPC), phosphocreatine (PCr), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), inorganic phosphate (Pi), γ-ATP and total phosphorus (TP). Saturation transfer technique was used to quantify hepatic ATP flux. Hepatic steatosis in 1 H-MRS highly correlated with histology (P<.001) showing higher values in NASH than NAFL (P<.001) without differences in saturated or unsaturated fatty acid indices. PE/TP ratio increased with advanced fibrosis (F3/4) (P=.002) whereas GPC/PME+PDE decreased (P=.05) compared to no/mild fibrosis (F0-2). γ-ATP/TP was lower in advanced fibrosis (P=.049), while PCr/TP increased (P=.01). NADPH/TP increased with higher grades of ballooning (P=.02). Pi-to-ATP exchange rate constant (P=.003) and ATP flux (P=.001) were lower in NASH than NAFL. Ultra-high-field MRS, especially saturation transfer technique uncovers changes in energy metabolism including dynamic ATP flux in inflammation and fibrosis in NASH. Non-invasive profiling by MRS appears feasible and may assist further mechanistic and therapeutic studies in NAFLD/NASH. © 2017 The Authors Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit on high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ze; Tung, Yu-Tang; Hsia, Shih-Min; Wu, Chi-Hao; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2017-02-22

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease, is closely associated with metabolic syndrome and refers to the accumulation of hepatic steatosis not due to excess alcohol consumption. Phyllanthus emblica L. is a rich source of gallic acid and many known medicinally phytochemicals such as tannins, lignans, flavonoids, alkaloids, vitamin C, mucic acid, and ellagic acid. Our previous study has revealed that P. emblica exhibits inhibitory effects on hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in vitro, as well as gallic acid improves high fat diet (HFD)-induced dyslipidaemia, hepatosteatosis, and oxidative stress in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the water extract of P. emblica L. fruit (WEPE) on NAFLD in an animal model. The results showed that WEPE could significantly decrease body weight, peritoneal fat and epididymal fat, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities, and improve steatosis through elevating adiponectin in adipocytes and PPAR-α in the liver as well as lowering SREBP-1c in the liver of rats fed with a high fat diet (HFD). This might be an explanation for the hepatic fat deposition-lowering effect of WEPE. These results demonstrate that WEPE could be beneficial for the amelioration of HFD-induced steatosis.

  4. LPSF/GQ-02 inhibits the development of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Lima Ribeiro, Edlene; Costa Oliveira, Amanda; dos Santos, Laise Aline Martins; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extends from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains undefined, it is recognized that insulin resistance is present in almost all patients who develop this disease. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as an insulin sensitizer and have been used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions, including NAFLD. Hence, therapy of NAFLD with insulin-sensitizing drugs should ideally improve the key hepatic histological changes, while also reducing cardiometabolic and cancer risks. Controversially, TZDs are associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver of LDLR-/- mice after a high-fat diet. Eighty male mice were divided into 4 groups and two different experiments: 1-received a standard diet; 2-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 3-HFD+pioglitazone; 4-HFD+LPSF/GQ-02. The experiments were conducted for 10 or 12 weeks and in the last two or four weeks respectively, the drugs were administered daily by gavage. The results obtained with an NAFLD murine model indicated that LPSF/GQ-02 was effective in improving the hepatic architecture, decreasing fat accumulation, reducing the amount of collagen, decreasing inflammation by reducing IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and F4 / 80, and increasing the protein expression of IκBα, cytoplasmic NFκB-65, eNOS and IRS-1 in mice LDLR -/-. These results suggest a direct action by LPSF/GQ-02 on the factors that affect inflammation, insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of these animals. Further studies are being conducted in our laboratory to investigate the possible mechanism of action of LPSF/GQ-02 on

  5. Controlled attenuation parameter using the FibroScan® XL probe for quantification of hepatic steatosis for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2017-02-01

