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Sample records for liver hemangioma mimicking

  1. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  2. Diagnostic value of diffusion weighted MRI and ADC in differential diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tokgoz, Ozlem; Unlu, Ebru; Unal, Ilker; Serifoglu, Ismail; Oz, Ilker; Aktas, Elif; Caglar, Emrah

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the diagnosis of hemangioma. The study population consisted of 72 patients with liver masses larger than 1 cm (72 focal lesions). DWI examination with a b value of 600 s/mm2 was carried out for all patients. After DWI examination, an ADC map was created and ADC values were measured for 72 liver masses and normal liver tissue (control group). The average ADC values of normal liver tissue and focal liver lesions, the "cut-off" ADC values, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the ADC map in diagnosing hemangioma, benign and malignant lesions were researched. Of the 72 liver masses, 51 were benign and 21 were malignant. Benign lesions comprised 38 hemangiomas and 13 simple cysts. Malignant lesions comprised 9 hepatocellular carcinomas, and 12 metastases. The highest ADC values were measured for cysts (3.782±0.53×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and hemangiomas (2.705±0.63×10(-3) mm(2)/s). The average ADC value of hemangiomas was significantly higher than malignant lesions and the normal control group (p<0.001). The average ADC value of cysts were significantly higher when compared to hemangiomas and normal control group (p<0.001). To distinguish hemangiomas from malignant liver lesions, the "cut-off" ADC value of 1.800×10(-3) mm(2)/s had a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 90.9%. To distinguish hemangioma from normal liver parenchyma the "cut-off" value of 1.858×10(-3) mm(2)/s had a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 95.7%. To distinguish benign liver lesions from malignant liver lesions the "cut-off" value of 1.800×10(-3) mm(2)/s had a sensitivity of 96.1% and a specificity of 90.0%. DWI and quantitative measurement of ADC values can be used in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant liver lesions and also in the diagnosis and differentiation of hemangiomas. When dynamic examination cannot distinguish cases with

  3. [A case of multiple intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts associated with multiple hemangioma-like lesions of the liver].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, R; Izutsu, M; Kobayashi, S; Kusano, S

    1990-09-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPVS) are rare, except for the minute ones observed in cirrhotic liver. This report concerns a case with frequent episodes of consciousness loss, diagnosed as IPVS and multiple hemangioma-like lesions of the liver by US, CT and angiography. To our knowledge, this is the first report of association of IPVS and such angiographically evident hemangioma-like lesions of the liver. The etiology of IPVS is mostly considered to be congenital though, there are still many arguments about it. The relation between IPVS and the hemangioma-like lesions of the liver is discussed.

  4. Quiescent Volcano-Chest Wall Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Elroy; Martis, John J S; Kumar, B Vinod; D'Cunha, Rithesh J; Vijin, V

    2017-08-01

    Chest wall hemangiomas are rare tumors that may originate within the soft tissue or from the ribs. Intramuscular hemangioma is infrequent, representing less than 1 % of all hemangiomas, and the localization in the chest wall is even less frequent. They are typically cutaneous in location, large, and poorly circumscribed and can be locally destructive. We present a case of a 34-year-old lady presented with firm lump 3 × 3 cm in left upper and inner quadrant of left breast well defined borders, non-pulsatile and restricted mobility. Sono-mammogram was suggestive of ill-defined lesion at 10 o'clock position. CT chest was conclusive of chest wall hemangioma. The patient underwent excision of the lump. HPE was suggestive of cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangioma typically manifest at birth or before the age of 30 years. CT is more sensitive than plain radiography in detecting phleboliths, which are present in approximately 30 % of cavernous hemangiomas. Surgical excision would be treatment of choice. In this case, the site of the lesion was in the breast clinically mimicking that of a fibroadenoma which warrants hemangioma as a differential diagnosis.

  5. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunchae; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis. PMID:26770920

  6. Rare angioproliferative tumors mimicking aggressive spinal hemangioma with epidural expansion.

    PubMed

    Kulcsár, Zsolt; Veres, Róbert; Hanzély, Zoltán; Berentei, Zsolt; Marosfoi, Miklós; Nyáry, István; Szikora, István

    2012-01-30

    We present two cases of angio-proliferative tumors that were misdiagnosed and treated as typical hemangiomas with epidural expansion. Two middle-aged women presented with symptoms and radiological signs characteristic for aggressive hemangioma with epidural expansion. In the first case preoperative embolization and decompressive surgery with open transpedicular vertebroplasty was performed. Within less than a year, epidural recurrence of the tumor prompted for radical excision and corpectomy. The diagnosis after the histological studies and the further clinical evolution was metastasizing leiomyomatosis. No further recurrence occured during the next 6 years. In the second case percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed and complicated by epidural polymethyl-methacrylcate (PMMA) leakage, requiring urgent decompressive surgery. Histological study of the lesion raised the possibility of myopericytoma. This was confirmed 16 months later when complete vertebrectomy was performed due to severe epidural propagation of the recurring tumor. No further recurrence occurred in next the two years. Rare angio-proliferative tumors, like benign metastasizing leiomyoma and myopericytoma radiologically may resemble aggressive vertebral hemangiomas of the spine. Unlike hemangiomas, such tumors require radical removal due to their likely recurrence. As imaging studies may not be able to completely exclude such pathologies, bone biopsy and thorough histopathological studies are warranted prior to the therapeutic decision.

  7. Extradural hemangioma mimicking a dumbbell nerve sheath tumor in the thoracolumbar spine: Case report.

    PubMed

    Chachan, Sourabh; Bin Abd Razak, H R; Loo, W Lim; Tan, C Sheng; Dinesh, S K

    2017-01-01

    Extradural hemangiomas are rare, have varied and challenging clinical presentations, and require special considerations from the management point of view. A 70-year-old female presented with back pain that was ultimately attributed to a thoracolumbar extra-dural "dumbbell" hemangioma. Following surgical resection, the patient did well. Extradural hemangiomas may present as spinal extradural soft tissue masses that must be differentiated from dumbbell neurofibroma.

  8. Spinal capillary hemangiomas: Two cases reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tunthanathip, Thara; Rattanalert, Sanguansin; Oearsakul, Thakul; Kanjanapradit, Kanet

    2017-01-01

    Hemangiomas have rarely been found in the spinal cord. A few cases of spinal capillary hemangioma have been reported since 1987. The authors reported the two cases of capillary hemangioma including the tumor at conus medullaris and the another mimicked von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 15-year-old man was presented with coccydynia and left leg pain. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural extramedullary enhancing mass at conus medullaris. Another case, a 31-year-old man was presented with a history of familial history of brain tumor, retinal hemangioma both eyes, multiple pancreatic cyst and syringobulbia with syringohydromyelia. On MRI, a well-circumscribed intramedullary nodule was detected at C5-6 level and multiple subpial nodule along cervicothoracic spinal cord. All patients underwent surgery, and the histological diagnosis confirmed capillary hemangioma. Although rare and indistinguishable from other tumors, capillary hemangioma should be in the differential diagnosis of the spinal cord tumor. PMID:28761543

  9. [Lombosacral epidural capillary hemangioma mimicking a dumbbell-shaped neurinoma: A case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Egu, K; Kinata-Bambino, S; Mounadi, M; Rachid El Maaqili, M; El Abbadi, N

    2016-04-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign endothelial cell neoplasms that are believed to be hamartomatous proliferations of vascular endothelial cells. The occurrence of spinal epidural capillary hemangiomas is exceedingly rare. Only 8 epidurally located cases of capillary hemangiomas in the spinal canal have been reported in the literature. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, a case of lumbosacral epidural capillary hemangioma revealed by S1 back pain and radicular pain in a 60-year-old patient, caused by an L5-S1 epidural capillary hemangioma. The neurological symptoms of the patient improved after surgery. Spinal epidural capillary hemangioma is exceedingly rare. These lesions are benign and can mimic dumbbell-shaped neurinoma. Total removal by surgery is curative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended.

  11. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

  12. Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Presenting as Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Kahraman, Aysegul; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma, a most frequently encountered primary benign tumor of the liver, is generally determined incidentally during the course of radiologic tests for other reasons. Most lesions are less than 3 cm and a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, although the size and location of the lesion in some patients may be associated with the onset of symptoms. Pressure on the stomach and duodenum of giant hemagiomas developing in the left lobe of the liver, in particular, may result in the development of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and feeling bloated, which are characteristic of a gastric outlet obstruction. A 42-year-old man presented with findings of gastric outlet obstruction and weight loss as a result of a giant hepatic hemangioma. PMID:23438272

  13. Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma in the Thoracic Spine Mimicking Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shantao; Wang, Mingwei; Wang, Fuchao; Yuan, Xunhui; Xiao, Hang; Bai, Yun'an; Liu, Fucun

    2016-10-01

    Dumbbell-shaped epidural cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) are extremely rare, and they are easily misdiagnosed as spinal schwannomas. Herein, the authors report 1 rare case of dumbbell-shaped epidural CH in the thoracic spine. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of dumbbell-shaped epidural CHs in thoracic spine have been reported. Furthermore, the clinical characteristics and treatments for spinal epidural CHs were investigated and reviewed.

  14. Periorbital hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, N S; Rosanova, M A

    1992-10-01

    1. Any hemangioma that involves the upper or lower lid and leads to partial closure in infancy may interfere with or prevent development of normal binocular vision in a matter of days to weeks. 2. Hemangiomas least likely to interfere with vision are lower lid lesions occupying one third of the lid margin or less, not extending beyond the eyelid region, and resolving early. 3. Hemangiomas associated with deprivation amblyopia (with or without anisometropia) are lesions occupying more than one half of the lid margin, extending beyond the eyelid region, resolving late, and obstructing the visual axis. 4. Hemangiomas associated with isolated anisometropic amblyopia are local but bulky lesions that are usually but not always restricted to the upper lid, closing the eye partly and resolving late. 5. The treatment of choice for periorbital hemangiomas is corticosteroids, either systemic or intralesional.

  15. Prospective study of the frequency of hepatic hemangiomas in infants with multiple cutaneous infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Horii, Kimberly A; Drolet, Beth A; Frieden, Ilona J; Baselga, Eulalia; Chamlin, Sarah L; Haggstrom, Anita N; Holland, Kristen E; Mancini, Anthony J; McCuaig, Catherine C; Metry, Denise W; Morel, Kimberly D; Newell, Brandon D; Nopper, Amy J; Powell, Julie; Garzon, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    Multiple cutaneous infantile hemangiomas have been associated with hepatic hemangiomas. Screening of infants with five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas with abdominal ultrasound is often recommended. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which hepatic hemangiomas occur in infants with five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas compared to those with one to four cutaneous infantile hemangiomas and to characterize the clinical features of these hepatic hemangiomas. A multicenter prospective study of children with cutaneous infantile hemangiomas was conducted at pediatric dermatology clinics at Hemangioma Investigator Groups sites in the United States, Canada, and Spain between October 2005 and December 2008. Data were collected, and abdominal ultrasonography was performed on infants younger than 6 months old with five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas and those with one to four cutaneous infantile hemangiomas. Twenty-four (16%) of the 151 infants with five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas had hepatic hemangiomas identified on abdominal ultrasound, versus none of the infants with fewer than five (p = 0.003). Two of the 24 infants with hepatic hemangiomas received treatment specifically for their hepatic hemangiomas. Infants with five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas have a statistically significantly greater frequency of hepatic hemangiomas than those with fewer than 5. These findings support the recommendation of five or more cutaneous infantile hemangiomas as a threshold for screening infants younger than 6 months old for hepatic hemangiomas but also demonstrate that the large majority of these infants with hepatic hemangiomas do not require treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Surface-based hemangioma of bone: three case studies and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rougraff, B T; Deters, M L; Ivancevich, S

    1998-04-01

    Three cases of surface-based hemangiomas were reviewed. The cases illustrate the plain film and magnetic resonance imaging findings of these benign tumors, which can appear quite aggressive, mimicking more aggressive neoplasms. Each of the patients underwent en bloc excision, and pathologic evaluation to determine the diagnosis. To date, there has been no evidence of recurrence.

  17. A mouse model of TSC1 reveals sex-dependent lethality from liver hemangiomas, and up-regulation of p70S6 kinase activity in Tsc1 null cells.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, David J; Zhang, Hongbing; Bandura, Jennifer L; Heiberger, Kristina M; Glogauer, Michael; el-Hashemite, Nisreen; Onda, Hiroaki

    2002-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, and characterized by benign hamartoma growth. We developed a murine model of Tsc1 disease by gene targeting. Tsc1 null embryos die at mid-gestation from a failure of liver development. Tsc1 heterozygotes develop kidney cystadenomas and liver hemangiomas at high frequency, but the incidence of kidney tumors is somewhat lower than in Tsc2 heterozygote mice. Liver hemangiomas were more common, more severe and caused higher mortality in female than in male Tsc1 heterozygotes. Tsc1 null embryo fibroblast lines have persistent phosphorylation of the p70S6K (S6K) and its substrate S6, that is sensitive to treatment with rapamycin, indicating constitutive activation of the mTOR-S6K pathway due to loss of the Tsc1 protein, hamartin. Hyperphosphorylation of S6 is also seen in kidney tumors in the heterozygote mice, suggesting that inhibition of this pathway may have benefit in control of TSC hamartomas.

  18. Focal Nodulary Hyperplasia of the Liver Due to Congenital Portosystemic Shunt: A Rare Condition Mimicking Hepatocellulary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yazal Erdem, Arzu; Emir, Suna; Demir, Haci A; Özyörük, Derya; Çetin, İlker; Turan, Aynur; Karakuş, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare vascular malformations that lead to several complications including liver tumors, pulmonary hypertension, and metabolic encephalopathy. We describe a rare case of a 17-year-old girl with an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt presenting recurrent syncope episodes and a liver mass mimicking hepatocellulary carcinoma.

  19. A Hydrogel-Endothelial Cell implant Mimics Infantile Hemangioma: Modulation by Survivin and the Hippo pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Hardee, Steven; Michaud, Michael; Morotti, Raffaella; Lavik, Erin; Madri, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells cultured in three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds form a network of microvessel structures when implanted subcutaneously in mice, inosculate with host vessels and over time remodel into large ectatic vascular structures resembling hemangiomas. When compared to infantile hemaniomas similarities were noted including a temporal progression from a morphological appearance of a proliferative phase to the appearance of an involuted phase mimicking the proliferative and involutional phases of infantile hemangioma. Consistent with the progression of a proliferative phase to an involuted phase, both the murine implants and human biopsy tissue exhibit reduced expression of Ajuba, YAP and Survivin labeling as they progressed over time. Significant numbers of CD45+, CD11b+, Mac3+ mononuclear cells were found at the 2 week time point in our implant model which correlated with the presence of CD45+, CD68+ mononuclear cells observed in biopsies of human proliferative phase hemangiomas. At the 4 week time point in our implant model only small numbers of CD45+ cells were detected, which again correlated with our findings of significantly diminished CD45+, CD68+ mononuclear cells in human involutional phase hemangiomas. The demonstration of mononuclear cell infiltration transiently in the proliferative phase of these lesions suggests that the vascular proliferation and/or regression may be driven in part by an immune response. Gross and microscopic morphological appearances of human proliferative and involutional hemangiomas and our implant model correlate well with each other as do the expression levels of Hippo pathway components (Ajuba and YAP) and Survivin and correlate with proliferation in these entities. Inhibitors of Survivin and Ajuba (which we have demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and increase apoptosis in murine hemangioma cell tissue culture) may have potential as other beneficial treatments for proliferating infantile hemangiomas

  20. A minimally invasive vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, S; Mailleux, P; Joris, J P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a very unusual vertebral hemangioma presenting with a mixture of aggressive-like pattern (epidural extension, T1 hyposignal) and quiescent, inactive lesion (fatty infiltration), in association with a spiculated calcified epidural component.This paper emphasizes that CT and/or MR findings are accurate enough to make formal assessment of vertebral hemangioma, preventing patient's anguish and moreover unnecessary treatment. Furthermore this attractive case proposes a poorly known characteristic of vertebral hemangioma which is usually encountered and described only in skull hemangiomas.

  1. Benign mass in tonsil- cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumitha; Prakash, M; Mohammed, Hafida K; Govar, Aberna

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is also called as 'ANGIOMA CAVERNOSUM' or 'CAVERNOMA' as benign lesion of blood vessels. They are similar to strawberry hemangioma but deeply situated. Although most often associated with skin it is also sometimes found in mucous membrane, brain and the viscera. The diagnosis of hemangiomas is mainly based on clinical evaluation . Isolated hemangiomas in the tonsillar tissue is a rare occurance. In this we report had a case of adult tonsillar hemangioma of left side associated with recurrent tonsillitis . He was effectively managed surgically without any complications.

  2. Vertebral Hemangioma Mimicking Bone Metastasis in 68Ga-PSMA Ligand PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Carlos; Otte, François-Xavier; Lemort, Marc; van Velthoven, Roland; Flamen, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed in a 68-year-old man to evaluate recurrent prostate cancer due to elevated serum prostate-specific antigen level. Images showed a focal uptake in the prostatic gland, suggesting local relapse, and an intense uptake in the 12th thoracic vertebra, with no morphological abnormalities in CT slices. In order to confirm extraprostatic disease and before radiotherapy planning, a full-spine MRI was performed, resulting with the morphological pattern of a vertebral hemangioma. Hystological analysis confirmed the local relapse in the prostate. No radiotherapy treatment was given to the vertebra, and after 1 year of follow-up without systemic treatment, prostate-specific antigen is still undetectable.

  3. Periocular hemangiomas: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Ceisler, Emily J; Santos, Laura; Blei, Francine

    2004-01-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of infancy. Most hemangiomas remain asymptomatic and can be managed by close observation; however, immediate treatment is indicated for hemangiomas that may cause significant complications. Periocular hemangiomas warrant close evaluation and early, active treatment of those with the potential to threaten or permanently compromise vision. Herein we review the clinical features of periocular hemangiomas, differential diagnosis, possible ophthalmologic complications and sequelae, and therapeutic modalities.

  4. Infantile Hemangiomas of the Lip: Patterns, Outcomes, and Implications.

    PubMed

    Yanes, Daniel A; Pearson, Gregory D; Witman, Patricia M

    2016-09-01

    Infantile hemangiomas of the lip are potentially problematic because of high visibility and risk of disfigurement and ulceration. This study examined sizes, patterns, and locations of lip hemangiomas, their prognostic value, and their implications in hemangioma pathogenesis. Records of 106 patients seen for lip hemangiomas from 2006 to 2013 at Nationwide Children's Hospital were reviewed. Localized hemangiomas were mapped to a location on the lip based on their focus. Size, location, and morphology were assessed with regard to outcome. Poor outcomes were considered to be marked anatomic deformity, scarring, functional complications, and ulceration. Of 72 untreated hemangiomas with discernible outcomes, 92% of segmental lip hemangiomas were associated with poor outcomes, as opposed to 32% of localized hemangiomas (p < 0.001). Localized lip hemangiomas originated from six distinct locations. Localized untreated hemangiomas with poor outcomes were, on average, approximately 2.36 cm(2) larger (95% confidence interval 1.47, 3.25) than those that resolved favorably (p < 0.001); 52% of upper lip untreated hemangiomas and 6% of lower lip hemangiomas had poor outcomes (p = 0.001), and 61% of untreated localized hemangiomas involving the vermilion border and 25% of those that did not had poor outcomes (p = 0.01). Hemangiomas that received early medical or surgical intervention were less likely to have poor outcomes than untreated hemangiomas (p = 0.03). Localized lip hemangiomas occur in distinct locations on the lip that are not random and appear to reflect known models of facial development. Segmental morphology is associated with poor outcomes. In localized hemangiomas, the upper lip is associated with more problematic outcomes than the lower lip. Large size and involvement of the vermilion border are also valuable prognostic indicators associated with poor outcomes. Early intervention in lip hemangiomas is associated with better outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy for giant hemangioma using anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kirchner, Varvara A; Lee, Sang-Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic major hepatectomy remains a challenging procedure [1, 2]. In the case of giant tumors in the right liver, conventional approach (complete mobilization of the right liver before parenchymal transection) could be dangerous during mobilization because of large volume and weight [3, 4]. We present the case of a pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy for a giant hemangioma using an anterior approach. We achieved the informed consent with this patient and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Asan Medical Center. Giant hemangioma (13 × 11 × 14 cm) was located in right liver. After glissonean approach [5], Pringle maneuver was performed during the hepatic parenchymal transection. For the transection, the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator was used. Small hepatic vein branches along the middle hepatic vein and small glissonean pedicles were sealed and divided with a THUNDERBEATTM (Olympus), which is the device with integration of both bipolar and ultrasonic energies delivered simultaneously. iDriveTM Ultra Powered Stapling device (Medtronic) was used for division of right glissonean pedicle and large hepatic veins. Hemangioma was removed through the lower abdominal transverse incision using the endo-bag. This technique has the advantage of avoiding excessive bleeding caused by avulsion of the hepatic vein and caval branches, iatrogenic tumor rupture [3]. By means of the anterior approach, pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy was performed successfully without intraoperative complications and transfusions. The operation time was 202 min, and the estimated blood loss was less than 150 ml. On postoperative day 3, computed tomographic scan showed no pathological findings. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 without complications. Laparoscopic approach has good results because of the view with magnification enabling meticulous hemostasis and the small wounds that give patients less pain [6, 7]. The authors recommend that the laparoscopic

  6. [Infantile hemangiomas: the revolution of beta-blockers].

    PubMed

    Leaute-Labreze, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Infantile hemangioma is the consequence of both postnatal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Hypoxia appears to play an important role as a contributory factor. Infantile hemangiomas have variable clinical features: superficial, deep or mixed. They can be localized or segmental involving a large skin area. Localized infantile hemangiomas are usually benign, unless they are located near a noble structure (airway orbit...), while segmental infantile hemangioma may be associated with complex underlying birth defects (PHACES and SACRAL syndromes). Clinical follow-up of infants with infantile hemangioma must be particularly careful in the first weeks of life since 80% of all infantile hemangiomas have reached their final size at age 5 months. A majority of infantile hemangiomas are mild and do not required any treatment. Main indications for treatment are: vital risk (heart failure, respiratory distress), functional risk (amblyopia, swallowing disorders...), painful ulceration and disfigurement (face involvement of nose, lips...). Propranolol, has been quickly adopted as the first line medical treatment for complicated infantile hemangioma; and it is the only treatment to have a marketing authorization in this indication. It is recommended to begin the treatment as early as possible before three months of age to minimize the risk of complications and sequelae.

  7. Aggressive hemangioma of the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Wesley B; Wetzel, Raun J; Tanner, Stephanie C; Khan, Majid A

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common lesions and usually considered benign. A rare subset of them, however, are characterized by extra-osseous extension, bone expansion, disturbance of blood flow, and occasionally compression fractures and thereby referred to as aggressive hemangiomas. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman with progressive paraplegia and an infiltrative mass of T4 vertebra causing mass effect on the spinal cord. Multiple conventional imaging modalities were utilized to suggest the diagnosis of aggressive hemangioma. Final pathologic diagnosis after decompressive surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an osseous hemangioma.

  8. Aggressive hemangioma of the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Wesley B.; Wetzel, Raun J.; Tanner, Stephanie C.; Khan, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common lesions and usually considered benign. A rare subset of them, however, are characterized by extra-osseous extension, bone expansion, disturbance of blood flow, and occasionally compression fractures and thereby referred to as aggressive hemangiomas. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman with progressive paraplegia and an infiltrative mass of T4 vertebra causing mass effect on the spinal cord. Multiple conventional imaging modalities were utilized to suggest the diagnosis of aggressive hemangioma. Final pathologic diagnosis after decompressive surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an osseous hemangioma. PMID:22470764

  9. Symptomatic Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Liver: Is Enucleation a Safe Method?

    PubMed Central

    Alabaz, Ö.; Ağdemir, D.; Sungur, I.; Erkoçak, E. U.; Akinoğlu, A.; Alparslan, A.; Źorludemir, S.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with symptomatic giant hemangioma of the liver were treated by surgery between 1979 and 1996 at the department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Çukurova. Twenty-three enucleations were performed in 21 patients, left lateral segmentectomy in one patient and enucleation plus left lobectomy in one patient. The tumors were enucleated along the interface between the hemangioma and normal liver tissue. The diameters of the tumors ranged from 5×5 to 25×15 cm. The mean blood loss for enucleations was 525 ml (range 500–1000 ml). There was no mortality and no postoperative bleeding. Three patients had postoperative complications. Enucleation is the best surgical technique for symptomatic giant hemangioma of the liver. It may be performed with no mortality, low morbidity and the preservation of all normal liver parenchyma. PMID:9298384

  10. A rare invasive hemangioma in cauda equina.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hongfei; Shen, Nana; Chen, Bohua; Ma, Xuexiao; Xin, Gang

    2017-05-01

    Typical hemangioma of cauda equina with relative clear margin has been described in some case reports, but atypical hemangioma with invasion, infiltration, and augmentation of all nerve roots in the cauda equina area has never been reported. In this paper, we reported a rare case with invasive hemangioma in cauda equina, and analyzed its radiological appearance and treatment. We described an atypical case of hemangioma, which was revealed by MR and intraoperative photograph without clear margin and confirmed by histopathologic diagnosis. The patient was received radiotherapy (5400 cGy/25f/5w) and continued to be clinically in good condition with follow-up MR after 24 months without further surgery. Surgery may be the first management modality for hemangiomas with severe or progressive neurologic deficits, and radiotherapy may be an alternative therapy to treat hemangiomas according to accurate histopathologic diagnosis.

  11. The establishment of the hemangioma model in nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiang; Liu, Wenying; Tang, Yunman; Yu, Song

    2005-07-01

    Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in children. Most of them could regress spontaneously; however, the pathogenesis and triggering of regression are still unknown. Here, we introduce a new means in which the specimen of human hemangioma was transplanted into nude mice subcutaneously. At the same time, high dose of estradiol was administered to the experimental nude mice intramuscularly to promote implantation and proliferation of hemangioma endothelial cells. By this means, a credible animal model of human hemangioma was established. Further studies on pathogenesis and medical intervention of hemangioma could be carried on with this model. The specimen of grafted hemangioma was taken from a 6-month-old girl, in whom the hemangioma grew rapidly, by surgery. The fresh estrogen receptor-positive strawberry hemangioma specimens were sliced and inoculated subcutaneously into 16 nude mice that were divided randomly into 2 groups, namely, group 1 (n = 8) with normal diet and group 2 (n = 8) with normal diet and 10(-7) mg estradiol administered intramuscularly every week additionally. The size of grafts was measured weekly. All of the experimental mice were killed at 90 days after graft. Hemangioma tissues were harvested and sliced into 4 to 5 microm sections. Living grafts were subjected to histopathologic examination and immunohistochemistry for CD34 and Ki-67. All of the sizes of hemangioma tissues in group 1 were diminished distinctly in 30 days. Thirteen samples of hemangioma were almost absorbed and disappeared completely in 90 days. The sizes of hemangioma in group 2 were larger than primary specimens. It was observed from the section of hemangioma that endothelial cells proliferate vividly and fresh capillary blood vessels grew up into the body of hemangioma. The mean positive cell rate of CD34 in group 2 was 48.49 +/- 3.90 and the Ki-67 was 15.04 +/- 2.44. The transplanted tumor cell retained the histologic characters of original tumor. The

  12. Coexistence of splenic hemangioma and vascular malformation of the vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Ariana, Mehdi; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Narimani, Ahmad; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Keyhani, Manouchehr

    2016-02-09

    Cavernous hemangioma is an encapsulated mass of dilated, endothelial lined vascular channels filled with slowly flowing blood. Cavernous hemangioma of the spleen is a rare condition with less than 100 reports so far. Hemangioma of the vertebral is a benign vascular legion around one or two vertebrae. These are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. In this study we reported an extreme rare case of splenic hemangioma coexistence with vascular malformation of the vertebrae. To our knowledge this is the first report of coexistence of splenic hemangioma and hemangioma of the vertebra. A 20-year-old iranian male with splenomegaly, abdominal pain, diarrhea and pancytopenia who was first highly suspicious for malignancy referred to our center for evaluation of the diagnostic workup. After full examination we detected a very rare case with a giant, solitary cavernous hemangioma of the spleen and multiple hemangiomas in his vertebrae. Histopathology of the spleen showed a large cavernous hemangioma occupying almost the entire spleen with large areas of infarction necrosis with multiple hemangiomas of the vertebrae. It is extremely rare to have a splenic hemangioma concurrent with vertebra hemangioma and this is clinically very important to consider splenic hemangioma in differential diagnosis of splenomegaly for a better therapeutic management in related patients.

  13. Magnetic resonance angiography with fresh blood imaging for identification of hemangiomas and blood vessels around hemangiomas in oral and maxillofacial regions.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masafumi; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Kito, Shinji; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Otsuka, Kozue; Hayashi, Yuki; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Yoshioka, Izumi; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Kodama, Masaaki; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Ishikawa, Ayataka; Zhang, Min; Matsuo, Kou; Shiiba, Shunji; Seta, Yuji; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate fresh blood imaging (FBI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique that does not use contrast, for identifying hemangiomas and feeding arteries in the oral and maxillofacial regions. For 16 patients with hemangiomas, FBI visualizations of hemangiomas and feeding arteries in the oral and maxillofacial regions were compared with those from 3-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA). Comparisons were based on the conspicuities of blood vessels and the 3D relationships of hemangiomas with the surrounding blood vessels. The conspicuity of hemangiomas, feeding arteries, and blood vessels were significantly better with FBI than with PC-MRA. After differentiating arteries from veins, 3D visualizations of hemangiomas and arteries or veins could be performed with FBI. FBI is a useful method in oral and maxillofacial regions for identifying the relationships between hemangiomas and the surrounding arteries or veins. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Left-Sided Approach for Resection of Hepatic Caudate Lobe Hemangioma: Two Case Reports and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xielin; Hu, Yong; Peng, Junping; Liu, Aixiang; Tian, Lang; Zhang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Resection of the hemangioma located in the caudate lobe is a major challenge in current liver surgery. This study aimed to present our surgical technique for this condition. Two consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic hemangioma undergoing caudate lobectomy were investigated retrospectively. First, all the blood inflow of hemangioma from the portal vein and the hepatic artery at the base of the umbilical fissure was dissected. After the tumors became soft and tender, the short hepatic veins and the ligaments between the secondary porta hepatis were severed. At last the tumors were resected from the right lobe of the liver. The whole process was finished by a left-sided approach. Blood lost in Case 1 was 1650 mL because of ligature failing in one short hepatic vein, and in the other case, 210 mL. Operation time was 236 minutes and 130 minutes, respectively. Postoperative hospital stays were 11 and 5 days, respectively. The diameter of tumors was 9.0 cm and 6.5 cm. Case 1 required blood transfusion during surgery. No complications such as biliary fistula, postoperative bleeding, and liver failure occurred. The left-sided approach produced the best results for caudate lobe resection in our cases. The patients who recovered are living well and asymptomatic. Caudate lobectomy can be performed safely and quickly by a left-sided approach, which is carried out with optimized perioperative management and innovative surgical technique.

  15. Successful management of airway hemangioma with propranolol.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Varghese, Bincy; Chander, Ram; Parakh, Ankit; Solanki, Ravi S

    2013-06-01

    Airway hemangiomas can be difficult to manage and cause anxiety in both the parents and the treating physician. Propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, has recently been used for treating proliferating infantile hemangiomas. We report successful management of a proliferating, large, mixed infantile hemangioma with subglottic extension in an Indian infant using oral propranolol in a dose of 2mg/kg/day without any side effects. Induction of early involution and freedom from the side effects of steroid therapy seem encouraging for using propranolol as a first line treatment modality in the management of troublesome hemangiomas. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Cavernous hemangioma of the rib: a rare diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Stavros; Piyis, Anastasios; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Panayotopoulos, Panayotis; Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2010-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is an uncommon benign vascular tumour. A case of rib hemangioma in a 29-year-old woman is presented. Chest roentgenogram and computed tomography revealed a mass along the inner surface of the 7th left rib with bone destruction. She underwent resection of the 7th rib. The pathologic diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Hemangiomas of the rib are rare tumours but should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of rib tumours.

  17. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Rib: A Rare Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gourgiotis, Stavros; Piyis, Anastasios; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Panayotopoulos, Panayotis; Salemis, Nikolaos S.

    2010-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is an uncommon benign vascular tumour. A case of rib hemangioma in a 29-year-old woman is presented. Chest roentgenogram and computed tomography revealed a mass along the inner surface of the 7th left rib with bone destruction. She underwent resection of the 7th rib. The pathologic diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Hemangiomas of the rib are rare tumours but should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of rib tumours. PMID:20585365

  18. [A case of epithelioid hemangioma of the spine].

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Julien; Guedj, Nathalie; Dauzac, Cyril; Wassef, Michel; Guigui, Pierre; Bedossa, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma is a rare and benign vascular tumor, most often occurring in the skin. Numerous other localizations, including bones, have been reported. The overall favorable clinical outcome of cutaneous epithelioid hemangioma is now well documented, but it still remains debated in osseous localization, as local recurrences and metastases have been described. We report a case of epithelioid hemangioma of the spine occurring in a 25-year-old male, and discuss main differential diagnoses. Recent studies tend to demonstrate that osseous epithelioid hemangioma, as cutaneous epithelioid hemangioma, should be considered as a benign tumor. Histologically, epithelioid hemangioma consists of a vascular proliferation with diffuse or lobular pattern and features vascular spaces lined by epitheliod endothelial cells with numerous lymphocytes and eosinophils. The main differential diagnosis is represented by epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, the surgical treatment of which must be more aggressive. Precise histological diagnosis is essential for accurate clinical management and to avoid overtreatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Conservative management of maternal cervical vertebral hemangioma complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Foster, Leah; Davidson, Kathryn; Egerman, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Although vertebral hemangiomas are found in 10% of the population, they rarely become symptomatic. We describe management of an enlarging cervical vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy. A primiparous woman at 33 weeks of gestation presented with neck pain and paresthesias. She had a known cervical hemangioma. Imaging revealed a C6-C7 hemangioma with extradural extension. Her symptoms fluctuated, and she was delivered by cesarean at 36 weeks of gestation. Improvement occurred after delivery, and radiographic regression of the hemangioma was demonstrated. Hormonal and vascular changes of pregnancy may exacerbate spinal hemangiomas. Depending on the location, these may lead to profound neurologic disability and management depends on the degree of myelopathy. Surgical intervention may be necessary to avoid neurologic injury, but amelioration after delivery is possible.

  20. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively.more » Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and

  1. Intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma: case report.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Rani; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Legatt, Alan D; Houten, John K

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 48-year-old man found to have the first reported intramedullary spinal cord spindle cell hemangioma. Previous research indicates that spindle cell hemangiomas are rarely found in the spine. Only 3 previous cases exist, all in the intradural, extramedullary space. In the present case, gross-total resection of the tumor was possible with no loss of function from baseline. This report presents the successful resection of the first reported intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma and reports 4-month follow-up, demonstrating the biological behavior of this rare tumor.

  2. Intraosseous Hemangioma of the Inferior Turbinate

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuya; Takenaka, Yukinori; Hashimoto, Michiko

    2010-01-01

    The nasal cavity harbors an enormous variety of neoplasms, including epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Hemangioma is an infrequent mesenchymal tumor of the nasal cavity, mostly arising in the mucosa and rarely in the bones. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital with a tumor in her left nasal cavity. The tumor originated from the left inferior turbinate. Histological examination subsequent to complete excision revealed that the tumor was an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. To our knowledge, this is the second case of intraosseous hemangioma of the inferior turbinate reported in the English literature. PMID:20300428

  3. Posttraumatic Progressive Vertebral Hemangioma Induced by a Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Emre; Toktas, Zafer Orkun; Aker, Fugen Vardar; Akakın, Akın; Kilic, Türker

    2017-01-01

    The authors present an extremely rare case of an aggressive and progressive vertebral capillary hemangioma of the lumbar spine secondary to a trauma. A 40-year-old man who complained of back and leg pain due to a hemangioma of L1 that had begun a year after the fracture of the same vertebra was subsequently operated on. Due to the profuse bleeding, only a subtotal removal was possible. Histopathological diagnosis of the lesion revealed a capillary hemangioma. Postoperative control MRI taken at eight months showed that the lesion and destruction of the L1 vertebra were progressive. A second embolization procedure was performed and this time the hemangioma was totally removed via an anterior approach and corpectomy. Fusion was achieved by Th12-L2 graft and plaque. In the fourteenth year of follow-up, he was symptom-free and radiologically clear of this lesion. We propose that progressive hemangioma is extremely rare and that its cure is possible by total surgical removal of the lesion. This case is the second extradural capillary hemangioma secondary to spinal trauma ever to have been documented in English literature. The emergence of a hemangioma in a fractured vertebra suggests that its pathogenesis can be related to the deviation of the angiogenetic pathways from the normal healing process. PMID:28713608

  4. Use of liothyronine without levothyroxine in the treatment of mild consumptive hypothyroidism caused by hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Shinji; Takagi, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-06-29

    There have been reports of the use of levothyroxine or levothyroxine plus liothyronine for consumptive hypothyroidism caused by hepatic hemangiomas. Administration of levothyroxine without liothyronine can be inadequate to maintain normal levels of both free T3 and free T4 in some patients. However, there is no report of treatment with liothyronine plus propranolol. We herein present a case in which we used liothyronine therapy for multifocal hepatic hemangiomas in a Japanese patient with low free T3 and normal free T4 levels. A 2-month-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital because of jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography showed multifocal hemangiomas in both lobes of the liver. TSH level was elevated, free T3 level was low, free T4 level was normal, and hypothyroidism due to hepatic hemangiomas was diagnosed. In addition to propranolol, liothyronine was started. We used liothyronine without levothyroxine for hypothyroidism because only free T3 level had decreased, whereas free T4 level remained in the normal range. The TSH and free T3 levels normalized in this patient in less than 1 month. The liothyronine dose was gradually reduced with regression of the hemangiomas, and liothyronine administration was discontinued at the age of 5 months. At the age of 11 months, growth and neurological development of the patient met age-specific norms, and he was euthyroid at that time. This is the first report demonstrating the use of liothyronine with propranolol for treatment of this type of consumptive hypothyroidism.

  5. Abortive segmental perineal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J

    2011-10-15

    A six-week-old girl presented with a segmental, focally atrophic, vascular patch in the diaper area, present since birth. It had undergone minimal proliferation, but had ulcerated. Evaluation to rule out LUMBAR (Lower body hemangioma/Lipoma or other cutaneous anomalies, Urogenital anomalies, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal/Arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies) syndrome, which included ultrasound and Doppler examination of the abdomen, spine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangioma of the anogenital area with excellent clinical response to topical timolol gel.

  6. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra.

  7. Congenital hemangioma in spondylocostal dysostosis: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Torres, Victor Michael

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hemangioma is a benign tumor caused by dysfunction in embryogenesis and vasculogenesis, which progresses during fetal life to manifest as fully developed at birth. Although hemangiomas are the most common tumor of infancy, rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma has not been described in spondylocostal dysostosis. I report the novel association of congenital hemangioma and spondylocostal dysostosis in a Mexican newborn female patient with neural tube defects. Given the embryological relationship between skin and nervous system, I surmise that this association is not coincidental. I also propose that these morphologic alterations be incorporated to the spondylocostal dysostosis phenotype and specifically looked for in other affected children, in order to provide appropriate medical management and genetic counseling.

  8. Congenital hemangioma in spondylocostal dysostosis: a novel association*

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Torres, Victor Michael

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hemangioma is a benign tumor caused by dysfunction in embryogenesis and vasculogenesis, which progresses during fetal life to manifest as fully developed at birth. Although hemangiomas are the most common tumor of infancy, rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma has not been described in spondylocostal dysostosis. I report the novel association of congenital hemangioma and spondylocostal dysostosis in a Mexican newborn female patient with neural tube defects. Given the embryological relationship between skin and nervous system, I surmise that this association is not coincidental. I also propose that these morphologic alterations be incorporated to the spondylocostal dysostosis phenotype and specifically looked for in other affected children, in order to provide appropriate medical management and genetic counseling. PMID:28300884

  9. Sacroplasty for Symptomatic Sacral Hemangioma: A Novel Treatment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, V.; Sreedher, G.; Weiss, K.R.; Hughes, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Painful vertebral body hemangiomas have been successfully treated with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Sacral hemangiomas are uncommon and as such painful sacral hemangiomas are rare entities. We report what we believe is only the second successful treatment of a painful sacral hemangioma with CT-guided sacroplasty. A 56-year-old woman with a history of right-sided total hip arthroplasty and lipoma excision presented to her orthopedic surgeon with persistent right-sided low back pain which radiated into her buttock and right groin and hindered her ability to walk and perform her activities of daily living. MRIs of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis showed numerous lesions with imaging characteristics consistent with multiple hemangiomas including a 2.2×2.1 cm lesion involving the right sacrum adjacent to the right S1 neural foramen. Conservative measures including rest, physical therapy, oral analgesics and right-sided sacroiliac joint steroid injection did not provide significant relief. Given her lack of improvement and the fact that her pain localized to the right sacrum, the patient underwent CT-guided sacroplasty for treatment of a painful right sacral hemangioma. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance, a 10 gauge introducer needle was advanced through the soft tissues of the back to the margin of the lesion. Biopsy was then performed and after appropriate preparation, cement was then introduced through the needle using a separate cement filler cannula. Appropriate filling of the right sacral hemangioma was visualized using intermittent CT fluoroscopy. After injection of approximately 2.5 cc of cement, it was felt that there was near complete filling of the right sacral hemangioma. With satisfactory achievement of cement filling, the procedure was terminated. Pathology from biopsy taken at the time of the procedure was consistent with hemangioma. Image-guided sacroplasty with well-defined endpoints is an effective, minimally invasive and safe

  10. [Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma related to pregnancy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Roman; Nowak, Stanisław; Kasprzyk, Mariusz; Szpurek, Dariusz; Zukiel, Ryszard; Sokół, Bartosz; Szmeja, Jacek; Szubert, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common primary tumor of the spine. Pregnancy is a risk factor increasing the possibility of disclosure or exacerbation of symptoms of spinal hemangioma. This paper presents a case of 32-year-old woman with hemangioma of Th6 vertebrae, which was revealed by paresis of the lower limbs and sphincters dysfunction at 34 weeks gestation. Pregnancy has ended with a cesarean section. Then posterolateral thoracotomy and removal of hemangioma were performed. Spinal cord was decompressed and stabilization of the spine with metal implants was carried out. Histological examination discovered cavernous hemangioma weaving. The patient is followed up in the outpatient clinic. Despite the improvement of neurological status--enhancement of the sensory function and development of bladder and rectal sphincter automatism--she did not regain the ability to walk alone.