    The FibroScan® XL probe reduces failure of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and unreliable results in obese patients. The objective of this article is to evaluate the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained using the XL probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adult NAFLD patients with a liver biopsy within six months were included and were examined with the FibroScan® M and XL probes. Histopathological findings were reported according to the Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Participants who did not have fatty liver on ultrasonography were recruited as controls. A total of 57 NAFLD patients and 22 controls were included. The mean age of the NAFLD patients and controls was 50.1 ± 10.4 years and 20.2 ± 1.3 years, respectively ( p  = 0.000). The mean body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.0 kg per m 2 and 20.5 ± 2.4 kg per m 2 , respectively ( p  = 0.000). The distribution of steatosis grades were: S0, 29%; S1, 17%; S2, 35%; S3, 19%. The AUROC for estimation of steatosis grade ≥ S1, S2 and S3 was 0.94, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively, using the M probe, and 0.97, 0.81 and 0.67, respectively, using the XL probe. CAP obtained using the XL probe had similar accuracy as the M probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients.

  6. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2018-01-01

    Background Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2) If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance. Methods/Results 137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD) of 30.61 (8.6) years divided in three groups: BMI<25 with absence of NAFLD (G1), n = 82; BMI>30 with absence of NAFLD (G2), n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3), n = 31. Family history of obesity (any) was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size <0.2), but did predict obesity phenotype. Conclusion Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD. PMID:29466466

  7. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2) If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance. 137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD) of 30.61 (8.6) years divided in three groups: BMI<25 with absence of NAFLD (G1), n = 82; BMI>30 with absence of NAFLD (G2), n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3), n = 31. Family history of obesity (any) was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size <0.2), but did predict obesity phenotype. Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  8. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  9. Hepatic gene expression of Caucasian and African-American patients with obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Maria; Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Perry, Kellie; Goodman, Zachary D; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing data suggesting that African Americans with NAFLD tend to have less progressive liver disease. The aim of this study is to assess differences in the hepatic gene expression of African-American and Caucasian patients with NAFLD who had undergone bariatric surgery. A total of 94 patients (81 NAFLD and 13 weight-matched controls with normal liver biopsy) were included. Of the entire cohort, 73 were Caucasians and 21 were African Americans. All patients were undergoing bariatric surgery. Two liver biopsies were obtained at the time of surgery. One biopsy was snap-frozen for gene expression and the other biopsy was stained for pathologic assessment. Liver biopsy confirmed that 24 patients from our cohort had NASH while 57 had only simple steatosis. Snap-frozen liver biopsy specimens of these patients were then used for the RNA extraction. cDNA probes were hybridized with customized microarray gene chips containing 5,220 relevant genes. Gene expression profiles were compared between groups using significance analysis of microarrays algorithm. In comparison to all Caucasian patients, African-American patients had over-expression of EPB41L1, IGF2, FAH, ACSL4, FUT4, CYP3A (q values < 10(-4)). In comparison to Caucasian NAFLD patients, African-American NAFLD patients showed over-expression of EPB41L1 and ACSL4 genes. Finally, in comparison to Caucasian NASH patients, African-American NASH patients showed over-expression of GSTM 2, GSTM4 and GSTM5 as well as FH and ASCL4 genes. Some genes highlighted by this analysis, particularly cytochrome CYP3A and glutathione transferases GSTM2, 4, 5, were previously implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. African-American patients with biopsy-proven obesity-related NAFLD and NASH have a specific hepatic gene expression pattern that may explain their differences from Caucasian patients with NAFLD in developing progressive liver disease.