  11. Urethral cavernous hemangioma in a female patient: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Yüzüncü, Kubilay; Akdeniz, Ekrem; Demirdoven, Ayse Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Genitourinary hemangiomas are rare entities of the urinary system. We reported a female patient who suffered dyspareunia and intermitant hematuria that was proved as urethral cavernous hemangioma. Despite its benign nature, hemangiomas may recur due to incomplet excision. PMID:26985270

  12. Birthmarks and Hemangiomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Birthmarks & Hemangiomas Page Content Article Body Dark-Pigmented Birthmarks (Nevi or Moles) Nevi, or moles, ... so-called nevus cells, these spots are often dark brown or black. Congenital Nevi Small nevi (less ...

  13. Children with Rare Chronic Skin Diseases: Hemangiomas and Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sheila Dove; Miller, Cynthia Dieterich

    The paper reports on studies involving children having the rare chronic skin diseases of hemangiomas and epidermolysis bullosa (characterized by easy blistering). One study compared the self-concept and psychosocial development of young (mean age 46 months) children (N=19) with hemangiomas with 19 children without hemangiomas. Findings indicated…

  14. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Af; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

    2010-12-27

    Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.

  15. Expression of HES and HEY genes in infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omotinuwe; Wong, Alvin; Kitajewski, Alex; Tong, Karen; Boscolo, Elisa; Bischoff, Joyce; Kitajewski, Jan; Wu, June K

    2011-08-11

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumor of infancy, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. IHs are believed to originate from a progenitor cell, the hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Recent studies by our group showed that NOTCH proteins and NOTCH ligands are expressed in hemangiomas, indicating Notch signaling may be active in IHs. We sought to investigate downstream activation of Notch signaling in hemangioma cells by evaluating the expression of the basic HLH family proteins, HES/HEY, in IHs. HemSCs and hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) are isolated from freshly resected hemangioma specimens. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to probe for relative gene transcript levels (normalized to beta-actin). Immunofluorescence was performed to evaluate protein expression. Co-localization studies were performed with CD31 (endothelial cells) and NOTCH3 (peri-vascular, non-endothelial cells). HemSCs were treated with the gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) Compound E, and gene transcript levels were quantified with real-time PCR. HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are highly expressed in HemSCs, while HEY2 is highly expressed in HemECs. Protein expression evaluation by immunofluorescence confirms that HEY2 is expressed by HemECs (CD31+ cells), while HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are more widely expressed and mostly expressed by perivascular cells of hemangiomas. Inhibition of Notch signaling by addition of GSI resulted in down-regulation of HES/HEY genes. HES/HEY genes are expressed in IHs in cell type specific patterns; HEY2 is expressed in HemECs and HEY1, HEYL, HES1 are expressed in HemSCs. This pattern suggests that HEY/HES genes act downstream of Notch receptors that function in distinct cell types of IHs. HES/HEY gene transcripts are decreased with the addition of a gamma-secretase inhibitor, Compound E, demonstrating that Notch signaling is active in infantile hemangioma cells.

  16. [Application of blocking vessels in operative therapy of non-limb hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fanwei; Cen, Ying; Cui, Zhengjun

    2005-04-01

    To study the surgical method to reduce bleeding in treating hemangioma at non-limb sites. From November 1998 to November 2003, 49 cases of non-limb hemangioma were treated, aged 3 months to 63 years, including 21 males and 28 females. There were 14 cases of capillary hemangioma, 25 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 7 cases of arterial racemose angioma and 3 cases of mixture hemangioma. According to the position and type of hemangioma, the various methods of blocking blood vessels were adopted to assist resect tumors. After the pulsatile artery was felt in arterial racemose angioma of neck and face by palpation, we sutured and knotted it with 7-0 silk string to block the bleeding. We found out the common iliac artery or external iliac artery or femoral artery and blocked them temporarily to resect arterial racemose angioma in inguen and thigh. We sutured and knotted vessel with 7-0 silk string to block the bleeding in capillary hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma of neck and face and truncus. Intraoperative bleeding obviously decreased and the tumor size reduced to various extent. Of the 49 cases, 47 cases achieved complete success, 2 cases bled within two days after operation. A postoperative follow-up of 6 months to 4 years showed that the appearance and function were satisfactory. The preoperative method of blocking blood vessels obviously can reduce intraoperative bleeding and decrease operative difficulty, which makes it possible to eradicate hemangioma and lower recurrence rate.

  17. [Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Hassmann-Poznańska, Elibieta; Kurzyna, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the review of current knowledge regarding vascular lesions of the head and neck. For many years the term hemangioma was used to describe all vascular lesions. Mulliken and Glowacki classified congenital vascular lesions and recognized two distinct entities, hemangiomas-vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Hemangiomas are usually not present at birth, proliferate during first year of life and then involute. They are composed of proliferating endothelial cells. Vascular malformations are always present at birth although not always apparent, increase slowly in size throughout whole life and never involute. They enlarge by hypertrophy of malformed vessels. Vascular malformations can be further subdivided according to the type of involved vessels as arterial, arteriovenous, venous, capillary or lymphatic. Accurate diagnosis of hemangiomas and vascular malformations remains a challenge for physicians. Although majority of hemangiomas are self limiting lesions some of them may develop complications such as; ulceration, airway obstruction, ophthalmic complications, psychosocial consequences. Segmental hemangiomas are associated with the risk of structural anomalies such as those that occur in PHACE syndrome. Clinical presentation and forms of treatment of various forms of vascular malformations are presented. Vascular malformations have to be treated according to their histopathology and location, as well as their hemodynamic features shown by radiological examinations.

  18. Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations?

    PubMed

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; North, Paula E; McKenna, Michael J; Mihm, Martin C; Johnson, Matthew M; Cunningham, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    To reclassify facial nerve hemangiomas in the context of presently accepted vascular lesion nomenclature by examining histology and immunohistochemical markers. Cohort analysis of patients diagnosed with a facial nerve hemangioma between 1990 and 2008. Collaborative analysis at a specialty hospital and a major academic hospital. Seven subjects were identified on composite review of office charts, a pathology database spanning both institutions, and an encrypted patient registry. Clinical data were compiled, and hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens were reviewed. For six patients, archived pathological tissue was available for immunohistochemical evaluation of markers specific for infantile hemangioma (glucose transporter protein isoform 1 [GLUT1] and Lewis Y antigen) and for lymphatic endothelial cells (podoplanin). All patients clinically presented with slowly progressive facial weakness at a mean age of 45 years without prior symptomatology. Hemotoxylin-eosin-stained histopathological slides showed irregularly shaped, dilated lesional vessels with flattened endothelial cells, scant smooth muscle, and no internal elastic lamina. Both podoplanin staining for lymphatic endothelial cells and GLUT1 and LewisY antigen staining for infantile hemangioma endothelial cells were negative in lesional vessels in all specimens for which immunohistochemical analysis was performed. Lesions of the geniculate ganglion historically referred to as "hemangiomas" do not demonstrate clinical, histopathological, or immunohistochemical features consistent with a benign vascular tumor, but instead are consistent with venous malformation. We propose that these lesions be classified as "venous vascular malformations of the facial nerve." This nomenclature should more accurately predict clinical behavior and guide therapeutic interventions.

  19. Intraosseous hemangioma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Choi, June Seok; Bae, Yong Chan; Kang, Gyu Bin; Choi, Kyung-Un

    2018-03-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for 1% or fewer of all osseous tumors. The most common sites of its occurrence are the vertebral column and calvaria. Occurrence in a facial bone is very rare. The authors aim to report a case of the surgical treatment of intraosseous hemangioma occurring in the periorbital region, which is a very rare site of occurrence and to introduce our own experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of this condition along with a literature review. A 73-year-old male patient visited our hospital with the chief complaint of a mass touching the left orbital rim. A biopsy was performed by applying a direct incision after local anesthesia. Eventually, intraosseous hemangioma was diagnosed histologically. To fully resect the mass, the orbital floor and zygoma were exposed through a subciliary incision under general anesthesia, and then the tumor was completely eliminated. Bony defect was reconstructed by performing a seventh rib bone graft. Follow-up observation has so far been conducted for 10 months after surgery without recurrence or symptoms.

  20. Classification of focal liver lesions on ultrasound images by extracting hybrid textural features and using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoo Na; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Ga Young; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of focal liver lesions by quantifying the key features of cysts, hemangiomas, and malignant lesions on ultrasound images. The focal liver lesions were divided into 29 cysts, 37 hemangiomas, and 33 malignancies. A total of 42 hybrid textural features that composed of 5 first order statistics, 18 gray level co-occurrence matrices, 18 Law's, and echogenicity were extracted. A total of 29 key features that were selected by principal component analysis were used as a set of inputs for a feed-forward neural network. For each lesion, the performance of the diagnosis was evaluated by using the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The results of the experiment indicate that the proposed method exhibits great performance, a high diagnosis accuracy of over 96% among all focal liver lesion groups (cyst vs. hemangioma, cyst vs. malignant, and hemangioma vs. malignant) on ultrasound images. The accuracy was slightly increased when echogenicity was included in the optimal feature set. These results indicate that it is possible for the proposed method to be applied clinically.

  1. Managment of superficial infantile capillary hemangiomas with topical timolol maleate solution.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas.

  2. Intradural Extramedullary Capillary Hemangioma in the Upper Cervical Spine: First Report.

    PubMed

    Bouali, Sofiene; Maatar, Nidhal; Bouhoula, Asma; Abderrahmen, Khansa; Kallel, Jalel; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of intradural extramedullary capillary hemangiomas is exceedingly rare. To date, only 39 cases of intradural extramedullary capillary hemangiomas have been reported in the English literature, and all of these cases have been described at the lumbar and thoracic spinal levels. To our knowledge, this report is the first case of capillary hemangiomas of the cervical spine in the literature. In general, this entity is misdiagnosed preoperatively as a neoplasm. A 29-year-old man presented with neck pain and progressive gait disturbance, and was diagnosed with an intradural extramedullary capillary hemangioma in the cervical region. Although rare, our case demonstrates that capillary hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intradural extramedullary tumor of the cervical spine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of vertebral hemangioma on spinal magnetic resonance imaging in Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Barzin, M; Maleki, I

    2009-03-15

    The incidence of vertebral hemangiomas as the most common benign spinal neoplasms has been differently reported from 10 to 27% based on autopsy series, plain X-rays and MRI reviews. In this study, we reviewed consecutive 782 standard spinal MRI with axial and sagital T1 weighted and T2 weighted images looking for hemangiomas. In this study, the incidence of hemangioma was 26.9%, more common in females (30%) than males (23%), in older age group and in lumbar spine. Most hemangiomas (65%) were less than 10 mm in diameter. Multiple hemangiomas were seen in 33% of cases. The results of this study are similar to another Mediterranean study reported based on MRI findings, but differ from other reports using X-ray or autopsy as diagnostic tool, suggesting the influence of either the race or the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool on the incidence of vertebral hemangioma.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Iris Racemose Hemangioma in 4 Cases.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jason L; Sioufi, Kareem; Ferenczy, Sandor; Say, Emil Anthony T; Shields, Carol L

    2017-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allows visualization of iris racemose hemangioma course and its relation to the normal iris microvasculature. To describe OCTA features of iris racemose hemangioma. Descriptive, noncomparative case series at a tertiary referral center (Ocular Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital). Patients diagnosed with unilateral iris racemose hemangioma were included in the study. Features of iris racemose hemangioma on OCTA. Four eyes of 4 patients with unilateral iris racemose hemangioma were included in the study. Mean patient age was 50 years, all patients were white, and Snellen visual acuity was 20/20 in each case. All eyes had sectoral iris racemose hemangioma without associated iris or ciliary body solid tumor on clinical examination and ultrasound biomicroscopy. By anterior segment OCT, the racemose hemangioma was partially visualized in all cases. By OCTA, the hemangioma was clearly visualized as a uniform large-caliber vascular tortuous loop with intense flow characteristics superimposed over small-caliber radial iris vessels against a background of low-signal iris stroma. The vascular course on OCTA resembled a light bulb filament (filament sign), arising from the peripheral iris (base of light bulb) and forming a tortuous loop on reaching its peak (midfilament) near the pupil (n = 3) or midzonal iris (n = 1), before returning to the peripheral iris (base of light bulb). Intravenous fluorescein angiography performed in 1 eye depicted the iris hemangioma; however, small-caliber radial iris vessels were more distinct on OCTA than intravenous fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography is a noninvasive vascular imaging modality that clearly depicts the looping course of iris racemose hemangioma. Optical coherence tomography angiography depicted fine details of radial iris vessels, not distinct on intravenous fluorescein angiography.

  5. External and intralesional photocoagulation of hemangioma in children with infrared diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushkin, Ivan A.; Privalov, Valery A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Besshtanko, Evgeny L.

    2005-08-01

    Infra-red diode laser with wavelength 1060 nm was used for combined treatment of 163 children aged from 21 days to 13 years with 221 hemangiomas. For interstitial coagulation a power of 1.8-2 W and a power density of 5-90 J/cm3 were used in continuous mode. For distant coagulation pulse mode was applied with pulse/pause duration 30-50/200-250 ms, average power 1.3-2 W, and power density 65-450 J/cm2. 197 (89.1 %) hemangiomas were capillary, 7 (3.2 %) cavernous, and 17 (7.7 %) combined (combination of capillary and cavernous hemangiomas). The area of hemangiomas ranged from 6 mm2 to 48 cm2. For the majority (193, 87.3 %) of hemangiomas one session of photocoagulation was enough to achieve a good cosmetic effect. However, 28 (12.7 %) hemangiomas were treated repeatedly, 11 (5%) of them needed 4-7 sessions. In 8 children with cavernous and combined hemangiomas both distant and interstitial laser coagulation were used. In all, good or excellent results were obtained in 96,3 % of the patients. In 6 (3.7%) patients with extensive combined hematomas the considerable improvement was achieved.

  6. Primary surgical excision for pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Krema, Hatem

    2015-05-01

    We report the technique and outcome of surgical excision of subcutaneous orbital capillary hemangioma causing eye globe displacement in two children. Primary surgical excision was performed with blunt dissection along the tumor walls using a cotton-tipped applicator as the dissecting tool with simultaneous outward gentle traction on the tumor wall. Despite the deep and extensive orbital involvement, complete excision of the hemangiomas was achievable with this technique, which permitted excellent visualization of the surgical planes throughout the procedures. Deep and extensive pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma can be surgically excised with the suggested technique, which obviates the need for intralesional or systemic medical therapy, yielding optimal cosmetic and functional outcomes, shortly after surgery.

  7. Cavernous hemangioma--uncommon presentation in zygomatic bone.

    PubMed

    Dhupar, Vikas; Yadav, Sunil; Dhupar, Anita; Akkara, Francis

    2012-03-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. They may occur in any vascularized tissue including skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone. Intraosseous hemangiomas are uncommon, constituting less than 1% of all osseous tumors. The most frequent sites are the calvaria and the vertebral column. Involvement of the facial bones is rare and occurs most commonly in the maxilla, mandible, and nasal bones. In literature, only 20 cases of zygomatic involvement have been reported. We report a case of an intraosseous hemangioma of the zygoma with the history and physical findings of slowly growing, bony, hard tumor causing facial and ocular deformity. The typical clinicopathologic and radiologic findings helped to set up the correct diagnosis. Early recognition and excision are recommended to preserve facial contour. Operative blood loss is minimal, and there is no need for preoperative angiography.

  8. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma causing cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Henry; Jhaveri, Subir; Yee, Albert; Finkelstein, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Case report. To report a case of lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina, managed with hemostatic vertebroplasty and posterior decompression. This is the first report to our knowledge of a lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Most hemangiomas causing neurologic symptoms occur in thoracic spine and cause spinal cord compression. Vertebroplasty as a method of hemostasis and for providing mechanical stability in this situation has not been discussed previously in the literature. L4 hemangioma was diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman with severe neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Preoperative angiograms showed no embolizable vessels. Posterior decompression was performed followed by bilateral transpedicular vertebroplasty. The patient received postoperative radiation to prevent recurrence. Complete relief of neurogenic claudication and cauda equina with less than 100 mL of blood loss. A lumbar hemangioma of the vertebral body, although rare, can cause neurogenic claudication and cauda equina syndrome. Intraoperative vertebroplasty can be an effective method of hemostasis and provide stability of the vertebra following posterior decompression.

  9. Capillary Hemangioma of Thoracic Spinal Cord: PET/CT and MR Findings.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Su, Minggang; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2017-05-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are frequently encountered superficially in the cutaneous, subcutaneous, or mucosal tissues during the childhood and early adulthood, but the occurrence of spinal intradural capillary hemangioma is relatively rare. Herein, we report a case with capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine. MR and PET/CT features of this lesion are presented, and awareness of this entity may help differentiate it from other spinal intradural tumors.

  10. Guide to Understanding Hemangiomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... are similar to veins except they carry excess water instead of blood back to the heart. Lymphatics prevent swelling and are also part of the immune system. when should treatment for hemangiomas be considered? a ll physicians agree ...

  11. Sacroplasty for symptomatic sacral hemangioma: a novel treatment approach. A case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, V; Sreedher, G; Weiss, K R; Hughes, M A

    2013-06-01

    Painful vertebral body hemangiomas have been successfully treated with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Sacral hemangiomas are uncommon and as such painful sacral hemangiomas are rare entities. We report what we believe is only the second successful treatment of a painful sacral hemangioma with CT-guided sacroplasty. A 56-year-old woman with a history of right-sided total hip arthroplasty and lipoma excision presented to her orthopedic surgeon with persistent right-sided low back pain which radiated into her buttock and right groin and hindered her ability to walk and perform her activities of daily living. MRIs of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis showed numerous lesions with imaging characteristics consistent with multiple hemangiomas including a 2.2×2.1 cm lesion involving the right sacrum adjacent to the right S1 neural foramen. Conservative measures including rest, physical therapy, oral analgesics and right-sided sacroiliac joint steroid injection did not provide significant relief. Given her lack of improvement and the fact that her pain localized to the right sacrum, the patient underwent CT-guided sacroplasty for treatment of a painful right sacral hemangioma. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance, a 10 gauge introducer needle was advanced through the soft tissues of the back to the margin of the lesion. Biopsy was then performed and after appropriate preparation, cement was then introduced through the needle using a separate cement filler cannula. Appropriate filling of the right sacral hemangioma was visualized using intermittent CT fluoroscopy. After injection of approximately 2.5 cc of cement, it was felt that there was near complete filling of the right sacral hemangioma. With satisfactory achievement of cement filling, the procedure was terminated. Pathology from biopsy taken at the time of the procedure was consistent with hemangioma. Image-guided sacroplasty with well-defined endpoints is an effective, minimally invasive and safe procedure

  12. Metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid features and Hep Par 1 antibody positive mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Affleck, Authur; Lyman, William B; Jacobs, W Carl; Livasy, Chad A; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2018-05-09

    The hepatocyte paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) has a high positive predictive value for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. 1 We report a case of metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid histology and strong positive staining for Hep Par 1 mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. To our knowledge, primary breast carcinoma staining Hep Par 1 positive has not been reported in the setting of hepatic metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytogenetic study of a pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Pareja, María J; Vargas, María T; Sánchez, Ana; Ibáñez, José; González-Cámpora, Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is an uncommon benign tumor that presents as a solitary asymptomatic and slow-growing nodule. It occurs in both young and old persons; peak incidence is in the fifth decade. Both sexes are affected by this tumor, but women more frequently than men. On histological examination, PSH shows prominent sclerotization and vascularization of the tissue. Recent studies conclude that PSH derives from type II pneumocytes, but the potential for progression and histogenesis remains controversial. We report a case of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma in a 61-year-old woman with a neoplastic node 1 cm in diameter. The karyotype was 46,XX,t(8;18),der(14;15),+14 in all the cells analyzed. PTEN (10q23) and IgH (14q32) probes were analyzed in interphase nuclei and paraffin-embedded tissues of tumor cells. These chromosome abnormalities could provide information about the relationship of genetic changes to the biological properties of sclerosing hemangioma tumors.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatic hemangiomas: A consensus from a Chinese panel of experts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Fan, Rui-Fang; Yang, Jia-Yin; Cui, Yan; Ji, Jian-Song; Ma, Kuan-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Xu, Chong-Liang; Kong, Xin-Liang; Ke, Shan; Ding, Xue-Mei; Wang, Shao-Hong; Yang, Meng-Meng; Song, Jin-Jin; Zhai, Bo; Nin, Chun-Ming; Guo, Shi-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Lu, Jun; Dong, Yong-Hong; Zhu, Hua-Qiang; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) ablation therapy is a safe, feasible, and effective procedure for hepatic hemangiomas, even huge hepatic hemangiomas. RF ablation has the following advantages in the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas: minimal invasiveness, definite efficacy, high safety, fast recovery, relatively simple operation, and wide applicability. It is necessary to formulate a widely accepted consensus among the experts in China who have extensive expertise and experience in the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas using RF ablation, which is important to standardize the application of RF ablation for the management of hepatic hemangiomas, regarding the selection of patients with suitable indications to receive RF ablation treatment, the technical details of the techniques, therapeutic effect evaluations, management of complications, etc. A final consensus by a Chinese panel of experts who have the expertise of using RF ablation to treat hepatic hemangiomas was reached by means of literature review, comprehensive discussion, and draft approval. PMID:29093616

  15. Multiple intraosseous hemangiomas-investigation and role of N-butylcyanoacrylate in management.

    PubMed

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit; Barai, Sukanto; Parihar, Anit

    2007-05-01

    Primary intraosseous hemangiomas are rare (0.7% of all osseous neoplasms), benign, slow-growing neoplasms. These lesions are usually solitary. We are reporting a case of multicentric intraosseous hemangiomas. Investigation, treatment options, and role of N-butylcyanoacrylate (NBCA) in management will be discussed. A 20-year-old man had multicentric intraosseous hemangiomas involving the skull bones, mandible, vertebra, pelvic bone, and tibial tuberosity. N-butylcyanoacrylate was used by direct puncture technique using a transosseous transcutaneous route to control profuse bleeding from the retromolar region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with such extensive multicentric intraosseous hemangiomas. N-butylcyanoacrylate by direct puncture technique can be an effective method to devascularize and stabilize low-flow intraosseous vascular tumors. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acquired Elastotic Hemangioma: Case Series and Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Background Acquired elastotic hemangioma is a benign vascular proliferation that typically presents as an asymptomatic red plaque on a sun-exposed site of an adult. Material and Methods The PubMed database was used to search the following words: acquired, angioma, arm, basal, carcinoma, cell, elastosis, elastotic, exposed, forearm, hemangioma, solar, sun, and vascular. The relevant papers and reference cited generated by the search were reviewed. The features from a case series of 11 patients with acquired elastotic hemangioma are presented. In addition, a comprehensive review of the characteristics of this unique hemangioma—not only in our 11 patients but also in the previously reported 34 individuals with this lesion—is provided. Results Acquired elastotic hemangioma, reported in 45 patients (24 women and 21 men), typically appeared as an asymptomatic solitary red plaque in sun-exposed areas—most commonly the forearm--of adults aged 50 years or older. The pathology shows a proliferation of vascular channels—surrounded and intertwined by intense solar elastosis--in the upper dermis, located parallel to the overlying epidermis, and separated from it by a zone of normal-appearing superficial papillary dermis. There was extensive solar elastosis surrounding and between the new blood vessels; some of the endothelial cells protrude (in a hob-nail pattern) into the vessel lumen. The clinical differential diagnosis includes basal cell carcinoma and the pathologic differential diagnosis includes other benign, malignant, and reactive vascular lesions. Ultraviolet radiation may contribute to the pathogenesis of this hemangioma since it occurs on sun-exposed sites. There was no recurrence of the lesion following either excision or observation. Conclusions The possibility of acquired elastotic hemangioma should be considered by clinicians when they encounter an older individual with a new red plaque on a sun-exposed site that clinically appears to be a superficial

  17. Argon Laser Treatment of Strawberry Hemangioma in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Achauer, Bruce M.; Vander Kam, Victoria M.

    1985-01-01

    Argon laser therapy is effective for removing port-wine stains and for reducing cutaneous vascular and pigmented lesions. Strawberry hemangiomas, being much thicker lesions than port-wine stains, were considered not appropriate for argon laser treatment. Using argon laser therapy in 13 cases of strawberry hemangioma, we achieved poor to dramatic results. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:4082569

  18. An aggressive vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Ouafae; Jayi, Sofia; Fdili Alaoui, Fatimazahra; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hekmat; Fikri, Ghizlane; Alaoui Rachidi, Siham; Sqalli Houssaini, Nadia; Himmich, Mariam; Abdelilah Melhouf, Moulay

    2014-06-18

    Pregnancy-related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. A 19-year-old North African woman in her 38th week of pregnancy presented with paraplegia that progressed within 2 days after a rapidly progressive weakness of her lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed compression of her spinal cord in front of the fourth thoracic vertebra for suspected tuberculous spondylitis. A Caesarean section was done followed by corpectomy with a bone graft because we intraoperatively discovered a vertebral hemangioma. Pathology showed an aggressive hemangioma. At any term of pregnancy, extensive neurological involvement which is rapidly progressive due to compression should be considered for immediate decompression.

  19. Management of cement vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Boschi, V; Pogorelić, Z; Gulan, G; Perko, Z; Grandić, L; Radonić, V

    2011-01-01

    The vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions occurring in spine. Although uncommon, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be painful and can limit daily activities. A number of methods have been used in the treatment of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangioma, but none of them is optimal. Treatment with cement vertebroplasty showed very good results. This study aims to illustrate the validity of the treatment with cement vertebroplasty in patients with painful vertebral hemangiomas. From January 2000 to January 2007, 24 patients were treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty because of hemangioma: 16 thoracic, 8 lumbar. There were 11 males and 13 females. The average age at the time of surgery was 48 years. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuing medication. All patients underwent X-ray examination, CT-scan and MR of the involved level preoperatively. A unipedicular approach under fluoroscopic guidance has been performed in all patients. All procedures have been carried out under the local anesthesia. The mean follow-up was 5.8 years. In all the patients a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular cement leakage has been observed in 3 patients, without any clinical radicular syndrome onset due to the epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain in all patients. Percutaneous treatment with vertebroplasty for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas is a valuable, less-invasive, and a quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of the vertebral body's fracture.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Luisa; Marchese, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination. Blood circulation inside retinal cavernous hemangioma lesion is typically low-stagnant.2 However, OCTA demonstrated blood flow inside the lesion, illustrating its vascular circulation.3 Visual field was within the normal limits, except from a slight enlargement of the blind spot. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:684-685.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Hepatic Hemangiomas: Factors Associated with Pseudo Washout Sign on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tateyama, Akihiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Takumi, Koji; Shindo, Toshikazu; Kumagae, Yuichi; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Our study aim was to clarify the characteristics of hemangiomas with pseudo washout sign (PWS) by comparing their features with those of hemangiomas without PWS on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We evaluated the features of hemangiomas on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging of 70 hepatic hemangiomas in 31 patients, investigating the presence of peripheral or central nodular enhancement, diffuse enhancement, and arterioportal shunt during the arterial phase, fill-in enhancement during the portal venous phase, and PWS, which is low signal intensity during the late phase. We visually assessed the intensity of contrast enhancement of the lesion during the arterial, portal venous, late, and hepatobiliary phases using a 4-grade scale and used the Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare hemangiomas with and without PWS. We observed PWS in 33 (47%) of 70 hemangiomas, which were significantly smaller than the hemangiomas without PWS (17.4 mm ± 20.3 versus 30.1 mm ± 28.5; P = 0.005); more frequent diffuse enhancement in hemangiomas with PWS than those without (21.2% versus 2.7%; P = 0.026); and no significant differences in nodular enhancement (P = 0.231), arterioportal shunt (P = 0.403), or fill-in enhancement (P = 0.357) between hemangiomas with and without PWS. Visually determined grades of tumor contrast enhancement were significantly lower in hemangiomas with PWS during the portal venous (P = 0.007) and late (P < 0.001) phases. Small hemangiomas tend to decrease in signal intensity during the portal venous phase and show PWS during the late phase.

  2. Angiogenesis characteristics of infantile hemangioma and feasibility observation of transplantation model of human hemangioma on mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Yang, Z-G; Zhao, L-Y

    2017-03-01

    To study pathogenic features of pediatric hemangiomas, we successfully established a model in mice, by transplanting human hemangioma tissues. The hemangioma from the leg of a two-month-old infant was dissected and sliced into several pieces. During a careful surgical procedure, the hemangioma tissues were individually transplanted into skin incisions in anesthetized mice. The volume of the transplanted tumors was measured and the changes in shape recorded at 1 day, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after the transplantation. HE dyeing, CD31 and Glut1 IHC were applied to tumors in the proliferation and involuting phases. Also, 10 survival tumors and 10 normal tissues from infants undergoing circumcisions (control tissues) were used to determine their Angiotensin 1 (Ang1), Angiotensin 2 (Ang2), Tie2, and endothelium growth factor (VEGF) expression levels by IHC method. We observed all the tumors going through the same stages, where after two months their volumes increased sharply and then after 4 months they all began to recede. During the proliferative phase, newly born capillaries could be seen and the tumor elasticity increased (bright red color). During the involuting phase, the color faded away and the tumors became harder and were almost gone by 6 months. During the first two months after transplantation, HE dyeing showed hypertrophied and proliferating endothelial cells accumulating inside the tumors with irregular cavities inside blood vessels being filled by them. During the involuting phase (at 4 months), the lumen in blood vessels was distinctly enlarged while fiber and adipose tissue had significantly deposited. The transplanted and original tumors tested positive for CD31 and Glut1 dyeing, without significant differences. Compared with control samples, the Ang1 expression of the transplanted tumor in both the hyperplasia and proliferative phases was stably low (p<0.05), while expressions of Ang2 and Tie2 were both stably high (p<0.05). The VEGF

  3. An aggressive vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy-related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. Case presentation A 19-year-old North African woman in her 38th week of pregnancy presented with paraplegia that progressed within 2 days after a rapidly progressive weakness of her lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed compression of her spinal cord in front of the fourth thoracic vertebra for suspected tuberculous spondylitis. A Caesarean section was done followed by corpectomy with a bone graft because we intraoperatively discovered a vertebral hemangioma. Pathology showed an aggressive hemangioma. Conclusion At any term of pregnancy, extensive neurological involvement which is rapidly progressive due to compression should be considered for immediate decompression. PMID:24943121

  4. [Infantile hemangioma and propranolol: a therapeutic "revolution". Literature review].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, L; Dangoisse, C; Semaille, P

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common benign vascular tumour affecting children. Most infantile hemangiomas are self-limiting, but some require specific treatment. Propranolol has been proposed for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism of action of propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas and to demonstrate its safety and efficacy through a review of the literature. The non cardioselective bêta-blocker propranolol has been used in a pediatric setting for 40 years and, since 2008, has a new indication. A clearly significant improvement has been observed in the condition of children with complicated IH (10%) treated with propranolol. This new indication has been widely described in the international literature. Various explanations have been put forward for the mechanism of action including a vasoconstrictor, antiangiogenic and apoptotic effect of propranolol on the different cells making up an IH. Overall tolerance is good and the efficacy markedly superior to that of any other treatments used for this purpose. In conclusion, with its good tolerance profile and superior efficacy versus all the other available therapies, propranolol can be considered to be a first-line treatment for complicated IH.

  5. Inhibition of hemangioma growth using polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for delivery of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Teng, Yunfei; Sun, Jin; Liu, Jianyong

    2017-11-01

    Although infantile hemangiomas is benign, its rapid growth may induce serious complications. However, only one drug Hemangeol™ has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat infantile hemangiomas. Thus it is necessary to develop novel alternative drugs to treat infantile hemangiomas. Rapamycin is a well-know potent antiangiogenic agent, whereas the daily oral administration of rapamycin exerts undesired metabolic effects due to its inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is critical in cell metabolism. We hereby developed rapamycin-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (Rapamycin-PLNPs) as a local controlled release system to realize local and sustained release of rapamycin, aiming to reduce the side effects and frequency of administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin-PLNPs are of a small size (129.1nm), desired drug encapsulation efficiency (63.7%), and sustained drug release for 5 days. Rapamycin-PLNPs were shown to be able to effectively bind to hemangioma endothelia cells (HemECs), induce significant proliferation inhibition and reduce expression of angiogenesis factors in HemECs. The therapeutic effect of Rapamycin-PLNPs against infantile hemangioma in vivo was superior to rapamycin, as reflected by reduced hemangioma volume, weight and microvessel density. Taken together, Rapamycin-PLNPs represent a very promising local approach in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Infantile hemangioma: pulsed dye laser versus surgical therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remlova, E.; Dostalova, T.; Michalusova, I.; Vranova, J.; Jelinkova, H.; Hubacek, M.

    2014-05-01

    Hemangioma is a mesenchymal benign tumor formed by blood vessels. Anomalies affect up to 10% of children and they are more common in females than in males. The aim of our study was to compare the treatment efficacy, namely the curative effect and adverse events, such as loss of pigment and appearance of scarring, between classical surgery techniques and laser techniques. For that reason a group of 223 patients with hemangioma was retrospectively reviewed. For treatment, a pulsed dye laser (PDL) (Rhodamine G, wavelength 595 nm, pulsewidth between 0.45 and 40 ms, spot diameter 7 mm, energy density 9-11 J cm-2) was used and the results were compared with a control group treated with classical surgical therapy under general anesthesia. The curative effects, mainly number of sessions, appearance of scars, loss of pigment, and relapses were evaluated as a marker of successful treatment. From the results it was evident that the therapeutic effects of both systems are similar. The PDL was successful in all cases. The surgery patients had four relapses. Classical surgery is directly connected with the presence of scars, but the system is safe for larger hemangiomas. It was confirmed that the PDL had the optimal curative effect without scars for small lesions (approximately 10 mm). Surgical treatment under general anesthesia is better for large hemangiomas; the disadvantage is the presence of scars.

  7. Glomeruloid hemangioma and POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hernández Aragüés, I; Pulido Pérez, A; Ciudad Blanco, C; Parra Blanco, V; Suárez Fernández, R

    2017-03-01

    POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic manifestation associated with hematopoietic disorders such as multiple myeloma and Castleman disease. POEMS is an acronym for the main clinical features of the syndrome, namely, Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M protein, and Skin abnormalities. Glomeruloid hemangiomas are considered to be a specific clinical marker of POEMS syndrome. However, while they are not pathognomonic, their presence should raise suspicion of this syndrome or alert clinicians to its possible future development, as these lesions can appear years before the onset of the syndrome. We report the cases of 2 women with plasma cell dyscrasias and sudden onset of lesions with a vascular appearance and histologic findings consistent with glomeruloid hemangioma. Recognition of this vascular tumor is important for the early diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Pure Spinal Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Intralesional Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

  9. Difficult preoperative diagnosis of a patient with sclerosing splenic hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Edoute, Y.; Ben-Haim, S.A.; Ben-Arie, Y.

    1989-07-01

    We present a young asymptomatic woman with splenomegaly and a large isolated splenic mass demonstrated by ultrasonography, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and gallium scintigraphy studies. Computerized tomography (CT) and three-phase 99mTc-labeled red blood cell imaging suggested a malignant lesion. Repeated sonographically guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) obtained only blood, suggesting the possible vascular nature of the tumor. Splenectomy established the diagnosis of splenic hemangioma (SH) with marked sclerotic changes. We conclude from this case that (1) the sclerotic and cystic changes in the SH and the abdominal lymphadenopathy could explain why the three-phase red blood cell and CT scanning, respectively,more » suggested that the lesion was malignant rather than benign; (2) guided FNA of a splenic mass suspected to be hemangioma may be an additional safe and useful diagnostic procedure. Multiple aspirations yielding blood alone suggest hemangioma and may prevent an unnecessary operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of FNA of splenic hemangioma.« less

  10. Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period. PMID:21414205

  11. Cavernous hemangioma of the orbit: an unusual acute presentation

    PubMed Central

    Louisraj, Sophia; Ponnudurai, Thendral; Rodriguez, Dominic; Thomas, Philip A; Nelson Jesudasan, Christadoss Arul

    2017-01-01

    We report an unusual presentation of an orbital cavernous hemangioma in a 26-year-old female, who noted sudden redness and swelling of the left eye (LE) on waking up. At presentation, upper eyelid edema with periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage were noted in the LE. Although there was transient symptomatic relief with topical medications, blurring of vision developed in the LE. When seen 10 days later, the patient’s LE showed axial proptosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraconal soft tissue mass in the superomedial quadrant of the left orbit. Superior orbitotomy with mass excision was done; histopathological examination of the excised mass revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The patient had complete visual recovery following surgery. To our knowledge, an acute presentation of an orbital cavernous hemangioma with subconjunctival hemorrhage and periorbital ecchymosis has not previously been reported. PMID:28769595

  12. Multi-modality gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantom with targeted mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roland K; Shih, A J

    2013-08-21

    This study develops a new class of gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantom material and a model to predict and control the elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity by adjusting the mass fractions of gellan gum, propylene glycol, and sodium chloride, respectively. One of the advantages of gellan gum is its gelling efficiency allowing highly regulable mechanical properties (elastic modulus, toughness, etc). An experiment was performed on 16 gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantoms and a regression model was fit to quantitatively predict three material properties (elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity) based on the phantom material's composition. Based on these material properties and the regression model developed, tissue-mimicking phantoms of porcine spinal cord and liver were formulated. These gellan gum tissue-mimicking phantoms have the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties approximately equivalent to those of the spinal cord and the liver.

  13. [Spasmodic torticollis and vertebral hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Durán, E; Chacón, J R

    Spasmodic torticollis in young patients should give rise to a clinical suspicion that this is secondary to another primary disorder. Therefore a series of diagnostic tests should be carried out before it is labelled as idiopathic. The patient was a thirty year old man who had had difficulty in writing with his right hand since childhood. At the age of 20 years he was diagnosed as having writer's cramp and idiopathic spasmodic torticollis. On general physical examination no abnormalities were found. On neurological examination he had: absence of reflexes of both arms, limited but painless rotation of the neck towards the left and hypertrophy of the left trapezius muscle. Laboratory, neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations seeking a secondary cause for the torticollis were all normal. There were no Keyser-Fleischer rings. Chest X-ray showed, dorsal scoliosis with convexity to the left. CAT and MR of the spine showed a hemangioma in the body of T1. On arteriography of the supra-aortic and vertebral trunks a hemangioma was found at T1 which received contrast material via a branch of the right thyro-bi-cervico-scapular trunk. Various treatments were tried (diazepam, Botox, Dysport, tetrabenazine, baclofen, etc.) with no improvement. A definite diagnosis of secondary torticollis could not be made since the hemangioma was supplied by a very narrow vascular pedicle, so embolization was contraindicated. Cervical spinal cord alterations may cause focal dystonia due to increased excitability of the spinal motor neurone, due to dysfunction of the disinhibitory descending reciprocal paths.

  14. Percutaneous Pediculoplasty for Vertebral Hemangioma Involving the Neural Arch: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Sokun, E-mail: sofuwa@luke.or.jp; Numaguchi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Nobuo

    2008-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas occasionally involve the neural arch and they can be symptomatic. We report a case of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma mainly involving the unilateral neural arch which was successfully treated with percutaneous pediculoplasty using a single-needle technique.

  15. Total En Bloc Spondylectomy for Locally Aggressive Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Neurological Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Ryo; Hikata, Tomohiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common; however, aggressive vertebral hemangiomas with extraosseous extensions causing neurological deficits are rare. The treatment for this subtype of hemangioma remains controversial, since there are few reports on long-term clinical outcomes or tumor recurrence rates. We describe a case of aggressive vertebral hemangioma treated by total en bloc spondylectomy, with a literature review focusing on long-term recurrence. A 52-year-old male with a two-month history of numbness in the bilateral lower extremities was referred to our hospital. Imaging studies showed a tumor originating in the T9 vertebra and extending to the T8 and T10 vertebrae, with extraosseous extension causing spinal-cord compression. Ten months after onset, the patient presented with progressive paraparesis and hypalgesia. Total en bloc spondylectomy was performed, and pathology was consistent with cavernous hemangioma. Motor and sensory deficits improved significantly, and no signs of recurrence are seen at 2.5 years after operation. A review of literature revealed a recurrence rate of 12.7% (10/79 cases). The available evidence indicates satisfactory long-term outcomes for total tumor resection without adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:25918662

  16. Incremental benefit of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of a primary pericardial hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Arisha, Mohammed J; Hsiung, Ming C; Nanda, Navin C; ElKaryoni, Ahmed; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Wei, Jeng

    2017-08-01

    Hemangiomas are rarely found in the heart and pericardial involvement is even more rare. We report a case of primary pericardial hemangioma, in which three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) provided incremental benefit over standard two-dimensional images. Our case also highlights the importance of systematic cropping of the 3D datasets in making a diagnosis of pericardial hemangioma with a greater degree of certainty. In addition, we also provide a literature review of the features of cardiac/pericardial hemangiomas in a tabular form. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Diode laser for the treatment of telangiectasias following hemangioma involution.