  10. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  11. The inhibitory effect of black soybean on hepatic cholesterol accumulation in high cholesterol and high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as excess of fat in the liver. We investigated the effects of black soybean on the cholesterol metabolism and insulin resistance of mice fed high cholesterol/fat diets. Mice were randomly allocated into four groups that were fed different diets: the normal cholesterol/fat diet; high cholesterol/fat diets (HCD); and HCD with 1%, and 4% black soybean powder (1B-HCD, and 4B-HCD). Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the black soybean-supplemented groups than that in the HCD group. PCR revealed significantly lower hepatic SREBP2 and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels of black soybean-supplemented mice. Real-time PCR revealed significantly higher hepatic ABCA1 mRNA level of black soybean-supplemented mice, which may increase cholesterol efflux. Liver bile acids concentration was significantly high in the 4B-HCD group. Black soybean stimulated secretion of adiponectin, activation of pAMPK, and eliminated free fatty acids in the liver. Black soybean supplementation decreased MDA and nitrate level. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GPx were restored by black soybean supplementation. Our data strongly indicate that black soybean influences the balance between oxidative and antioxidative stress. We suggest that black soybean improves cholesterol metabolism, insulin resistance, and alleviates oxidative damage in NAFLD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Multiomics reveal non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Mesnage, Robin; Renney, George; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Ward, Malcolm; Antoniou, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    The impairment of liver function by low environmentally relevant doses of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) is still a debatable and unresolved matter. Previously we have shown that rats administered for 2 years with 0.1 ppb (50 ng/L glyphosate equivalent dilution; 4 ng/kg body weight/day daily intake) of a Roundup GBH formulation showed signs of enhanced liver injury as indicated by anatomorphological, blood/urine biochemical changes and transcriptome profiling. Here we present a multiomic study combining metabolome and proteome liver analyses to obtain further insight into the Roundup-induced pathology. Proteins significantly disturbed (214 out of 1906 detected, q < 0.05) were involved in organonitrogen metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation. Proteome disturbances reflected peroxisomal proliferation, steatosis and necrosis. The metabolome analysis (55 metabolites altered out of 673 detected, p < 0.05) confirmed lipotoxic conditions and oxidative stress by showing an activation of glutathione and ascorbate free radical scavenger systems. Additionally, we found metabolite alterations associated with hallmarks of hepatotoxicity such as γ-glutamyl dipeptides, acylcarnitines, and proline derivatives. Overall, metabolome and proteome disturbances showed a substantial overlap with biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to steatohepatosis and thus confirm liver functional dysfunction resulting from chronic ultra-low dose GBH exposure. PMID:28067231

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Increased Risk of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Adults With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Possible Role for MAPK and NF-κB?

    PubMed

    Nelson, James E; Roth, Christian L; Wilson, Laura A; Yates, Katherine P; Aouizerat, Bradley; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Whalen, Elizabeth; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Mason, Michael; Gersuk, Vivian; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of serum vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to histologic features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and associated demographic, clinical, laboratory, and transcriptomic data in the well-characterized Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) cohort. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D (VD) was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 190 adults (>18 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Subjects were categorized according to their level of VD as either sufficient (>30 ng/ml), insufficient (≥20≤30 ng/ml), or deficient (VDD; <20 ng/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of VDD and the presence of definite NASH and individual histological features of NAFLD after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, and diabetes status. Hepatic transcriptomic data was compared between VDD and non-VDD subjects. VDD was present in 55% of subjects and was independently associated with definitive NASH (odds ratio (OR) 3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.62-6.15, P=0.001), increased lobular inflammation (OR=1.98, 95% CI, 1.08-3.61, P=0.026), more ballooning (OR=2.38, 95% CI, 1.32-4.30, P=0.004), and the presence of fibrosis (OR=2.32, 95% CI, 1.13-4.77, P=0.022). There was a significant inverse relationship between lower levels of serum resistin and increased VD level category (P=0.013). The KRT10, SEMA3B, SNORD3C, ARSD, and IGKV4-1 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate <0.05) between VDD and non-VDD subjects. Gene ontology and pathway analysis suggest activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB pathways in VDD NAFLD subjects. VDD is prevalent among US adult NAFLD patients and is independently associated with a definitive diagnosis of NASH and increased histological severity. Novel associations in proinflammatory pathways were identified, which suggest the

  14. Assessment of Vitamin D status in a group of Egyptian children with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (multicenter study).