    PubMed

    Cerrati, Eric W; O, Teresa M; Chung, Hoyun; Waner, Milton

    2015-02-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are well known for their rapid growth during the first 6 to 9 months of life, followed by a spontaneous but slow involution. The standard of care is to treat these lesions at an early age with propranolol to expedite the involution process; however, surgery still remains an active component in the management. Medical treatment with propranolol or natural involution will often result in residual telangiectasias. We evaluated the efficacy of using a diode laser as a treatment for telangiectasias following cervicofacial infantile hemangioma involution. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care hospital and practice specializing in the care of vascular anomalies. Twenty patients, aged 4 months to 11 years (average 2.69 years), underwent treatment with a 532-nm diode laser to treat the residual telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. All procedures were performed in the operating room. To assess the efficacy, we independently evaluated pre- and posttreatment digital photographs and ranked them on a 0- to 4-point scale (0 = no change and 4 = complete response). Adverse reactions were also recorded. The telangiectasias showed considerable improvement following treatment. In more than half of the patients treated, the affected area demonstrated a complete response. No adverse reactions were noted. A 532-nm diode laser effectively treats the remaining telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. Whether used independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities, the diode laser should be part of the surgical armamentarium when treating infantile hemangiomas. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Intradural extramedullary capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jonathan J.; Lee, Darrin J.; Jin, Lee-Way; Kim, Kee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that rarely occur in the neuraxis. When encountered in the spine, prompt diagnosis and complete resection is crucial. On rare instances, these lesions can acutely hemorrhage, leading to sudden neurological decline. To date, there are only 16 reported cases of intradural capillary hemangiomas in the cauda equina. Case Description: We report a case of an intradural extramedullary cauda equina capillary hemangioma that resulted in back pain and lower extremity motor deficit. Initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a bilobular intradural L3-4 cauda equina lesion. The lesion was isointense on T1-weighted imaging, mildly hyperintense on T2-weighted images and avidly enhancing after gadolinium administration. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of capillary hemangioma. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment of this patient resulted in complete resection of the tumor and return of lower extremity motor function. Capillary hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cauda equina lesions. En bloc resection of these lesions is the mainstay of treatment. PMID:25949855

  19. Congenital intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the skull: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Rumana, Makhdoomi; Khursheed, Nayil; Farhat, Mustafa; Othman, Salim; Masood, Laharwal

    2013-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas are benign vascular malformations mostly seen in the spine. They rarely occur in the skull. The usual age-group involved is the 2nd to 4th decades, and females outnumber males. We hereby report a rare case of congenital intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the skull bone in a male infant. The patient underwent total excision of the lesion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mimicry of lyme arthritis by synovial hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Hospach, Toni; Langendörfer, M; Kalle, T V; Tewald, F; Wirth, T; Dannecker, G E

    2011-12-01

    To report on the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma due to similar clinical and radiological signs and symptoms. A 15-year-old boy presented at the age of 9 with recurrent rather painless swelling of the right knee. Altogether four episodes lasting for 1-2 weeks each occurred over a period of 18 months before medical advice was sought. Physical examination revealed only a slightly limited range of motion. Living in an endemic area of borreliosis, he reported a tick bite 6 months prior to onset of his symptoms with erythema migrans and was treated for 10 days with amoxicillin. Serology revealed two positive unspecific bands in IgG immunoblot (p41 and 66) with slight positivity for ELISA. Ultrasound revealed synovial thickening and increased fluid. Despite the weak positive serology a diagnosis of lyme arthritis could not be excluded and intravenous antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone was started. After two further relapses antiinflammatory therapy including intraarticular steroids were introduced with no long lasting effect. A chronical disease developed with alternate periods of swelling and almost complete remission. Ultrasound as well as MRI demonstrated ongoing signs of synovitis, therefore after further progression, a diagnostic arthroscopy was performed showing an inconspicuous knee joint. A second MRI showed focal suprapatellar enhancement and was followed by open arthrotomy revealing a histopathological proven synovial cavernous juxtaarticular hemangioma. To our knowledge, the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma has not yet been reported despite obvious clinical similarities. In conclusion, in children and adolescents synovial hemangioma has to be considered in differential diagnosis of recurrent knee swelling. Early diagnosis is important to prevent prolonged suffering from chronic joint swelling with probable joint damages, unnecessary treatment procedures and as well school and sports

  1. [High frequency electrocoagulation for treating noninvoluting congenital hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Zhongqiang, Wang; Yafei, Wang; Jiashuang, Zhou; Quan, Zhou; Lijuan, Yang; Li, Wang

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the clinical efficiency of electrocoagulation for the treatment of noninvoluting congenital hemangioma. Sixteen infants with noninvoluting congenital hemangioma who were admitted to our hospital from January 2011 to June 2013 were included in this study. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to determine the hemangioma location, as well as its size and depth. High frequency electrocoagulation was adopted for the treatment. The output power was set at 10-20 W. The probes were inserted around the tumor or at the surface of the tumor. After switching on for 1-2 seconds, the direction and position of the probe was modulated until covering the whole tumor. After the treatment, the absorption of tumor was about 3-6 months. The efficiency was evaluated during the follow-up. Tumor atrophy was obvious after treatment in all patients. The temperature around the tumor mass was decreased, and the aberrant blood signals were decreased under the ultrasonic examination. Complete or partial atrophy were observed. The efficiency was graded as level I, II, III, IV in 0, 2, 9 and 5 patients, respectively. One patient showed local infection due to improper nursing, which was completely relieved after corresponding treatment. No severe adverse events were observed. High-frequency electrocoagulation is effective for treating noninvoluting congenital hemangioma through coagulating the aberrant blood vessels in the tumor, interrupting the vascular endothelial cell, blocking the aberrant blood flow, as well as leading to atrophy and absorption of tumor mass. Besides, no obvious scar is observed after the surgery.

  2. Epithelioid hemangioma of the spine: Two cases.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Bendan M; Kim, Jinsuh

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) manifested in the thoracic spine with associated clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. Epithelioid hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor that can involve any bone (including the spine in a subset of patients). Although recognized as a benign tumor by the WHO, it can display locally aggressive features. Within the spine, these features may lead to pain, instability, and/or neurologic dysfunction. The radiographic appearance is most typically that of a lytic, well-defined lesion on plain film or CT. The MRI appearance is typically hypointense on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI, and avidly enhancing, often with an extraosseous soft-tissue component.

  3. Urea immunoliposome inhibits human vascular endothelial cell proliferation for hemangioma treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urea injection has been used in hemangioma treatment as sclerotherapy. It shrinks vascular endothelial cells and induces degeneration, necrosis, and fibrosis. However, this treatment still has disadvantages, such as lacking targeting and difficulty in controlling the urea dosage. Thus, we designed a urea immunoliposome to improve the efficiency of treatment. Methods The urea liposome was prepared by reverse phase evaporation. Furthermore, the urea immunoliposome was generated by coupling the urea liposome with a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibody using the glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. The influence of the urea immunoliposome on cultured human hemangioma vascular endothelial cells was observed preliminarily. Results Urea immunoliposomes showed typical liposome morphology under a transmission electron microscope, with an encapsulation percentage of 54.4% and a coupling rate of 36.84% for anti-VEGFR. Treatment with the urea immunoliposome significantly inhibited the proliferation of hemangioma vascular endothelial cells (HVECs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The urea immunoliposome that we developed distinctly and persistently inhibited the proliferation of HVECs and is expected to be used in clinical hemangioma treatment. PMID:24266957

  4. Laparoscopic vs computerized tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Kong, Jian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Ke, Shan; Niu, Hai-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare safety and therapeutic efficacy of laparoscopic radiofrequency (RF) ablation vs computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our sequential experience of treating 51 large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm in 51 patients by CT-guided or laparoscopic RF ablation due to either the presence of symptoms and/or the enlargement of hemangioma. Altogether, 24 hemangiomas were ablated via a CT-guided percutaneous approach (CT-guided ablation group), and 27 hemangiomas were treated via a laparoscopic approach (laparoscopic ablation group). RESULTS: The mean diameter of the 51 hemangiomas was 9.6 ± 1.8 cm (range, 6.0-12.0 cm). There was no difference in the diameter of hemangiomas between the two groups (P > 0.05). RF ablation was performed successfully in all patients. There was no difference in ablation times between groups (P > 0.05). There were 23 thoracic complications in 17 patients: 15 (62.5%, 15/24) in the CT-guided ablation group and 2 (7.4%, 2/27) in the laparoscopic ablation group (P < 0.05). According to the Dindo-Clavien classification, two complications (pleural effusion and diaphragmatic rupture grade III) were major in two patients. All others were minor (grade I). Both major complications occurred in the CT-guided ablation group. The minor complications were treated successfully with conservative measures, and the two major complications underwent treatment by chest tube drainage and thoracoscopic surgery, respectively. Complete ablation was achieved in 91.7% (22/24) and 96.3% (26/27) in the CT-guided and the laparoscopic ablation groups, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic RF ablation therapy should be used as the first-line treatment option for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm. It avoids thermal injury to the diaphragm and reduces thoracic complications. PMID:26019459

  5. Spontaneous Hemothorax Caused by Pulmonary Micro-Venous Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Homma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Imura, Johji; Doki, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Naoki; Senda, Kazutaka; Toge, Masayoshi; Ojima, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Masawa, Nobuhide

    2015-07-01

    Various etiologies of spontaneous hemothorax have been reported, though the cause remains unidentified in some patients despite an exploratory thoracotomy. We report on an 89-year-old man with spontaneous hemothorax resolved by partial resection of the lung using complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The histopathologic findings revealed a ruptured micro-venous hemangioma located just below the bleeding visceral pleura. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous hemothorax caused by a pulmonary micro-venous hemangioma. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of intralesional bleomycin in the treatment of complicated hemangiomas: prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, Shapour; Nezakatgoo, Nosrat; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Mosalaei, Ahmad

    2005-05-01

    Hemangioma is the most common tumor of infancy. Although it has a basically benign nature and usually spontaneously regresses, a small percentage (5%) have complications that need treatment. Many different therapeutic modalities can be used in this tumor. To investigate the effect of a new method of treatment (intralesional bleomycin injection) in complicated hemangiomas. In the Department of Radiation Oncology at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran, from April 1992 to October 1998, 32 patients with complicated hemangioma were treated with four to six courses of direct injection of bleomycin into the lesion. After a minimum follow-up of 6 years, there was 70 to 100% regression in 18 patients, 50 to 70% in 7 cases, and less than 50% reduction in 7 patients. Intralesional injection of bleomycin is an easy, safe, and effective therapeutic modality in complicated cutaneous hemangiomas.

  7. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 18 Final Diagnosis: Hemangioma Symptoms: Pain • weaknes of lower limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Decompression and fixation Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9–1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. Case Report: An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate midthoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. Conclusions: Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program. PMID:27795545

  8. Occipital Intraosseous Hemangioma over Torcula: Unusual Presentation with Raised Intracranial Pressure.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V L N; Beniwal, Manish; Vazhayil, Vikas; Somanna, Sampath; Yasha, T C

    2017-12-01

    Hemangiomas of the bone are benign, uncommon, slow-growing lesions accounting for <1.0% of all bony neoplasms. Intraosseous occipital hemangiomas are rare, and occipital hemangiomas presenting with features of raised intracranial tension are, with only 2 cases reported to date. In this case report, we describe the unique case of a 30-year-old male patient presenting with raised intracranial pressure due to venous obstruction at the torcula. The patient underwent excision of the lesion and became symptom free. Although these are benign lesions, they can have a varied clinical presentation. An understanding of the different clinical presentations and surgical nuances in excising such tumors can lead to early diagnosis and good patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  10. Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Berry, Morgan; Lucas, Linda J H

    Choroidal hemangioma is a rare congenital ocular tumor that can present as either circumscribed or diffuse. Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) typically manifests as a red-orange mass within the posterior pole and appears similar to other ocular conditions, such as choroidal melanoma and choroidal metastasis. Proper diagnosis is crucial and is aided by the use of ancillary testing. CCH itself is benign but can cause secondary complications such as subretinal fluid accumulation and subsequent retinal detachment. If these conditions should arise, several treatment options are available. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Total spondylectomy of a symptomatic hemangioma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Kei; Kodama, Hirotaka; Hosoe, Hideo; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2007-08-01

    A vertebral hemangioma with dural compression and neurological deficit is rare. We report a symptomatic lumbar vertebral hemangioma which was successfully managed with total spondylectomy. The patient was a 31-year-old man whose chief complaint was low back pain. He had a slight sensory disturbance in the right thigh. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the second lumbar vertebra, which extended into the spinal canal, compressing the dura. A percutaneous needle biopsy did not provide a pathological diagnosis. Before surgery, the arteries feeding the tumor were embolized using coils. We performed a total spondylectomy of the second lumbar vertebra with anterior reconstruction with a glass ceramic spacer and posterior instrumentation. The intraoperative pathological examination revealed a hemangioma of the lumbar spine. At the 4-year follow-up examination, the patient is completely asymptomatic without evidence of tumor recurrence.

  12. Surgical management of symptomatic T8 vertebral hemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tucer, Bulent; Ekici, Mehmet Ali; Menku, Ahmet; Koc, Rahmi Kemal; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions of the vertebral column; only 0.9-1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas cause spinal cord compression. We report a 34-year-old female who was admitted to the neurosurgery clinic with a history of back pain, poor quality of life and easy fatigability for 1.5 years. Her medical history revealed a fall from a height of 2 meters 1.5 years ago. Neurology examination revealed bilateral hypoesthesia below the T8 level and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes in her left leg. Computed tomography scan of the thoracic spine showed T8 vertebral hemangioma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a T8 hemangioma compressing the spinal cord. Surgical intervention was planned and T8 total laminectomy was performed. The tumor extending into the anterior spinal cord was resected, and T8 vertebroplasty with short segment posterior stabilization and fusion was performed. We aimed to present a new treatment approach for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas and reviewed the relevant literature.

  13. Management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma: follow-up of 6 patients.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Ronen; Smorgick, Yossi; Anekstein, Yoram; Peer, Amir; Mirovsky, Yigal

    2011-05-01

    Retrospective study. To analyze our experience in the treatment of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma, review the relevant literature, and propose a management algorithm. Hemangioma is one of the commonest benign neoplasms affecting the vertebral column. These usually dormant lesions may become symptomatic by causing pain, neurologic deficit, or both. Several treatment modalities are available in the management of such symptomatic conversion. The clinical and radiographic data of 6 patients diagnosed with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma and treated at our medical center over a period of 10 years were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Six patients were diagnosed with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma between 1998 and 2008. The lesions occupied the thoracic, lumbar, or multiple segments. Our patients presented with either simple or radicular back pain. One patient had muscle weakness, 3 revealed sensory impairment, and the remaining 2 were neurologically intact. Four patients underwent preoperative transarterial embolization followed by laminectomy and vertebroplasty of the affected level and 2 patients were treated with vertebroplasty alone. A 35-year-old woman presented during pregnancy. Her clinical course during evaluation was complicated by an acute pulmonary embolic event that necessitated installation of an inferior vena cava filter. All patients had an overall uneventful postoperative course and reported symptomatic relief to varying degrees, at an average follow-up period of 35 months. Symptomatic hemangioma involving the vertebral column may pose a therapeutic challenge, often requiring the active involvement of several disciplines. A review of the relevant literature, however, discloses only few management algorithms for such lesions. The coupling of preoperative transarterial embolization followed by vertebroplasty, with or without surgical decompression depending on the patients' presenting symptoms, is a relatively safe treatment and may offer long

  14. Sinusoidal hemangioma of the breast: diagnostic evaluation management and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the breast are rare and may pose a diagnostic challenge. Breast hemangioma is a very rare benign vascular neoplasm accounting for 0.4% of all breast tumors. It is most commonly detected as an incidental microscopic finding in biopsy specimens obtained for unrelated reasons. We describe here a very rare case of a sinusoidal breast hemangioma in a postmenopausal patient who presented with a palpable breast mass. A complete surgical resection was performed because the tumor exhibited atypical imaging features. We conclude that although in carefully selected cases of breast hemangioma a conservative management with follow up imaging is a reasonable option, in cases with atypical imaging or pathological characteristics a complete surgical resection of the vascular tumor is mandatory in order to exclude the possibility of an underlying angiosarcoma. PMID:28210560

  15. Sinusoidal hemangioma of the breast: diagnostic evaluation management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2017-02-01

    Vascular tumors of the breast are rare and may pose a diagnostic challenge. Breast hemangioma is a very rare benign vascular neoplasm accounting for 0.4% of all breast tumors. It is most commonly detected as an incidental microscopic finding in biopsy specimens obtained for unrelated reasons. We describe here a very rare case of a sinusoidal breast hemangioma in a postmenopausal patient who presented with a palpable breast mass. A complete surgical resection was performed because the tumor exhibited atypical imaging features. We conclude that although in carefully selected cases of breast hemangioma a conservative management with follow up imaging is a reasonable option, in cases with atypical imaging or pathological characteristics a complete surgical resection of the vascular tumor is mandatory in order to exclude the possibility of an underlying angiosarcoma.

  16. Treatment of extensive urethral hemangioma with KTP/532 laser.

    PubMed

    Lauvetz, R W; Malek, R S; Husmann, D A

    1996-01-01

    Urethral hemangiomas are rare. They vary in size from pinpoint masses to extensive honeycomb-shape deformities leading to significant hematuria. For extensive lesions, therapeutic options have included extensive surgical resection and reconstruction or multistaged neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation. We report our experience with the use of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP/532) laser for treatment of the extensive form. A 7-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of urethral bleeding. He had extensive hemangiomas of the genital and perineal regions. Cystourethroscopy disclosed diffusely scattered honeycomb-shape hemangiomatous malformation of the anterior urethra. KTP/532 laser energy was delivered transurethrally to the hemangiomatous areas until they blanched. The Foley catheter was removed 24 hours postoperatively, and the patient voided clear urine without difficulty. He has remained trouble-free for more than 2 years. Judicious endoscopic single-stage therapy with KTP/532 laser may obviate open surgical intervention in most cases of extensive and symptomatic urethral hemangiomas. In view of our observation and the literature, KTP/532 laser therapy should be considered the first line of treatment.

  17. [Hemangioma of the renal calyx].

    PubMed

    Jlidi, R; Jemni, M; Zakhama, A; Mokni, M; Kraim, C; Bouzakoura, C

    1991-01-01

    A case of renal hemangioma in a child is reported. The patient presented with severe painless hematuria. Intravenous pyelography showed a filling defect in the middle calyx of the right kidney. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic zone in the renal sinus. Hematuria was unilateral on right side at cystoscopy. Total nephrectomy was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology.

  18. Intraosseous hemangioma of the clivus: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moravan, M J; Petraglia, A L; Almast, J; Yeaney, G A; Miller, M C; Edward Vates, G

    2012-09-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that are encountered most commonly in vertebrae and rarely in the skull. When presenting in the skull, they are commonly found in the calvarium in frontal and parietal bones and seldom in the skull base. We encountered a patient with an incidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an enhancing lesion in the clivus. Here we report an unusual location of a clival intraosseous hemangioma. A 62 year old man worked up for carpal tunnel syndrome had imaging of his cervical spine that revealed an enhancing clival lesion, which extended into the left occipital condyle. Endoscopic endonasal biopsy was performed on the abnormality revealing a capillary hemangioma. Patient tolerated the biopsy well and no further surgical intervention is indicated at this time. Patient will be followed at six month intervals. Primary intraosseus hemangiomas of the skull are extremely rare and usually occur in the calvarium. This is one of the few reported case of an intraosseus hemangioma in the clivus. We present this case in part because it is unusual, but more importantly, with the wider use of MRI, it is likely that these lesions will be discovered more frequently, and conceivably confused for more dangerous lesions.

  19. Hemangioma of the rib showing a relatively high 18F-FDG uptake: a case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Emori, Makoto; Terashima, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shimizu, Junya; Nagoya, Satoshi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is a rare benign tumor that is often difficult to distinguish from malignant bone tumors. Rib hemangioma often shows bony disruption with a slight cortical disruption, extraosseous lesion, and expanded bone on computed tomography (CT). We report the case of a 68-year-old man with atypical rib hemangioma with a slight cortical disruption and no expanded bone. The tumor showed relatively high 18FDG-uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Rib hemangioma often shows higher 18FDG-uptake. PET/CT may not provide useful information for distinguishing rib hemangioma from a malignant tumor. Close observation without surgical resection may be feasible if the tumor is diagnosed as a rib hemangioma by biopsy. PMID:28959457

  20. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis.

    PubMed

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-10-31

    BACKGROUND Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9-1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. CASE REPORT An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate mid-thoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. CONCLUSIONS Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program.

  1. A creative therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis with copper wire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Haiyang; Sun, Peng; Li, Peng; Xue, Aibing; Jin, Xunbo

    2014-10-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of penis are rare benign lesions infrequently described in the literature. No completely satisfactory treatment has been found to correct the cosmetic deformities especially the extensive hemangiomas of corpus penis. In light of the promising application of copper wire/needle in vascular malformations, we began a clinical study to investigate the safety, feasibility, and cosmetic effect of copper wire therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis. Seven patients ranging in age from 12 to 32 years with penile cavernous hemangiomas entered our study from 2005 to 2011. All patients received treatments with percutaneous copper wires. Perioperative data including mean operation time, estimated blood loss, length of copper wire retention, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. All possible complications were noted, and cosmetic result was evaluated. Patients were followed up after discharge from the hospital. All operations were successful, and no obvious complications were observed. The patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 5 years. Recurrence was discovered in a patient with the largest lesion of corpus penis 2 months after the treatment. Secondary procedure was carried out with the same technique, and no lesions were found later. The shortage of studies on this topic prevented us from defining a therapeutic reference standard. The results of our study confirmed that copper wire therapy was a simple, safe, and useful option for penile cavernous hemangioma. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Intradural Extramedullary Capillary Hemangioma In the Upper Thoracic Spine with Simultaneous Extensive Arachnoiditis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Ikchan; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors on skin and soft tissues, but developing as an intradural and extramedullary (IDEM) tumor in spine is extremely rare. In this report, we present IDEM tumor compressing thoracic cord in T2–3 level with extensive arachnoiditis below the tumor level in a 60-year-old man. The lesion was removed and histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important to avoid neurological deterioration from acute hemorrhagic condition. Simultaneous arachnoiditis may be originated from old subarachnoid hemorrhage associated tumor before diagnosis, and we suggest it as a helpful diagnostic feature to suspect vascular tumors such as capillary hemangioma. PMID:28704911

  3. Intradural Extramedullary Capillary Hemangioma In the Upper Thoracic Spine with Simultaneous Extensive Arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Ikchan; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-06-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors on skin and soft tissues, but developing as an intradural and extramedullary (IDEM) tumor in spine is extremely rare. In this report, we present IDEM tumor compressing thoracic cord in T2-3 level with extensive arachnoiditis below the tumor level in a 60-year-old man. The lesion was removed and histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important to avoid neurological deterioration from acute hemorrhagic condition. Simultaneous arachnoiditis may be originated from old subarachnoid hemorrhage associated tumor before diagnosis, and we suggest it as a helpful diagnostic feature to suspect vascular tumors such as capillary hemangioma.

  4. Cavernous Hemangioma Between the Elastomer and Fibrous Capsule of a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    de Mello Tucunduva, Tatiana Cardoso; Gaziero, Antonio; Tostes, Vivian Siqueira; Stiepcich, Monica Maria Agata; Torres, Ulysses S; Ohara, Patricia; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Ferreira, Adriana Helena Padovan Grassmann; Missrie, Debora Rejtman; de Mello, Giselle Guedes Netto

    2018-06-05

    Hemangiomas are described in many locations, but breast hemangioma (BH) is rare, accounting for only 0.4% of all breast tumors. These tumors are difficult to diagnose preoperatively using conventional imaging modalities because they lack pathognomonic characteristics. Mammographic and sonographic appearances of BH were described in just a few case reports, and breast implant-related hemangiomas are even rarer. We report a case of the tumor arising in an atypical location-between the elastomer and fibrous capsule of a breast implant.Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Synchronous Hepatoblastoma, Neuroblastoma, and Cutaneous Capillary Hemangiomas: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Michael G; Cooney, Tabitha; Rangaswami, Arun; Hazard, Florette K

    2016-01-01

    Multiple synchronous tumors presenting in infancy raise concern for inherited or sporadic cancer predisposition syndromes, which include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. We report a case of a 7-month-old previously healthy male born following an in vitro fertilization-assisted twin pregnancy who presented with new-onset refractory shock, severe acidosis, and rapid decline over several hours. An autopsy revealed a ruptured liver involved by hepatoblastoma, an adrenal gland involved by neuroblastoma, and multiple cutaneous capillary hemangiomas. Standard genetic testing demonstrated that both twins were Gaucher disease (GD) carriers without evidence of other known cancer predisposition syndromes. This report describes a unique association of multiple synchronous tumors, which underscores the utility and importance of the pediatric autopsy. Moreover, given that the reported child was a GD carrier, the possibility the tumors were the result of a GD-mediated cancer-associated phenotype or an unrecognized sporadic clinical syndrome remains an unanswered, but intriguing, question worthy of further investigation.

  6. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    PubMed Central

    Aljameel, M.A.; Halima, M.O.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm) in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan. PMID:26753134

  7. Radiation-Induced Liver Injury Mimicking Metastatic Disease in a Patient With Esophageal Cancer: Correlation of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography With Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Tiffany M; Yokoo, Takeshi; Meyer, Jeffrey; Kernstine, Kemp H; Wang, David; Khatri, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Post-radiation therapy evaluation of distal esophageal cancers with positron emission tomography/computed tomography can be problematic. Differentiation of recurrent neoplasm from postradiation changes is difficult in areas of fluorodeoxyglucose avidity in adjacent, incidentally irradiated organs. Few studies have described the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of radiation-induced hepatic injury. We report a case of focal radiation-induced liver injury with a new focus of fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on posttreatment positron emission tomography as well as masslike enhancement and signal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, thus mimicking new liver metastasis. Correlation with radiation planning images suggested the correct diagnosis, which was confirmed on follow-up imaging.

  8. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  9. [Surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical vertebral hemangioma associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fajing; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Xu, Jiaxin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the treatment methods and the clinical therapeutic effects of symptomatic cervical vertebral hemangioma associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A retrospective analysis was performed in 18 patients (10 males and 8 females, aged 30-62 years with an average age of 45.3 years) with cervical vertebral hemangioma associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between January 2006 and September 2008. The disease duration was 10-26 months (mean, 15.6 months). All patients had single vertebral hemangioma, including 2 cases at C3, 3 cases at C4, 5 cases at C5, 5 cases at C6, and 3 cases at C7. The X-ray films showed a typical "palisade" change. According to the clinical and imaging features, there were 13 cases of type II and 5 cases of type IV of cervical hemangioma. The standard anterior cervical decompression and fusion with internal fixation were performed and then percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) was used. The cervical X-ray films were taken to observe bone cement distribution and the internal fixation after operation. The recovery of neurological function and the neck pain relief were measured by Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. All operations were successful with no spinal cord and nerves injury, and the incisions healed well. Anterior bone cement leakage occurred in 2 cases without any symptoms. All cases were followed up 24-28 months (mean, 26 months) and the symptoms were improved at different degrees without fracture and collapse of vertebra or recurrence of hemangioma. During the follow-up, there was no implant loosening, breakage and displacement, and the mean fusion time was 4 months (range, 3-4.5 months). The JOA score and VAS score had a significant recovery at 3 months and at last follow-up when compared with preoperative values (P < 0.05). Based on JOA score at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case. The anterior

  10. Epithelioid Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Okada, Eijiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Iga, Takahito; Morishita, Midori; Tezuka, Masaki; Mukai, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Watanabe, Kota

    2017-10-25

    Osseous epithelioid hemangioma is uncommon, and reports of epithelioid hemangiomas of the spine are especially rare. Case report. A 43-year-old male was referred to our department with progressive gait disturbance. CT scans showed a lucent mass in the vertebral body at the T3 level. MRI of the thoracic spine showed a strongly enhanced mass compressing the spinal cord. The patient underwent laminectomy from T2 to T4, debulking of the tumor, and posterior fusion from T1 to T5. After the operation, the patient's neurological status improved significantly, and he was able walk without assistance. Histological examination determined that the tumor was an epithelioid hemangioma. The patient was treated with 40 Gy radiation for local control of the tumor. The patient could walk without difficulty 12 months after the surgery. This is a rare example of an epithelioid hemangioma that developed in the thoracic spine and compressed the spinal cord, and was treated successfully.

  11. Capillary Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Kyun; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common soft tissue tumors on the skin or mucosa of the head and neck in the early childhood, but very rare in the neuraxis. A 47-year-old man presented with one month history of back pain on the lower thoracic area, radiating pain to both legs, and hypesthesia below T7 dermatome. Thoracic spine MRI showed 1×1.3×1.5 cm, well-defined intradural mass at T6-7 disc space level, which showed isointensity to spinal cord on T1, heterogeneous isointensity on T2-weighted images, and homogeneous strong enhancement. The patient underwent T6-7 total laminotomy, complete tumor removal and laminoplasty. Histologically, the mass showed a capsulated nodular lesion composed of capillary-sized vascular channels, which were tightly packed into nodules separated by fibrous septa. These features were consistent with capillary hemangioma. PMID:21082058

  12. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  13. Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural Capillary Hemangioma Presenting as a Lung Mass: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    García-Pallero, María A; Torres, Cristina V; García-Navarrete, Eduardo; Gordillo, Carlos; Delgado, Juan; Penanes, Juan R; García-Campos, María T; Sola, R G

    2015-07-15

    A case report and literature review. We present the fourth case of a spinal epidural capillary hemangioma with a dumbbell-shaped appearance in the magnetic resonance image reported in the literature and the second presented as a lung mass. Hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations that pathologists frequently consider to be hamartomatous malformations. Hemangiomas of the spine are usually lesions of the vertebral bodies, but they can sit in other locations such as the intramedullary or epidural space. Purely epidural hemangiomas are rare and most of them are of cavernous type. We present a 67-year-old female with a thoracic dumbbell-shaped capillary hemangioma with both foraminal and intrathoracic extensions, whose presentation was pleural effusion associated with mediastinal mass suggestive of pulmonary neoplasia. Surgical treatment consisted of total removal en bloc of the lesion. Microscopic evaluation showed a fibrofatty tissue with a proliferation of vascular structures that were generally of a small size, with areas of myxoid appearance. To date, there have been 8 epidural capillary hemangiomas of the thoracic and lumbar spine reported in the literature, and only 3 of them were dumbbell-shaped with extraforaminal extension. It is important to consider the diagnosis of hemangiomas in the differential diagnosis of epidural lesions with dumbbell-shaped appearance in the magnetic resonance image, especially at the thoracic level. It is a benign and potentially curable disease and the most appropriate surgical treatment is en bloc resection of the entire lesion. They are usually presented as a progressive myelopathy, so early treatment may prevent permanent neurological deficits. 5.

  14. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma with extradural extension, causing neurogenic claudication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jouibari, Morteza Faghih; Khoshnevisan, Alireza; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Nejat, Farideh; Naderi, Soheil; Abdollahzadeh, Sina

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of lumbar vertebral hemangioma extending to the epidural space with a bisected appearance and impinging on thecal sac. This 52-year-old lady presented with one year history of low back pain and bilateral leg radiation. Plain radiography showed vertical linear streaks at L2 vertebral body and axial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed small "polka dot" appearance within the vertebral body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images in L2 vertebral body which was not characteristic for hemangioma. The patient underwent an L2 laminectomy, spinal canal decompression and posterior spinal instrumentation. This study indicates that lumbar vertebral hemangioma can extend to the epidural space and cause neurologic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging may not show diagnostic features, especially in active lesions and plain radiography and CT scan may be helpful.

  15. Quality of life in children with infantile hemangioma: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Li, Yanan; Xiang, Bo; Xiong, Fei; Li, Kai; Yang, Kaiying; Chen, Siyuan; Ji, Yi

    2017-11-16

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor in children. It is controversial whether IHs has effects on the quality of life (QOL) in patients of whom IH poses no threat or potential for complication. Thus, we conducted this study to evaluate the q QOL in patients with IH and find the predictors of poor QOL. The PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales and the PedsQL family information form were administered to parents of children with IH and healthy children both younger than 2-year-old. The quality-of-life instrument for IH (IH-QOL) and the PedsQL 4.0 family impact module were administered to parents of children with IH. We compared the PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales (GCIS) scores of the two groups. Multiple step-wise regression analysis was used to determine factors that influenced QOL in children with IH and their parents. Except for physical symptom, we found no significant difference in GCIS between patient group and healthy group (P = 0.409). The internal reliability of IH-QOL was excellent with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for summary scores being 0.76. Multiple step-wise regression analysis showed that the predictors of poor IH-QOL total scores were hemangioma size, location, and mother's education level. The predictors of poor FIM total scores were hemangioma location and father's education level. The predictors of poor GCIS total scores were children's age, hemangioma location and father's education level. The findings support the feasibility and reliability of the Chinese version of IH-QOL to evaluate the QOL in children with IH and their parents. Hemangioma size, location and education level of mother are important impact factors for QOL in children with IH and their parents.

  16. Infantile Hemangiomas and Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clues to the Regulation of Vasculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Rachael M.; Komlósi, Katalin; Alleman, Brandon W.; Tolnai, Marina; Wood, Laura M.; Bell, Edward F.; Ertl, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and infantile hemangiomas are vascular disorders that may share common mechanisms. This study examined a potential clinical association between these disorders in populations of preterm infants at two hospitals in the U.S. and Hungary. Clinically collected data from infants with gestational ages less than 32 weeks born between May 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 seen in the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital or the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pécs, were abstracted from electronic medical records and entered into a study database. Demographic and clinical variables were examined as potential covariates to the disorders of interest. Data were initially analyzed by center and then combined through meta-analysis. Six hundred eighty-four subjects were studied, 236 from Pécs and 448 from Iowa. There were no significant demographic differences between populations. Univariate analysis on each study population yielded covariates to ROP in each population, including infantile hemangioma, which were entered into a logistic regression model. These models were combined through random effects meta-analysis and demonstrated a significant relationship between infantile hemangioma and ROP (odds ratio=1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.08–3.12). Conclusion Infantile hemangioma and ROP co-occur in premature infant populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenesis of both disorders. PMID:23408311

  17. Cement vertebroplasty combined with ethanol injection in the treatment of vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Chun-lin; Tang, Tian-si

    2007-07-05

    A number of methods have been used in the treatment of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangioma, but none of them is optimal. Vertebral hemangioma treated with cement vertebroplasty or ethanol injection alone showed relatively good results despite their limitations. Between February 2002 and May 2004, twelve patients with vertebral hemangioma were subjected to combined cement vertebroplasty and ethanol injection, five of them were men and seven women, and aged from 26 to 54 years (mean, 41 years). The following levels of the spine were involved: T9: 1, T10: 3, T12: 2, L1: 1, L2: 2, L3: 2 and L4: 1. The clinical results and radiographic records of the patients were assessed after 2 years and 5 months of follow-up. The average score of back pain significantly decreased from 6.5 before operation to 1.7 one month after operation. No severe complications occurred during and after operation. During the period of follow-up, symptoms were not deteriorated. At the end of follow-up, neither radiographic sign of aggressive destruction nor collapse of the involved vertebra was observed. Significant improvement in the 12 patients was demonstrated on 7 of 8 SF-36 Health Scale except for mental health. Cement vertebroplasty combined with ethanol injection as a safe and effective technique is an alternative to the treatment of patients with vertebral hemangioma.

  18. Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Philippe; Corno, Lucie; Boudiaf, Mourad; Aout, Mounir; Sirol, Marc; Placé, Vinciane; Duchat, Florent; Guerrache, Youcef; Fargeaudou, Yann; Vicaut, Eric; Pocard, Marc; Hamzi, Lounis

    2011-11-01

    To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11×10(-3) mm2/s±.21×10(-3) vs. 1.77×10(-3) mm2/s±.29×10(-3) for observer 1 and 1.11×10(-3) mm2/s±.19×10(-3) vs. 1.79×10(-3) mm2/s±.32×10(-3) for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Blackburn, Spiros L; Lusis, Eriks A; Santiago, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms. When associated with the spine, these growths frequently involve the vertebral body, but rarely have they been reported to occur as intradural lesions, while even more rarely occurring in a true intramedullary location. We report a rare case of an intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord and a review of the literature. PMID:21139881

  20. Contemporary management of benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, John F; Litwin, Alan M; Kahlenberg, Morton S

    2004-04-01

    Benign lesions of the liver represent diagnostic dilemmas, clinically and radiographically; however, certain clues can help the extensive differential diagnosis of both benign and malignant processes. Hemangiomas and simple cysts have very distinct and very specific radiographic characteristics, and if diagnosed, no further work-up is necessary. The remaining benign lesions have significant overlap, even though there are some more common characteristics to each of the entities. Still, differentiation of any particular lesion outside simple cysts or hemangioma may be difficult. It is reasonable and relatively simple, with minimal invasiveness, to perform US- or CT-guided, percutaneous core-needle biopsies. It is recommended that core biopsies be performed, because many of the benign entities have some overlapping histologic features, and if fine-needle aspirations are performed, a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to obtain. A definitive pathological diagnosis still cannot be made in some cases, even after needle biopsy. Therefore, a surgical resection or wedge resection may be necessary if a benign process cannot be definitively ruled out.

  1. [Cellular hemangioma of the parotid gland associated with an infection by cytomegalovirus].

    PubMed

    Ayadi, L; Khabir, A; Boudawara, T; Kharrat, M; Makni, S; Jlidi, R

    2003-10-01

    We report a case in a two and a half month old boy presenting a mass in the right parotid gland. Sonography showed a vascular tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive process of the parotid gland measuring 61 x 39 mm taking the contrast with hypo signal in T1 and hyper signal in T2-weighted images. The parotid was extirpated with preservation of the facial nerve. Microscopically the diagnosis of cellular hemangioma associated with CMV infection was made. Hemangiomas of the parotid gland is frequent; the most common tumor in children; the association of juvenile hemangioma of the parotid gland and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is extremely rare: a single case was reported in the literature. The pathologic significance of this association is still discussed, although several experimental studies suggested a relationship between the infection by the cytomegalovirus and this tumor. Our objective is to describe the anatomo-clinical aspects of this lesion and to elucidate the pathologic significance of this association.