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ahmed, Amal; Abdel Ghany, Maha; Abdel Hakeem, Gehan Lotfy; Kamal, Aya; Khattab, Rania; Abdalla, Asmaa; Abou El Fotoh, Laila El Morsi; El Mazary, Abdel Azeem; Sayed, Madiha Abdalla; Abdel Fadil, Ashraf Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the health problems with great burden on the liver that may end with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to assess serum vitamin D level in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease children. This cross sectional case control study involved 47 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease selected while recruiting the pediatric hepatology clinics. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years and were compared with 23 healthy age and sex matched children. All involved patients were subjected to careful history taking, clinical examination and for patients and control, anthropometric measures for body mass index (BMI) calculation (plotted on WHO percentile growth charts), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin (total and direct), serum albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL),low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin (for calculation of insulin resistance), C reactive protein and serum vitamin D all were assayed. NAFLD was detected by ultrasonography and graded as absent, mild, moderate and severe. Ninety-three percent of NAFLD patients were obese. Significant differences were found between patients and control regarding AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total and direct bilirubin, serum albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum vitamin D levels. Significant negative correlation was found between serum vitamin D level and grades of steatosis. Serum vitamin D level decreases in children with NAFLD. This low serum vitamin D level is associated with higher stages of steatosis but not with BMI.

  15. Noninvasive biomarkers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Current status and a glimpse of the future

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The development of non invasive biomarkers of disease has become a major focus of interest in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The large prevalence of the disease and the invasive nature of the investigation means that screening with liver biopsy is impractical. In addition to screening, the differentiation of those with simple steatosis vs steatohepatitis and fibrosis is clinically important as the prognosis of each differs. Serum biomarkers may be a combination of simple markers derived from large data sets or direct markers of disease activity. Serum markers of inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress in addition to fibrosis have been extensively studied in patients with NAFLD. Other techniques such as transient elastography, magnetic resonance elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging are becoming more established as noninvasive methods of detecting fibrosis in a variety of chronic liver conditions in addition to NAFLD. Newer high throughput methods such as proteomics and glycomics allow the nonhypothesis-driven identification of novel markers and may also potentially contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition. This review addresses some of the methodological issues which need to be considered in the search for the ideal biomarker. It is likely that a combination of serum biomarkers and techniques such as transient elastography may provide the optimal diagnostic discrimination however this remains to be proven in large studies. PMID:25152587

  16. A case of insulinoma with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Roles of hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia in pathogenesis of the disease.

    PubMed

    Rokutan, Mariyo; Yabe, Daisuke; Komoto, Izumi; Kurose, Takeshi; Kawai, Jun; Nakamura, Takefumi; Imamura, Masayuki; Seino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious health-related condition all over the world; the number of patients is increasing in Asian countries including Japan. Better understanding of its pathophysiology is required to develop effective therapeutics, as patients may go on to develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas. While NAFLD is believed to be associated with metabolic risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, its etiology remains largely unknown and the development or co-existence of NAFLD in patients with insulinoma has not been investigated. A 33-year-old male with an insulinoma, who had been hypoglycemic during the previous four years, developed abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes and histological fatty liver characteristic of NAFLD by the time of admission to our hospital for resection of an insulinoma. His medical records for the previous eight years revealed that his bodyweight had increased gradually from 60 kg to 71 kg for seven years and then acutely increased to 79 kg in the latest one-year period. This sudden increase was thought to be due to the patient's self-described overeating of fruits to forestall hypoglycemia. Fresh fruits are rich in fructose, and the patient's triglycerides, alanine and aspartate transaminases showed an acute increase in the previous one-year period. After resection of the insulinoma, the levels of these parameters all were mostly restored, which suggests that hyperinsulinemia and subsequent hyperphagia played a role in the development of NAFLD in this case. This is the first report of patient with NAFLD and an insulinoma.

  17. Effects of Azilsartan, Aliskiren or their Combination on High Fat Diet-induced Non-alcoholic Liver Disease Model in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saad Abdulrahman; Utba, Rabab Mohammed; Assumaidaee, Ajwad Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    In addition to its role in regulation of blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components were expressed in many other tissues suggesting potential roles in their functions. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect aliskiren, when used alone or in combination with azilsartan against high fat diet-induced liver disease in rats. Thirty-two Wistar male rats, weighing 150-200 gm were allocated evenly into four groups and treated as follow: group I, rats were fed a specially formulated high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce non-alcoholic liver disease and considered as control group; groups II, III and IV, the rats were administered azilsartan (0.5 mg/kg), aliskiren (25 mg/kg) or their combination orally via gavage tube once daily, and maintained on high fat diet for 8 weeks. The possible treatment outcome was evaluated through measuring serum levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-1β and liver enzymes. Additionally, the liver tissue contents of glycogen and lipids and histological changes were also evaluated. The results showed that azilsartan significantly improves the studied markers greater than aliskiren, and their combination o has no additive or synergistic effects on the activity of each one of them. Both azilsartan and aliskiren protects the rats against high-fat diet induced NAFLD with predominant effects for the former, and their combination showed no beneficial synergistic or additive effects.

  18. Effects of Pomegranate and Orange Juice on Antioxidant Status in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ekhlasi, Golnaz; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Merat, Shahin; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    The fruit of the pomegranate (Punica granatum) has a high content of polyphenols and is renowned for its antioxidant capabilities. In particular, it is recognized as reducing oxidative stress and, therefore, playing a productive role in obstructing the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of consumingpomegranate juice (high in antioxidant content) and orange juice (low in antioxidant content) when combined with a hypocaloric diet on liver enzymes and the antioxidant status of patients. In a randomized clinical trial, 65 patients who exhibited non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at a mean age of 39+/-8 years received 250 mL pomegranate juice or orange juice per day as a substitute for two servings of fruit in a hypocaloric diet over a period of 12 weeks. The subjects' levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the study, the levels of liver enzymes and body mass index (BMI) had significantly decreased in both groups. A significant increase in TAC was also observed in the subjects in the pomegranate group (p <0.01). Consumption of fruits that are high in antioxidants could represent a useful means to improve the antioxidant status of NAFLD patients who follow a hypocaloric diet.

  19. Hepatic artery resistive index (HARI) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score in NAFLD patients: cut-off suggestive of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) evolution.

    PubMed

    Tana, Claudio; Tana, Marco; Rossi, Stefano; Silingardi, Mauro; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-09-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is reliable to reveal the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it is neither sensitive nor specific to reveal fibrosis clues, except in advanced stages where signs of cirrhosis are evident. NALFD fibrosis score is a non-invasive parameter that predicts well the presence of significant fibrosis, but correlations with US parameters are lacking. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare resistive index of hepatic artery (HARI) of NAFLD patients with different severity degrees of diffuse fatty liver disease vs HARI of controls, and to compare HARI of NAFLD patients with different NAFLD fibrosis scores vs HARI of controls. This was a spontaneous, no-profit observational study conducted in our US department between December 2013 and July 2014. Patients with NAFLD with different severity of disease and healthy controls were included. Echogenicity and size of liver and spleen, maximum portal vein velocity, RI, peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of splenic artery, PSV, EDV, and RI of hepatic artery, and NAFLD fibrosis score were acquired and compared between groups. HARI was significantly lower in NAFLD patients than controls (p < 0.0001). A significant difference was also found between the groups of NAFLD severity (p < 0.0001). There was also a difference between HARI of NAFLD patients with different NAFLD fibrosis scores vs HARI of controls (p < 0.0001) with a positive correlation between HARI and NAFLD fibrosis score. Conventional Doppler US can be helpful to detect NAFLD patients with the risk of fibrous tissue accumulation. HARI tends to exceed the range of controls for patients with NAFLD fibrosis score greater than 0.675. The detection of HARI greater than 0.9 in NAFLD patients, regardless of the US degree of severity of steatosis, might suggest the execution of biopsy to predict the risk of progression to steatohepatitis and fibrous tissue accumulation. Low values of HARI may