  2. A rare case of pure primary hemangioma of the scapula: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LI, WEI; ZOU, FAN; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; NIE, TAO

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor, which may occur in any bone of the body. The most common locations are the spine and craniofacial bone; however, occurrence is extremely rare in the scapula. The current study presented the case of a 58-year-old female, with scapula hemangioma in the left shoulder who presented with joint ache that had lasted for ~1 year. The main clinical manifestations included local tenderness, an osseous lump and limited shoulder movement with a little pain, which was alleviated by rest. Roentgenogram, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the left acromion revealed a mass along the inner surface of the scapula of the left shoulder with polycystic expansion and bone destruction. The results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a pure primary tumor and the lesion was subsequently resected. Notably, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and imaging features of scapula hemangioma, which must be considered for the differential diagnosis of scapula tumors. In the present case, no recurrence was identified by X-ray examination 1 year after surgery. The long-term efficacy of surgical treatment requires continuous observation of the patient. PMID:26622831

  3. SU-G-IeP4-10: Microimaging for Different Degrees of Human Cavernous Hemangioma of Liver by Using In-Line Phase-Contrast Imaging CT

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) is the most common benign solid tumor of the liver. In this study, we quantitative assessment the different degrees of CHL from microscopic viewpoint by using in-line phase-contrast imaging CT (ILPCI-CT). Methods: The experiments were performed at x-ray imaging and biomedical application beamline (BL13W1) of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in China. Three typical specimens at different stages, i.e., mild, moderate and severe human CHL were imaged using ILPCI-CT at 16keV without contrast agents. The 3D visualization of different degrees of CHL samples were presented using ILPCI-CT. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of the CHLmore » features, such as the range of hepatic sinusoid equivalent diameters in different degrees of CHL samples, the ratio of the hepatic sinusoid to the CHL tissue, were measured. Results: The planar image clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids in microns. There was no normal hepatic vascular found in the all CHL samples. Different stages of CHL samples were presented with vivid shapes and stereoscopic effects by using 3D visualization. The equivalent diameters of hepatic sinusoids in three degrees CHL were different. The equivalent diameters of the hepatic sinusoids in mild CHL, range from 60 to 120 µm. The equivalent diameters of the hepatic sinusoids in moderate CHL, range from 65 to 190 µm. The equivalent diameters of the hepatic sinusoids in severe CHL, range from 95 to 215 µm. The ratio of the hepatic sinusoid to the mild, moderate and severe CHL tissue were 3%, 16% and 21%, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the high degree of sensitivity of the ILPCI-CT technique and demonstrate the feasibility of accurate visualization of different stage human CHL. ILPCI-CT may offers a potential use in non-invasive study and analysis of CHL.« less

  4. Beta-blockers for the treatment of problematic hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal K; Fraulin, Frankie OG; Dumestre, Danielle O; Walker, Lori; Harrop, A Robertson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment indications, efficacy and side effects of oral beta-blockers for the treatment of problematic hemangiomas. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with hemangiomas presenting to the Alberta Children’s Hospital Vascular Birthmark Clinic (Calgary, Alberta) between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. The subset of patients treated with oral beta-blockers was further characterized, investigating indication for treatment, response to treatment, time to resolution of indication, duration of treatment, occurrence of rebound growth and side effects of therapy. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2011, 311 new patients with hemangiomas were seen, of whom 105 were treated with oral beta-blockers. Forty-five patients completed beta-blocker treatment while the remainder continue to receive therapy. Indications for treatment were either functional concerns (68.6%) or disfigurement (31.4%). Functional concerns included ulceration (29.5%), periocular location with potential for visual interference (28.6%), airway interference (4.8%), PHACES syndrome (3.8%), auditory interference (0.95%) and visceral location with congestive heart failure (0.95%). The median age at beta-blocker initiation was 3.3 months; median duration of therapy was 10.6 months; and median maximal treatment dose was 1.5 mg/kg/day for propranolol and 1.6 mg/kg/day for atenolol. Ninety-nine patients (94.3%) responded to therapy with size reduction, colour changes, softened texture and/or healing of ulceration. Rebound growth requiring an additional course of therapy was observed in 23 patients. Side effects from beta-blockers included cool extremities (26.7%), irritability (17.1%), lower gastrointestinal upset (14.3%), emesis (11.4%), hypotension (10.5%), poor feeding (7.6%), lethargy (4.8%), bronchospasm (0.95%) and rash (0.95%). Side effects did not result in complete discontinuation of beta-blocker treatment in any case; however, they prompted a switch to a different beta

  5. A Hepatocyte-Mimicking Antidote for Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duo; Han, Hui; He, Yuxin; Lee, Harrison; Wu, Di; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xiangsheng; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Ji, Cheng

    2018-04-11

    Alcohol intoxication causes serious diseases, whereas current treatments are mostly supportive and unable to remove alcohol efficiently. Upon alcohol consumption, alcohol is sequentially oxidized to acetaldehyde and acetate by the endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. Inspired by the metabolism of alcohol, a hepatocyte-mimicking antidote for alcohol intoxication through the codelivery of the nanocapsules of alcohol oxidase (AOx), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to the liver, where AOx and CAT catalyze the oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde, while ALDH catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate. Administered to alcohol-intoxicated mice, the antidote rapidly accumulates in the liver and enables a significant reduction of the blood alcohol concentration. Moreover, blood acetaldehyde concentration is maintained at an extremely low level, significantly contributing to liver protection. Such an antidote, which can eliminate alcohol and acetaldehyde simultaneously, holds great promise for the treatment of alcohol intoxication and poisoning and can provide therapeutic benefits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Extraosseous Extension of Aggressive Vertebral Hemangioma as a Potential Pitfall on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Probst, Stephan; Bladou, Franck; Abikhzer, Gad

    2017-08-01

    A 74-year-old man with newly diagnosed prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT, which demonstrated intense uptake in and adjacent the L2 vertebral body. Subsequent MRI of the lumbar spine showed an aggressive L2 hemangioma with adjacent soft tissue extension. There was congruence of the intraosseous and extraosseous components of the hemangioma and the PSMA PET uptake. This is a rare but important potential pitfall in Ga-PSMA PET/CT-a soft tissue lesion with intense tracer uptake related not to a nodal metastasis of prostate cancer but to extraosseous extension of an aggressive vertebral body hemangioma.

  7. Role of thrombospondin-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways in anti-angiogenesis of infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weili; Li, Suolin; Yu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yongting; Yang, Xiaofeng; An, Wenting; Wang, Wenbo; Sun, Chi

    2018-06-12

    Propranolol (PRO) is the first-line drug for infantile hemangioma treatment. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is highly expressed in tumors, directly or indirectly promoting angiogenesis. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is the most important anti-angiogenesis protein in vivo. These proteins mediate signaling pathways, probably playing an important role in hemangioma treatment. This study explored the synergistic regulation of TSP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways in the treatment of hemangioma with PRO. The hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) were sorted out from the specimens of proliferative hemangioma by flow cytometry. Furthermore, a BALB/c nude mice hemangioma model was established. Viability and proliferation of HemECs, and the role of TSP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways were observed after PRO administration in vitro and in vivo. The expressions of TSP-1 and its receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) in HemECs gradually increased with the increase in PRO concentration, while the expressions of NF-κBp65, phosphorylated inhibitor of kappa B alpha (p-IκBα), and phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB kinase beta (p-IκKβ) weakened gradually (p < 0.05). In vivo, the tumors shrank gradually after PRO treatment, with increase in TSP-1 and CD36, and decrease in NF-κBp65, p-IκBα, and p-IκKβ (p < 0.05). Glucocorticoid improved the anti-angiogenesis mediated by TSP-1/CD36 and inhibited the angiogenesis mediated by NF-κB/IκB (p < 0.05). Negative regulation occurred between the two signaling pathways. The treatment of infantile hemangioma with PRO is promising to promote TSP-1-mediated anti-angiogenesis and block NF-κB-mediated angiogenesis.

  8. Proton or photon irradiation for hemangiomas of the choroid? A retrospective comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hoecht, Stefan; Wachtlin, Joachim; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare, on a retrospective basis, the results of therapy in patients with uveal hemangioma treated with photon or proton irradiation at a single center. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2002 a total of 44 patients were treated. Until 1998 radiotherapy was given with 6 MV photons in standard fractionation of 2.0 Gy 5 times per week. In 1998 proton therapy became available and was used since then. A dose of 20 to 22.5 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) 68 MeV protons was given on 4 consecutive days. Progressive symptoms or deterioration ofmore » vision were the indications for therapy. Results: Of the 44 patients treated, 36 had circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas and 8 had diffuse choroidal hemangiomas (DCH) and Sturge-Weber syndrome. Of the patients, 19 were treated with photons with a total dose in the range of 16 to 30 Gy. A total of 25 patients were irradiated with protons. All patients with DCH but 1 were treated with photons. Stabilization of visual acuity was achieved in 93.2% of all patients. Tumor thickness decreased in 95.4% and retinal detachment resolved in 92.9%. Late effects, although generally mild or moderate, were frequently detected. In all, 40.9% showed radiation-induced optic neuropathy, maximum Grade I. Retinopathy was found in 29.5% of cases, but only 1 patient experienced more than Grade II severity. Retinopathy and radiation-induced optic neuropathy were reversible in some of the patients and in some resolved completely. No differences could be detected between patients with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas treated with protons and photons. Treatment was less effective in DCH patients (75%). Conclusions: Radiotherapy is effective in treating choroidal hemangiomas with respect to visual acuity and tumor thickness but a benefit of proton therapy could not be detected. Side effects are moderate but careful monitoring for side effects should be part of the follow-up procedures.« less

  9. NOTCH3 regulates stem-to-mural cell differentiation in infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew K; Glithero, Kyle; Grzesik, Peter; Kitajewski, Alison A; Munabi, Naikhoba Co; Hardy, Krista; Tan, Qian Kun; Schonning, Michael; Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Kitajewski, Jan K; Shawber, Carrie J; Wu, June K

    2017-11-02

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a vascular tumor that begins with rapid vascular proliferation shortly after birth, followed by vascular involution in early childhood. We have found that NOTCH3, a critical regulator of mural cell differentiation and maturation, is expressed in hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs), suggesting that NOTCH3 may function in HemSC-to-mural cell differentiation and pathological vessel stabilization. Here, we demonstrate that NOTCH3 is expressed in NG2+PDGFRβ+ perivascular HemSCs and CD31+GLUT1+ hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) in proliferating IHs and becomes mostly restricted to the αSMA+NG2loPDGFRβlo mural cells in involuting IHs. NOTCH3 knockdown in HemSCs inhibited in vitro mural cell differentiation and perturbed αSMA expression. In a mouse model of IH, NOTCH3 knockdown or systemic expression of the NOTCH3 inhibitor, NOTCH3 Decoy, significantly decreased IH blood flow, vessel caliber, and αSMA+ perivascular cell coverage. Thus, NOTCH3 is necessary for HemSC-to-mural cell differentiation, and adequate perivascular cell coverage of IH vessels is required for IH vessel stability.

  10. Painful erections secondary to rare epithelioid hemangioma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Barber, Evan; Domes, Trustin

    2014-09-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumour that atypically involves the penis and usually presents as a painful nodule. A 35-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of painful erections without a clinically apparent lesion or deformity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pharmacologically induced erection demonstrated a 1.3-cm nodular lesion deep to the skin at the base of his penis. Following local excision of the lesion, which was diagnosed as an epithelioid hemangioma, the patient was symptom free. This case demonstrates a rare etiology of painful erections with a unique presentation. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first report of MRI with intracavernosal injection of trimix to assess for a specific cause of painful erections.

  11. A primary cavernous hemangioma of the thyroid gland: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jie; Chen, Shubo; Li, Yongcai; Fu, Lin; Li, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid hemangioma is benign and associated with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy or trauma in most cases. Its differential diagnosis is very difficult. We presented the case of a 48-year-old man complained of slowly progressed swelling in the anterior neck for 20 years. Ultrasound and CT scan revealed a hypoechogenic and heterogeneous mass measuring 4 × 3.5 cm located in the right lobe of thyroid gland. Postoperative pathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the surgical specimen revealed a primary hemangioma of the thyroid gland. The patient received a right lobectomy of the thyroid. The patient had been followed up for 10 months after surgery without complications and remained asymptomatic. Primary thyroid hemangioma should be considered when there is a well-circumscribed capsule mass on medical imaging without history of FNA or any other cervical procedures or trauma.

  12. Phase II Study to Assess the Efficacy of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Large Cavernous Sinus Hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xin; Liu Xiaoxia; Mei Guanghai

    Purpose: Cavernous sinus hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor. The direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage. Although radiosurgery plays an important role in managing cavernous sinus hemangiomas as a treatment alternative to microsurgery, the potential for increased toxicity with single-session treatment of large tumors is a concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Methods: Fourteen patients with large (volume >20 cm{sup 3}) cavernous sinus hemangiomas were enrolled in a prospective Phase II study between December 2007 and December 2010. The hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapymore » dose was 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions. Results: After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 6-36 months), the magnetic resonance images showed a mean of 77% tumor volume reduction (range, 44-99%). Among the 6 patients with cranial nerve impairments before hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, 1 achieved symptomatic complete resolution and 5 had improvement. No radiotherapy-related complications were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: Our current experience, though preliminary, substantiates the role of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Although a longer and more extensive follow-up is needed, hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions is effective in reducing the tumor volume without causing any new deficits and can be considered as a treatment modality for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas.« less

  13. L1 Epithelioid Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joel D; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2017-05-01

    A 24-year-old male soldier on limited-duty status was referred to physical therapy by his primary care physician for a 2-year history of insidious-onset and slowly progressive low back pain. Lumbar radiographs were noncontributory. Shortly after initiating rehabilitation, the patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging that was previously ordered by his primary care physician. Radiology identified a complex mass and cortical fracturing within the L1 vertebral body, and subsequent computed tomography imaging demonstrated mixed sclerotic and lytic foci at L1. Biopsy later confirmed an epithelioid hemangioma. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(5):367. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6689.

  14. Calvarial bone cavernous hemangioma with intradural invasion: An unusual aggressive course-Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Davide; Somma, Lucia di; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Liverotti, Valentina; Zizzi, Antonio; Dobran, Mauro; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the skull is a rare pathological diagnosis, accounting for 0.2% of bone tumors and 7% of skull tumors. Usually calvarial bone cavernous hemangioma are associated with a benign clinical course and, despite their enlargement and subsequent erosion of the surrounding bone, the inner table of the skull remains intact and the lesion is completely extracranial. The authors present the unique case of a huge left frontal bone cavernous malformation with intradural extension and brain compression determining a right hemiparesis. Calvarial cavernous hemangiomas are benign tumors. They arise from vessels in the diploic space and tend to involve the outer table of the skull with relative sparing of the inner table. More extensive involvement of the inner table and extradural space is very unusual and few cases are reported in literature. To the best of our knowledge, intradural invasion of calvarial hemangioma has not been previously reported. Our case highlights the possibility of an aggressive course of this rare benign pathology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Calvarial bone cavernous hemangioma with intradural invasion: An unusual aggressive course—Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nasi, Davide; Somma, Lucia di; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Liverotti, Valentina; Zizzi, Antonio; Dobran, Mauro; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cavernous hemangioma of the skull is a rare pathological diagnosis, accounting for 0.2% of bone tumors and 7% of skull tumors. Usually calvarial bone cavernous hemangioma are associated with a benign clinical course and, despite their enlargement and subsequent erosion of the surrounding bone, the inner table of the skull remains intact and the lesion is completely extracranial. Presentation of a case The authors present the unique case of a huge left frontal bone cavernous malformation with intradural extension and brain compression determining a right hemiparesis. Discussion Calvarial cavernous hemangiomas are benign tumors. They arise from vessels in the diploic space and tend to involve the outer table of the skull with relative sparing of the inner table. More extensive involvement of the inner table and extradural space is very unusual and few cases are reported in literature. To the best of our knowledge, intradural invasion of calvarial hemangioma has not been previously reported. Conclusion Our case highlights the possibility of an aggressive course of this rare benign pathology. PMID:27061482

  16. Robot-assisted radiofrequency ablation of a sacral S1-S2 aggressive hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Kaoudi, A; Capel, C; Chenin, L; Peltier, J; Lefranc, M

    2018-05-16

    Aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are rare tumors of the spine. The treatment management strategy usually consists of vertebroplasty, radiation therapy or in rare cases of surgical strategy. We present a case of a bulging sacral S1-S2 hemangioma in the spinal canal that could not be managed in the usual manner. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of radiofrequency ablation technique as an alternative treatment as well as robotic assistance for optimal placement of the ablation probe within the lesion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Laser therapy and sclerotherapy in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crişan, Bogdan; BǎciuÅ£, Mihaela; BǎciuÅ£, Grigore; Crişan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Moldovan, Iuliu; Vǎcǎraş, Sergiu; Mitre, Ileana; Barbur, Ioan; Magdaş, Andreea; Dinu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Hemangioma and vascular malformations in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is a pathology more often found in recent years in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the laser photocoagulation performed with a diode laser (Ga-Al-As) 980 nm wavelength in the treatment of vascular lesions which are located on the oral and maxillofacial areas, using color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of the results. We also made a comparison between laser therapy and sclerotherapy in order to establish treatment protocols and recommendations associated with this pathology. We conducted a controlled study on a group of 92 patients (38 male and 54 female patients, with an average age of 36 years) having low flow hemangioma and vascular malformations. Patients in this trial received one of the methods of treatment for vascular lesions such as hemangioma and vascular malformations: laser therapy or sclerotherapy. After laser therapy we have achieved a reduction in size of hemangioma and vascular malformations treated with such a procedure, and the aesthetic results were favorable. No reperfusion or recanalization of laser treated vascular lesions was observed after an average follow-up of 6 to 12 months. In case of sclerotherapy a reduction in the size of vascular lesions was also obtained. The 980 nm diode laser has been proved to be an effective tool in the treatment of hemangioma and vascular malformations in oral and maxillofacial area. Laser therapy in the treatment of vascular lesions was more effective than the sclerotherapy procedure.

  18. Treatment of infantile hemangiomas with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser using different pulse widths in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Tay, Yong-Kwang; Tan, Siew-Kiang

    2012-02-01

    The pulsed dye laser (PDL) using varying fluences and pulse durations have been used to treat hemangiomas. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of the 595-nm PDL for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas using short (1.5-3 milliseconds) versus long (10 milliseconds) pulse durations and high fluences. This is a retrospective study of patients with hemangiomas (n = 23) treated with the 595-nm PDL from 2003 to 2007. The parameters used for the short pulse duration group (n = 15) were 7-mm spot size, fluence 10-13.5 J/cm(2) and dynamic cooling device (DCD) spray duration of 50 milliseconds and delay of 30 milliseconds. For the long pulse duration group (n = 8), parameters were 7-mm spot size, fluence 10.5-14.5 J/cm(2) and DCD spray duration of 40 milliseconds and delay of 20 milliseconds. The number of treatments required to achieve complete or near complete resolution of the hemangioma ranged from 3 to 14 for the short pulse duration group (mean: 8) and for the long pulse duration group, 4-14 treatments (mean: 9). For both groups, more treatments were needed to achieve clearance of mixed hemangiomas (n = 13) compared to superficial hemangiomas (n = 10) (on average, 4-5 treatments more). Erythema, edema, and purpura lasted for about a week in the short pulse duration group but only 2 days in the long pulse duration group. There was no ulceration or hypertrophic scarring noted in both groups. Both short and long pulse durations using moderately high fluences are equally effective in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Shorter pulse durations had a slightly higher incidence of side effects compared to longer pulse duration in our patients with darker phototypes. Hemangiomas are tumors with relatively large diameter blood vessels and this provides the basis for the use of longer pulse durations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Hoeger, Peter; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Guibaud, Laurent; Baselga, Eulalia; Posiunas, Gintas; Phillips, Roderic J; Caceres, Hector; Lopez Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Ballona, Rosalia; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Powell, Julie; Perek, Danuta; Metz, Brandie; Barbarot, Sebastien; Maruani, Annabel; Szalai, Zsuzsanna Zsofia; Krol, Alfons; Boccara, Olivia; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Febrer Bosch, Maria Isabel; Su, John; Buckova, Hana; Torrelo, Antonio; Cambazard, Frederic; Grantzow, Rainer; Wargon, Orli; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Roessler, Jochen; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Valencia, Adriana M; Przewratil, Przemyslaw; Glick, Sharon; Pope, Elena; Birchall, Nicholas; Benjamin, Latanya; Mancini, Anthony J; Vabres, Pierre; Souteyrand, Pierre; Frieden, Ilona J; Berul, Charles I; Mehta, Cyrus R; Prey, Sorilla; Boralevi, Franck; Morgan, Caroline C; Heritier, Stephane; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2015-02-19

    Oral propranolol has been used to treat complicated infantile hemangiomas, although data from randomized, controlled trials to inform its use are limited. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive, phase 2-3 trial assessing the efficacy and safety of a pediatric-specific oral propranolol solution in infants 1 to 5 months of age with proliferating infantile hemangioma requiring systemic therapy. Infants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of four propranolol regimens (1 or 3 mg of propranolol base per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 or 6 months). A preplanned interim analysis was conducted to identify the regimen to study for the final efficacy analysis. The primary end point was success (complete or nearly complete resolution of the target hemangioma) or failure of trial treatment at week 24, as assessed by independent, centralized, blinded evaluations of standardized photographs. Of 460 infants who underwent randomization, 456 received treatment. On the basis of an interim analysis of the first 188 patients who completed 24 weeks of trial treatment, the regimen of 3 mg of propranolol per kilogram per day for 6 months was selected for the final efficacy analysis. The frequency of successful treatment was higher with this regimen than with placebo (60% vs. 4%, P<0.001). A total of 88% of patients who received the selected propranolol regimen showed improvement by week 5, versus 5% of patients who received placebo. A total of 10% of patients in whom treatment with propranolol was successful required systemic retreatment during follow-up. Known adverse events associated with propranolol (hypoglycemia, hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchospasm) occurred infrequently, with no significant difference in frequency between the placebo group and the groups receiving propranolol. This trial showed that propranolol was effective at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day for 6 months in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. (Funded by

  20. Giant multilevel thoracic hemangioma with spinal cord compression in a patient with Klippel-Weber-Trenaunay syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Grau, Stefan J; Holtmannspoetter, Markus; Seelos, Klaus; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Siefert, Axel

    2009-06-15

    Case report and clinical discussion. We intend to report a very rare case of a giant spinal hemangioma causing myelopathy. Multilevel symptomatic spinal hemangiomas causing acute neurologic symptoms are rare disorders. We found only sporadic reports in English literature. We describe a very rare case in which Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome is associated with a multisegmental vertebral hemangioma causing a rapidly progressing thoracic myelopathy. Because of the extension of the disease, surgical intervention was not feasible, the patient was treated by radiotherapy. The patient showed a complete regression of symptoms with stable condition after 3 months. In extensive spinal hemangiomas, radiotherapy may represent a safe treatment modality with rapid clinical improvement even in cases with spinal cord compression. This report contributes to a wide range of known vascular abnormalities in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and supports the need for a careful multisystemic evaluation of these patients.

  1. [Usage and efficacy of timolol maleate eye drops in treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qizhen; Shi, Qingmei; Long, Jianhong; Li, Jiaguang; Guo, Yu; Lei, Shaorong

    2017-06-28

    To determine drug dose and usage of timolol maleate eye drops in the treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma.
 Methods: A total of 250 superficial hemangioma infants were recruited and assigned into 5 groups (n=50 for each group): an external application group and 4 exterior coating groups (2, 4, 6, 8 times per day). We evaluated the therapeutic effect of different methods for drug application (external application or exterior coating) and the frequency for drug administration on superficial infantile hemangioma.
 Results: The external application group (twice a day and 0.5 hour per time) showed better effect than that in the exterior coating group with twice a day (P<0.001). The difference in therapeutic effect between the exterior coating group with 6 times a day and exterior coating group with twice a day or with 3 times a day was significant (P<0.001). The differences in drug efficacy were not found among the exterior coating group with 6 times a day, the exterior coating group with 8 times a day, or the external application group with twice a day (All P>0.05).
 Conclusion: Drug dose may affect the therapeutic effect of timolol maleate eye drops in superficial hemangioma infants, and exterior coating with 6 times a day may achieve the best curative effect.

  2. Multilevel thoracic hemangioma with spinal cord compression in a pediatric patient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jacob; Sayama, Christina M; Adesina, Adekunle M; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of the spine. It is very rare for these lesions to symptomatically compress neural elements. If spinal cord compression does occur, it usually involves only a single level. Multilevel vertebral hemangiomas causing symptomatic spinal cord compression have never been reported in the pediatric population to the best of our knowledge. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy presenting with progressive paraparesis due to thoracic spinal cord compression from a multilevel thoracic hemangioma (T5-T10) with epidural extension. Because of his progressive neurological deficit, he was initially treated with urgent multilevel decompressive laminectomies from T4 to T11. This was to be followed by radiotherapy for residual tumor, but the patient was unfortunately lost to follow-up. He re-presented 3 years later with recurrent paraparesis and progressive disease. This was treated with urgent radiotherapy with good response. As of 6 months follow-up, he has made an excellent neurological recovery. In this report, we present the first case of a child with multilevel vertebral hemangiomas causing symptomatic spinal cord compression and review the literature to detail the pathophysiology, management, and treatment of other cases of spinal cord compression by vertebral hemangiomas.

  3. A hemangioma on the floor of the mouth presenting as a ranula.

    PubMed

    Skoulakis, Charalampos E; Khaldi, Lubna; Serletis, Demetre; Semertzidis, Themistoklis

    2008-11-01

    A painless, bluish, submucosal swelling on one side of the floor of the mouth usually indicates the presence of a ranula. Rarely, such a swelling may be caused by an inflammatory disease process in a salivary gland, a neoplasm in the sublingual salivary gland, a lymphatic nodular swelling, or embryologic cysts. We report a patient with swelling in the floor of her mouth that was clinically diagnosed as a ranula. Suspicion arose during surgery that it was a vascular tumor and, on histologic testing, the swelling was confirmed to be a hemangioma. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a hemangioma presenting as a ranula.

  4. [Application of 1% lauromacrogol in the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Fei; Ning, Jin-long; Li, Xiao-jing; Liu, Ye

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of 1% lauromacrogol for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation. From Sept 2009 to Nov 2011, 55 patients (20 male, 35 female, 1 month to 30 years) with different types of facial hemangiorwa and vascular malformation about 1.0 cm x (0. 5-5.0) cm x 10.0 cm in size, underwent 1% lauromacrogol intratumor injection therapy. Generally, the injection dose, concentration, frequency were determined by the age of the patients, the volume and depth of the lesion. The dose was limited to 10 mg every time. The injection interval is 14 weeks. After followed up for 3-16 months, 41 cases were cured, 9 cases were greatly improved, and 5 were partially improved. Skin necrosis happened in only 2 cases. Lauromacrogol is safe, simple and effective as a sderosing agent for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation. It provides a new and alternative way for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation.

  5. Extraosseous, epidural cavernous hemangioma with back pain.

    PubMed

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdemır, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity.

  6. New developments in the management of periocular capillary hemangioma in children.

    PubMed

    Ni, Nina; Wagner, Rudolph S; Langer, Paul; Guo, Suqin

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the theories of pathogenesis for capillary hemangioma and discuss the benefits and side effects of current treatment options, such as systemic and intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and surgical excision. They also evaluate the recent systemic and topical applications of beta-blockers to treat infantile hemangioma. Although no major adverse events from beta-blocker treatment have been reported, the incidence of potential side effects such as bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, heart block, bradycardia, and congestive heart failure is unknown due to the novelty of the treatment. It has been postulated that topical application for localized superficial tumor may reduce systemic effects. Further research is necessary to compare the effectiveness of different treatments and to find the optimal dosing and delivery methods to minimize adverse effects in the treatment of this disorder. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Removal of an orbital apex hemangioma using an endoscopic transethmoidal approach: technical note.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Mori, Nozomu

    2006-07-01

    The posterior orbit contains a number of important and vulnerable structures, including the optic nerve, the ophthalmic artery and vein, and the ocular muscles and their motor nerves, which makes surgical access to the lesion in this region quite difficult. Transfrontal, transfrontal-ethmoidal, and transmaxillary procedures have the disadvantage of possible injuries to a number of nontumor structures, whereas an endoscopic transethmoidal approach is a minimally invasive surgery for the retrobulbar lesions. Retrobulbar cavernous hemangioma was successfully removed by a transethmoidal approach. Tumor removal was performed in a patient with an intraconal cavernous hemangioma of approximately 15 mm in diameter. By a transethmoidal approach, the medial-inferior part of the orbit, as well as the apex of the orbit, were clearly visualized after endonasal ethmoidectomy. After the removal of the medial orbital bone, the orbital periosteum was incised and elevated. By elevating the orbital fat, the tumor could be identified separately from the orbital contents. Cavernous hemangioma at the orbital apex was removed without complications. An endoscopic transethmoidal approach, which requires no skin incision, is a minimally invasive surgery for retrobulbar orbital tumor, leading to excellent cosmetic results with less bleeding.

  8. Rapamycin inhibits the proliferation of endothelial cells in hemangioma by blocking the mTOR-FABP4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jiarui; Tang, Weiqing; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    FABP4 is widely expressed in both normal and pathologic tissues. It promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration of endothelial cells, and therefore, angiogenesis. However, the role of FABP4 in hemangioma or hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether FABP4 directly regulates the proliferation of HemECs. The expression of cell cycle checkpoint genes was analyzed with the microarray data of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDVECs) and infantile hemangioma endothelial cells. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to examine the expression of FABP4 in HemECs. Next, the FABP4 expression was inhibited in HemECs using siRNA or rapamycin and upregulated using retroviral transduction of HemECs to assess its influence on proliferation of HemECs. The microarray data showed that cell cycle checkpoint genes were upregulated in HemECs. Moreover, HemECs showed significantly higher proliferation rates than HDVECs. The expression of FABP4 and mTOR was increased in the HemECs. While FABP4 knockdown reduced the BrdU incorporation and cell number of HemECs as expected, cell proliferation was accelerated by FABP4 over-expression. Moreover, rapamycin (10nM) inhibited mTOR-FABP4 signaling and HemEC proliferation. Taken together, these results indicated that mTOR signaling pathway-activated FABP4 directly regulates the proliferation of endothelial cells in hemangioma. Rapamycin and inhibitors of FABP4 have therapeutic potential for treating infantile hemangiomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Beard infantile hemangioma and subglottic involvement: are median pattern and telangiectatic aspect the clue?

    PubMed

    Piram, M; Hadj-Rabia, S; Boccara, O; Couloigner, V; Hamel-Teillac, D; Bodemer, C

    2016-12-01

    Identification of patient at risk of subglottic infantile hemangioma (IH) is challenging because subglottic IH can grow fast and cause airway obstruction with a fatal course. To refine the cutaneous IH pattern at risk of subglottic IH. Prospective and retrospective review of patients with cutaneous IH involving the beard area. IHs were classified in the bilateral pattern group (BH) or in the unilateral pattern group (UH). Infantile hemangioma topography, subtype (telangiectatic or tuberous), ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations and subglottic involvement were recorded. Thirty-one patients (21 BH and 10 UH) were included during a 20-year span. Nineteen patients (16 BH and 3 UH) had subglottic hemangioma. BH and UH group overlap on the median pattern (tongue, gum, lips, chin and neck). Median pattern, particularly the neck area and telangiectatic subtype of IH were significantly associated with subglottic involvement. Patients presenting with telangiectatic beard IH localized on the median area need early ENT exploration. They should be treated before respiratory symptoms occur. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. [Cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations and associated pathology (Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome). Study of 41 patients].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Velázquez-Fragua, R; García, L; López-Gutiérrez, J C; Viaño-López, J; Martínez, V; Palencia, R

    To describe the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of this angiomatous neurocutaneous syndrome, which is the most frequent one, and to report a personal series of 41 patients. Forty one patients--31 females and 10 males--were studied during childhood and then, several patients were followed during many years, which allowed us to learn about the evolution of the abnormalities. The cutaneous lesions were classified as hemangiomas in 30 patients (73%) and as vascular malformations in 11 patients (27%). A cerebellar anomaly (unilateral hemispheric hypoplasia and Dandy-Walker malformation) was seen in 13 patients (31.5%) cerebral cortical dysplasia in 4 patients (10%), aortic arch coarctation in 6 patients (15%), and congenital cardiopathy in 5 patients (12%). The most frequent abnormalities were intracranial and/or extracranial vascular malformations. Persistence of the trigeminal artery was observed in 7 patients (17%), absence or severe hypoplasia of an internal carotid artery in 13 patients (32%), absence of a vertebral artery in 7 patients (17%), hypoplasia of intracranial arteries in 6 patients (15%) and aneurysmal enlargement of carotid or vertebral arteries in 5 patients (12%). Also were observed 4 patients (10%) with intracranial hemangioma, 2 (5%) with hemangioma in mediastinum, and 3 (7.5%) with intestinal hemangioma, all of which disappeared during the first years of life. Aneurysmal enlargement of the carotid and vertebral arteries and intracranial branches also disappeared after a process of progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen that caused complete obstruction of these arteries. At the same time the cutaneous hemangioma regressed. During this process, collateral vascularization through branches of the external carotid artery and of the non-affected branches of the contralateral intracranial arteries developed. This neurocutaneous syndrome is the most frequent one and it is associated with several types of vascular and non

  11. Bilateral Renal Anastomosing Hemangiomas: A Tale of Two Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Abboudi, Hamid; Tschobotko, Benjamin; Carr, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Renal anastomosing hemangioma (RAH) is an extremely rare benign vascular tumor first described in 2009. Making this diagnosis is fraught with challenges. Radiologically they share features consistent with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Their vascular nature poses risks if considering preoperative biopsy and histologically they share characteristics akin to angiosarcomas. The few reports published in the literature suggest presentation with hematuria, flank pain, and polycythemia although the majority are diagnosed at postnephrectomy histologic examination. This case represents the first metachronous RAH in the literature, and is the first RAH presenting with severe hemorrhage. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old woman of Albanian heritage presented to urology with visible hematuria and positive urine cytology. Three years before this presentation, she had undergone an elective radical right-sided nephrectomy for a suspected RCC detected on magnetic resonance imaging, which proved to be an RAH after postoperative histologic examination of the specimen. The patient was investigated with cystoscopy and ureteroscopy for this new hematuria presentation, both of which were unremarkable. Fourteen hours post ureteroscopy, the patient became severely hypotensive and developed acute kidney injury. A CT scan indicated a large left-sided renal subcapsular and retroperitoneal hematoma that was actively bleeding. The patient was hemodynamically unstable and, therefore, required an emergency open left-sided nephrectomy, rendering her anephric and dialysis dependent. Postoperative histologic examination proved that the left kidney also contained an RAH. Conclusion: The anastomosing hemangioma is an important subtype to differentiate from angiosarcoma before and after a nephrectomy. Urologists should carefully consider invasive tests in patients with previously diagnosed vascular lesions as there may be an increased risk of bleeding. Patients with a previously

  12. Bilateral Renal Anastomosing Hemangiomas: A Tale of Two Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Abboudi, Hamid; Tschobotko, Benjamin; Carr, Christopher; DasGupta, Ranan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Renal anastomosing hemangioma (RAH) is an extremely rare benign vascular tumor first described in 2009. Making this diagnosis is fraught with challenges. Radiologically they share features consistent with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Their vascular nature poses risks if considering preoperative biopsy and histologically they share characteristics akin to angiosarcomas. The few reports published in the literature suggest presentation with hematuria, flank pain, and polycythemia although the majority are diagnosed at postnephrectomy histologic examination. This case represents the first metachronous RAH in the literature, and is the first RAH presenting with severe hemorrhage. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old woman of Albanian heritage presented to urology with visible hematuria and positive urine cytology. Three years before this presentation, she had undergone an elective radical right-sided nephrectomy for a suspected RCC detected on magnetic resonance imaging, which proved to be an RAH after postoperative histologic examination of the specimen. The patient was investigated with cystoscopy and ureteroscopy for this new hematuria presentation, both of which were unremarkable. Fourteen hours post ureteroscopy, the patient became severely hypotensive and developed acute kidney injury. A CT scan indicated a large left-sided renal subcapsular and retroperitoneal hematoma that was actively bleeding. The patient was hemodynamically unstable and, therefore, required an emergency open left-sided nephrectomy, rendering her anephric and dialysis dependent. Postoperative histologic examination proved that the left kidney also contained an RAH. Conclusion: The anastomosing hemangioma is an important subtype to differentiate from angiosarcoma before and after a nephrectomy. Urologists should carefully consider invasive tests in patients with previously diagnosed vascular lesions as there may be an increased risk of bleeding. Patients with a previously diagnosed

  13. Hemangiosarcoma subsequent to radiotherapy for a hemangioma in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.G.; Keller, J.W.; Ditty, J.F. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    A case is presented of a 31-year-old white man who developed a hemangiosarcoma in the very place where 30 years ago a hemangioma had been treated by radiotherapy. The rarity of such an occurrence is attested to by the fact that only two similar cases were found in the English medical literature.

  14. Nasal glial heterotopia or congenital hemangioma? A case report.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, R; Durand, C; Blaise, S; Morand, B

    2017-10-01

    Nasal glial heterotopia (NGH) is a rare benign tumor of the median line. We describe the case of a child presenting a lateral nasal mass. The characteristics of the prenatal ultrasound and the postnatal clinical examination argued in favor of a congenital hemangioma (CH). The MRI performed at 6 weeks of life suggested glial heterotopia. This diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological analysis. Congenital hemangiomas and nasal glial heterotopies have similar clinical presentations. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis between NGH and CH is difficult. Fetal MRI is not yet highly specific for these two lesions, but it can eliminate an intracerebral connection in cases of NGH. Postnatal exams are more specific. Flow on the Doppler exam is rapid for CH and slow for NGH. On MRI, these two lesions appear as a hypersignal on T2-weighted sequences, but less intense for NGH than for CH. Distinguishing between NGH and CH can be difficult. This does not have a direct incidence on treatment because it is surgical in both cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Curative effect of chemotherapy, KTP lasers, and CO2 lasers combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of adult laryngeal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiufa; Mao, Wenjing; He, Peijie; Wei, Chunsheng

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate three methods for treating adult laryngeal hemangiomas: conventional chemotherapy, CO 2 laser combined with chemotherapy, and KTP laser. And to identify risk factors that affected the prognosis of the lesions. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from patients with adult laryngeal hemangiomas treated by one of three aforementioned methods, the curative efficacy, and safety of those methods was compared. All cases were confirmed by suspension micro-laryngoscope examination. Pre- and post-treatment clinical photographs were taken and the outcomes were graded. Thirty-eight patients in 48 different cases were enrolled in the study between June 2010 and June 2016, and some patients were treated more than once. The treatment efficacy of the KTP laser was higher than that of chemotherapy according to the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test; however, the ordinal logistic regression showed that the choice of surgical procedure did not affect the treatment results; only the size of the bases of the lesions affected the prognosis of adult laryngeal hemangiomas. Pingyangmycin injection, KTP laser, and CO 2 laser combined with chemotherapy are safe and effective methods for the treatment of adult laryngeal hemangiomas. The size of base of the lesion affects the prognosis of the hemangiomas.

  16. Development and Validation of a Quality-of-Life Instrument for Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Chamlin, Sarah L; Mancini, Anthony J; Lai, Jin-Shei; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Cella, David; Adams, Denise; Drolet, Beth; Baselga, Eulalia; Frieden, Ilona J; Garzon, Maria; Holland, Kristin; Horii, Kimberly A; Lucky, Anne W; McCuaig, Catherine; Metry, Denise; Morel, Kimberly D; Newell, Brandon D; Nopper, Amy J; Powell, Julie; Siegel, Dawn; Haggstrom, Anita N

    2015-06-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common tumors for which there is no validated disease-specific instrument to measure the quality of life in infants and their parents/caregivers during the critical first months of life. This study prospectively developed and validated a quality-of-life instrument for patients with IH and their parents/caregivers and correlated demographic and clinical features to the effects on the quality of life. A total of 220 parents/caregivers completed the 35-item Infantile Hemangioma Quality-of-Life (IH-QoL) instrument and provided demographic information. The dimensionality of the items was evaluated using factor analysis, with results suggesting four factors: child physical symptoms, child social interactions, parent emotional functioning, and parent psychosocial functioning. Each factor fit the Rasch measurement model with acceptable fit index (mean square <1.4) and demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with alpha ranging from 0.76 to 0.88. The final instrument consists of four scales with a total of 29 items. Content validity was verified by analyzing parents' responses to an open-ended question. Test-retest reliability at a 48-hour interval was supported by a total IH-QoL intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.84. Certain clinical characteristics of hemangioma, including those located on the head and neck, in the proliferative stage, and requiring treatment, are associated with a greater impact on QoL.

  17. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  18. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Tapan; Wurzel, John; Duker, Nahum

    2012-11-23

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in

  19. Cystic tumors of the liver: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo Del; Buonocore, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Biliary cyst tumors (cystadenoma and cystadeno-carcinoma) are an indication for liver resection. They account for only 5% of all solitary cystic lesions of the liver, but differential diagnosis with multiloculated or complicated biliary cysts, atypical hemangiomas, hamartomas and lymphangiomas may be difficult. The most frequent challenge is to differentiate biliary cyst tumors from hemorrhagic cysts. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often not diagnostic and in these cases fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used to confirm the presence of atypical biliary cells. FNA, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity and should always be used in conjunction with imaging. Pre-operative differentiation of cystadenoma from cystadenocarcinoma is impossible and surgery must be performed if a biliary cyst tumor is suspected. When multiple cystic lesions are observed throughout the liver parenchyma, it is important to exclude liver metastasis, of which colonic cancer is the most common primary site. Multiple biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complex) can appear as a mixture of solid and cystic lesions and can be confused with cystic metastasis. Strong and uniform T2 hyperintensity on MRI is usually diagnostic, but occasionally a percutaneous biopsy may be required. PMID:18595127

  20. A self-controlled study of intralesional injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol cream for treatment of thick superficial infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Yu, Qian; Huang, Huizhen; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Wei

    2018-04-30

    Topical application of timolol cream is effective and convenient for treating superficial infantile hemangiomas. Intralesional injection of corticosteroids, such as diprospan, is useful for the treatment of superficia infantile hemangiomas without systemic side effects. We conducted a self-controlled study to investigate whether a combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream would be more efficient than timolol cream alone in thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. Thirty-eight patients with 39 thick superficial infantile hemangiomas were recruited. Each lesion was randomly divided into two equal parts: one part was treated with topical timolol 0.5% cream (timolol cream group), while the other part was treated with injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol 0.5% cream (combined treatment group). Infants were followed every 4 weeks to determine whether injections should be continued, and timolol cream was applied four times daily for 5 months. During 5 months of treatment, three specialist physicians were invited to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The combined treatment group showed better lesion involution than did the timolol cream group regarding lesion thickness and color of lesions. The combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream is a suitable and safe strategy for thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Network for Differentiation of Liver Masses at Dynamic Contrast-enhanced CT: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Abe, Osamu; Kiryu, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To investigate diagnostic performance by using a deep learning method with a convolutional neural network (CNN) for the differentiation of liver masses at dynamic contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods This clinical retrospective study used CT image sets of liver masses over three phases (noncontrast-agent enhanced, arterial, and delayed). Masses were diagnosed according to five categories (category A, classic hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs]; category B, malignant liver tumors other than classic and early HCCs; category C, indeterminate masses or mass-like lesions [including early HCCs and dysplastic nodules] and rare benign liver masses other than hemangiomas and cysts; category D, hemangiomas; and category E, cysts). Supervised training was performed by using 55 536 image sets obtained in 2013 (from 460 patients, 1068 sets were obtained and they were augmented by a factor of 52 [rotated, parallel-shifted, strongly enlarged, and noise-added images were generated from the original images]). The CNN was composed of six convolutional, three maximum pooling, and three fully connected layers. The CNN was tested with 100 liver mass image sets obtained in 2016 (74 men and 26 women; mean age, 66.4 years ± 10.6 [standard deviation]; mean mass size, 26.9 mm ± 25.9; 21, nine, 35, 20, and 15 liver masses for categories A, B, C, D, and E, respectively). Training and testing were performed five times. Accuracy for categorizing liver masses with CNN model and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve for differentiating categories A-B versus categories C-E were calculated. Results Median accuracy of differential diagnosis of liver masses for test data were 0.84. Median area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for differentiating categories A-B from C-E was 0.92. Conclusion Deep learning with CNN showed high diagnostic performance in differentiation of liver masses at dynamic CT. © RSNA, 2017 Online

  2. The value of color Doppler imaging and intralesional steroid injection in pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yifeng; Hao, Rui; He, Yanjin; Tam, Eric S; Li, Xiaorong

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate color Doppler imaging (CDI) as the primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma. This is a retrospective study of 36 consecutive cases of orbital capillary hemangiomas between January 2006 and July 2011. Data on demographic details, clinical findings, gray-scale ultrasonography, CDI characteristics, treatment, and follow-up period were reviewed. The mean age of onset was 7 weeks. Twenty-nine (81%) lesions presented as eyelid masses, whereas seven (19%) presented as exophthalmos. Nineteen (53%) tumors were located on the upper eyelid, seven (19%) on the lower eyelid, six (17%) in the medial canthus, and one on both upper and lower eyelids. Ultrasonography depicted a heterogeneous, well-defined, irregular tumor with a low or moderate echogenicity. All lesions presented with abundant color blood flow on CDI. The intralesional blood flow had a mean peak systolic velocity of 37.5 ± 24.5 cm/second, and a mean resistance index of 0.69 ± 0.16, representing a shift in the pulse Doppler toward high velocity and high resistance. After a single intratumoral injection of betamethasone, 18 cases (50%) resolved. Additionally, 15 (42%) and four (11%) cases resolved after two injections and three injections, respectively. Only three (8%) masses persisted after three injections within the follow-up period. The blood flow characteristics of CDI play a vital role in the differentiation of orbital capillary hemangiomas from other orbital lesions. The availability and lack of adverse effects of CDI enable its utilization in the early clinical diagnosis of pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2018-05-15

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma.