  20. Reduction of sitting time has a positive effect on the decrease of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabinicz, Anna; Maciejewska, Dominika; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Ryterska, Karina; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Wyszomirska-Raszeja, Joanna; Gutowska, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large part of the human population. One of the major environmental factors associated with the risk of NAFLD is the lack of physical activity. Aim To compare the level of physical activity and the insulin resistance in NAFLD patients. Material and methods Thirty patients with NAFLD underwent a six-month dietary intervention based on the principles of classical dietetics. Data about diet and physical activity was based on 72-hour nutrition diaries and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Standard blood biochemical analyses were carried out before and after diet at the University Hospital Laboratory. Results The study showed that total physical activity and physical activity in leisure time are negatively correlated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). Insulin (p < 0.05), body weight (p < 0.05), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.05) were also negatively correlated with physical activity in free time. In addition, we noticed a positive correlation between sitting time and the risk of insulin resistance, in the case of HOMA-IR and insulin concentration (p < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary intervention and a physical activity plan are important factors in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Taking regular exercise increases insulin sensitivity and prevents further development of the disease. It seems that diet and physical activity are not the only one risk factors of NAFLD. Our study reveals that the reduction of sitting time has a positive effect on the level of insulin and it reduces insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD. PMID:28053680

  1. Esculetin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulation of FoxO1 mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anuradha; Raj, Priyank; Goru, Santosh Kumar; Kadakol, Almesh; Malek, Vajir; Sharma, Nisha; Gaikwad, Anil Bhanudas

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic metabolic disorder is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrotic cascades. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of Esculetin, a well-known anti-oxidant on TGF-β1 mediated liver fibrosis and FoxO1 activity. A non-genetic murine model for NAFLD was developed by chronic high fat diet (HFD) (58% calories from fats) feeding in Wistar rats. The plasma biochemical parameters, liver function tests, oxidative stress, and histopathological alterations were assessed. The alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and FoxO1 activity were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The aberrations in plasma parameters, liver functioning, morphometric and microscopic changes in liver structure of HFD fed rats were significantly improved by treatment with Esculetin. Liver fibrosis, identified in the form of collagen deposition and expression of fibrotic proteins like TGF-β1 and fibronectin was also markedly controlled by Esculetin. The expression of phospho-FoxO1 was found to be reduced in HFD fed rats' liver, showing an increase in activation of FoxO1 under insulin resistant and hyperglycemic states. Esculetin treatment could improve phospho-FoxO1 expression, thus showing its ability to act on Akt/PI3K/FoxO1 pathway. As per the previous studies, a potential therapy for NAFLD may be the one with multi-faceted actions on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. This study demonstrates the efficiency of Esculetin in improving liver fibrosis in HFD induced NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kuba, Motoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Han, Song-Iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Isaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus, but not prediabetes, in Xi'an, China: a five-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jie; Xu, Shaoyong; Gao, Bin; Liu, Guocai; Ji, Yufei; Yang, Fan; Jia, Yunan; Fang, Yujie; Ji, Qiuhe

    2015-11-01

    Emerging studies have focused the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but the results were inconsistent. In addition, few studies have put focus on the association between NAFLD and the risk of prediabetes. We aimed to investigate whether NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography could predict the risk of future T2DM and prediabetes in Chinese population. The population-based cohort study held in Xi'an, Northwestern China, was based on China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey. During a follow-up of 5 years, 508 healthy subjects were included as study sample. NAFLD was determined by abdominal ultrasonography. T2DM and prediabetes were diagnosed based on oral glucose tolerance test. Of 508 subjects, 97 (19.1%) were diagnosed as NAFLD and 411 (80.9%) were as non-NAFLD; 20 (3.9%) developed diabetes and 85 (16.7%) developed prediabetes during follow-up. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes in the NAFLD group was 20.6 and 51.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively, whereas that in non-NAFLD group was 4.9 and 29.2 per 1000 person-years respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) of T2DM and prediabetes in the NAFLD group was 4.462 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.855-10.734, P < 0.001] and 1.642 (95% CI: 0.965-2.793, P = 0.067), respectively, compared with non-NAFLD group. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was a significant predictor for future diabetes, but not for prediabetes, in Xi'an, China. More cohort studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Role of bisphenol A as environmental factor in the promotion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: in vitro and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Dallio, M; Masarone, M; Errico, S; Gravina, A G; Nicolucci, C; Di Sarno, R; Gionti, L; Tuccillo, C; Persico, M; Stiuso, P; Diano, N; Loguercio, C; Federico, A

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting chemical associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and liver enzyme abnormalities. To evaluate bisphenol A plasma and urine levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we evaluated, in human HepG2 cells, the effects of exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A on both oxidative stress induction and cell proliferation. We enrolled 60 patients with histological diagnosis of NAFLD with or without T2DM and sixty healthy subjects. In vitro, the proliferation of bisphenol A-exposed HepG2 cells at two different concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 μM) was evaluated, both at high (H-HepG2) and at low (L-HepG2) glucose concentrations for 48 h. Lipoperoxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Bisphenol A levels were significantly higher in 60 NAFLD subjects, both in urine and in plasma (P < 0.0001) when compared to controls and, in this group, it appeared to be higher in 30 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients compared to 30 simple steatosis subjects (P < 0.05), independently from the presence of T2DM. After a bisphenol A-free diet for 1 month, NAFLD patients showed a significant reduction in bisphenol A circulating levels (P < 0.05), without a significant reduction in urine levels. H-HepG2 cells treated with bisphenol A (0.05 μM) increased proliferation compared to controls at 48 h (P < 0.0001). Bisphenol A increased TBARS levels at 48 h versus controls. Our study reveals a possible role of bisphenol A as an environmental factor involved in the promotion of NAFLD, particularly in T2DM patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of the Omega-3 Index in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Helen M; O'Connor, Helen T; Keating, Shelley E; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Garg, Manohar L; Caterson, Ian D; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals. Low n-3 PUFA intake has been associated with the presence of NAFLD; however, the relationship between a biomarker of n-3 status - the Omega-3 Index - and liver fat is yet to be elucidated. A total of eighty overweight adults (fifty-six men) completed the anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including the Omega-3 Index, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of liver fat. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed with reference to prediction of liver fat percentage. The mean Omega-3 Index was high in both NAFLD (intrahepatic lipid concentration≥5·5 %) and non-NAFLD groups. The Omega-3 Index, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, TAG, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively correlated, and HDL and erythrocyte n-6:n-3 ratio negatively correlated with liver fat concentration. Regression analysis found that simple anthropometric and demographic variables (waist, age) accounted for 31 % of the variance in liver fat and the addition of traditional cardiometabolic blood markers (TAG, HDL, hsCRP and ALT) increased the predictive power to 43 %. The addition of the novel erythrocyte fatty acid variable (Omega-3 Index) to the model only accounted for a further 3 % of the variance (P=0·049). In conclusion, the Omega-3 Index was associated with liver fat concentration but did not improve the overall capacity of demographic, anthropometric and blood markers to predict NAFLD.

  6. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-08-22

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD.

  7. Effect of a counseling-supported treatment with the Mediterranean diet and physical activity on the severity of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gelli, Chiara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Di Renzo, Laura; Galli, Andrea; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-05-07

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of nutritional counseling on reduction of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, weight loss, metabolic and anthropometric indexes and liver enzymes. Forty-six adults with NAFLD received a 6-mo clinical and a dietary intervention (based on Mediterranean diet) carried out respectively by a gastroenterologist and a nutritionist with counseling license. The counseling process consisted of monthly meeting (about 45 min each). The effect of the treatment was evaluated monitoring liver enzymes, metabolic parameters, cardiovascular risk indexes, NAFLD severity [assessed by ultrasound (US)] and related indexes. All parameters were assessed at baseline. Biochemistry was also assessed at mid- and end-interventions and US was repeated at end-intervention. The percentage of patients with steatosis grade equal or higher than 2 was reduced from 93% to 48% and steatosis regressed in 9 patients (20%). At the end of the treatment the end-point concerning the weight ( i.e ., a 7% weight reduction or achievement/maintenance of normal weight) was accomplished by 25 out of 46 patients ( i.e ., 54.3%). As far as the liver enzymes is concerned, all three liver enzymes significantly decrease during the treatment the normalization was particularly evident for the ALT enzyme (altered values reduced from 67% down to 11%). Several parameters, i.e ., BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, AST, ALT, GGT, HDL, serum glucose, Tot-Chol/HDL, LDL/HDL, TG/HDL, AIP, HOMA, FLI, Kotronen index, VAI, NAFLD liver fat score and LAP, showed a significant improvement ( P < 0.01) between baseline and end-treatment. Outcomes of this study further strengthen the hypothesis that MedDiet and more active lifestyle can be considered a safe therapeutic approach for reducing risk and severity of NAFLD and related disease states. The proposed approach may be proposed as a valid and recommended approach for improving the clinical profile of NAFLD patients.