  4. Intratumoral consumption of indium-111-labeled platelets in a child with splenic hemangioma and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Pampin, C; Devillers, A; Treguier, C; Fremond, B; Moisan, A; Goasguen, J; Le Gall, E

    2000-01-01

    The authors report Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) in a patient with thrombocytopenia and splenic hemangioma. A 13-month-old boy with a history of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and abdominal mass was admitted to the hospital. The scintigraphic studies showed that a large mass contiguous to the spleen was responsible for the platelet uptake. After partial splenectomy, the platelet count returned to normal. This report of KMS in a child with splenic hemangioma suggests that the scintigraphic studies are mandatory to confirm diagnosis. Indium-111-labeled platelets are useful in identifying hemangiomatous sequestration of platelets in patients with thrombocytopenia.

  5. Multiple Eruptive Epithelioid Hemangiomas: A Subset of Cutaneous Cellular Epithelioid Hemangioma With Expression of FOS-B.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Kempf, Werner; Cota, Carlo; Fernández-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Lee, Joyce; Ferrara, Gerardo; Sander, Christian; Shapiro, Philip E; Requena, Luis; Kutzner, Heinz

    2017-12-20

    There is a wide clinicopathologic spectrum of vascular proliferations characterized by the presence of epithelioid endothelial cells, comprising epithelioid hemangioma (EH)-pseudomyogenic (epithelioid sarcoma-like) hemangioendothelioma (PM-HAE), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and epithelioid angiosarcoma. Immunohistochemical FOS-B expression as well as FOS-B rearrangement (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) have recently been described as diagnostically relevant underpinnings of EH (restricted to osseous lesions) and PM-HAE. The aim of this study was to clinicopathologically characterize and to elucidate FOS-B expression in patients with eruptive lesions of the cellular variant of cutaneous EH. All cases of cutaneous cellular EH (n=16) showed strong diffuse immunohistochemical expression of FOS-B, in conjunction with positivity for ERG and nestin. Expression of MYC, CAMTA-1, AE1/3, and MNF116 was negative in all cases. FISH investigations did not show any sign of rearrangements for CAMTA-1 or MYC amplification. Negative-control cases included 15 lobular hemangiomas, 5 epithelioid angiosarcomas, and 5 nodular Kaposi sarcomas, all of which were negative for FOS-B. Positive-control cases included 15 angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia cases, all of them being positive. In contrast with what has been published so far, cutaneous variants of cellular EH exhibit positive immunostaining for FOS-B. Remarkably, FOS-B expression is not restricted to the intraosseous subset of EH. For differential diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors, we therefore suggest a helpful panel of antibodies including CAMTA-1, TFE-3, FOS-B, and AE1/AE3. We point out the telltale immunophenotypes: angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and EH (FOS-B/others negative), PM-HAE (FOS-B/AE1/AE3/others negative), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (CAMTA-1 or TFE-3/others negative). Remarkably, MYC is not expressed in these tumors, neither is there an MYC amplification by FISH. We

  6. Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yunlong; Jin, Yanfang; Yang, Bentao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and thin-section magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of facial nerve hemangioma. The HRCT and MRI characteristics of 17 facial nerve hemangiomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients included in the study suffered from a space-occupying lesion of soft tissues at the geniculate ganglion fossa. Affected nerve was compared for size and shape with the contralateral unaffected nerve. HRCT showed irregular expansion and broadening of the facial nerve canal, damage of the bone wall and destruction of adjacent bone, with "point"-like or "needle"-like calcifications in 14 cases. The average CT value was 320.9 ± 141.8 Hu. Fourteen patients had a widened labyrinthine segment; 6/17 had a tympanic segment widening; 2/17 had a greater superficial petrosal nerve canal involvement, and 2/17 had an affected internal auditory canal (IAC) segment. On MRI, all lesions were significantly enhanced due to high blood supply. Using 2D FSE T2WI, the lesion detection rate was 82.4 % (14/17). 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) revealed the lesions in all patients. HRCT showed that the average number of involved segments in the facial nerve canal was 2.41, while MRI revealed an average of 2.70 segments (P < 0.05). HRCT and MR findings of facial nerve hemangioma were typical, revealing irregular masses growing along the facial nerve canal, with calcifications and rich blood supply. Thin-section enhanced MRI was more accurate in lesion detection and assessment compared with HRCT.

  7. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: ferumoxide-enhanced MR imaging as a tiebreaker.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Osada, Shinji; Goshima, Satoshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-09-01

    We examined a 70-year-old male patient with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver mimicking a peripheral-type cholangiocellular carcinoma. Ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed residual Kupffer cell function in liver parenchyma in and surrounding the inflammatory pseudotumor involvement, which suggested the diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver. We correlate the MR imaging and pathologic findings in this report. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma. PMID:29279503

  9. Performance assessment of an opto-fluidic phantom mimicking porcine liver parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Nance Ericson, M.; Wilson, Mark A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-07-01

    An implantable, optical oxygenation and perfusion sensor to monitor liver transplants during the two-week period following the transplant procedure is currently being developed. In order to minimize the number of animal experiments required for this research, a phantom that mimics the optical, anatomical, and physiologic flow properties of liver parenchyma is being developed as well. In this work, the suitability of this phantom for liver parenchyma perfusion research was evaluated by direct comparison of phantom perfusion data with data collected from in vivo porcine studies, both using the same prototype perfusion sensor. In vitro perfusion and occlusion experiments were performed on a single-layer and on a three-layer phantom perfused with a dye solution possessing the absorption properties of oxygenated hemoglobin. While both phantoms exhibited response patterns similar to the liver parenchyma, the signal measured from the multilayer phantom was three times higher than the single layer phantom and approximately 21 percent more sensitive to in vitro changes in perfusion. Although the multilayer phantom replicated the in vivo flow patterns more closely, the data suggests that both phantoms can be used in vitro to facilitate sensor design.

  10. Undiagnosed vertebral hemangioma causing a lumbar compression fracture and epidural hematoma in a parturient undergoing vaginal delivery under epidural analgesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Staikou, Chryssoula; Stamelos, Matthaios; Boutas, Ioannis; Koutoulidis, Vassileios

    2015-08-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumours of the bony spine which are usually asymptomatic. Pregnancy-related anatomical and hormonal changes may lead to expansion of hemangiomas and development of neurological symptoms. We present an unusual case of vertebral fracture due to an undiagnosed hemangioma presenting as postpartum back pain following epidural analgesia. A multiparous female with an unremarkable history developed intense lumbar pain after vaginal delivery under epidural analgesia. The pain was attributed to tissue trauma associated with the epidural technique. The patient had no clinical improvement with analgesics, and her symptoms deteriorated over the following days. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed an acute fracture of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) with epidural extension and mild compression of the dural sac, suggesting hemangioma as the underlying cause. The patient underwent successful spinal surgery with pedicle screw fixation to stabilize the fracture. Vertebral fractures secondary to acute expansion of a vertebral hemangioma rarely occur during vaginal delivery. In such cases, the labour epidural technique and analgesia may challenge the physician in making the diagnosis. Postpartum severe back pain should be thoroughly investigated even in the absence of neurological deficits, and osseous spinal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Epithelioid Hemangioma Involving Three Contiguous Bones: a Case Report with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jinawath, Arthit; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan

    2010-01-01

    An epithelioid hemangioma involving three contiguous bones in continuity has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported in the literature. A case of a 48-year-old man presented with radiating pain to the lower thoracic region for two years. A radiograph and CT scan revealed both permeative osteolytic and multiple trabeculated lesions involving the left posterior part of the 10th rib as well as the 9th and 10th vertebral bodies in continuity and was misled as a malignant or infectious lesion. The histopathology and immuno-histochemistry of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of an epithelioid hemangioma. The lesion was still stable as of three years after surgery. PMID:21076597

  12. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed. PMID:24899888

  13. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  14. Novel use of propranolol for management of pain in children with vertebral hemangioma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Uzunaslan, Didem; Saygin, Caner; Gungor, Semih; Hasiloglu, Zehra; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje

    2013-05-01

    Vertebral hemangioma (VH) is an exceedingly rare neoplasm in pediatric population with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. It is usually asymptomatic in adults and diagnosed incidentally at radiographic investigations of other medical conditions. In this report, we describe two children who presented to our institution with severe back pain and were diagnosed with VH. Case 1 was an 8-year-old male with a pain score of 10 out of 10 at presentation. Clinical investigations eliminated the possibility of a neoplasm or infectious process and MRI findings were highly suggestive of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma. Case 2 was a 17-year-old female who presented with back pain radiating to shoulders. Her pain score was 4 out of 10 and she was diagnosed with vertebral hemangioma due to the specific findings on MRI studies. Both patients received propranolol with a dose of 20 and 40 mg per day, respectively. They were free of pain at 2 months follow-up. There are different invasive treatment modalities for the management of VH, including vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, radiotherapy, alcohol injection, embolization, and surgery. These methods have been used in adult patients for several years, but each of them has potential risks which make these options unsuitable for children. Propranolol is a beta blocker which is safely used in the management of infantile hemangiomas. This is the first report demonstrating its efficacy in symptomatic treatment of childhood VH. The lesions did not show any regression, but the pain relief obtained was very significant under propranolol therapy.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of focal liver lesions by use of physicians' subjective classification of echogenic patterns in baseline and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Doi, Kunio

    2009-04-01

    To develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for classifying focal liver lesions (FLLs) by use of physicians' subjective classification of echogenic patterns of FLLs on baseline and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US). A total of 137 hepatic lesions in 137 patients were evaluated with B-mode and NC100100 (Sonazoid)-enhanced pulse-inversion US; lesions included 74 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (23: well-differentiated, 36: moderately differentiated, 15: poorly differentiated HCCs), 33 liver metastases, and 30 liver hemangiomas. Three physicians evaluated single images at B-mode and arterial phases with a cine mode. Physicians were asked to classify each lesion into one of eight B-mode and one of eight enhancement patterns, but did not make a diagnosis. To classify five types of FLLs, we employed a decision tree model with four decision nodes and four artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results of the physicians' pattern classifications were used successively for four different ANNs in making decisions at each of the decision nodes in the decision tree model. The classification accuracies for the 137 FLLs were 84.8% for metastasis, 93.3% for hemangioma, and 98.6% for all HCCs. In addition, the classification accuracies for histological differentiation types of HCCs were 65.2% for well-differentiated HCC, 41.7% for moderately differentiated HCC, and 80.0% for poorly differentiated HCC. This CAD scheme has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of liver lesions. However, the accuracy in the histologic differential diagnosis of HCC based on baseline and contrast-enhanced US is still limited.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis involving vertebral hemangioma: dual percutaneous treatment by navigational bipolar radiofrequency ablation and high viscosity cement vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Meuli, Reto; Dunet, Vincent

    2017-02-02

    The case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastatic invasion of a L3 vertebral hemangioma treated by dual percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and vertebroplasty is reported. The patient was surgically treated for RCC in 2001. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy were introduced in 2013 for ovarian, bladder and cerebral metastatic disease. An asymptomatic L3 benign hemangioma was noticed at this time. One-year CT and MRI follow-up studies demonstrated a nodular isolated soft tissue lesion involving the anterior edge of the hemangioma. Percutaneous treatment consisted of a L3 vertebral body unipedicular approach to perform a biopsy, RFA with a navigational bipolar RFA device and vertebroplasty using high viscosity cement. Histopathological examination confirmed metastasis of RCC. The 5-month spinal MRI and CT examinations demonstrated complete disappearance of the tumor. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Misra, Diva Kant; Koul, Akanksha; Kapoor, Deepika; Deka, Apurba

    2016-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  18. SSAT/AHPBA Joint Symposium on Evaluation and Treatment of Benign Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yun Shin; House, Michael G.; Kaur, Harmeet; Loyer, Evelyne M.; Paradis, Valérie; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Benign liver lesions are common incidental radiologic findings. Methods Experts convened in 2011 at a Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract/ Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association joint symposium to discuss the evaluation and treatment of benign liver lesions. Results Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed with high-quality imaging, including ultrasonography, multiphase computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, particularly with hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. Percutaneous biopsy is reserved for lesions that cannot be characterized radiographically, and its accuracy is improved with immunophenotypic markers. Hepatic cysts are the most commonly diagnosed benign liver lesions; these must be distinguished from malignant cystic lesions, which are rare. Among the solid benign liver lesions, hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia seldom require treatment. In contrast, hepatocellular adenomas are associated with a risk for complications. A new classification system for hepatocellular adenomas based on genetic and phenotypic features can help guide patient care. In patients who are symptomatic or at risk for complications, multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment based on clinicopathologic, radiographic, and molecular analysis is needed. Conclusions Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed radiographically and do not require treatment. Treatment is necessary for patients with symptoms or at risk for complications. PMID:23377783

  19. Pure Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma of the Cervical Spine that Presented with an Acute Sensory Deficit Caused by Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Chung, Seung-Eun; Paeng, Sung-Suk; Kim, Hye-Sung; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Yu, Jeong-Sik

    2006-01-01

    Pure epidural cavernous hemangioma of the spine without vertebral involvement is rare. Due to the slow growth of this lesion, the most common symptoms are chronic pain, myelopathy, and radiculopathy. In our case, the patient complained of an acute onset sensory deficit of the C4 dermatome. An MRI revealed an epidural mass with an acute hematoma. Here, we report a case of a pure epidural cavernous hemangioma that presented with acute neurologic symptoms caused by intralesional hemorrhage and an acute epidural hematoma, which were demonstrated on the patient's MRI. PMID:17191320

  20. Pure epidural cavernous hemangioma of the cervical spine that presented with an acute sensory deficit caused by hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-June; Lee, Sang-Ho; Chung, Seung-Eun; Paeng, Sung-Suk; Kim, Hye-Sung; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Yu, Jeong-Sik

    2006-12-31

    Pure epidural cavernous hemangioma of the spine without vertebral involvement is rare. Due to the slow growth of this lesion, the most common symptoms are chronic pain, myelopathy, and radiculopathy. In our case, the patient complained of an acute onset sensory deficit of the C4 dermatome. An MRI revealed an epidural mass with an acute hematoma. Here, we report a case of a pure epidural cavernous hemangioma that presented with acute neurologic symptoms caused by intralesional hemorrhage and an acute epidural hematoma, which were demonstrated on the patient's MRI.

  1. [Surgical aspects of liver resection based on 5 years' data].

    PubMed

    Fabri, M; Nikolić, V; Pfau, J; Vukobratov, V; Obradović, J; Petrović, P

    1994-01-01

    From 1988 to 1993 thirty liver resections were performed in thirty patients. Eight were operated for suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma, four from metastasis of colon's adenocarcinoma, five for great hemangiomas and the rest for focal liver changes. Right lobectomy was performed in six cases, as well as two trisegmentectomies and two left lobectomies while segmentectomies in the rest. Periopretive mortality occurred in two cases as two patients died because of postoperative thrombosis of vena portae and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Recidive of malignant tumors was established in five patients after year and in other five till the second year. Benign tumors are without recidives. Later resection is a safe procedure with a considerable selection of patients, with use of latest technical conveniences, application of grafts on branches of vena portae and with routine application of intraoperative ultrasonography. The paper contains diagnostical postulates, surgical techniques and anatomic and morphologic types of resection.

  2. A rare case of important and recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding in a post partum woman caused by cavernous hemangioma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aka, Kacou Edele; Apollinaire Horo, Gninlgninrin; Fomba, Minata; Kouyate, Salif; Koffi, Abdoul Koffi; Konan, Seni; Fanny, Mohamed; Effi, Benjamin; Kone, Mamourou

    2017-01-01

    The cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor. About 50 cases of this disease were found in the literature over the last century and only 9 cases of cavernous hemangioma on the pregnant uterus were published it comes into cavernous or capillary form. The symptomatology is not unequivocal and when it occurs during pregnancy or postpartum, it causes life-threatening cataclysmic hemorrhage. Antenatal diagnosis is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach with pathologists, radiologists and gynecologists to avoid these complications or unnecessary hysterectomies. The diagnosis is histological. Hysterectomy is possible after failure of conservative treatment means. We report a rare case, a novel mixed cavernous hemangioma of the body associated with a capillary hemangioma of the cervix in a patient of 28 years 5th visors with recurrent genital bleeding in the postpartum period leading to a hysterectomy.

  3. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome with autoimmune-like liver disease and enteropathy mimicking celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Veropalumbo, Claudio; Campanozzi, Angelo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Correra, Antonio; Raia, Valeria; Vajro, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Liver abnormalities that normalize during infancy as well an enteropathy are reported in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The pathogenesis of both conditions is unknown. We report two SDS cases with autoimmune-like (antismooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody positivity) liver disease and antigliadin antibody positive inflammatory enteropathy. Hypertransaminasemia did not resolve after immunosuppressive therapy and/or a gluten-free diet. These transient autoimmune phenomena and gut-liver axis perturbations may have played a role in transient SDS hepatopathy and enteropathy. Our report may stimulate other studies to define the relationship between the SDS genetic defect and intestinal permeability as the pathogenic mechanism underlying SDS related liver and intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma as a rare cause of myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Sari, Hidayet; Uludag, Murat; Akarirmak, Ulku; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Gun, Kerem; Gulsen, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are common lesions in the adult population. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiological imaging. New-onset back pain followed by subacute progression of thoracal myelopathy is the most common presentation in patients with neurological deficit. Differential diagnoses would include metastasis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, Paget disease, osseous tumors such as Ewing sarcoma or hemangioblastoma and blood dyscrasia. We present a 41 year-old-male patient with thoracal VH causing myelopathy that completely improved after rehabilitation program with embolization and vertebroplasty procedures.

  5. Congenital supratentorial meningeal arteriovenous malformation with hemangioma and massive arachnoid cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nabeel, Alnaghmoosh; Lach, Boleslaw; Al-Shail, Essam; Patay, Zoltan

    2005-11-01

    We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of concurrent, congenital leptomeningeal arteriovenous malformation with hemangioma diagnosed in a newborn by prenatal and immediately postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. Vascular abnormalities were accompanied by massive arachnoidal cell hyperplasia reminiscent of meningioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of such a lesion reported in the literature.

  6. A phase II, open-label study of the efficacy and safety of imiquimod in the treatment of superficial and mixed infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    McCuaig, Catherine C; Dubois, Josée; Powell, Julie; Belleville, Claude; David, Michèle; Rousseau, Elisabeth; Gendron, Roxanne; Jafarian, Fatemeh; Auger, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream as a treatment for infantile hemangioma. Phase II, open-label, noncomparative study of imiquimod applied during 16 weeks, with posttherapy follow-up 16 weeks later (8 months total). Outpatient pediatric tertiary care referral center in Quebec, Canada. Healthy infants up to 8.8 months of age with previously untreated, nonulcerated, proliferative superficial or mixed infantile hemangioma, excluding periorbital, or perineal localization, > or =100 cm2 in size. Topical imiquimod applied three to seven times per week for 16 weeks to infantile hemangioma. Lesion area, volume, depth (Doppler ultrasound), and color (erythema), serum drug, and interferon-alpha levels. Sixteen infants (11 girls, 5 boys) with a mean age at entry of 4.1 months and mean lesion area of 32.89 cm2, and volume of 39.98 cm3 were enrolled. Two participants discontinued treatment early, one for an adverse event (crying upon application), the other because of the lack of compliance. Local skin reactions were consistent with those reported in adults. Two cases had a decrease and three had an increase in lesion parameters; otherwise no meaningful changes in lesion area, volume, or depth were observed. At the 4-month posttreatment visit, 11 of 14 subjects had improvement in erythema (marginal homogeneity test = 2.668, p = 0.008). Measured serum drug and interferon-alpha levels were low or undetectable. Treatment of infants with infantile hemangioma with imiquimod up to seven times per week for 16 weeks was generally well tolerated with low systemic exposure. Improvement was observed in hemangioma coloration, but not lesion size, suggesting effects were limited to the superficial component.

  7. Surgical treatment of cervical vertebral hemangioma associated with adjacent cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ying-jie; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Li-min; Li, Jia-zhen

    2013-12-01

    Symptoms may vary from simple vertebral pain to progressive neurologic deficit because of cervical vertebral hemangioma associated with adjacent cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CVHAWACSM). Often resistant to conservative medical treatment, surgery has been the treatment of choice for these patients, but the optimal surgical strategy for CVHAWACSM has not been defined. This study aimed to investigate the methods and efficacy in the treatment of CVHAWACSM. Retrospective review of patients enrolled in prospective randomized trial. Procedure was performed in 18 patients (11 men and 7 women) with CVHAWACSM, who were enrolled between January 2006 and September 2011. Radiographic examinations were carried out to assess total filling of polymethylmethacrylate in the vertebral body, fusion rates, implant failure, and general complications. The recovery of neurologic function and neck and shoulder pain relief were measured based on the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and the visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Eighteen patients had single vertebral hemangioma, including one case at C₃, three at C₄, six at C₅, five at C₆, and three at C₇. The X-ray films showed a typical "palisade" change. According to the clinical and imaging features, there were 12 cases of Type II and 6 of Type IV cervical hemangioma. Standard anterior cervical decompression and fusion with a stand-alone polyetheretherketone cage (filled with autologous cancellous iliac bone) was performed, followed by vertebroplasty. Clinical and radiologic follow-ups were performed. The mean follow-up was 24.1 months, with a range of 18 to 36 months. The symptoms of all 18 patients were improved, by varying degrees, and the lesion vertebra did not show anterior bone cement leakage or injuries in the spinal cord and nerves. The forming vertebra did not show fracture or collapse, and there was no recurrence of the hemangioma. During the follow-up, there was no implant loosening, displacement, or breakage

  8. Primary Intraosseous Hemangioma of the Orbital Roof: A Pitfall of Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ying; Huang, Hsiang-Ming; Chen, Der-Cherng; Cho, Der-Yang; Wei, Sung-Tai

    2016-09-01

    A primary intraosseous hemangioma (IOH) of the orbital bone is extremely rare. The preferred method of treatment for IOH is total surgical excision with reconstruction. Herein, the authors describe a patient with an orbital roof IOH and the unexpected complications of ptosis and deteriorated exophthalmos. These findings showed that the total surgical excision and subsequent reconstruction provided adequate decompression and prevented further ocular complications from the orbital wall defect.

  9. Aggressive hemangioma of the spine in a pregnant female: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, İsmail; De Iure, Federico; Terzi, Silvia; Gasbarrini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Type and timing of treatment for symptomatic hemangiomas in pregnant females are challenging due to fetus survival and conflicts in neurological recovery. In this article, we report a 40-year-old female patient at pregnancy week 23 with a complicated hemangioma at T1 level. Physical examination revealed an incomplete spastic paraplegia. Patient did not accept any surgery due to child's death risk. Patient was started corticoid treatment and no more weight bearing was allowed. At the 28th week of pregnancy, the patient underwent cesarean section immediately followed by selective arterial embolization, decompression, fixation, and radiotherapy. At two-year follow-up, the patient was pain free, without any signs of local recurrence and with complete neurological recovery. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to save the life of the fetus without damaging the spinal cord functions of the mother.

  10. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Guissa, Vanessa R; Aragão, Paula A; Marques, Heloisa H; Jacob, Cristina M; Silva, Clovis A

    2010-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is characterized by chronic or recurrent symptoms for at least 3 months, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis is established due to the presence of anti-EBV antibodies or isolation of this infectious agent in affected tissues. Three cases of CAEBV infection mimicking Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) were described. CASE 1: Female 3-year old patient with cervical adenomegaly, anemia and fever developed palpable purpura, haematuria and arthritis. CAEBV infection was established by serology test. She received methylprednisolone and acyclovir. She had generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, disseminated intravascular coagulation and deceased. CASE 2: Male 12-year old patient with persistent anemia, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly had CAEBV infection diagnosis by serology test. He developed purpura and arthritis and received methylprednisolone. CASE 3: Male 13-year old patient had purpura, abdominal pain, haematuria, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia and elevated liver enzymes. The cervical lymph node biopsy was positive to EBV infection. He received methylprednisolone and acyclovir, developing acute fulminant hepatitis and death. CAEBV infection mimicking HSP was rarely observed in our population.

  11. Technetium tc 99m-labeled red blood cells in the preoperative diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma and other vascular orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Polito, Ennio; Burroni, Luca; Pichierri, Patrizia; Loffredo, Antonio; Vattimo, Angelo G

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) red blood cell scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool for orbital cavernous hemangioma and to differentiate between orbital masses on the basis of their vascularization. We performed 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy on 23 patients (8 female and 15 male; mean age, 47 years) affected by an orbital mass previously revealed with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and suggesting cavernous hemangioma. In our diagnosis, we considered the orbital increase delayed uptake with the typical scintigraphic pattern known as perfusion blood pool mismatch. The patients underwent biopsy or surgical treatment with transconjunctival cryosurgical extraction when possible. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) showed intense focal uptake in the orbit corresponding to radiologic findings in 11 patients who underwent surgical treatment and pathologic evaluation (9 cavernous hemangiomas, 1 hemangiopericytoma, and 1 lymphangioma). Clinical or histologic examination of the remaining 22 patients revealed the presence of 5 lymphoid pseudotumors, 2 lymphomas, 2 pleomorphic adenomas of the lacrimal gland, 1 astrocytoma, 1 ophthalmic vein thrombosis, and 1 orbital varix. The confirmation of the preoperative diagnosis by 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy shows that this technique is a reliable tool for differentiating cavernous hemangiomas from other orbital masses (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 86%) when ultrasound, CT, and MRI are not diagnostic. Unfortunately, 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy results were positive in 1 patient with hemangiopericytoma and 1 patient with lymphangioma, which showed increased uptake in the lesion on SPET images because of the vascular nature of these tumors. Therefore, in these cases, the SPET images have to be integrated with data regarding clinical preoperative evaluation and CT scans or MRI studies. On the basis of our study, a complete diagnostic picture, CT scans or MRI studies, and

  12. Initiation and Use of Propranolol for Infantile Hemangioma: Report of a Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Frommelt, Peter C.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Haggstrom, Anita; Bauman, Nancy M.; Chiu, Yvonne E.; Chun, Robert H.; Garzon, Maria C.; Holland, Kristen E.; Liberman, Leonardo; MacLellan-Tobert, Susan; Mancini, Anthony J.; Metry, Denise; Puttgen, Katherine B.; Seefeldt, Marcia; Sidbury, Robert; Ward, Kendra M.; Blei, Francine; Baselga, Eulalia; Cassidy, Laura; Darrow, David H.; Joachim, Shawna; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M.; Martin, Kari; Perkins, Jonathan; Siegel, Dawn H.; Boucek, Robert J.; Frieden, Ilona J.

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are common neoplasms composed of proliferating endothelial-like cells. Despite the relative frequency of IH and the potential severity of complications, there are currently no uniform guidelines for treatment. Although propranolol has rapidly been adopted, there is significant uncertainty and divergence of opinion regarding safety monitoring, dose escalation, and its use in PHACE syndrome (PHACE = posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac abnormalities, eye abnormalities; a cutaneous neurovascular syndrome characterized by large, segmental hemangiomas of the head and neck along with congenital anomalies of the brain, heart, eyes and/or chest wall). A consensus conference was held on December 9, 2011. The multidisciplinary team reviewed existing data on the pharmacologic properties of propranolol and all published reports pertaining to the use of propranolol in pediatric patients. Workgroups were assigned specific topics to propose protocols on the following subjects: contraindications, special populations, pretreatment evaluation, dose escalation, and monitoring. Consensus protocols were recorded during the meeting and refined after the meeting. When appropriate, protocol clarifications and revision were made and agreed upon by the group via teleconference. Because of the absence of high-quality clinical research data, evidence-based recommendations are not possible at present. However, the team agreed on a number of recommendations that arose from a review of existing evidence, including when to treat complicated IH; contraindications and pretreatment evaluation protocols; propranolol use in PHACE syndrome; formulation, target dose, and frequency of propranolol; initiation of propranolol in infants; cardiovascular monitoring; ongoing monitoring; and prevention of hypoglycemia. Where there was considerable controversy, the more conservative approach was selected. We acknowledge that the recommendations are conservative in

  13. Initiation and use of propranolol for infantile hemangioma: report of a consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Beth A; Frommelt, Peter C; Chamlin, Sarah L; Haggstrom, Anita; Bauman, Nancy M; Chiu, Yvonne E; Chun, Robert H; Garzon, Maria C; Holland, Kristen E; Liberman, Leonardo; MacLellan-Tobert, Susan; Mancini, Anthony J; Metry, Denise; Puttgen, Katherine B; Seefeldt, Marcia; Sidbury, Robert; Ward, Kendra M; Blei, Francine; Baselga, Eulalia; Cassidy, Laura; Darrow, David H; Joachim, Shawna; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M; Martin, Kari; Perkins, Jonathan; Siegel, Dawn H; Boucek, Robert J; Frieden, Ilona J

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are common neoplasms composed of proliferating endothelial-like cells. Despite the relative frequency of IH and the potential severity of complications, there are currently no uniform guidelines for treatment. Although propranolol has rapidly been adopted, there is significant uncertainty and divergence of opinion regarding safety monitoring, dose escalation, and its use in PHACE syndrome (PHACE = posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac abnormalities, eye abnormalities; a cutaneous neurovascular syndrome characterized by large, segmental hemangiomas of the head and neck along with congenital anomalies of the brain, heart, eyes and/or chest wall). A consensus conference was held on December 9, 2011. The multidisciplinary team reviewed existing data on the pharmacologic properties of propranolol and all published reports pertaining to the use of propranolol in pediatric patients. Workgroups were assigned specific topics to propose protocols on the following subjects: contraindications, special populations, pretreatment evaluation, dose escalation, and monitoring. Consensus protocols were recorded during the meeting and refined after the meeting. When appropriate, protocol clarifications and revision were made and agreed upon by the group via teleconference. Because of the absence of high-quality clinical research data, evidence-based recommendations are not possible at present. However, the team agreed on a number of recommendations that arose from a review of existing evidence, including when to treat complicated IH; contraindications and pretreatment evaluation protocols; propranolol use in PHACE syndrome; formulation, target dose, and frequency of propranolol; initiation of propranolol in infants; cardiovascular monitoring; ongoing monitoring; and prevention of hypoglycemia. Where there was considerable controversy, the more conservative approach was selected. We acknowledge that the recommendations are conservative in

  14. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis involving vertebral hemangioma: dual percutaneous treatment by navigational bipolar radiofrequency ablation and high viscosity cement vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Meuli, Reto; Dunet, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The case of a 70-year-old woman with progressive renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastatic invasion of a L3 vertebral hemangioma treated by dual percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and vertebroplasty is reported. The patient was surgically treated for RCC in 2001. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy were introduced in 2013 for ovarian, bladder and cerebral metastatic disease. An asymptomatic L3 benign hemangioma was noticed at this time. One-year CT and MRI follow-up studies demonstrated a nodular isolated soft tissue lesion involving the anterior edge of the hemangioma. Percutaneous treatment consisted of a L3 vertebral body unipedicular approach to perform a biopsy, RFA with a navigational bipolar RFA device and vertebroplasty using high viscosity cement. Histopathological examination confirmed metastasis of RCC. The 5-month spinal MRI and CT examinations demonstrated complete disappearance of the tumor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Conservative treatment of intraosseous hemangiomas in the mandible: case report with a 17-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Frizzera, Fausto; Beccalli, Ivette; Maia, Rosa Maria Lourenço Carlos; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Zanetti, Liliane Scheidegger da Silva; de Barros, Liliana Pimenta Aparecida

    2014-05-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas in the jaws are rare lesions and may lead to several complications. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a radiolucent periapical lesion between tooth 35 and 36 where nocturnal exsanguinating bleeding started to occur from periodontal sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis of an intraosseous hemangioma in the mandible was based on positive needle aspiration for blood, computed tomography and arteriography. At first the family chose to only follow-up the lesion but episodes of nocturnal hemorrhage were becoming more frequent and a treatment was requested. Embolization and dental extraction were performed in order to treat the lesion. After a follow-up period of 17 years no more cases of hemorrhage occurred and lesion regressed.

  16. Safety Profile during Initiation of Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas in an Ambulatory Day-Care Hospitalization Setting.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Itay; Ollech, Ayelet; Zvulunov, Alex; Valdman-Greenshpon, Yulia; Atar-Sagie, Vered; Friedland, Rivka; Lapidoth, Moshe; Ben-Amitai, Dan

    2018-03-24

    Propranolol is the mainstay of treatment for infantile hemangioma. Despite its good safety profile, it is not risk-free. Guidelines for propranolol initiation and monitoring have been suggested, but protocols vary among practitioners. This study sought to assess the prevalence of adverse events and clinically significant fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters in children with infantile hemangioma during initiation of treatment with propranolol in a day-hospitalization setting. Children with infantile hemangioma treated with propranolol in a day-hospitalization department of a tertiary pediatric medical center in 2008-2014 were identified retrospectively. The pretreatment evaluation included clinical examination by a pediatric dermatologist and electrocardiography, echocardiography, and clinical examination by a pediatric cardiologist. The propranolol dosage was escalated from 0.5mg/kg/day to 2mg/kg/day, divided into 3 doses/day, over 3 days. Heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose level were measured before treatment onset and 60 min after the first two doses each day. The third dose was given at home. The cohort included 220 children aged 1 month to 5 years. No severe treatment-related adverse events were documented; 27 patients had minor side effects. There was a significant decrease in heart rate each day after the first two doses (p<0.001), and in systolic blood pressure, on day 2 (1mg/kg/day) after the first dose (p=0.01). Blood glucose level remained stable. The hemodynamic changes were clinically asymptomatic and did not require intervention. Propranolol treatment (2mg/kg/day in three doses) for infantile hemangioma is well tolerated and safe and may be administered and monitored in an ambulatory setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Bile duct hamartomas (von Mayenburg complexes) mimicking liver metastases from bile duct cancer: MRC findings

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Yasuhiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Gorai, Katsuya; Sugimori, Kazuya; Kunisaki, Chikara; Ike, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Imada, Toshio; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old man with a common bile duct cancer, who was initially believed to have multiple liver metastases based on computed tomography findings, and in whom magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) revealed a diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. At exploration for pancreaticoduodenectomy, liver palpation revealed disseminated nodules at the surface of the liver. These nodules showed gray-white nodular lesions of about 0.5 cm in diameter scattered on the surface of both liver lobes, which were looked like multiple liver metastases from bile duct cancer. Frozen section of the liver biopsy disclosed multiple bile ducts with slightly dilated lumens embedded in the collagenous stroma characteristics of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDHs). Only two reports have described the MRC features of bile duct hamartomas. Of all imaging procedures, MRC provides the most relevant features for the imaging diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. PMID:16534895

  18. Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma with Spinal Cord Compression: Multidisciplinary Surgical Treatment and Follow-up of Six Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Lin; Hu, Yong-Cheng; Aryal, Rajendra; He, Xin; Lun, Deng-Xing; Zhao, Li-Ming

    2016-11-01

    To provide useful insights of multidisciplinary surgical treatment for vertebral hemangioma with spinal cord compression. From 2009 to 2014, data on six patients who were diagnosed with cord compression vertebral hemangioma were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. There were five women and one man with a mean age of 48.6 years (range, 26-68 years). All the patients were treated by multidisciplinary approach, including use of gelfoam, pedicle screw instrumentation, vertebroplasty, and decompression laminectomy. Neurological status and Frankel grades were documented, CT scan and MRI were performed after surgery. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 54 months. Mean blood loss was around 367 mL, and the mean surgical time was 2.30 h. All patients had uneventful intraoperative and postoperative courses and reported symptomatic and neurological relief to varying degrees, at an average follow-up period of 23 months. Bone cement distribution was disseminated homogeneously over the affected vertebra and no leakage was observed. All the patients had a complete restoration to Frankel grade E. The postoperative and follow-up imaging showed that the implant was in perfect position, and no recurrence occurred in all patients. The vertebral hemangioma with cord compression is a challenge to surgeons for therapeutic improvement, and an active involvement of several disciplines as well as performance of multidisciplinary surgical treatment can be crucial in achieving favorable results. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. An intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the spine with an underlying plasmocytoma.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Carolin; Wegener, Bernd; Niederhagen, Manuel; Jansson, Volkmar; Birkenmaier, Christof

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to vertebral hemangiomas, which are very common within the general population, only 3% to 5% of patients with plasma cell dyscrasia show a single osteolytic bone lesion due to plasma cell infiltration without the evidence of generalized myeloma. The vast majority of these hemangiomas are completely asymptomatic and only discovered incidentally. In rare occasions, representing only 1% to 2% of the known lesions, a locally aggressive subtype can cause problems analogous to the ones triggered by a plasmocytoma, ranging from back pain to vertebral compression fractures to neurologic deficit, resulting from nerve root or spinal cord compression. Both entities are extensively discussed in the literature, but finding both lesions in one is rare if not described for the first time. To advise colleagues that the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant vertebral tumors can be harder than expected and has to be definitely made to avoid severe consequences for the patient. A 46-year-old healthy man presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of thoracic back pain after a trivial incident. Although his medical history included no known diseases and no history of back pain, plain X-rays raised the clear suspicion of a fracture of T6 that was verified in computed tomography scans. Visual analog scale; neurologic status; tumor recurrence. The case of the patient was evaluated retrospectively according to standard procedures, clinical outcome, and in review of the literature. Because there is still controversy about the best treatment (local radiation vs. operation vs. combination) of a solitary skeletal plasmocytoma, no gold standard has been established until now. Especially if a patient needs an emergency operation before all test results are obtained, each surgeon has to decide individually. Capillary hemangiomas can hide underlying plasmocytomas, which might demand totally different treatment strategies. Although our patient did not match

  20. Effect of liver histopathology on islet cell engraftment in the model mimicking autologous islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag S; Khan, Khalid M; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Henghong; Wang, Juan; Fan, Lijuan; Chen, Guoling; Smith, Jill P; Cui, Wanxing

    2017-11-02

    The inflammatory milieu in the liver as determined by histopathology is different in individual patients undergoing autologous islet cell transplantation. We hypothesized that inflammation related to fatty-liver adversely impacts islet survival. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of fatty-liver to determine the outcome of syngeneic islet transplantation after chemical pancreatectomy. Mice (C57BL/6) were fed a high-fat-diet from 6 weeks of age until attaining a weight of ≥28 grams (6-8 weeks) to produce a fatty liver (histologically > 30% fat);steatosis was confirmed with lipidomic profile of liver tissue. Islets were infused via the intra-portal route in fatty-liver and control mice after streptozotocin induction of diabetes. Outcomes were assessed by the rate of euglycemia, liver histopathology, evaluation of liver inflammation by measuring tissue cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α by RT-PCR and CD31 expression by immunohistochemistry. The difference in the euglycemic fraction between the normal liver group (90%, 9/10) and the fatty-liver group (37.5%, 3/8) was statistically significant at the 18 th day post- transplant and was maintained to the end of the study (day 28) (p = 0.019, X 2 = 5.51). Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were elevated in fatty-liver mice (p = 0.042, p = 0.037). Compared to controls cytokine levels were elevated after islet cell transplantation and in transplanted fatty-liver mice as compared to either fatty- or islet transplant group alone (p = NS). A difference in the histochemical pattern of CD31 could not be determined. Fatty-liver creates an inflammatory state which adversely affects the outcome of autologous islet cell transplantation.

  1. Doing the math: A simple approach to topical timolol dosing for infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, Renata; Prindaville, Brea; Wiss, Karen

    2018-03-01

    Topical timolol maleate has recently gained popularity as a treatment for superficial infantile hemangiomas, but calculating a safe dose of timolol can be time consuming, which may limit the medication's use in fast-paced clinical environments. This report offers a simplified calculation of the maximum daily safe dosage as 1 drop of medication per kilogram of body weight. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of coaxial ultrasonic probe for fatty liver diagnostic system using ultrasonic velocity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Aotani, Yuhei; Kumagai, Yuta; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-07-01

    A diagnostic system for fatty liver at an early stage is needed because fatty liver is linked to metabolic syndrome. We have already proposed a fatty liver diagnosis method based on the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity. In this study, we fabricated a coaxial ultrasonic probe by integrating two kinds of transducers for warming and signal detection. The diagnosis system equipped with the coaxial probe was applied to tissue-mimicking phantoms including the fat area. The fat content rates corresponding to the set rates of the phantoms were estimated by the ultrasonic velocity-change method.

  3. Intradural Extramedullary Capillary Hemangioma in the Upper Thoracic Spine: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign tumors found in the skin and soft tissues in younger people. They occur in the central nervous system only rarely, and intradural occurrence is extremely rare. We report here a 60-year-old man presenting with thoracic girdle pain and progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic spine showed a 12 × 8 × 20 mm, well-defined intradural mass at the T2 level, compressing the spinal cord laterally. Relative to the spinal cord, the mass was hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and relatively hyperintense on T2-weighted images, with strong enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The patient underwent T1-2 hemilaminectomy with resection of the intradural extramedullary tumor, which showed characteristics of a capillary hemangioma on histologic examination. The patient's symptoms improved following the surgery and no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrence was noted at the 2-year follow-up. We present this case with a review of the literature, highlighting features for differential diagnosis. PMID:25045565

  4. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Radiation-induced liver injury mimicking liver metastases on FDG-PET-CT after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer : A retrospective study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Francine E M; Aleman, Berthe M P; van Dieren, Jolanda M; Grootscholten, Cecile; Lalezari, Ferry; van Sandick, Johanna W; Steinberg, Jeffrey D; Vegt, Erik

    2018-02-01

    For esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), restaging using F‑18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) following nCRT can detect interval metastases, including liver metastases, in almost 10% of patients. However, in clinical practice, focal FDG liver uptake, unrelated to liver metastases, is observed after chemoradiotherapy. This radiation-induced liver injury (RILI) can potentially lead to overstaging. A systematic search for potential cases of RILI after (chemo)radiotherapy for esophageal cancer was performed in the electronic reports from all PET-CT scans made between 2006 and 2015 in our hospital. Additional data about potential cases were obtained from the electronic medical records. A literature review of RILI was also performed. Of 205 patients undergoing nCRT, 6 cases with localized increased FDG uptake in the caudate or left liver lobe following nCRT for esophageal cancer were identified. None of these patients had signs of liver metastases with additional imaging, during surgery, on biopsy, or during follow-up (range 11-46 months). At our institute, the incidence of RILI after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer was 3%. In the literature, RILI is described in about 8% of patients at the time of restaging. FDG-avid lesions occur in the high radiation dose area, usually corresponding to the caudate or left liver lobe. FDG accumulation in the caudate or left liver lobe after CRT in the area that received a high radiation dose may be caused by metastases or RILI. Awareness of the pitfall of high FDG uptake in RILI is crucial to avoid misinterpretation and overstaging.

  6. Pathologic fracture of the thoracic spine in a male master ultra-marathoner due to the combination of a vertebral hemangioma and osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Lutz, Bruno; Rosemann, Thomas; Baerlocher, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms and are generally asymptomatic. In the present study, we report the case of a 52-year-old male master ultra-marathoner suffering from a pathologic fracture of the thoracic spine due to a vertebral hemangioma. A further examination in the athlete revealed an accompanying osteopenia, which was most likely due to a deficiency in both vitamin D and testosterone. The treatment of the fracture consisted of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Shortly after the operation the athlete was able to continue running. The most likely reason for the pathologic fracture of the vertebral body was the combination of the vertebral hemangioma and osteopenia. The further treatment consisted of supplementation of both vitamin D and testosterone. Athletes and physicians should be aware that male master ultra-marathoners older than 50 years might suffer from osteopenia, where a deficiency in vitamin D and testosterone could be contributing factors for osteopenia development in general. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Catherine C; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Moro, Sabrina M L; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C A; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Christopher E P; Lauschke, Volker M; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-05-04

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI.

  8. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

  9. Image patch-based method for automated classification and detection of focal liver lesions on CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Mustafa; Pasari, Raghav; Rubin, Daniel; Greenspan, Hayit

    2013-03-01

    We developed a method for automated classification and detection of liver lesions in CT images based on image patch representation and bag-of-visual-words (BoVW). BoVW analysis has been extensively used in the computer vision domain to analyze scenery images. In the current work we discuss how it can be used for liver lesion classification and detection. The methodology includes building a dictionary for a training set using local descriptors and representing a region in the image using a visual word histogram. Two tasks are described: a classification task, for lesion characterization, and a detection task in which a scan window moves across the image and is determined to be normal liver tissue or a lesion. Data: In the classification task 73 CT images of liver lesions were used, 25 images having cysts, 24 having metastasis and 24 having hemangiomas. A radiologist circumscribed the lesions, creating a region of interest (ROI), in each of the images. He then provided the diagnosis, which was established either by biopsy or clinical follow-up. Thus our data set comprises 73 images and 73 ROIs. In the detection task, a radiologist drew ROIs around each liver lesion and two regions of normal liver, for a total of 159 liver lesion ROIs and 146 normal liver ROIs. The radiologist also demarcated the liver boundary. Results: Classification results of more than 95% were obtained. In the detection task, F1 results obtained is 0.76. Recall is 84%, with precision of 73%. Results show the ability to detect lesions, regardless of shape.

  10. Synovial Hemangioma of the Knee Management and Excellent Outcome 2 Years after Arthroscopic Synovectomy in a 25-year-old Male with a 20-year History.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Akshdeep Singh; Garg, Rajnish; Bhatnagar, Kaneeka; Singal, Shekhar

    2017-01-01

    Synovial hemangioma is a rare condition with <200 published case reports in world literature and is frequently misdiagnosed, leading to diagnostic delay of many years. This delay is even more significant if the patient comes from a rural background with a dearth of medical facilities in the area. This case had a lag of nearly 20 years from the time of onset of symptoms and the required management which is the maximum reported for any synovial hemangioma since most of them have been found and treated in adolescents. We present a case of an atypical synovial hemangioma in a 25-year-old Indian male from a poor socioeconomic background with a delay of 20 years who had both recurrent knee effusions and long-standing knee pain but kept ignoring his symptoms. It was managed by arthroscopic synovectomy. The patient reported to us after 2 years after the surgery with a painless knee and full range of movement. Synovial hemangioma mostly affects the knee joint, showing recurrent bloody effusions without a history of trauma. If there are no intermittent effusions, the diagnosis will be even more difficult. In cases of non-specific symptoms and long-standing knee pain of many years, the diagnosis of a synovial hemangioma should also be considered. In this particular case, magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the patient after the plain radiographs and showed characteristic lace-like or linear patterns. Diagnostic arthroscopy and surgical excision were done in the same sitting, and biopsy was sent to the histopathology laboratory which confirmed our diagnosis. Although this patient had the disease since 20 years and presented late, he had little degeneration of cartilage at the time of arthroscopy. The functional outcome at 2-year follow-up was excellent, and he had no disability, effusion and was pain free.

  11. Thoracic Hemangioma From Rib Presenting as Compressive Paraparesis in a Young Adult: A Treatment Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Ismail; Karapurkar, Anil; Bhojraj, Shekhar; Naggad, Premik

    2015-11-01

    A case report. To describe the presentation of compressive paraparesis as a result of thoracic rib hemangioma in a young adult and its nonsurgical management. Hemangiomas are rare bone tumors and those arising from rib are rarer. Only about 50 such cases have been reported in literature so far. A 21-year-old male student, presented to us with a 6-week history of progressive weakness in both lower limbs and loss of bowel bladder control. Patient gave history of being operated for left periscapular tumor treated with wide excision and proven with biopsy to be a hemangioendothelioma (benign but locally aggressive hemangioma variant) a year ago. New radiograph of the chest showed an expansile lesion of left fifth rib and magnetic resonance image showed a tumor of left dorsal thoracic wall with AV malformation causing compressive thoracic myelopathy at T5 level vertebrae. We planned for immediate decompression surgery for spine along with excision of tumor with the help of a thoracic surgeon. However, on preoperative digital subtraction angiography, the tumor was found to be highly vascular with high risk of intraoperative bleeding and morbidity. So, the plan was revised and the patient underwent digital subtraction angiography, followed by embolization by an expert interventional neurosurgeon. The patient showed signs of recovery within a week. Lower limb power improved from grade 2 to 3/5 to grade 4 to 4+/5. The patient became ambulatory with single stick at 3-month follow-up; he was a nonwalker to start with. At 2 years plus follow-up, the patient fully recovered and walks without stick. This unique case brings to light the dilemma a spine surgeon sometimes faces. A case that warranted immediate surgical intervention based on clinical findings was treated with interventional fibrin glue embolizations with excellent results. N/A.

  12. [Gastrointestinal bleeding from capillary hemangioma of the ileum detected by 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Ishii, K; Sagiuchi, T; Aoki, Y; Yanaihara, H; Hayakawa, K

    2001-05-01

    It has been well-known that technetium-99m-human serum albumin-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) scintigraphy is useful for diagnosis of the localization of the gastrointestinal arterial or venous bleeding. In this report, we describe a case of venous bleeding from capillary hemangioma of the ileum end detected by 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy. This patient was a 9-year-old girl with severe anemia. Gastrointestinal bleeding was suspected from her clinical course and laboratory tests. Immediately after melena occurred, 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy showed the extravasation of RI suggesting gastrointestinal bleeding in the ileum end. Abdominal angiography immediately after 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy, however, could not show the extravasation of contrast agent. Because the condition of the patient became worse, laparotomy was performed on the basis of 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy findings. At surgery, venous bleeding from capillary hemangioma in the ileum end was observed. It was suggested that 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy was very useful for identifying the gastrointestinal venous bleeding.

  13. Simple Preparation of Timolol 0.5% Gel from Eye Drop Solution for Superficial Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Choo, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity. Adding hydroxyethyl cellulose into a timolol solution increased its viscosity by forming a hydrogel and thus changed the rheology property. The compounded timolol gel exhibited thixotropy property allowing better and longer contact at sites of application. Experimental data from literature review showed desirable characteristics and measurable flux of timolol across human stratum corneum. Gel dosage form allows easy and precise application and maximizes timolol's therapeutic efficacy at the sites of application. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. Multiple cutaneous hemangiomas in a patient with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Aykut, Ayca; Ozen, Samim; Sımsek, Damla Gokşen; Onay, Huseyin; Cogulu, Ozgur; Darcan, Sukran; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2014-01-01

    Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) refers to a rare heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is a deficiency in at least two anterior pituitary hormones. Patients with POU1F1 mutations show a combined pituitary deficiency with low or absent levels of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this study, a 7-month-old girl with a CPHD is presented. She had facial dysmorphologic features, hypertrichosis, and hypotonia. Additionally, she also presented with multiple cutaneous hemangioma that until now has not been reported in association with this disorder.

  15. A microfluidically perfused three dimensional human liver model.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Knut; Steinborn, Sandra; Gröger, Marko; Ungerböck, Birgit; Jank, Anne-Marie; Ehgartner, Josef; Nietzsche, Sandor; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Funke, Harald; Peters, Frank T; Lupp, Amelie; Gärtner, Claudia; Mayr, Torsten; Bauer, Michael; Huber, Otmar; Mosig, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    Within the liver, non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) are critically involved in the regulation of hepatocyte polarization and maintenance of metabolic function. We here report the establishment of a liver organoid that integrates NPCs in a vascular layer composed of endothelial cells and tissue macrophages and a hepatic layer comprising stellate cells co-cultured with hepatocytes. The three-dimensional liver organoid is embedded in a microfluidically perfused biochip that enables sufficient nutrition supply and resembles morphological aspects of the human liver sinusoid. It utilizes a suspended membrane as a cell substrate mimicking the space of Disse. Luminescence-based sensor spots were integrated into the chip to allow online measurement of cellular oxygen consumption. Application of microfluidic flow induces defined expression of ZO-1, transferrin, ASGPR-1 along with an increased expression of MRP-2 transporter protein within the liver organoids. Moreover, perfusion was accompanied by an increased hepatobiliary secretion of 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and an enhanced formation of hepatocyte microvilli. From this we conclude that the perfused liver organoid shares relevant morphological and functional characteristics with the human liver and represents a new in vitro research tool to study human hepatocellular physiology at the cellular level under conditions close to the physiological situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings.

  17. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure. PMID:26986170

  18. Morning glory disk anomaly with ipsilateral capillary hemangioma, agenesis of the internal carotid artery, and Horner syndrome: a variant of PHACES syndrome?

    PubMed

    Puvanachandra, Narman; Heran, Manraj K; Lyons, Christopher J

    2008-10-01

    We describe a 6-week-old girl with a right upper lid capillary hemangioma, ipsilateral morning glory disk anomaly, microphthalmos, Mittendorf dot, and Horner syndrome. The ipsilateral internal carotid artery was also found to be absent. To our knowledge, this is the first patient to be reported with this group of findings. We suggest that this represents an overlap between morning glory disk and intracranial vascular abnormalities, a recognized association, and PHACES syndrome (posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, eye, and sternal abnormalities). We discuss the common embryological basis for these abnormalities, which point to a widespread but highly variable disorder of mesodermal differentiation.

  19. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  20. E-Selectin Mediates Stem Cell Adhesion and Formation of Blood Vessels in a Murine Model of Infantile Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Smadja, David M.; Mulliken, John B.; Bischoff, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) are multipotent cells isolated from infantile hemangioma (IH), which form hemangioma-like lesions when injected subcutaneously into immune-deficient mice. In this murine model, HemSCs are the primary target of corticosteroid, a mainstay therapy for problematic IH. The relationship between HemSCs and endothelial cells that reside in IH is not clearly understood. Adhesive interactions might be critical for the preferential accumulation of HemSCs and/or endothelial cells in the tumor. Therefore, we studied the interactions between HemSCs and endothelial cells (HemECs) isolated from IH surgical specimens. We found that HemECs isolated from proliferating phase IH, but not involuting phase, constitutively express E-selectin, a cell adhesion molecule not present in quiescent endothelial cells. E-selectin was further increased when HemECs were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor–A or tumor necrosis factor–α. In vitro, HemSC migration and adhesion was enhanced by recombinant E-selectin but not P-selectin; both processes were neutralized by E-selectin–blocking antibodies. E-selectin–positive HemECs also stimulated migration and adhesion of HemSCs. In vivo, neutralizing antibodies to E-selectin strongly inhibited formation of blood vessels when HemSCs and HemECs were co-implanted in Matrigel. These data suggest that endothelial E-selectin could be a major ligand for HemSCs and thereby promote cellular interactions and vasculogenesis in IH. We propose that constitutively expressed E-selectin on endothelial cells in the proliferating phase is one mediator of the stem cell tropism in IH. PMID:23041613

  1. Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Lan; Gao, Hongjian; Feng, Yusheng

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at improving the accuracy of temperature simulation for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation (RFA). We proposed a new voltage-calibration method in the simulation and investigated the feasibility of a hyperbolic bioheat equation (HBE) in the RFA simulation with longer durations and higher power. A total of 40 RFA experiments was conducted in a liver-mimicking phantom. Four mathematical models with multipolar electrodes were developed by the finite element method in COMSOL software: HBE with/without voltage calibration, and the Pennes bioheat equation (PBE) with/without voltage calibration. The temperature-varied voltage calibration used in the simulation was calculated from an experimental power output and temperature-dependent resistance of liver tissue. We employed the HBE in simulation by considering the delay time τ of 16 s. First, for simulations by each kind of bioheat equation (PBE or HBE), we compared the differences between the temperature-varied voltage-calibration and the fixed-voltage values used in the simulations. Then, the comparisons were conducted between the PBE and the HBE in the simulations with temperature-varied voltage calibration. We verified the simulation results by experimental temperature measurements on nine specific points of the tissue phantom. The results showed that: (1) the proposed voltage-calibration method improved the simulation accuracy of temperature-controlled RFA for both the PBE and the HBE, and (2) for temperature-controlled RFA simulation with the temperature-varied voltage calibration, the HBE method was 0.55 °C more accurate than the PBE method. The proposed temperature-varied voltage calibration may be useful in temperature field simulations of temperature-controlled RFA. Besides, the HBE may be used as an alternative in the simulation of long-duration high-power RFA.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Dachman, A.H.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Friedman, A.C.

    Infantile hemangioendothelioma is the most common symptomatic vascular liver tumor of infancy. It is considered a benign tumor; however, aggressive behavior is occasionally seen microscopically, and rarely distant metastases have been reported. The exact incidence of infantile hemangioendothelioma is difficult to determine because often it has been either misdiagnosed or mislabeled as cavernous hemangioma in the literature. Cavernous hemangioma is the most common primary liver tumor in older age groups but is rarely found in infants as a clinically significant tumor. Levick and Rubie were the first to recognize an association between hemangioendothelioma of the liver and congestive heart failure,more » and there were subsequent reports substantiating this association. However, it is our impression and the finding of others that congestive heart failure is distinctly less common than abdominal mass or hepatomegaly as the presenting sign in infantile hemangioendothelioma. Congestive heart failure is rarely a feature of cavernous hemangioma. Because of the errors in terminology and questions regarding clinical presentation, a radiologic-pathologic-clinical correlation study of infantile hemangioendothelioma and review of the literature was undertaken.« less

  3. Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournane, S.; Cannon, L.; Browne, J. E.; Fagan, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The accuracy of a transient elastography liver-scanning ultrasound system was assessed using a novel application of PVA-cryogel as a tissue-mimicking material with acoustic and shear elasticity properties optimized to best represent those of liver tissue. Although the liver-scanning system has been shown to offer a safer alternative for diagnosing liver cirrhosis through stiffness measurement, as compared to the liver needle biopsy exam, the scanner's accuracy has not been fully established. Young's elastic modulus values of 5-6 wt% PVA-cryogel phantoms, also containing glycerol and 0.3 µm Al2O3 and 3 µm Al2O3, were measured using a 'gold standard' mechanical testing technique and transient elastography. The mechanically measured values and acoustic velocities of the phantoms ranged between 1.6 and 16.1 kPa and 1540 and 1570 m s-1, respectively, mimicking those observed in liver tissue. The values reported by the transient elastography system overestimated Young's elastic modulus values representative of the progressive stages of liver fibrosis by up to 32%. These results were attributed to the relative rather than absolute nature of the measurement arising from the single-point acoustic velocity calibration of the system, rendering the measurements critically dependent on the speed of sound of the sample under investigation. Given the wide range of acoustic velocities which exist in the liver, spanning healthy tissue to cirrhotic pathology, coupled with the system's assumption that the liver is approximately elastic when it is rather highly viscoelastic, care should be exercised when interpreting the results from this system in patient groups.

  4. E-selectin mediates stem cell adhesion and formation of blood vessels in a murine model of infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

    2012-12-01

    Hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) are multipotent cells isolated from infantile hemangioma (IH), which form hemangioma-like lesions when injected subcutaneously into immune-deficient mice. In this murine model, HemSCs are the primary target of corticosteroid, a mainstay therapy for problematic IH. The relationship between HemSCs and endothelial cells that reside in IH is not clearly understood. Adhesive interactions might be critical for the preferential accumulation of HemSCs and/or endothelial cells in the tumor. Therefore, we studied the interactions between HemSCs and endothelial cells (HemECs) isolated from IH surgical specimens. We found that HemECs isolated from proliferating phase IH, but not involuting phase, constitutively express E-selectin, a cell adhesion molecule not present in quiescent endothelial cells. E-selectin was further increased when HemECs were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor-A or tumor necrosis factor-α. In vitro, HemSC migration and adhesion was enhanced by recombinant E-selectin but not P-selectin; both processes were neutralized by E-selectin-blocking antibodies. E-selectin-positive HemECs also stimulated migration and adhesion of HemSCs. In vivo, neutralizing antibodies to E-selectin strongly inhibited formation of blood vessels when HemSCs and HemECs were co-implanted in Matrigel. These data suggest that endothelial E-selectin could be a major ligand for HemSCs and thereby promote cellular interactions and vasculogenesis in IH. We propose that constitutively expressed E-selectin on endothelial cells in the proliferating phase is one mediator of the stem cell tropism in IH. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of tumour markers as differential diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of liver metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liska, Vaclav; Holubec, Lubos; Treska, Vladislav; Vrzalova, Jindra; Skalicky, Tomas; Sutnar, Alan; Kormunda, Stanislav; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich; Pesta, Martin; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2011-04-01

    The liver is the site of breast cancer metastasis in 50% of patients with advanced disease. Tumour markers have been demonstrated as being useful in follow-up of patients with breast cancer, in early detection of recurrence of breast cancer after radical surgical treatments, and in assessing oncologic therapy effect, but no study has been carried out on their usefullness in distinguishing benign liver lesions from breast cancer metastases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the importance of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 (CA19-9), thymidine kinase (TK), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in differential diagnosis between benign liver lesions and liver metastases of breast cancer. The study includes 3 groups: 22 patients with liver metastases of breast cancer; 39 patients with benign liver lesions (hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cyst, hepatocellular adenoma); and 21 patients without any liver disease or lesion that were operated on for benign extrahepatic diseases (groin hernia, varices of lower limbs) as a control group. The serum levels of tumour markers were assessed by means of immunoanalytical methods. Preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, TPA, TPS and CEA were significantly higher in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer in contrast to healthy controls and patients with benign liver lesions (p-value<0.05). Serum levels of CA19-9 and TK were higher in patients with malignancy in comparison with benign liver disease and healthy controls but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumour markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, TPA and TPS can be recommended as a good tool for differential diagnosis between liver metastases of breast cancer and benign liver lesions.

  6. Esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsukuma, Susumu; Takahashi, Oh; Utsumi, Yoshitaka; Tsuda, Masaki; Miyai, Kosuke; Okada, Kenji; Takeo, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Herein is described a unique case of esophageal cancer mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The patient succumbed to the disease within one month of diagnosis. Autopsy revealed a 10-cm esophageal tumor, characterized by prominent acantholysis-like areas composed of discohesive cancer cells, along with nested growth of SCC. These discohesive cancer cells focally exhibited pagetoid extension into adjacent esophageal epithelium, comprised ~60% of the esophageal tumor volume and had widely metastasized to the lungs, chest wall, liver, spleen, right adrenal gland, bones and lymph nodes. No metastases of SCC were observed. SCC cells were immunohistochemically positive for keratin 5/6 and E-cadherin and were negative for mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). However, the discohesive cancer cells exhibited negativity for keratin 5/6, positivity for mucin and CEA, and diminished or no immunostaining for E-cadherin. Thus, these discohesive cells represented true adenocarcinomatous differentiation rather than acantholytic SCC cells. It was concluded that this tumor was an esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma with ‘pseudo’-acantholytic adenocarcinoma components, which should be considered as a rare but distinctive type of aggressive cancer. PMID:29085501

  7. Burden of Infantile Hemangioma on Family: An International Observational Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cazeau, Christine; Blei, Francine; Gonzáles Hermosa, María Del Rosario Fátima; Cavalli, Riccardo; Boccara, Olivia; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Berdeaux, Gilles; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2017-05-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most frequent benign tumor of infancy resulting from vascular proliferation. Data regarding the burden on families of children with IHs are limited. This study aimed to characterize IHs and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the burden of IHs on parents of children requiring systemic treatment in the United States and Europe. This noninterventional cross-sectional study included infants with newly diagnosed IH requiring systemic treatment. A parent or family member completed two questionnaires (Family Member questionnaire; Hemangioma Family Burden [HFB] questionnaire). A total of 693 individuals were evaluable in five countries. IHs were observed in more girls than boys (66%-83% female) and the mean age at inclusion was 0.44 to 1.4 years. Approximately half of patients had superficial IHs, approximately 70% of cases affected the head, and approximately 80% of cases were moderate or severe. Most patients received propranolol treatment. Their child's IH affected more than 70% of parents in each country, but fewer than 10% were offered psychological support. Approximately half of all parents reported that their child's IH affected their professional life. The global HFB score was significantly (p < 0.001) greater with greater IH severity. More than 90% of parents in each country were satisfied with the care of their child's disease. This international study using the validated HFB questionnaire provides further insight into the burden of IH and highlights potential areas for future focus in assisting families with affected children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Facial nerve hemangioma: a rare case involving the vertical segment.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Neda; Newkirk, Kenneth; Kim, H Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    This case report and literature review reports on a rare case of facial nerve hemangioma (FNH) involving the vertical facial nerve (FN) segment, and discusses the clinical presentation, imaging, pathogenesis, and management of these rare lesions. A 53-year-old male presented with a 10-year history of right hemifacial twitching and progressive facial paresis (House-Brackmann grading score V/VI). The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies confirmed an expansile lesion along the vertical FN segment. Excision and histopathologic examination demonstrated FNH. FNHs involving the vertical FN segment are extremely rare. Despite being rare lesions, we believe that familiarity with the presentation and management of FNHs are imperative. Laryngoscope, 2012. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Low back pain in a child associated with acute onset cauda equina syndrome: a rare presentation of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Dormans, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    Back pain prevalence in the pediatric age group is less compared with adults. There is a wide range of possible etiologies, and tumors such as primary spinal hemangiomas are uncommon. Most are incidental findings and asymptomatic; however, painful lesions can be presented in up to 0.9% to 1.2% of cases. These lesions can produce neurologic involvement either spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome as in our case. The aim of this study is to describe a case of low back pain in a child due to a vertebral hemangioma complicated with acute cauda equina syndrome, and performed a literature review that will help us to recognize this aggressive variance making an early treatment feasible. A 13-year-old female, follow-up in an outer health care center due to a L1 vertebral hemangioma, characterized by 3 years of low back pain without neurologic symptoms presented to our emergency department with an acute cauda equina syndrome. An outside magnetic resonance imaging showed complete obliteration of the spinal canal at the level of the conus medullaris related to retropulsion of bone at L1. She underwent 2-stage surgical treatment: complete posterior L1 laminectomy and partial T12-L2 laminectomies, with partial L1 vertebrectomy and posterior fusion with instrumention from T11 to L3. Three weeks later, embolization before anterior fusion with inner body cage was performed. Forty months after surgery, she is doing well with no neurologic deficits. Even though hemangiomas are not a common cause of back pain, they should be taken into account. It is important to recognize the aggressive variance so an early treatment could be performed. There is no enough clinical data to establish guidelines of management in children, therefore, the treatment should be individualized.

  10. Analysis of focal spared areas in fatty liver using color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced microvessel display sonography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ping; Dong, Bao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Da-Kun; Li, Xin; Li, Hua

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether focal fatty sparing (FFS) formation in the liver relates to aberrant blood flow. Sixty-three FFSs of the liver in 52 patients were examined by color Doppler flow imaging and contrast-enhanced microvessel display sonography. The 63 FFSs included 16 FFSs in the porta hepatis, 14 FFSs around the gallbladder fossa, and 33 other FFSs. The control group included patients with a diagnosis of fatty liver but no FFSs or focal lesions near the porta hepatis. Fourteen of 16 FFSs in the porta hepatis showed venous blood toward those areas that were differentiated from the portal and hepatic veins. Focal fatty sparings in the hilus hepatis correlated with aberrant veins, having a statistical significance compared with the control group (P < .0001). Seven of 14 FFSs around the gallbladder fossa contained blood vessels, 5 of them veins and the remaining 2 arteries. Two FFSs were located around hemangiomas. Three FFSs were located around maldeveloped vessels. The blood supply to an FFS in the porta hepatis may be correlated with aberrant veins. Focal fatty sparings around the gallbladder fossa may be associated with aberrant blood flow.

  11. Autophagy‑mediated adaptation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to hypoxia‑mimicking conditions constitutes an attractive therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Owada, Satoshi; Endo, Hitoshi; Shida, Yukari; Okada, Chisa; Ito, Kanako; Nezu, Takahiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma has extremely poor prognosis. In cancerous liver tissues, aberrant proliferation of cancer cells leads to the creation of an area where an immature vascular network is formed. Since oxygen is supplied to cancer tissues through the bloodstream, a part of the tumor is exposed to hypoxic conditions. As hypoxia is known to severely reduce the effectiveness of existing anticancer agents, novel valid therapeutic targets must be identified for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Generally, autophagy has been reported to play an important role in the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxia. However, the exact role and significance of this process vary depending on the cancer type, requiring detailed analysis in individual primary tumors and cell lines. In the present study, we examined autophagy induced by cobalt chloride, a hypoxia‑mimicking agent, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells with the aim to evaluate the validity of this process as a potential therapeutic target. We observed that treatment with cobalt chloride induced autophagy, including the intracellular quality control mechanism, in an AMPK‑dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin and LY294002) resulted in significant, highly‑selective cytotoxicity and apoptosis activation under hypoxia‑mimicking conditions. The knockdown of AMPK also revealed significant cytotoxicity in hypoxia‑mimicking conditions. These results clearly demonstrated that autophagy, especially mitophagy, was induced by the AMPK pathway when hepatocellular carcinoma cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions and played an important role in the adaptation of these cells to such conditions. Thus, autophagy may constitute an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Growing skull hemangioma: first and unique description in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Loo, Lars E; Beckervordersandforth, Jan; Colon, Albert J; Schijns, Olaf E M G

    2017-02-01

    We present the first and unique case of a rapid-growing skull hemangioma in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. This case report provides evidence that not all rapid-growing, osteolytic skull lesions need to have a malignant character but certainly need a histopathological verification. This material offers insight into the list of rare pathological diagnoses in an infrequent syndrome.

  13. Synovial hemangioma in an adult horse.

    PubMed

    Holzhausen, Lars; Nowak, Michael; Junginger, Johannes; Puff, Christina

    2012-03-01

    A 15-year-old gelding presented with a progressive lameness of the left forelimb of 2.5 months duration. Clinically, a dilation of the deep flexor tendon sheath with a firm elastic consistency and a pronounced tenderness was noted. Ultrasonically, a marked swelling of the flexor tendon sheath with an irregular density of the mesotendineum was observed. The white, firm material forming a nodular distension of the flexor tendon sheath with a diameter of approximately 1 cm was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Biopsies of the deep flexor tendon and corresponding tendon sheath were sent for histopathological evaluation. Histologically, the mass consisted of clefts and numerous anastomosing vascular channels extending between the collagen fibers of the deep flexor tendon. These capillary-like spaces were lined by neoplastic cells that were flattened to polygonal and contained few erythrocytes. There was 0 to 1 mitotic figure per 10 high power fields (400×). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells stained positive for vimentin and factor VIII-related antigen. Adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells located pericytes expressed α-smooth muscle actin antigen. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, synovial hemangioma was diagnosed. One year after surgery, the horse has shown no lameness.

  14. Classification of Hepatic Lesions From CT Images Using Texture Features and Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    ROI’s) taken from non-enhanced CT images of normal liver, hepatic cysts, hemangiomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas (a total of 147 samples), have been...disease”. The third NN classifies “other disease” into hemangiomas and hepatocellular carcinomas . In order to enhance the performance of the...and hepatocellular carcinoma (C4). II. METHODOLOGY The proposed diagnostic system is presented in Fig. 1. It consists of two levels: the

  15. RETARDED GROWTH OF BONES OF THE FOREARM IN A GIRL FOLLOWING RADIUM THERAPY OF SKIN HEMANGIOMA (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Mirimova, T.D.

    1960-07-01

    A 9-month-old girl was subjected to radium therapy of skin hemangioma in the region of the forearm. Thirteen years afterwards there was revealed a considerable impairment in the growth and development of long bones that were within the field of the irradiation, resulting in the formation of a deformed shortened hand with restricted functions. (auth)

  16. A handheld wireless device for diffuse optical spectroscopic assessment of infantile hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Flexman, Molly; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Geller, Lauren; Garzon, Maria; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. With no objective tool to monitor IH, a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy has been developed for use in assessment of IH by measurements in absolute oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration as well as scattering in tissue. Reconstructions of these variables can be computed using a multispectral evolution algorithm. We validated the new system by experimental studies using phantom experiments and a clinical study is under way to assess the utility of DOI for IH.

  17. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.; White, Shane N.

    2008-01-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth. PMID:18396919

  18. Pathological Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Vascular Lesions of the Brain: Distinct from De Novo Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Nahm, Ji Hae; Ko, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Joo; Chang, Jong-Hee; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the histologic and radiologic findings of vascular lesions after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) categorized as radiation-induced cavernous hemangioma (RICH). Materials and Methods Among 89 patients who underwent neurosurgery for cavernous hemangioma, eight RICHs from 7 patients and 10 de novo CHs from 10 patients were selected for histopathological and radiological comparison. Results Histologically, RICHs showed hematoma-like gross appearance. Microscopically, RICH exhibited a hematoma-like area accompanied by proliferation of thin-walled vasculature with fibrin deposits and infiltrating foamy macrophages. In contrast, CHs demonstrated localized malformed vasculature containing fresh and old clotted blood on gross examination. Typically, CHs consisted of thick, ectatic hyalinized vessels lined by endothelium under a light microscope. Magnetic resonance imaging of RICHs revealed some overlapping but distinct features with CHs, including enhancing cystic and solid components with absence or incomplete popcorn-like appearance and partial hemosiderin rims. Conclusion Together with histologic and radiologic findings, RICH may result from blood-filled space after tissue destruction by SRS, accompanied with radiation-induced reactive changes rather than vascular malformation. Thus, the term "RICH" would be inappropriate, because it is more likely to be an inactive organizing hematoma rather than proliferation of malformed vasculature. PMID:26446658

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of nodules in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using microbubble contrast agents are useful for the diagnosis of the nodules in liver cirrhosis. CEUS can be used as a problem-solving method for indeterminate nodules on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as an initial diagnostic test for small newly detected liver nodules. CEUS has unique advantages over CT and MRI including no renal excretion of contrast, real-time imaging capability, and purely intravascular contrast. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by arterial-phase hypervascularity and later washout (negative enhancement). Benign nodules such as regenerative nodules or dysplastic nodules are usually isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic in the arterial phase and isoechoic in the late phase. However, there are occasional HCC lesions with atypical enhancement including hypovascular HCC and hypervascular HCC without washout. Cholangiocarcinomas are infrequently detected during HCC surveillance and mostly show rim-like or diffuse hypervascularity followed by rapid washout. Hemangiomas are often found at HCC surveillance and are easily diagnosed by CEUS. CEUS can be effectively used in the diagnostic work-up of small nodules detected at HCC surveillance. CEUS is also useful to differentiate malignant and benign venous thrombosis and to guide and monitor the local ablation therapy for HCC. PMID:24707142

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of nodules in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2014-04-07

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using microbubble contrast agents are useful for the diagnosis of the nodules in liver cirrhosis. CEUS can be used as a problem-solving method for indeterminate nodules on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as an initial diagnostic test for small newly detected liver nodules. CEUS has unique advantages over CT and MRI including no renal excretion of contrast, real-time imaging capability, and purely intravascular contrast. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by arterial-phase hypervascularity and later washout (negative enhancement). Benign nodules such as regenerative nodules or dysplastic nodules are usually isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic in the arterial phase and isoechoic in the late phase. However, there are occasional HCC lesions with atypical enhancement including hypovascular HCC and hypervascular HCC without washout. Cholangiocarcinomas are infrequently detected during HCC surveillance and mostly show rim-like or diffuse hypervascularity followed by rapid washout. Hemangiomas are often found at HCC surveillance and are easily diagnosed by CEUS. CEUS can be effectively used in the diagnostic work-up of small nodules detected at HCC surveillance. CEUS is also useful to differentiate malignant and benign venous thrombosis and to guide and monitor the local ablation therapy for HCC.

  1. The effects of fatty deposits on the accuracy of the Fibroscan® liver transient elastography ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournane, S.; Browne, J. E.; Fagan, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    A new generation of ultrasound transient elastography (TE) systems have emerged which exploit the well-known correlation between the liver's pathological and mechanical properties through measurements of the Young's elastic modulus; however, little work has been carried out to examine the effect that fatty deposits may have on the TE measurement accuracy. An investigation was carried out on the effects on the measurement accuracy of a TE ultrasound system, the Fibroscan®, caused by overlaying fat layers of varying thickness on healthy liver-mimicking phantoms, simulating in vivo conditions for obese patients. Furthermore, a steatosis effect similar to that in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was simulated to investigate its effect on the TE system. A range of novel elastography fat-mimicking materials were developed using 6-10 wt% poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel capable of achieving a range of acoustic velocities (1482-1530 m s-1) and attenuation coefficients (0.4-1 dB MHz-1 cm-1) for simulating different liver states. Laboratory-based acoustic velocities and attenuation coefficients were measured while the Young's modulus was established through a gold standard compression testing method. A significant variation of the Young's elastic modulus was measured in healthy phantoms with overlaying fat layers of thicknesses exceeding 45 mm, impinging on the scanners region of interest, overestimating the compression tested values by up to 11 kPa in some cases. Furthermore, Fibroscan® measurements of the steatosis phantoms showed a consistent overestimation (˜54%), which strongly suggests that the speed of sound mismatch between that of liver tissue and that assumed by the scanner is responsible for the high clinical cut-offs established in the case of ALD and NAFLD.

  2. Real-time ultrasonography as a monitoring technique for interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jochen A.; Gottschlich, Stefan; Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.

    1998-01-01

    Voluminous vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are still treated with conventional surgery although Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy is an effective treatment method. One hundred thirty give patients with voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations were treated with interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy, partly complemented by a non-contact mode Nd:YAG laser light application. The vascular tumors had a diameter of more than 3 cm in two or all three dimensions. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual control. Nearly 60% of the patients showed a complete clinical regression of the vascular tumor, a third of the patients had a partial regression and were satisfied with the treatment outcome. Four patients were treated unsuccessfully with the laser and three of them subsequently underwent conventional surgery. Only 10 patients showed cosmetic and functional deficits. These results on the interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations in a large patient group demonstrated the high effectiveness of this novel and innovative therapy modality.

  3. New physiologically-relevant liver tissue model based on hierarchically cocultured primary rat hepatocytes with liver endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjin; Perry, Guillaume; Komori, Kikuo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    To develop an in vitro liver tissue equivalent, hepatocytes should be cocultured with liver non-parenchymal cells to mimic the in vivo physiological microenvironments. In this work, we describe a physiologically-relevant liver tissue model by hierarchically organizing layers of primary rat hepatocytes and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (TMNK-1) on an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, which facilitates direct oxygenation by diffusion through the membrane. This in vivo-mimicking hierarchical coculture was obtained by simply proceeding the overlay of TMNK-1 cells on the hepatocyte layer re-formed on the collagen immobilized PDMS membranes. The comparison of hepatic functionalities was achieved between coculture and sandwich culture with Matrigel, in the presence and absence of direct oxygenation. A complete double-layered structure of functional liver cells with vertical contact between hepatocytes and TMNK-1 was successfully constructed in the coculture with direct oxygen supply and was well-maintained for 14 days. The hepatocytes in this hierarchical culture exhibited improved survival, functional bile canaliculi formation, cellular level polarization and maintenance of metabolic activities including Cyp1A1/2 activity and albumin production. By contrast, the two cell populations formed discontinuous monolayers on the same surfaces in the non-oxygen-permeable cultures. These results demonstrate that (i) the direct oxygenation through the PDMS membranes enables very simple formation of a hierarchical structure consisting of a hepatocyte layer and a layer of TMNK-1 and (ii) we may include other non-parenchymal cells in this format easily, which can be widely applicable to other epithelial organs.

  4. Cervical Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma after Dapsone-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Min Young; Hong, Junshik; Yo, Inku; Park, Hyeonsu; Chung, Dong Hae; Ahn, Jeong Yeal; Park, Jinny; Kim, Yun Soo; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with erythematous confluent macules on her whole body with fever and chills associated with jaundice after 8 months of dapsone therapy. Her symptoms had developed progressively, and a physical examination revealed bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node showed effacement of the normal architecture with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and proliferation of high endothelial venules compatible with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. However, it was assumed that the cervical lymphadenopathy was a clinical manifestation of a systemic hypersensitivity reaction because her clinical course was reminiscent of dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. A liver biopsy revealed drug-induced hepatitis with no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. Intravenous glucocorticoid was immediately initiated and her symptoms and clinical disease dramatically improved. The authors present an unusual case of cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma as an adverse reaction to dapsone. PMID:23323115

  5. The “Endothelialized Muscularis Mucosae”: A Case Report Describing a Large Cavernous Hemangioma at the Terminal Ileum and a New Histologic Clue for Preoperative Diagnosis from Endoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Purdy-Payne, Erin K.; Miner, Jean F.; Foles, Brandon; Tran, Tien-Anh N.