  8. Effects of the new thiazolidine derivative LPSF/GQ-02 on hepatic lipid metabolism pathways in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Shyrlene; Soares E Silva, Amanda; Gomes, Fabiana; Ribeiro, Edlene; Oliveira, Wilma; Oliveira, Amanda; Lima, Ingrid; Lima, Maria do Carmo; Pitta, Ivan; Peixoto, Christina

    2016-10-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common manifestation of metabolic syndrome. One of its most important features is the accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocyte cells. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as insulin sensitizers and are used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes and other conditions that are resistant to insulin, such as hepatic steatosis. Controversially, TZDs are also associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. For this reason, new therapeutic strategies are necessary to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver lipid metabolism in a murine model of NAFLD. Eighty male LDLR-/- mice were divided into 3 groups: 1-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 2-HFD+Pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day); 3-HFD+LPSF/GQ-02 (30mg/kg/day). The experiments lasted 12 weeks and drugs were administered daily by gavage in the final four weeks. The liver was processed for optical microscopy, Oil Red O, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. LPSF/GQ-02 effectively decreased fat accumulation, increased the hepatic levels of p-AMPK, FoxO1, ATGL, p-ACC and PPARα, and reduced the expression of LXRα, SREBP-1c and ACC. These results suggest that LPSF/GQ-02 acts directly on the hepatic lipid metabolism through the activation of the PPAR-α/AMPK/FoxO1/ATGL lipolytic pathway, and the inhibition of the AMPK/LXR/SREBP-1c/ACC/FAS lipogenic pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping of the circulating metabolome reveals α-ketoglutarate as a predictor of morbid obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gallego, E; Guirro, M; Riera-Borrull, M; Hernández-Aguilera, A; Mariné-Casadó, R; Fernández-Arroyo, S; Beltrán-Debón, R; Sabench, F; Hernández, M; del Castillo, D; Menendez, J A; Camps, J; Ras, R; Arola, L; Joven, J

    2015-02-01

    Obesity severely affects human health, and the accompanying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Rapid and non-invasive methods to detect this condition may substantially improve clinical care. We used liquid and gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC/GC-QTOF-MS) analysis in a non-targeted metabolomics approach on the plasma from morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery to gain a comprehensive measure of metabolite levels. On the basis of these findings, we developed a method (GC-QTOF-MS) for the accurate quantification of plasma α-ketoglutarate to explore its potential as a novel biomarker for the detection of NAFLD. Plasma biochemical differences were observed between patients with and without NAFLD indicating that the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes decreased β-oxidation energy production, reduced liver function and altered glucose metabolism. The results obtained from the plasma analysis suggest pathophysiological insights that link lipid and glucose disturbances with α-ketoglutarate. Plasma α-ketoglutarate levels are significantly increased in obese patients compared with lean controls. Among obese patients, the measurement of this metabolite differentiates between those with or without NAFLD. Data from the liver were consistent with data from plasma. Clinical utility was assessed, and the results revealed that plasma α-ketoglutarate is a fair-to-good biomarker in patients (n=230). Other common laboratory liver tests used in routine application did not favourably compare. Plasma α-ketoglutarate is superior to common liver function tests in obese patients as a surrogate biomarker of NAFLD. The measurement of this biomarker may potentiate the search for a therapeutic approach, may decrease the need for liver biopsy and may be useful in the assessment of disease progression.

  10. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, ameliorates the development of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Aguilera-Lizarraga, Javier; Rubio-Mediavilla, Susana; Narro, Judit; Recio, Emma; Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Oteo, José-Antonio;