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract are quite rare and, until now, have been difficult to diagnose preoperatively due their nonspecific presentations and imaging features, as well as a lack of histologic description pertaining to small superficial biopsies such as those obtained endoscopically. We report a unique case of a 4 cm transmural cavernous hemangioma in the terminal ileum with literature review and describe a new histologic finding—the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae,” which was discovered upon review of the endoscopic biopsy and could potentially facilitate preoperative diagnosis of these lesions from endoscopic biopsies in the future. These lesions have classically required surgical resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy, with which they share many historical and radiographic features. Due to their potential to cause bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, and hemorrhage, these lesions may ultimately require surgical resection to relieve symptoms or prevent or treat complications—however, surgical planning and patient counseling could be greatly improved by a preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and surgeons should be aware of the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae” which can be very helpful in diagnosing GI cavernous hemangiomas from endoscopic biopsies. PMID:26442160

  6. Lumbar hemangioma masking a plasma cell tumor--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haque, Maahir U; Wilson, Adam N; Blecher, Haim D; Reich, Steven M

    2013-08-01

    Vertebral hemangiomata are ubiquitous bone tumors. Often multiple, they are generally benign in nature and slow growing. They typically have a predictable radiographic appearance. Occasionally, hemangiomata may behave in a more aggressive manner, causing pathologic fracture or even symptoms/signs of nerve compression. In such cases, one must be careful not to assume that an atypical hemangioma is responsible. Coexisting, more malignant processes may be present and sometimes may be radiographically undetectable in the setting of acute fracture. This was the case in our patient. Case report/university spine surgery center. The patient underwent a corpectomy of her affected vertebra with conversion to a total spondylectomy when intraoperative frozen section was consistent with plasma cell neoplasm. A reconstruction with vertebral body replacement and fusion through anterior and posterior approaches was completed. Subsequently, the literature was reviewed for other cases of atypical hemangiomata to investigate the incidence of coexistent lesions. This patient presented with pain secondary to an unstable pathologic vertebral body fracture. Surgery to stabilize her spine was elected. Intraoperative recognition of abnormal-appearing tissue led to the diagnosis of a plasma cell neoplasm that was not seen on imaging. Coexistent in the same vertebra was hemangiomatous tissue that was visible on preoperative imaging. There are rare reports of aggressively behaving hemangiomata that mainly have occurred in the thoracic spine. There have been no reports of the coexistence of a hemangioma and a plasma cell tumor in the same vertebral level in the setting of acute compression fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Infantile hemangioma: treatment with short course systemic corticosteroid therapy as an alternative for propranolol.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Klaske; de Laat, Peter C J; Janmohamed, Sherief R; Madern, Gerard C; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are increasingly being treated with propranolol or other beta-blockers, but before this therapeutic option was available, oral glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) were the criterion standard treatment and are still the alternative modality in problematic cases. Nevertheless, there is no standard treatment protocol for the dose and duration of GCSs. Long-term treatment with GCSs is associated with unwanted side effects such as growth suppression, behavioral changes, and reflux. Twenty-one children with troublesome IHs were treated according to an algorithm with 3 mg/kg/day of oral prednisolone divided three times per day with varying duration and number of GCS courses. Two blinded investigators independently interpreted therapy results using the Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). Side effects were determined according to reports in patient charts and parental questionnaires. The median duration of a short course of GCSs was 2 weeks (range 1-6 weeks). The number of courses was 2 (range 1-5). The median cumulative dose was 91 mg/kg. Growth stabilized in all patients, with a good response (>50% reduction in HAS) in 62% and a favorable response (30-50% reduction is HAS) in 23%. Twelve of the 21 children (57%) had minor side effects. Persistent side effects did not occur. Intermittent short course, systemic, high-dose GCS therapy is an effective and safe treatment modality for IH, with a substantially lower cumulative dose of GCSs compared to prolonged therapy and no major side effects. This treatment is an alternative in cases in which propranolol fails or is contraindicated. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure.

  9. Diagnosis and management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Buckmiller, L M; Richter, G T; Suen, J Y

    2010-07-01

    Vascular anomalies are congenital errors in vascular development. They frequently involve the head, neck, and oral cavity. Subdivided into vascular tumors (hemangiomas) and vascular malformations, vascular anomalies remain poorly understood. However, growing interest and recent advances in the diagnosis, management, and molecular characterization of these lesions are improving treatment strategies. The role of the multidisciplinary team cannot be overstated. This review provides both basic and up-to-date knowledge on the most common vascular anomalies encountered by physicians and practitioners. Because treatment options for vascular anomalies are widely variable and often debated, this report aims to provide a comprehensive approach to these lesions based upon current concepts and practical clinical experience.

  10. In vitro performance of a perfusion and oxygenation optical sensor using a unique liver phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, Mark A.; McShane, Michael J.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2008, on average 2,052 people died per year on the waiting list for liver transplants. Monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs in the 7 to 14 days period post-transplant can enhance graft and patient survival rates, and resultantly increase the availability of organs. In this work, we present in vitro results using a unique liver phantom that support the ability of our sensor to detect perfusion changes in the portal vein at low levels (50 mL/min . 4.5% of normal level). Our sensor measures diffuse reflection from three wavelengths (735, 805 and 940 nm) around the hemoglobin isobestic point (805 nm) to determine perfusion and oxygenation separately. To assess the sensitivity of our sensor to flow changes in the low range, we used two peristaltic pumps to pump a dye solution mimicking the optical properties of oxygenated blood, at various rates, through a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical properties of liver tissue. The collected pulsatile signal increased by 120% (2.2X) for every 100 mL/min flow rise for all three wavelengths in the range 50 to 500 mL/min. In addition, we used different dye mixtures to mimic oxygenation changes at constant perfusion/flow levels. The optical properties of the dye mixtures mimic oxygen saturations ranging between 0 and 100%. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to changes in oxygen saturations above 50%.

  11. Heparin-Mimicking Polymers: Synthesis and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparin is a naturally occurring, highly sulfated polysaccharide that plays a critical role in a range of different biological processes. Therapeutically, it is mostly commonly used as an injectable solution as an anticoagulant for a variety of indications, although it has also been employed in other forms such as coatings on various biomedical devices. Due to the diverse functions of this polysaccharide in the body, including anticoagulation, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation, and protein stabilization, and drawbacks of its use, analogous heparin-mimicking materials are also widely studied for therapeutic applications. This review focuses on one type of these materials, namely, synthetic heparin-mimicking polymers. Utilization of these polymers provides significant benefits compared to heparin, including enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects as a result of fine-tuning heparin-binding motifs and other molecular characteristics. The major types of the various polymers are summarized, as well as their applications. Because development of a broader range of heparin-mimicking materials would further expand the impact of these polymers in the treatment of various diseases, future directions are also discussed. PMID:27739666

  12. Heparin-Mimicking Polymers: Synthesis and Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Samantha J; Nguyen, Thi H; Maynard, Heather D

    2016-11-14

    Heparin is a naturally occurring, highly sulfated polysaccharide that plays a critical role in a range of different biological processes. Therapeutically, it is mostly commonly used as an injectable solution as an anticoagulant for a variety of indications, although it has also been employed in other forms such as coatings on various biomedical devices. Due to the diverse functions of this polysaccharide in the body, including anticoagulation, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation, and protein stabilization, and drawbacks of its use, analogous heparin-mimicking materials are also widely studied for therapeutic applications. This review focuses on one type of these materials, namely, synthetic heparin-mimicking polymers. Utilization of these polymers provides significant benefits compared to heparin, including enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects as a result of fine-tuning heparin-binding motifs and other molecular characteristics. The major types of the various polymers are summarized, as well as their applications. Because development of a broader range of heparin-mimicking materials would further expand the impact of these polymers in the treatment of various diseases, future directions are also discussed.

  13. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy treated antepartum. A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Kamath; Shetty, Ajoy P.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. We report a 22-year-old lady in her 26th-week of pregnancy who was treated in two stages––antepartum with a laminectomy and posterior stabilization. This resulted in complete recovery of the neurological deficits. She delivered a normal baby after 3 months, following which a corpectomy and fusion was performed. This two-staged approach appears safe and effective in treating symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas causing neurological deficits during pregnancy. A review of relevant literature has been done. PMID:18224354

  14. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy treated antepartum. A case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Kamath; Shetty, Ajoy P; Rajasekaran, S

    2008-09-01

    Pregnancy related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. We report a 22-year-old lady in her 26th-week of pregnancy who was treated in two stages--antepartum with a laminectomy and posterior stabilization. This resulted in complete recovery of the neurological deficits. She delivered a normal baby after 3 months, following which a corpectomy and fusion was performed. This two-staged approach appears safe and effective in treating symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas causing neurological deficits during pregnancy. A review of relevant literature has been done.

  15. Calvarial sarcoid mimicking metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Bodie, B F; Kheir, S M; Omura, E F

    1980-10-01

    A 61-year-old white woman presented with localized cutaneous Boeck's sarcoid and multiple lytic skull lesions mimicking metastatic carcinoma. Complete workup revealed no neoplastic process; biopsy of the skull lesions showed noncaseating granulomas consistent with sarcoid. Although rare, calvarial sarcoid can occur.

  16. Development of a Tissue-Mimicking Phantom for Evaluating the Focusing Performance of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongyu, Jing; Faqi, Li; Jiangzhong, Zou; Zhibiao, Wang

    2006-05-01

    Objectives: To develop a tissue mimicking phantom which can be used to evaluate the focusing performance of the HIFU transducer, and the phantom should has the same acoustic characteristic and thermotics characteristic as the biological tissue. Materials and methods: The tissue mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin, fresh biologic tissue Its ultrasonic parameters (attenuation coefficient) of the phantom was measured by the method of radiation pressure, and thermotics parameters of the phantom, including thermal conductivity, specific heat/fusion point et al were tested under the Measurement meter. The HIFU biological effect of the phantom was evaluated under the Model JC focused ultrasound tumor therapeutic system, developed and produced by Chongqing HIFU Technology Co. Ltd (working frequency: 0.7MHz; acoustic power: 200W; focal distance: 135mm; Acoustic focal region: 3×3×25 cubic mm). Results: The self-made phantom is sable, has smooth and glossy appearance, well-distributed construction, and good elasticity. We measured the followed values for acoustic and thermal properties: density 1049±2 kg/m3; attenuation 0.532±0.017 dB/cm (0.8 MHz), 0.612±0.021 dB/cm (1.0 MHz); thermal conductivity 0.76±0.08 W/m/-°C; specific heat 3653±143 J/kg-°C; fusion point154±8°C. The BFR induced in the phantom after HIFU exposure was stable in its size and appearance. Conclusion: We produced and improved one tissue mimicking phantom successfully which had semblable ultrasound and thermphysical properties like the soft tissue, and can replace the bovine liver to investigate the HIFU biological effect and to detect the focusing performance of the HIFU energy transducer. The research was supported by Chongqing University of Medical Science (CX200320).

  17. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary mimicking struma ovarii and carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Alduaij, Ahmad; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2011-04-01

    Clear cell carcinomas are considered as high-grade tumor often with poor prognosis. We describe 2 cases of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary mimicking benign or less aggressive tumors encountered in the female genital track. The first case is mimicking a benign monodermal teratoma, the so-called struma ovarii, and the second mimicking a carcinoid tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Liver MRI and MRA Using Interleaved Variable Density Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Mahdi Salmani; Korosec, Frank R.; Wang, Kang; Holmes, James H.; Motosugi, Utaroh; Bannas, Peter; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a method for volumetric contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the liver, with high spatial and temporal resolutions, for combined dynamic imaging and MR angiography using a single injection of contrast. Methods An interleaved variable density (IVD) undersampling pattern was implemented in combination with a real-time-triggered, time-resolved, dual-echo 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence. Parallel imaging autocalibration lines were acquired only once during the first time-frame. Imaging was performed in ten subjects with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and compared with their clinical MRI. The angiographic phase of the proposed method was compared to a dedicated MR angiogram acquired during a second injection of contrast. Results A total of 21 FNH, 3 cavernous hemangiomas, and 109 arterial segments were visualized in 10 subjects. The temporally-resolved images depicted the characteristic arterial enhancement pattern of the lesions with a 4 s update rate. Images were graded as having significantly higher quality compared to the clinical MRI. Angiograms produced from the IVD method provided non-inferior diagnostic assessment compared to the dedicated MRA. Conclusion Using an undersampled IVD imaging method, we have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging and simultaneous MRA of the liver. PMID:24639130

  19. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  20. Polymerization of a divalent/tetravalent metal-storing atom-mimicking dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ken; Hirabayashi, Yuki; Otake, Masaya; Mendori, Shin; Tobari, Yuta; Azuma, Yasuo; Majima, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2016-12-01

    The phenylazomethine dendrimer (DPA) has a layer-by-layer electron density gradient that is an analog of the Bohr atom (atom mimicry). In combination with electron pair mimicry, the polymerization of this atom-mimicking dendrimer was achieved. The valency of the mimicked atom was controlled by changing the chemical structure of the dendrimer. By mimicking a divalent atom, a one-dimensional (1D) polymer was obtained, and by using a planar tetravalent atom mimic, a 2D polymer was obtained. These poly(dendrimer) polymers could store Lewis acids (SnCl 2 ) in their unoccupied orbitals, thus indicating that these poly(dendrimer) polymers consist of a series of nanocontainers.

  1. Concomitant intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and a vertebral hemangioma of cervical spine discovered by a pathologic fracture during bicycle accident.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Selim; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Geyik, Serdar; Saatci, Isil; Onal, Mehmet Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformations are uncommon and a challenging type of neurosurgical entities. They are rarely located to cervical segment. On the other hand, although hemangiomas are relatively common bone tumors, cervical involvement is again rare and clinically significant ones are infrequent. A 14 year-old-male patient referred to an academic tertiary care unit and presented with neck pain and left hand weakness. Neurological examination revealed motor strength deficit at intrinsic muscles and hyperesthesia at the left hand. Furthermore the pathological reflexes were positive on the left hand side. Imaging studies showed compression fracture, lytic changes resembling a hemangioma at C7 vertebra, and also an intramedullary vascular pathology at C5-6 level which was shown to be an intradural-intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) on digital subtraction angiography. Based on neurological and radiological findings, the decision was to treat the patient. After embolization of the AVM, the neurological condition of the patient deteriorated and immediate MRI scan of the cervical spine revealed edema of the spinal cord at the C5-6 level. Thus an emergent surgery was performed and C5-6-7 laminectomies with C5-T2 posterior fixation and arthrodesis were implemented. A second stage operation was carried out as C7 corpectomy with a distractable titanium cage 2 weeks after initial surgery. A follow-up evaluation at five years revealed 4/5 motor strength on his left intrinsic hand muscles and mild hyperactive deep tendon reflexes. Imaging studies at the postoperative period showed stable placement of the construct and no evidence of contrast enhancement at the C5-6 level inside the spinal cord. A rare case of multiple pathologies affecting the cervical spine, coincidentally diagnosed after a pathological fracture during a bicycle accident as vertebral hemangioma and intradural-intramedullary AVM that was successfully treated with early detection

  2. Full-length genome sequence analysis of four subgroup J avian leukosis virus strains isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lulu; Wang, Peikun; Yang, Yongli; Li, Haijuan; Huang, Teng; Wei, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody. The complete genomes of the isolates were sequenced and it was found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative, while env was variable especially the gp85 gene. Homology analysis of the env gene sequences showed that the env gene of all the four isolates had higher similarities with the hemangioma (HE)-type reference strains than that of the myeloid leukosis (ML)-type strains, and moreover, the HE-type strains' specific deletion of 205-bp sequence covering the rTM and DR1 in 3'UTR fragment was also found in the four isolates. Further analysis on the sequences of subunits of env gene revealed an interesting finding: the gp85 of isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 had a higher similarity with HPRS-103 and much lower similarity with the HE-type reference strains resulting in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HPRS-103 being clustered in the same branch, while gp37 had higher similarities with the HE-type reference strains when compared to that of HPRS-103, resulted in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HE-type reference strains being clustered in the same branch. The results suggested that isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 may be the recombinant strains of the foreign strain HPRS-103 with the local epidemic HE-type strains of ALV-J.

  3. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K; Bajwa, Neha; St John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  4. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K.; Bajwa, Neha; St. John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D.; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N.

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research. PMID:29373598

  5. Enzyme-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface for combating biomaterial-associated infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rujian; Xin, Zhirong; Xu, Shiai; Shi, Hengchong; Yang, Huawei; Song, Lingjie; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua; Khan, Ather Farooq; Li, Yonggang

    2017-11-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections critically compromise the functionality and performance of the medical devices, and pose a serious threat to human healthcare. Recently, natural DNase enzyme has been recognized as a potent material to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the vulnerability of DNase dramatically limits its long-term performance in antibacterial applications. In this work, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes were constructed to mimic the DNA-cleavage activity as well as the macromolecular scaffold of the natural DNase. The bacteria repellent efficacy of DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface was comparable to that of the DNase-functionalized surface. More importantly, due to their inherent stability, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes presented the much better performance in inhibiting bacterial biofilm development for prolonged periods of time, as compared to the natural DNase. The as-developed DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface presents a promising approach to combat biomaterial-associated infections.

  6. Breaking Hepatitis B Virus Tolerance and Inducing Protective Immunity Based on Mimicking T Cell-Independent Antigen.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-11-01

    There are over 350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world, of whom about a third eventually develop severe HBV-related complications. HBV contributes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma development. Remarkable progress has been made in selective inhibition of HBV replication by nucleoside analogs. However, how to generate protective antibody of HBsAb in HBV-infected patients after HBV-DNA becomes negative still remains a challenge for scientists. In this study, we show that OmpC-HBsAg 'a' epitope chimeric protein vaccine can break HBV tolerance and induce protective immunity in HBV transgenic mice based on mimicking T cell-independent antigen to bypass T cells from the adaptive immune system. The antibodies induced by the vaccine have the ability to prevent HBV virion infection of human hepatocytes.

  7. Renal cell metastases versus liver hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Shore, N; Herr, H W

    1991-03-01

    We present the case of a man with presumed metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on radiologic examination and weight loss, who refused treatment of any kind for one year. A surgical exploration to control hematuria revealed a Stage I tumor.

  8. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is "typical" (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an "atypical" appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots ("aggressive" VHs). These "atypical" and "aggressive" VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging.

  9. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  10. Surgery in extensive vertebral hemangioma: case report, literature review and a new algorithm proposal.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Roberto; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Nigro, Lorenzo; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Hemangiomas are benign dysplasias or vascular tumors consisting of vascular spaces lined with endothelium. Nowadays, radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) is widely accepted as primary treatment for painful lesions. Nevertheless, the role of surgery is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel algorithm of treatment about VHs. This is a case report of an extensive VH and a review of the literature. A case of vertebral fracture during radiotherapy at a total dose of 30 Gy given in 10 fractions (treatment time 2 weeks) using a linear accelerator at 15 MV high-energy photons for extensive VH is reported. Using PubMed database, a review of the literature is done. The authors have no study funding sources. The authors have no conflicting financial interests. In the literature, good results in terms of pain and neurological deficits are reported. No cases of vertebral fractures are described. However, there is no consensus regarding the treatment for VHs. Radiotherapy is widely utilized in VHs determining pain. Surgery for VHs determining neurological deficit is also widely accepted. Perhaps, regarding the width of the lesion, no indications are given. We consider it important to make an evaluation before initiating the treatment for the risk of pathologic vertebral fracture, since in radiotherapy, there is no convention regarding structural changes determined in VHs. We propose a new algorithm of treatment. We recommend radiotherapy only for small lesions in which vertebral stability is not concerned. Kyphoplasty can be proposed for asymptomatic patients in which VHs are small and in patients affected by VHs determining pain without spinal canal invasion in which the VH is small. In patients affected by pain without spinal canal invasion but in which the VH is wide or presented with spinal canal invasion and in patients affected by neurological deficits, we propose surgery.

  11. Pelvic Hydatidosis Mimicking a Malignant Multicystic Ovarian Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Deeba; Verma, Neetu; Mahajan, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a multisystem disease and has propensity to involve any organ, an unusual anatomical site, and can mimic any disease process. Primary peritoneal echinococcosis is known to occur secondary to hepatic involvement but occasional cases of primary peritoneal hydatid disease including pelvic involvement have also been reported. We report here 1 such case of primary pelvic hydatidosis mimicking a malignant multicystic ovarian tumor where there was no evidence of involvement of the liver or spleen. Our patient, a 27-year-old female, was detected to have a large right cystic adnexal mass on per vaginal examination which was confirmed by ultrasonography. Her biochemical parameters were normal and CA-125 levels, though mildly raised, were below the cut off point. She underwent surgery and on exploratory laparotomy, another cystic mass was found attached to the mesentery of the small gut. The resected cysts were processed histopathologically. On cut sections both large cysts revealed numerous daughter cysts. Microscopic examination of fluid from the cysts revealed free scolices with hooklets and the cyst wall had a typical laminated membrane with inner germinal layer containing degenerated protoplasmic mass. The diagnosis of pelvic hydatid disease was confirmed and patient was managed accordingly. Hydatid disease must be considered while making the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, especially in endemic areas. PMID:20877508

  12. Synchronous occurrence of breast cancer and pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma: management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Seretis, Charalampos; Nakos, Georgios; Kantounakis, Ioannis; Stoumpos, Charalampos; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a rare tumor accounting for 0.2-1% of all primary lung tumors. Simultaneous occurrence of PSH with breast cancer has very rarely been reported in the literature. We describe here a case of simultaneous occurrence of PSH with breast cancer. A pathological diagnosis of PSH was confirmed by computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. Due to the patient's poor performance status and the benign nature of PSH, surgical excision was not considered and the patient was managed conservatively with regular follow-up. Although surgical excision is the preferred treatment for PSH, conservative management may be a reasonable option in carefully selected patients.

  13. E-learning enables parents to assess an infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Marlies; Knol, Mirjam J; Totté, Joan E E; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-05-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) at risk for complications need to be recognized early. We sought to determine if parents are able to assess, after e-learning, whether their child has an IH, is at risk for complications, and needs to be seen (urgently) by a specialist. This was a prospective study of 158 parents participating in an IH e-learning module. Parents were asked to assess their child's skin abnormality. A dermatologist answered the same questions (by e-consult). The 2 assessments were compared. Parents showed a 96% concordance with the dermatologist for correct diagnosis after e-learning. Concordances were 79%, 75%, and 84% (P < .001), respectively, on assessing the risk of complications, the need to be seen by a specialist, and the urgency for specialized care. Parents had a relatively high education level and were therefore not representative of the general population. Parents were able to correctly diagnose and evaluate an IH after completing an e-learning module. E-learning by parents could result in earlier presentation and treatment of high-risk IH. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing infantile hemangiomas with a near-infrared spectroscopic handheld wireless device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Kim, Hyun K.; Behr, Gerald; Geller, Lauren; Antonov, Nina; Flexman, Molly; Garzon, Maria; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2015-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. Currently, no objective tool exist to monitor either progression or treatment of IH. To address this unmet clinical need, we have developed a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy for the assessment of IH. The system employs 4 wavelengths (l=780nm, 805nm, 850nm, and 905nm) and 6 source-detector pairs with distances between 0.6 and 20 mm. Placed on the skin surface, backreflection data is obtained and a multispectral evolution algorithm is used to determine total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation. First results of an ongoing pilot study involving 13 patients (average enrollment age = 25 months) suggest that an increase in hypoxic stress over time can lead to the proliferation of IH. Involuting IH lesions showed an increase in tissue oxygen saturation as well as a decrease in total hemoglobin.

  15. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma of the thoracic spine without typical radiological appearance.

    PubMed

    Dang, Lei; Liu, Chen; Yang, Shao Min; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Zhong Jun; Liu, Xiao Guang; Yuan, Hui Shu; Wei, Feng; Yu, Miao

    2012-10-01

    Vertebral hemangioma (VH) is virtually vascular malformation, which is usually asymptomatic. Only 3.7 % of VH may become active and symptomatic, and 1 % may invade the spinal canal and/or paravertebral space. Treatment protocols for active or aggressive VHs are still in controversy. Reported treatments include radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, direct alcohol injection, embolization, surgery and a combination of these modalities. A 41-year-old lady was presented with 18 month history of intermittent back pain. CT revealed T5 osteolytic lesion with epidural and paravertebral extension. The first CT guided biopsy yielded little information. Histopathological diagnosis of the second biopsy was VH. Vertebroplasty, posterior decompression and fixation were performed followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Her symptoms were resolved immediately after the operation. At 12 months follow-up, no recurrence was detected by CT with contrast enhancement. Surgical decompression, vertebroplasty and fixation are safe and effective for aggressive VH. More attention is needed in determining the algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of aggressive VH.

  16. Radiotherapy of Painful Vertebral Hemangiomas: The Single Center Retrospective Analysis of 137 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miszczyk, Leszek, E-mail: leszek@io.gliwice.pl; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: An evaluation of dose-response relationship and an attempt to define predictive factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 137 cases of painful vertebral hemangioma irradiations (101 patients). Fraction dose (fd) varied from 2 to 15 Gy (123 fractionated and 14 radiosurgical treatments), and total dose (TD) from 8 to 30 Gy (111 cases irradiated with fd of 2 GY to TD of 24 Gy). We evaluated pain relief, changes in analgesic requirements, and reossification. Results: Means of pain relief 1, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (defined as a decrease of primary pain level expressed in percent) weremore » 60.5%, 65.4%, 68.3%, and 78.4%, respectively. Proportion of patients with no need for analgesics and patients using tramadol were 39%, 40%, 44%, 57%, and 20%, 17%, 22%, and 11% in these times. The proportion of patients experiencing complete/partial pain relief changed from 36/48% 1 month, to 64/22% 1.5 years after radiotherapy. No impact of radiotherapy on reossification was found. The positive impact of fd and TD increase for analgesics uptake reduction and pain relief was found. An increase of the fd by 1 Gy results in 27% chance of analgesics uptake reduction and 3.8% reduction of pain, whereas 14% analgesics uptake reduction and 2.2% of pain reduction in case of the TD. The predictive factors improving results were found: female gender, older age, better performance states (the chance of the lower analgesic treatment decreases over 2.5 times in comparison to the higher Zubrod degree), bigger Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained data support the efficacy of radiotherapy in improving pain secondary to vertebral hemangioma, with the degree of pain amelioration being related to increasing fd and TD. The positive predictive factors were defined: female gender, older age, better performance status, increased Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration, and lower analgesics

  17. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Case report Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed. He was presented with incidental finding of mature cystic teratoma after elective surgery for what appeared to be left-sided inguinal hernia. The tumour was most likely a metastasis of childhood teratoma. Origin within remaining left testicle was not found. Upon further imaging diagnostics, several intrahepatic lesions were revealed. Based on radiologic appearance they were suspicious to be metastases. The patient underwent two ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cytologic diagnosis was inconclusive. Histology of laparoscopically obtained tissue disclosed presence of normal splenic tissue and led to diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. Conclusions Though hepatic splenosis is rare, it needs to be included in differential diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. Accurate interpretation of those lesions is crucial for appropriate management of the patient. If diagnosis eludes after cytologic diagnostics alone, laparoscopic excision of nodular lesion is warranted before considering more extensive liver resection. PMID:27247554

  18. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma.

    PubMed

    Jereb, Sara; Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed. He was presented with incidental finding of mature cystic teratoma after elective surgery for what appeared to be left-sided inguinal hernia. The tumour was most likely a metastasis of childhood teratoma. Origin within remaining left testicle was not found. Upon further imaging diagnostics, several intrahepatic lesions were revealed. Based on radiologic appearance they were suspicious to be metastases. The patient underwent two ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cytologic diagnosis was inconclusive. Histology of laparoscopically obtained tissue disclosed presence of normal splenic tissue and led to diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. Though hepatic splenosis is rare, it needs to be included in differential diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. Accurate interpretation of those lesions is crucial for appropriate management of the patient. If diagnosis eludes after cytologic diagnostics alone, laparoscopic excision of nodular lesion is warranted before considering more extensive liver resection.

  19. Infantile hemangioma-like vascular lesion in a 26-year-old woman after abortion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Shu Jun; Li, Xin; Hu, Li; Zhang, Wen Jie; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman (G2P1A1) presented with a 5-week history of multiple red marks on her body after a therapeutic abortion. A physical examination found 15 palpable red marks on her head, neck, chest, arms and legs. Proliferating endothelial cells, which expressed CD31, CD34, von Willebrand factor, but not Glut-1 and merosin, were observed in the lesional area by histopathological analyses. Histocompatibility antigen typing of 2 lesions was identical to a sample from peripheral blood. Accelerated regression was observed in 2 lesions treated by intralesional injection of betamethasone, while spontaneous regression was observed within 9 months in the remaining lesions without any treatment. Rapid growth, spontaneous regression and histological analyses in this case support the diagnosis of 'infantile hemangioma-like vascular lesion'.

  20. Toxocariasis masquerading as liver and lung metastatic nodules in patents with gastrointestinal cancer: clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghui; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2012-01-01

    There are sporadic reports in the literature in which radiologic liver and lung lesions found incidentally during follow-up metastatic surveillance were shown to be caused by toxocariasis. The objective of the work discussed in this report was to identify common clinical and histopathological features of toxocariasis resembling metastatic nodules in five patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of five gastrointestinal cancer patients with liver or lung nodules mimicking metastasis. Serologic tests for parasitic infestations and pathologic examinations were performed. All five patients were males and three patients had gastric cancer and two had colorectal cancer. All the cases of toxocariasis were confirmed serologically. On follow-up imaging, the lesions improved or resolved, suggestive of the phenomenon of visceral larva migrans. In two patients, liver biopsy was performed and showed eosinophilic abscess. Serologic tests and liver or lung biopsy should be performed aggressively to exclude toxocariasis when patients with underlying gastrointestinal cancer present with hepatic or pulmonary nodules associated with eosinophilia, particularly if the patients have a clinical history of raw animal liver ingestion. Curative surgical intervention should not be excluded just because of multiple nodules in the liver or the lungs.

  1. Adrenal cortical oncocytoma mimicking pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kiriakopoulos, Andreas; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Linos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Adrenal tumors present with clinical features and signs unique to their specific hormonal hypersecretion. However, there have been cases in which the clinical expression has been in conflict with the histologic features of the tumor. In this communication we report an unusual clinical presentation of an adrenal cortical tumor with histologic features of an oncocytoma that clinically mimicked a pheochromocytoma. A 49-year old man was referred to our Unit due to type B aortic dissection and a mass of the left adrenal gland. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of aortic dissection extending from the left subclavian artery to both iliac arteries and also revealed a 6 cm tumor on the left adrenal gland. Preoperative endocrine evaluation showed a near tenfold increase of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and metanephrine values. Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy was successfully performed. The adrenal tumor proved to be an adrenal cortical neoplasm with histologic features of oncocytoma. Although the case of an adrenal cortical adenoma clinically mimicking a pheochromocytoma has been described in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of an adrenal cortical neoplasm with predominant features of oncocytoma.

  2. Vertebral hemangiomas: their demographical characteristics, location along the spine and position within the vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Slon, Viviane; Stein, Dan; Cohen, Haim; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2015-10-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are the most common form of benign tumors in the spine. The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of VHs in the human population, their distribution along the spine and their location in the vertebral body. The presence of VHs was assessed in full spine CT scans of 196 adults. Demographic data were gathered from medical records. VHs were present in 26.0% of the individuals studied, a rate significantly higher (χ2=43.338, p<0.001) than the prevalence reported in the literature (10.7%). Multiple VHs (≥2) appeared in 7.2% of the population studied. VHs prevalence is sex-independent, appearing in 28.6% of females and 23.5% of males (χ2=0.663, p=0.416); and age-dependent: the mean age of affected individuals (65.8 years) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than unaffected individuals (56.2 years). VH size was also age-dependent (p=0.023). No vertebra was significantly more prone to be affected by a hemangioma. T11 and T12 show the highest prevalence of VHs (3.57% of vertebrae affected). VHs were found in similar percentages in the anterior and posterior parts of the vertebral body (52.8 vs. 47.2%, respectively); and at its center and periphery (50.1 and 49.9%, respectively). VHs usually appeared at mid-height of the vertebral body or slightly higher. The reported prevalence of VHs is dependent on the demographic structure of the population studied, the size of the VHs and the method used to identify them. Overall, the phenomenon is more frequent than usually reported. VHs may appear at all vertebral levels and in all areas of the vertebral body.

  3. Atenolol Versus Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas During the Proliferative Phase: A Retrospective Noninferiority Study.

    PubMed

    Bayart, Cheryl B; Tamburro, Joan E; Vidimos, Allison T; Wang, Lu; Golden, Alex B

    2017-07-01

    The nonselective beta-blocker propranolol is the current criterion standard for treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) and the first therapy that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved for the condition, but concern about adverse effects, such as bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, and sleep disturbances, has sparked interest in the use of alternative agents such as the selective β1 antagonist atenolol. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of atenolol with those of propranolol in the treatment of IHs in a retrospective noninferiority trial. Twenty-seven children with IHs treated with atenolol according to the Cleveland Clinic foundation's standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) met inclusion criteria and were compared with a matched group of 53 children with IHs treated with propranolol. Three reviewers assessed response to therapy using a modified version of the previously validated Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). The mean change in HAS was -2.94 ± 1.20 for patients treated with atenolol and -2.96 ± 1.42 for those treated with propranolol. There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and posttreatment modified HAS scores between the two groups (p = 0.60). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of adverse effects (p = 0.10), although 11% of patients treated with propranolol experienced reactive airway symptoms, whereas this was not seen in any of the patients treated with atenolol. Our study supports previous findings that atenolol is at least as effective as propranolol for treatment of IHs and poses less risk of bronchospasm. Our SCAMP proposes guidelines for dosing and monitoring parameters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis mimicking benign lesions: a case-based review.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Thomas; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this short review, malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis mimicking benign lesions and their differential diagnoses are discussed. These include plaque-like dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, low-grade superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, epithelioid sarcoma, pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma, Kaposi sarcoma mimicking cavernous haemangioma and benign lymphangioendothelioma, and rare forms of angiosarcoma mimicking a benign vascular lesion.

  5. Microphysiological systems meet hiPSC technology - New tools for disease modeling of liver infections in basic research and drug development.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Martin; Fritsche, Enrico; Kurtz, Andreas; Bauer, Michael; Mosig, Alexander S

    2018-06-14

    Complex cell culture models such as microphysiological models (MPS) mimicking human liver functionality in vitro are in the spotlight as alternative to conventional cell culture and animal models. Promising techniques like microfluidic cell culture or micropatterning by 3D bioprinting are gaining increasing importance for the development of MPS to address the needs for more predictivity and cost efficiency. In this context, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new perspectives for the development of advanced liver-on-chip systems by recreating an in vivo like microenvironment that supports the reliable differentiation of hiPSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC). In this review we will summarize current protocols of HLC generation and highlight recently established MPS suitable to resemble physiological hepatocyte function in vitro. In addition, we are discussing potential applications of liver MPS for disease modeling related to systemic or direct liver infections and the use of MPS in testing of new drug candidates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Clinical and imaging findings in patients with aggressive spinal hemangioma requiring surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Julio; Postigo, Roberto; Larrondo, Roberto; Martin, Aliro San

    2011-02-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are frequently asymptomatic lesions found incidentally during investigations for other spinal problems. Symptomatic VHs are less common, and there are few reports of compressive VHs in the literature. VHs with aggressive behavior present with low signal intensity on T1-weighted and high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. We present a case series of four patients with compressive VH, all of whom were neurologically compromised. Each of the four patients underwent preoperative arterial embolization followed by surgical treatment of their VHs. All patients recovered normal motor function after surgery. At follow-up (average 53 months), one patient had a recurrent tumor requiring reoperation and radiotherapy. Although it is rare, aggressive VH can be a devastating condition. Total surgical resection or subtotal resection with radiotherapy may be warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural network ensemble based CAD system for focal liver lesions from B-mode ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Jitendra; Kumar, Vinod; Kalra, Naveen; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-08-01

    A neural network ensemble (NNE) based computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system to assist radiologists in differential diagnosis between focal liver lesions (FLLs), including (1) typical and atypical cases of Cyst, hemangioma (HEM) and metastatic carcinoma (MET) lesions, (2) small and large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions, along with (3) normal (NOR) liver tissue is proposed in the present work. Expert radiologists, visualize the textural characteristics of regions inside and outside the lesions to differentiate between different FLLs, accordingly texture features computed from inside lesion regions of interest (IROIs) and texture ratio features computed from IROIs and surrounding lesion regions of interests (SROIs) are taken as input. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for reducing the dimensionality of the feature space before classifier design. The first step of classification module consists of a five class PCA-NN based primary classifier which yields probability outputs for five liver image classes. The second step of classification module consists of ten binary PCA-NN based secondary classifiers for NOR/Cyst, NOR/HEM, NOR/HCC, NOR/MET, Cyst/HEM, Cyst/HCC, Cyst/MET, HEM/HCC, HEM/MET and HCC/MET classes. The probability outputs of five class PCA-NN based primary classifier is used to determine the first two most probable classes for a test instance, based on which it is directed to the corresponding binary PCA-NN based secondary classifier for crisp classification between two classes. By including the second step of the classification module, classification accuracy increases from 88.7 % to 95 %. The promising results obtained by the proposed system indicate its usefulness to assist radiologists in differential diagnosis of FLLs.

  8. Acute corneal hydrops mimicking full thickness perforation.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S W; Pillai, M B; Aazeem, S; Tu, K L

    2012-05-11

    A 26-year-old Caucasian female with keratoconus presented with an acutely painful and red left eye. Visual acuity on presentation was 3/60. Slit lamp examination revealed localised Descemet's membrane break with iris partially plugging it. There was a bulging stromal cyst which would intermittently flatten and reform. The appearance when the cyst was flattened mimicked a full thickness corneal perforation. However, no obvious overlying epithelial defect was detected and an intermittent leakage through micro-perforations in the corneal epithelium was the probable cause of the variable appearance. The anterior chamber reformed and iris plug freed following an insertion of a bandage contact lens and taped eyelid. On follow-up, the Descement's membrane had healed with visual acuity improving to 6/18. Our case illustrates the importance of identifying corneal hydrops mimicking a full thickness perforation as conservative management has a greater chance of recovery.

  9. Case Study of a Spinal Epidural Capillary Hemangioma: A 4-Year Postoperative Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Vyshka, Gentian; Bushati, Teona; Petrela, Mentor

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case study. Objectives We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man, who presented with a 4-month history of increasing low back pain and gait difficulty. Objective neurologic examination revealed a severe paraparetic symptomatology without any sphincter involvement. Methods Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extradural mass formation situated dorsally at the level of thoracic vertebrae T2 to T4. Results A laminectomy was performed with total removal of the mass; histology suggested a highly vascularized lesion with lobular architecture, which seems a very rare case, compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Conclusions A careful follow-up for the next 4 years, including control MRIs every postoperative year, showed a very good neurologic condition of the patient and no recurrence on imaging findings. PMID:24494182

  10. Mesalamine treatment mimicking relapse in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hojsak, Iva; Pavić, Ana M; Kolaček, Sanja

    2014-11-01

    There are reports on mesalamine-induced bloody diarrhea mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) relapse, mostly in adults. Herein we present a case of a child with UC who developed relapse of hemorrhagic colitis related to mesalamine. A 10-year-old girl developed severe symptoms mimicking UC relapse 3 weeks after introduction of mesalamine therapy. After mesalamine was withdrawn, her symptoms improved, but deteriorated again during the challenge of mesalamine despite concomitant use of corticosteroids. This is the first case report on such a young child during the concomitant use of corticosteroids.

  11. CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen; Chen, Sidi; Yin, Hao; Tammela, Tuomas; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Joshi, Nikhil S.; Cai, Wenxin; Yang, Gillian; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G.; Zhang, Feng; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sharp, Phillip A.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells1. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas system in vivo in wild-type mice. We have used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs)2–4 to the liver and directly target the tumor suppressor genes Pten5 and p536, alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre-LoxP technology7, 8. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumors that mimicked those caused by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumor tissue revealed insertion or deletion (indel) mutations of the tumor suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumors. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harboring sgRNAs targeting the β-Catenin gene (Ctnnb1) and a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of β-Catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics. PMID:25119044

  12. CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Chen, Sidi; Yin, Hao; Tammela, Tuomas; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Joshi, Nikhil S; Cai, Wenxin; Yang, Gillian; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G; Zhang, Feng; Anderson, Daniel G; Sharp, Phillip A; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-10-16

    The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system in vivo in wild-type mice. We used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to the liver that directly target the tumour suppressor genes Pten (ref. 5) and p53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53) (ref. 6), alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre-LoxP technology. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumours that mimicked those caused by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumour tissue revealed insertion or deletion mutations of the tumour suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumours. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harbouring sgRNAs targeting the β-catenin gene and a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of β-catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics.

  13. Determination of ganglioside composition and structure in human brain hemangioma by chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schiopu, Catalin; Flangea, Corina; Capitan, Florina; Serb, Alina; Vukelić, Zeljka; Kalanj-Bognar, Svjetlana; Sisu, Eugen; Przybylski, Michael; Zamfir, Alina D

    2009-12-01

    We report here on a preliminary investigation of ganglioside composition and structure in human hemangioma, a benign tumor in the frontal cortex (HFC) in comparison to normal frontal cortex (NFC) tissue using for the first time advanced mass spectrometric methods based on fully automated chip-nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) high-capacity ion trap (HCT) and collision-induced dissociation (CID). The high ionization efficiency, sensitivity and reproducibility provided by the chip-nanoESI approach allowed for a reliable MS-based ganglioside comparative assay. Unlike NFC, ganglioside mixture extracted from HFC was found dominated by species of short glycan chains exhibiting lower overall sialic acid content. In HFC, only GT1 (d18:1/20:0), and GT3 (d18:1/25:1) polysialylated species were detected. Interestingly, none of these trisialylated forms was detected in NFC, suggesting that such components might selectively be associated with HFC. Unlike the case of previously investigated high malignancy gliosarcoma, in HFC one modified O-Ac-GD2 and one modified O-Ac-GM4 gangliosides were observed. This aspect suggests that these O-acetylated structures could be associated with cerebral tumors having reduced malignancy grade. Fragmentation analysis by CID in MS(2) mode using as precursors the ions corresponding to GT1 (d18:1/20:0) and GD1 (d18:1/20:0) provided data corroborating for the first time the presence of the common GT1a and GT1b isomers and the incidence of unusual GT1c and GT1d glycoforms in brain hemangioma tumor.

  14. Long term outcome of treatment of vertebral body hemangiomas with direct ethanol injection and short segment stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P Sarat; Singh, Pankaj; K, Rajender; Agarwal, Deepak; Tandon, Vivek; Kale, S S; Sarkar, Chitra

    2018-06-08

    Vertebral body (VH) hemangiomas with myelopathy are difficult to manage. To evaluate the role of intra-operative ethanol embolization, surgical decompression and instrumented short segment fusion in VH with myelopathy and long-term outcome (>24 months). Prospective study: Symptomatic VH with cord compression with myelopathy. Excluded: pathological fractures, and/or deformity or multi-level pathologies. Surgery consisted of intra-operative bilateral pedicular absolute alcohol (<1% hydrated ethyl alcohol) injection, laminectomy and cord decompression at the level of pathology followed by a short segment instrumented fusion using pedicle screws. 33 patients (Mean 26.9 + 13.2, range: 10-68 years, 18 females). myelopathy all (5 paraplegic), sphincter involvement (13), and mid back/ lower pain (7). Pre-operative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores: A(7), B(11), C(6), D(8) and E(1). Majority had single vertebral involvement (30), 3 multiple level. Six underwent surgery earlier (1 alcohol embolization here). Mean surgical time: 124+39 minutes, average blood: 274+80 cc. Mean amount of absolute alcohol injected: 14.6+5.7 cc. (2 requiring 20 & 25 cc). Immediate embolization achieved in all, allowing laminectomy and soft-tissue hemangioma removal easily. Post-surgery, 1 patient had transient deterioration, rest all patients improved (sphincters improved in 9) at a follow up ranging 28-103 months (mean 47.6+22.3). Follow-up ASIA scores: E(26), D(4), B(2) & C(1). All patients showed evidence of bone sclerosis and relief of cord compression on follow-up imaging. This is largest study in literature showing excellent improvement, low re-operation rates following ethanol embolization and short segment fixation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Tongue metastasis mimicking an abscess.

    PubMed

    Mavili, Ertuğrul; Oztürk, Mustafa; Yücel, Tuba; Yüce, Imdat; Cağli, Sedat

    2010-03-01

    Primary tumors metastasizing to the oral cavity are extremely rare. Lung is one of the most common primary sources of metastases to the tongue. Although the incidence of lung cancer is increasing, tongue metastasis as the initial presentation of the tumor remains uncommon. Due to the rarity of tongue metastasis, little is known about its imaging findings. Herein we report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of a lingual metastasis, mimicking an abscess, from a primary lung cancer.

  16. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. [The current approach to hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Raveh, E; Waner, M; Kornreich, L; Segal, K; Ben-Amitai, D; Kalish, E; Lapidot, M; Mimon, S; Shalev, B; Feinmesser, R

    2002-09-01

    Though most hemangiomas do not need treatment, a significant minority are associated with complications and external deformities that demand intervention. Steroids play an important role in therapy, but not infrequently afford only partial and temporary benefit. Thanks to improvements in the surgical approach and equipment, hemostasis control devices and laser techniques, we can now treat patients who would otherwise go untreated. Moreover, in certain cases, we can now recommend earlier intervention, saving patients from years of living with deformities and the concomitant psychosocial problems. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck include venular, venous and arteriovenous malformations. These lesions are slow growing vascular ectasia that never involute spontaneously and almost always require intervention. Treatment includes laser therapy, injection of sclerosing agents, embolization through angiography and surgery, which in many cases is the only definitive treatment. We present the current treatment approach and describe our experience in the treatment of 16 patients.

  18. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Inflamed Cysts in a Teenager.

    PubMed

    Guo, Emily L; Degesys, Catherine A; Jahan-Tigh, Richard; Chan, Audrey

    2017-07-01

    We describe deep granuloma annulare (DGA) of the forehead mimicking inflamed cysts. Reactive inflammation and sterile purulent drainage may be an underrecognized feature of DGA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chimeric mice with humanized liver: Application in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Naritomi, Yoichi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2018-02-01

    Predicting human drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK) is key to drug discovery. In particular, it is important to predict human PK, metabolite profiles and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Various methods have been used for such predictions, including in vitro metabolic studies using human biological samples, such as hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes, and in vivo studies using experimental animals. However, prediction studies using these methods are often inconclusive due to discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results, and interspecies differences in drug metabolism. Further, the prediction methods have changed from qualitative to quantitative to solve these issues. Chimeric mice with humanized liver have been developed, in which mouse liver cells are mostly replaced with human hepatocytes. Since human drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the liver of these mice, they are regarded as suitable models for mimicking the drug metabolism and PK observed in humans; therefore, these mice are useful for predicting human drug metabolism and PK. In this review, we discuss the current state, issues, and future directions of predicting human drug metabolism and PK using chimeric mice with humanized liver in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical aspects and therapy of lymphangiomas, hemangiomas and nevi in the area of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Drepper, H

    1985-07-01

    The superficial angiomas and nevi arise from the endothelial cells, the pigment-cell-system or the epidermal cells. Hemangiomas are benign tumours of the endothelial cells appearing predominantly in female newborn infants. Depending on localisation, growth and proliferation there is a tendency for spontaneous involution. For irreversible dysfunction or anatomical deformities surgical resection during the growth phase of the hemangioma is indicated. Surgery may be necessary to improve the functional and esthetic appearance after spontaneous involution causing loose residual skin. Radiotherapy of the lesion is rarely indicated. Systemic steroid therapy in cooperation with the pediatrician should be reserved only for desperate cases such as Kasabach-Merrit-Syndrome. Port wine nevi without scars can be covered with skin tanning cosmetics. Argon-Laser-Therapy is not yet so selective that healing can be achieved with certainty and without scars. Clinical progression requires surgery, especially for racemose angiectasia. Arterial embolization should only be used under special conditions, and then only as pretreatment. Lymphangiomas are mostly angiectatic processes, especially of lymphatic vascular tissue and vessels. Even large cystic lymphangiomas can be treated quite well by surgery, but operations on large diffuse invasive lymphangiomas often cause lymphedema and infection similar to erysipelas leading to pseudorecurrence. The benign malformations of the pigment cell system require clear differentiation from malignant melanoma and its precursors. Malignant melanoma develops more frequently from congenital nevi of the deep type than from other pigmented lesions. Malignant melanomas arising from giant nevi are usually diagnosed too late so that almost all patients die. Removal of giant nevi as early as possible is recommended. The epidermal malformations, too, need accurate diagnosis. Multisymptomatic syndromes such as the Basal-Cell-Nevus-Syndrome, and vascular and

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Exophytic Retinal Capillary Hemangiomas of the Posterior Pole

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Eric K.; Trikha, Rupan; Morse, Lawrence S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Park, Susanna S.

    2013-01-01

    Exophytic retinal capillary hemangiomas (RCH) can be a diagnostic challenge in subjects without von Hippel-Lin-dau disease (VHL). This report of two cases describes the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) characteristics of RCH in two eyes of a subject with VHL and in one eye of an otherwise normal subject. Three different OCT instruments were used (Stratus, Cirrus and/or custom high resolution Fourier-domain OCT with 4.5 μm axial resolution) depending on availability. All instruments localized the tumor to the outer retina. A sharp border between the tumor and overlying inner retina was noted. The tumor bulged into the subretinal space and showed marked shadowing. Associated cystoid macular edema and sub-retinal fluid were noted. High-resolution Fourier-domain OCT showed a focal photoreceptor layer rip in the adjacent tumor-free macula in one eye with poor vision after treatment. OCT may be a useful tool in diagnosing RCH and studying associated morphologic changes. PMID:20337341

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of CD133+ stem/progenitor cells infused in patients with end-stage liver disease reveals their interplay with stromal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Catani, Lucia; Sollazzo, Daria; Bianchi, Elisa; Ciciarello, Marilena; Antoniani, Chiara; Foscoli, Licia; Caraceni, Paolo; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Giordano, Rosaria; Montemurro, Tiziana; Montelatici, Elisa; D'Errico, Antonia; Andreone, Pietro; Giudice, Valeria; Curti, Antonio; Manfredini, Rossella; Lemoli, Roberto Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the therapeutic potential of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem/progenitor cells for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). We recently demonstrated that CD133 + stem/progenitor cell (SPC) reinfusion in patients with ESLD is feasible and safe and improve, albeit transiently, liver function. However, the mechanism(s) through which BM-derived SPCs may improve liver function are not fully elucidated. Here, we characterized the circulating SPCs compartment of patients with ESLD undergoing CD133 + cell therapy. Next, we set up an in vitro model mimicking SPCs/liver microenvironment interaction by culturing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized CD133 + and LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that patients with ESLD show normal basal levels of circulating hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors with impaired clonogenic ability. After G-CSF treatment, patients with ESLD were capable to mobilize significant numbers of functional multipotent SPCs, and interestingly, this was associated with increased levels of selected cytokines potentially facilitating SPC function. Co-culture experiments showed, at the molecular and functional levels, the bi-directional cross-talk between CD133 + SPCs and human hepatic stellate cells LX-2. Human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 showed reduced activation and fibrotic potential. In turn, hepatic stellate cells enhanced the proliferation and survival of CD133 + SPCs as well as their endothelial and hematopoietic function while promoting an anti-inflammatory profile. We demonstrated that the interaction between CD133 + SPCs from patients with ESLD and hepatic stellate cells induces significant functional changes in both cellular types that may be instrumental for the improvement of liver function in cirrhotic patients undergoing cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Enterobius vermicularis or “pinworm” infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. DISCUSSION Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. CONCLUSION We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22288029

  5. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis or "pinworm" infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery.

  6. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-11-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α(6) integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α(6) integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α(6) integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  7. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6

    PubMed Central

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α6 integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α6 integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α6 integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:23070965

  8. Rare extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Michelle; Haenen, Filip W N; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare finding in comparison with Ewing's sarcoma of bone and usually manifests in young patients. However, even in older patients, one must consider the diagnosis. In this case, we describe a 52-year-old woman diagnosed with EES, mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid. The tumor was not visualized by a multi-slice spiral computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast, and eventually the diagnosis was made by positive immunohistochemical staining for CD99 and by molecular testing for EWSR1 translocation. This combination of the patient's age and the localization of the tumor mimicking an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid has never been described before.

  9. Tension pneumocephalus mimicking septic shock: a case report.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Caroline; Mahta, Ali; Wheeler, Lee Adam; Tsiouris, A John; Kamel, Hooman

    2018-02-01

    Tension pneumocephalus can lead to rapid neurologic deterioration. We report for the first time its association with aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock and the efficacy of prompt neurosurgical intervention and critical care support in treating this condition. A 64-year-old man underwent 2-stage olfactory groove meningioma resection. The patient developed altered mental status and gait instability on postoperative day 6. Imaging showed significant pneumocephalus. The patient subsequently developed worsening mental status, respiratory failure, and profound shock requiring multiple vasopressors. Bedside needle decompression, identification and repair of the cranial fossa defect, and critical care support led to improved mental status and reversal of shock and multiorgan dysfunction. Thorough evaluation revealed no evidence of an underlying infection. In this case, tension pneumocephalus incited an aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome mimicking septic shock. Prompt neurosurgical correction of pneumocephalus and critical care support not only improved neurologic status, but also reversed shock. Such a complication indicates the importance of close monitoring of patients with progressive pneumocephalus.

  10. Cerebello-cortical network fingerprints differ between essential, Parkinson's and mimicked tremors.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Raethjen, Jan; Koirala, Nabin; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideksa, Kidist G; Elble, Rodger; Groppa, Sergiu; Deuschl, Günter

    2018-06-01

    Cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops play a major role in the emergence of pathological tremors and voluntary rhythmic movements. It is unclear whether these loops differ anatomically or functionally in different types of tremor. We compared age- and sex-matched groups of patients with Parkinson's disease or essential tremor and healthy controls (n = 34 per group). High-density 256-channel EEG and multi-channel EMG from extensor and flexor muscles of both wrists were recorded simultaneously while extending the hands against gravity with the forearms supported. Tremor was thereby recorded from patients, and voluntarily mimicked tremor was recorded from healthy controls. Tomographic maps of EEG-EMG coherence were constructed using a beamformer algorithm coherent source analysis. The direction and strength of information flow between different coherent sources were estimated using time-resolved partial-directed coherence analyses. Tremor severity and motor performance measures were correlated with connection strengths between coherent sources. The topography of oscillatory coherent sources in the cerebellum differed significantly among the three groups, but the cortical sources in the primary sensorimotor region and premotor cortex were not significantly different. The cerebellar and cortical source combinations matched well with known cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections derived from functional MRI resting state analyses according to the Buckner-atlas. The cerebellar sources for Parkinson's tremor and essential tremor mapped primarily to primary sensorimotor cortex, but the cerebellar source for mimicked tremor mapped primarily to premotor cortex. Time-resolved partial-directed coherence analyses revealed activity flow mainly from cerebellum to sensorimotor cortex in Parkinson's tremor and essential tremor and mainly from cerebral cortex to cerebellum in mimicked tremor. EMG oscillation flowed mainly to the cerebellum in mimicked tremor, but oscillation flowed mainly

  11. Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserinemore » or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored

  13. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30 min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/ phosphatidylserine/cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, ∼40-45°C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer “frustration” which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored curvature

  14. Electrocardiogram artifact caused by rigors mimicking narrow complex tachycardia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Indrakumar, Jegarajah

    2014-02-04

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Rigors due to shivering can cause electrocardiogram artifacts mimicking various cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We describe an 80-year-old Sri Lankan man with an abnormal electrocardiogram mimicking narrow complex tachycardia during the immediate post-operative period. Electrocardiogram changes caused by muscle tremor during rigors could mimic a narrow complex tachycardia. Identification of muscle tremor as a cause of electrocardiogram artifact can avoid unnecessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention to prevent arrhythmias.

  15. A case report of spondylectomy with circumference reconstruction for aggressive vertebral hemangioma covering the whole cervical spine (C4) with progressive spinal disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Masayuki; Nishida, Kenki; Kumamoto, Shinji; Hijikata, Yasukazu; Harada, Kei

    2017-05-01

    To describe the surgical experience of spondylectomy and spinal reconstruction for aggressive vertebral hemangioma (VH) induced at the C4 vertebra. No reports have described surgical strategy in cases covering an entire cervical vertebra presenting with progressive myelopathy. A 28-year-old man presented with rapidly progressing skilled motor dysfunction and gait disorder. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was 6. Radiography showed a honeycomb appearance for the entire circumference of the C4 vertebra. Spinal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed vertebral tumor with extraosseous extension causing spinal cord compression. Results of diagnostic imaging were strongly suggestive of VH. Transarterial embolization of the spinal body branch was performed first to decrease intraoperative bleeding, followed by cervical posterior fixation to stabilize the unstable segment and excision biopsy to obtain a definitive diagnosis. After definitive diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma, two-stage surgery (anterior and posterior) was performed to complete total spondylectomy and 360° spinal reconstruction. Despite multiple operations, JOA scores were 8.5 after posterior fixation, 10.5 after anterior surgery, 11 after final surgery and 16 on postoperative day 90. The patient acquired excellent clinical results without complications and returned to society. The present three-stage surgery comprising fixation, biopsy, and final spondylectomy with circumferential fusion from anterior and posterior approaches may offer a useful choice for aggressive VH covering the entire cervical spine with rapidly progressive myelopathy.

  16. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Mimicking a Primary Colon Mass.

    PubMed

    Hollowoa, Blake; Lamps, Laura W; Mizell, Jason S; English, George W; Bridge, Julia A; Ram, Roopa; Gardner, Jerad M

    2018-04-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is typically a nonlipogenic high-grade sarcoma that arises from well-differentiated liposarcoma. It most commonly presents as a large mass in the retroperitoneum. Significant involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by dedifferentiated liposarcoma is uncommon. We present a unique case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma radiographically mimicking a primary colon mass with resulting intussusception; stranding of the adjacent adipose tissue was presumed to be a secondary reactive change. On histopathologic analysis of the hemicolectomy specimen, a high-grade sarcoma was seen growing through the colonic wall, and the majority of the surrounding pericolonic adipose tissue was actually composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma with characteristic fibrous bands rather than benign fat with reactive fibrosis. This case raises awareness that well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma can rarely present as a primary intestinal mass mimicking colon cancer or other more common entities. When radiographic examination shows a perigastrointestinal or retroperitoneal fatty mass and/or stranding of the fat adjacent to a solid gastrointestinal mass, this unusual scenario should be considered in the radiologic differential diagnosis. Pathologists should keep dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the initial histologic differential diagnosis for any high-grade spindle cell tumor of the retroperitoneum or intra-abdominal visceral organs.

  17. Differential diagnosis of CT focal liver lesions using texture features, feature selection and ensemble driven classifiers.

    PubMed

    Mougiakakou, Stavroula G; Valavanis, Ioannis K; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to define an optimally performing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) architecture for the classification of liver tissue from non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images into normal liver (C1), hepatic cyst (C2), hemangioma (C3), and hepatocellular carcinoma (C4). To this end, various CAD architectures, based on texture features and ensembles of classifiers (ECs), are comparatively assessed. Number of regions of interests (ROIs) corresponding to C1-C4 have been defined by experienced radiologists in non-enhanced liver CT images. For each ROI, five distinct sets of texture features were extracted using first order statistics, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference method, Laws' texture energy measures, and fractal dimension measurements. Two different ECs were constructed and compared. The first one consists of five multilayer perceptron neural networks (NNs), each using as input one of the computed texture feature sets or its reduced version after genetic algorithm-based feature selection. The second EC comprised five different primary classifiers, namely one multilayer perceptron NN, one probabilistic NN, and three k-nearest neighbor classifiers, each fed with the combination of the five texture feature sets or their reduced versions. The final decision of each EC was extracted by using appropriate voting schemes, while bootstrap re-sampling was utilized in order to estimate the generalization ability of the CAD architectures based on the available relatively small-sized data set. The best mean classification accuracy (84.96%) is achieved by the second EC using a fused feature set, and the weighted voting scheme. The fused feature set was obtained after appropriate feature selection applied to specific subsets of the original feature set. The comparative assessment of the various CAD architectures shows that combining three types of classifiers with a voting scheme, fed with identical feature sets obtained after

  18. SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, O.; Schwartz, S.I.

    This book describes the diagnosis of liver tumors. Topics considered include general considerations, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, cholangiocarcinoma, mesenchyomoma, sarcoma, hemangioma, hepatic cell adenoma, focal nodular hyperlasia (FNH), hamartoma, echinococcus cyst, abscess, AV fistula, hepatic artery aneurysm, metastatic carcinoma-colon, metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, metastatic melanoma, metastatic merkel cell and extrahepatic tumor.

  19. Peroxidase-Mimicking Nanozyme with Enhanced Activity and High Stability Based on Metal-Support Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Yang, Xiangdong; Yang, Yanbing; Tan, Yaning; He, Yue; Liu, Meng; Liu, Xinwen; Yuan, Quan

    2018-01-09

    Peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes offer unique advantages in terms of high stability and low cost over natural peroxidase for applications in bioanalysis, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. However, the design of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes remains a great challenge. In this study, we adopted a structural-design approach through hybridization of cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles to create a new peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with high efficiency and excellent stability. Relative to pure cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles, the as-hybridized Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites display much improved activities because of the strong metal-support interaction. Meanwhile, the nanocomposites also maintain high catalytic activity after long-term storage and multiple recycling. Based on their excellent properties, Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites were used to construct high-performance colorimetric biosensors for the sensitive detection of metabolites, including H 2 O 2 and glucose. Our findings highlight opportunities for the development of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes with potential applications such as diagnostics, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hereditary fructose intolerance mimicking a biochemical phenotype of mucolipidosis: A review of the literature of secondary causes of lysosomal enzyme activity elevation in serum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos R; Devaney, Joseph M; Hofherr, Sean E; Pollard, Laura M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    We describe a patient with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and elevation of multiple plasma lysosomal enzyme activities mimicking mucolipidosis II or III, in whom a diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was ultimately obtained. She presented before introduction of solid foods, given her consumption of a fructose-containing infant formula. We present the most extensive panel of lysosomal enzyme activities reported to date in a patient with HFI, and propose that multiple enzyme elevations in plasma, especially when in conjunction with a normal plasma α-mannosidase activity, should elicit a differential diagnosis of HFI. We also performed a review of the literature on the different etiologies of elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum or plasma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interaction of glucocorticoids with FXR/FGF19/FGF21-mediated ileum-liver crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqil, Faten A; Monte, Maria J; Peleteiro-Vigil, Ana; Briz, Oscar; Rosales, Ruben; González, Raquel; Aranda, Carlos J; Ocón, Borja; Uriarte, Iker; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martinez-Augustín, Olga; Avila, Matías A; Marín, José J G; Romero, Marta R

    2018-06-06

    At high doses, glucocorticoids (GC) have been associated with enhanced serum bile acids and liver injury. We have evaluated the effect of GC, in the absence of hepatotoxicity, on FXR/FGF91(Fgf15)/FGF21-mediated ileum-liver crosstalk. Rats and mice (wild type and Fxr -/- , Fgf15 -/- and int-Gr -/- strains; the latter with GC receptor (Gr) knockout selective for intestinal epithelial cells), were treated (i.p.) with dexamethasone, prednisolone or budesonide. In both species, high doses of GC caused hepatotoxicity. At a non-hepatotoxic dose, GC induced ileal Fgf15 down-regulation and liver Fgf21 up-regulation, without affecting Fxr expression. Fgf21 mRNA levels correlated with those of several genes involved in glucose and bile acid metabolism. Surprisingly, liver Cyp7a1 was not up-regulated. The expression of factors involved in transcriptional modulation by Fxr and Gr (p300, Drip205, CBP and Smrt) was not affected. Pxr target genes Cyp3a11 and Mrp2 were not up-regulated in liver or intestine. In contrast, the expression of some Pparα target genes in liver (Fgf21, Cyp4a14 and Vanin-1) and intestine (Vanin-1 and Cyp3a11) was altered. In mice with experimental colitis, liver Fgf21 was up-regulated (4.4-fold). HepG2 cells transfection with FGF21 inhibited CYP7A1 promoter (prCYP7A1-Luc2). This was mimicked by pure human FGF21 protein or culture in medium previously conditioned by cells over-expressing FGF21. This response was not abolished by deletion of a putative response element for phosphorylated FGF21 effectors present in prCYP7A1. In conclusion, GC interfere with FXR/FGF19-mediated intestinal control of CYP7A1 expression by the liver and stimulate hepatic secretion of FGF21, which inhibits CYP7A1 promoter through an autocrine mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Models of non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Potential Translational Value: the Effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Grasselli, Elena; Canesi, Laura; Portincasa, Piero; Voci, Adriana; Vergani, Laura; Demori, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in industrialized countries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic diseases. Molecular mechanisms on the root of the disrupted lipid homeostasis in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies can benefit of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of fatty liver. Here, we describe the high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat in vivo model, and two in vitro models, the primary cultured rat fatty hepatocytes or the FaO rat hepatoma fatty cells, mimicking human NAFLD. Liver steatosis was invariably associated with increased number/size of lipid droplets (LDs) and modulation of expression of genes coding for key genes of lipid metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (Ppars) and perilipins (Plins). In these models, we tested the anti-steatotic effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine (T2), a metabolite of thyroid hormones. T2 markedly reduced triglyceride content and LD size acting on mRNA expression of both Ppars and Plins. T2 also stimulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of fatty acids. We conclude that in vivo and especially in vitro models of NAFLD are valuable tools to screen a large number of compounds counteracting the deleterious effect of liver steatosis. Because of the high and negative impact of liver steatosis on human health, ongoing experimental studies from our group are unravelling the ultimate translational value of such cellular models of NAFLD.

  3. Vascularization of liver tumors - preliminary results with Coded Harmonic Angio (CHA), phase inversion imaging, 3D power Doppler and contrast medium-enhanced B-flow with second generation contrast agent (Optison).

    PubMed

    Jung, E M; Kubale, R; Jungius, K-P; Jung, W; Lenhart, M; Clevert, D-A

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the dynamic value of contrast medium-enhanced ultrasonography with Optison for appraisal of the vascularization of hepatic tumors using harmonic imaging, 3D-/power Doppler and B-flow. 60 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range 35-76 years) with 93 liver tumors, including histopathologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [15 cases with 20 lesions], liver metastases of colorectal tumors [17 cases with 33 lesions], metastases of breast cancer [10 cases with 21 lesions] and hemangiomas [10 cases with 19 lesions] were prospectively investigated by means of multislice CT as well as native and contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound using a multifrequency transducer (2.5-4 MHz, Logig 9, GE). B scan was performed with additional color and power Doppler, followed by a bolus injection of 0.5 ml Optison. Tumor vascularization was evaluated with coded harmonic angio (CHA), pulse inversion imaging with power Doppler, 3D power Doppler and in the late phase (>5 min) with B-flow. In 15 cases with HCC, i.a. DSA was performed in addition. The results were also correlated with MRT and histological findings. Compared to spiral-CT/MRT, only 72/93 (77%) of the lesions could be detected in the B scan, 75/93 (81%) with CHA and 93/93 (100%) in the pulse inversion mode. Tumor vascularization was detectable in 43/93 (46%) of lesions with native power Doppler, in 75/93 (81%) of lesions after administering contrast medium in the CHA mode, in 81/93 (87%) of lesions in the pulse inversion mode with power Doppler and in 77/93 (83%) of lesions with contrast-enhanced B-flow. Early arterial and capillary perfusion was best detected with CHA, particularly in 20/20 (100%) of the HCC lesions, allowing a 3D reconstruction. 3D power Doppler was especially useful in investigating the tumor margins. Up to 20 min after contrast medium injection, B-flow was capable of detecting increased metastatic tumor vascularization in 42/54 (78%) of cases and intratumoral perfusion in 17/20 (85

  4. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. FOSB immunoreactivity in endothelia of epithelioid hemangioma (angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia).

    PubMed

    Ortins-Pina, Ana; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Turpin, Sara; Soares-de-Almeida, Luís; Filipe, Paulo; Kutzner, Heinz

    2018-06-01

    Accurate distinction of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) from its malignant mimics is paramount but remains challenging due to its wide morphological spectrum and lack of objective molecular markers. FOSB oncogenic activation was recently identified as a key event in endothelial proliferation. We sought to investigate the FOSB staining pattern in EH with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (EH-AHLE) morphology and to evaluate its value in differential diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors. From the authors' files, 15 representative cases of EH-ALHE were selected and evaluated for their FOSB immunostaining pattern. Other vascular proliferations which can be morphological mimics were also tested: epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) (5 cases) and epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS) (5 cases). All 15 cases of EH-ALHE showed strong and homogeneous FOSB nuclear expression in endothelial cells with ample cytoplasm and intracytoplasmic vacuoles. All cases of EHE and EAS lacked FOSB immunoreactivity or showed only incidental weak FOSB immunoreactivity in less than 5 nuclei per lesion. FOSB immunohistochemistry is sensitive in the diagnosis of EH-ALHE, and allows differentiation from its histological mimics. An immunohistochemical panel including not only pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and endothelial markers, but also FOSB, helps in the diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Congenital capillary proliferation of the kidney: a distinctive renal vascular lesion of childhood.

    PubMed

    Cajaiba, Mariana M; North, Paula E; Gong, Shunyou; Dickman, Paul S; Mroczek-Musulman, Elizabeth; Sauer, David A; Perlman, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-01

    Renal vascular lesions (RVL) are rare, and their morphological spectrum remains largely unknown, particularly in children. In this study, we characterize the clinicopathological features of RVL in a cohort of 12 children. Seven lesions were classified as previously recognized entities: vascular malformations (4), papillary endothelial hyperplasia (2), and pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary hemangioma; 1). An eighth lesion showed nonspecific findings, which were interpreted as reactive during our review. The remaining 4 cases presented either prenatally, at birth, or shortly after birth and were morphologically similar. These were characterized by a peculiar pattern of capillary proliferation with entrapment of native renal structures, variable amounts of extramedullary hematopoiesis and reactive lymphocytes, foci of infarction and hemorrhage, and the presence of feeding and draining vessels at their periphery. To our knowledge, this represents a previously undescribed congenital vascular lesion involving the kidney, which we have descriptively and provisionally termed congenital capillary proliferation of the kidney (CCPK). While it is unclear whether CCPK represents a malformation or neoplastic proliferation, it shows overlapping features with congenital hemangioma of the liver (solitary congenital hepatic hemangioma) and congenital nonprogressive hemangioma (CNH) of the skin and soft tissue, suggesting a possible common pathogenesis among these 3 entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cystic Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Lung Mimicking Hydatid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Faouzi; El Hadj Sidi, Chighali; Ghannouchi, Chams

    2016-12-01

    A 60-year-old woman, with history of a resected uterine benign leiomyoma, is operated for a cystic lesion in the left lung, mimicking an hydatid cyst, and confirmed histologically as Cystic Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma.

  8. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  9. Rational Design of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials as Nanoadjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulery, Bret D.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R.; Kumar, Devender; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-12-01

    An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The value of using polyanhydride nanovaccines was demonstrated by the induction of long-lived protection against a lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis following a single administration ten months earlier. This approach has the tantalizing potential to catalyze the development of next generation vaccines against diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  10. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2018-01-01

    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm 2 . Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm 2 for DKI calculation.

  11. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.

  12. Subependymal Heterotopia Mimicking Mass in Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Demonstration With 3T Advanced Neuroimages.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Filiz; Ogul, Hayri

    2017-10-01

    The authors reported a rare patient with large subependymal heterotopia mimicking cerebral neoplasia. A 22-year-old female was admitted with a history of right-sided paresthesia accompanied by progressive headache. Cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large solid lesion in the left frontal lobe. Advanced MR images proved that the lesion was compatible with subependymal heterotopia. Large subependymal heterotopia may mimick cerebral neoplasia.

  13. Friedreich's ataxia mimicking hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Panas, Marios; Kalfakis, Nikolaos; Karadima, Georgia; Davaki, Panagiota; Vassilopoulos, Demetris

    2002-11-01

    Four patients from three unrelated families, with clinical and electrophysiological findings compatible with the diagnosis of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, are presented. The molecular analysis showed that the affected individuals were homozygous for the mutation in the X25 gene, characteristic of Friedreich's ataxia. These patients seem to represent a form of Friedreich's ataxia mimicking Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  14. Central nervous system borreliosis mimicking a pontine tumour.

    PubMed

    Latsch, Kirsten; Tappe, Dennis; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Hebestreit, Helge

    2006-11-01

    In childhood, facial nerve palsy and headache are typical symptoms of second and third stage neuroborreliosis. While focal demyelination is occasionally observed on MRI scans, the appearance of a tumorous lesion is extremely rare. The case of a 10-year-old girl with neuroborreliosis mimicking a space-occupying lesion in the brainstem, without any previously recognized manifestations of borreliosis, is reported.

  15. External vibration multi-directional ultrasound shearwave elastography (EVMUSE): application in liver fibrosis staging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Kinnick, Randall R; Callstrom, Matthew R; Sanchez, William; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2014-11-01

    Shear wave speed can be used to assess tissue elasticity, which is associated with tissue health. Ultrasound shear wave elastography techniques based on measuring the propagation speed of the shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force are becoming promising alternatives to biopsy in liver fibrosis staging. However, shear waves generated by such methods are typically very weak. Therefore, the penetration may become problematic, especially for overweight or obese patients. In this study, we developed a new method called external vibration multi-directional ultrasound shearwave elastography (EVMUSE), in which external vibration from a loudspeaker was used to generate a multi-directional shear wave field. A directional filter was then applied to separate the complex shear wave field into several shear wave fields propagating in different directions. A 2-D shear wave speed map was reconstructed from each individual shear wave field, and a final 2-D shear wave speed map was constructed by compounding these individual wave speed maps. The method was validated using two homogeneous phantoms and one multi-purpose tissue-mimicking phantom. Ten patients undergoing liver magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) were also studied with EVMUSE to compare results between the two methods. Phantom results showed EVMUSE was able to quantify tissue elasticity accurately with good penetration. In vivo EVMUSE results were well correlated with MRE results, indicating the promise of using EVMUSE for liver fibrosis staging.

  16. External Vibration Multi-directional Ultrasound Shearwave Elastography (EVMUSE): Application in Liver Fibrosis Staging

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heng; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Sanchez, William; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave speed can be used to assess tissue elasticity, which is associated with tissue health. Ultrasound shear wave elastography techniques based on measuring the propagation speed of the shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force are becoming promising alternatives to biopsy in liver fibrosis staging. However, shear waves generated by such methods are typically very weak. Therefore, the penetration may become problematic, especially for overweight or obese patients. In this study, we developed a new method called External Vibration Multi-directional Ultrasound Shearwave Elastography (EVMUSE), in which external vibration from a loudspeaker was used to generate a multi-directional shear wave field. A directional filter was then applied to separate the complex shear wave field into several shear wave fields propagating in different directions. A two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed map was reconstructed from each individual shear wave field, and a final 2D shear wave speed map was constructed by compounding these individual wave speed maps. The method was validated using two homogeneous phantoms and one multi-purpose tissue-mimicking phantom. Ten patients undergoing liver Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) were also studied with EVMUSE to compare results between the two methods. Phantom results showed EVMUSE was able to quantify tissue elasticity accurately with good penetration. In vivo EVMUSE results were well correlated with MRE results, indicating the promise of using EVMUSE for liver fibrosis staging. PMID:25020066

  17. Autoimmunity to Tropomyosin-Specific Peptides Induced by Mycobacterium leprae in Leprosy Patients: Identification of Mimicking Proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Itu; Yadav, Asha Ram; Mohanty, Keshar Kunja; Katoch, Kiran; Sharma, Prashant; Pathak, Vinay Kumar; Bisht, Deepa; Gupta, Umesh D; Sengupta, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown earlier that there is a rise in the levels of autoantibodies and T cell response to cytoskeletal proteins in leprosy. Our group recently demonstrated a rise in both T and B cell responses to keratin and myelin basic protein in all types of leprosy patients and their associations in type 1 reaction (T1R) group of leprosy. In this study, we investigated the association of levels of autoantibodies and lymphoproliferation against myosin in leprosy patients across the spectrum and tried to find out the mimicking proteins or epitopes between host protein and protein/s of Mycobacterium leprae . One hundred and sixty-nine leprosy patients and 55 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the present study. Levels of anti-myosin antibodies and T-cell responses against myosin were measured by ELISA and lymphoproliferation assay, respectively. Using 2-D gel electrophoresis, western blot and MALDI-TOF/TOF antibody-reactive spots were identified. Three-dimensional structure of mimicking proteins was modeled by online server. B cell epitopes of the proteins were predicted by BCPREDS server 1.0 followed by identification of mimicking epitopes. Mice of inbred BALB/c strain were hyperimmunized with M. leprae soluble antigen (MLSA) and splenocytes and lymph node cells of these animals were adoptively transferred to naïve mice. Highest level of anti-myosin antibodies was noted in sera of T1R leprosy patients. We observed significantly higher levels of lymphoproliferative response ( p  < 0.05) with myosin in all types of leprosy patients compared to HC. Further, hyperimmunization of inbred BALB/c strain of female mice and rabbit with MLSA revealed that both hyperimmunized rabbit and mice evoked heightened levels of antibodies against myosin and this autoimmune response could be adoptively transferred from hyperimmunized to naïve mice. Tropomyosin was found to be mimicking with ATP-dependent Clp protease ATP-binding subunit of M. leprae . We found four mimicking

  18. Vertebral hemangiomas in the thoracic spine of multiple sclerosis patients are connected with fewer demyelinating lesions at the same level. Possible impact on pathophysiology and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Kyrozis, Andreas; Gontika, Maria; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos I; Kapaki, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    Mechanisms of angiogenesis regulate multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions' evolution, displaying both neuroprotective and harmful effects. Factors traditionally considered as purely angiogenic, like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exert complex heterogenous actions on both neural and vascular malformation-derived tissues. Aim of this retrospective study was to examine, for the first time, potential associations between the presence of common vascular malformations, like vertebral hemangiomas (VHs), and several clinico-radiological MS parameters. 236 MS patients who were followed in our Outpatient Clinic were recruited in this study. Outcome measures concerned demographics, disease-derived variables, and MS-lesions' distribution in VHs - positive and negative patients. All data were collected retrospectively. Potential correlations were assessed with univariate statistical analyses (p = 0.05), followed by multivariate regression models, for purposes of confounder-effects elimination. VH presence showed significant negative correlations with presence of MS lesions in the thoracic (p = 0.005 for thoracic VHs), but not the cervical cord. Trends towards negative associations of VH presence with subtentorial MS lesions and positive family history for MS were also observed. Our observations suggest that VH presence may reduce the risk of thoracic demyelinating lesions in MS patients. They could be explained as part of a multifaceted angiogenic process, concomitantly enhancing neural repair and abnormal hemangioma vascularization.

  19. SciTech Connect

    Stanley, P.; Geer, G.D.; Miller, J.H.

    The clinical features, radiologic investigation, and treatment of 20 infants with hepatic hemangiomas are presented. Palpable abdominal mass (n = 18) and cardiac failure (n = 11) were the common presenting features. Nine patients had hyperconsumptive coagulopathy. Seven patients had other hemangiomas. Ultrasound (n = 15) showed the number and distribution of the hemangiomas within the liver. Hypoechoic and hyperechoic elements were present in addition to prominent vascular channels and diminished caliber of the distal aorta. Radionuclide sulfur colloid (n = 12) and labeled red blood cell (n = 7) studies showed the distribution and vascularity of the hemangiomas. Computedmore » tomography (n = 8) revealed central hypointensity with marked peripheral enhancement after contrast. Arteriography now performed only as a prelude to therapeutic embolization demonstrated hypervascularity in each patient, contrast pooling in six and early draining veins in five. Magnetic resonance scanning (n = 3) showed decreased signal intensity on T1 images and high intensity signal on T2. In two patients, there was resolution or improvement of the hemangiomas without therapy. Four patients had surgery (lobectomy (2), trisegmentectomy (1), and surgical evacuation of a central hematoma (1)). Steroids and radiation were given to seven patients, and one patient also required therapeutic embolization. Steroids were the initial therapy in five patients, one of whom later required therapeutic embolization and another cyclophosphamide. Two patients were treated initially with radiation therapy, one of whom also needed emergency hepatic artery ligation. Seventeen of the 20 patients are alive and well from 6 months to 14 years after diagnosis.« less

  20. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Akpinar, Berkcan; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Lunsford, L Dade; Liu, Kang-Du

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH. METHODS An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12-19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%. RESULTS Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

  1. Expression profile of circular RNAs in infantile hemangioma detected by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Ling; Gao, Yanli; Li, Jingyun

    2018-05-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of widespread non-coding RNAs, and they play crucial roles in various biological processes. However, the characterization and function of circRNAs in infantile hemangioma (IH) remain elusive. In this study, we used RNA-Seq and circRNA prediction to study and characterize the circRNAs in IH tissue and a matched normal skin control. Specific circRNAs were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that of the 9811 identified circRNAs, 249 candidates were differentially expressed, including 124 upregulated and 125 downregulated circRNAs in the IH group compared with the matched normal skin control group. A set of differentially expressed circRNAs (in particular, hsa_circRNA001885 and hsa_circRNA006612 expression) were confirmed using qRT-PCR. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed that compared to matched normal skin tissues, many processes that were over-represented in IH group were related to the binding, protein binding, gap junction, and focal adhesion. Specific circRNAs were associated with several micro-RNAs (miRNAs) predicted using miRanda. Altogether, our findings highlight the potential importance of circRNAs in the biology of IH and its response to treatment.

  2. Registration of liver images to minimally invasive intraoperative surface and subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yifei; Rucker, D. C.; Conley, Rebekah H.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Geevarghese, Sunil K.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection is increasingly being performed with results comparable to open cases while incurring less trauma and reducing recovery time. The tradeoff is increased difficulty due to limited visibility and restricted freedom of movement. Image-guided surgical navigation systems have the potential to help localize anatomical features to improve procedural safety and achieve better surgical resection outcome. Previous research has demonstrated that intraoperative surface data can be used to drive a finite element tissue mechanics organ model such that high resolution preoperative scans are registered and visualized in the context of the current surgical pose. In this paper we present an investigation of using sparse data as imposed by laparoscopic limitations to drive a registration model. Non-contact laparoscopicallyacquired surface swabbing and mock-ultrasound subsurface data were used within the context of a nonrigid registration methodology to align mock deformed intraoperative surface data to the corresponding preoperative liver model as derived from pre-operative image segmentations. The mock testing setup to validate the potential of this approach used a tissue-mimicking liver phantom with a realistic abdomen-port patient configuration. Experimental results demonstrates a range of target registration errors (TRE) on the order of 5mm were achieving using only surface swab data, while use of only subsurface data yielded errors on the order of 6mm. Registrations using a combination of both datasets achieved TRE on the order of 2.5mm and represent a sizeable improvement over either dataset alone.

  3. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968

  4. Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia Mimicking Bone Metastases From Primary Hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Kui; Shen, Chen-Tian; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Adefovir-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in the context of hepatocarcinoma is rare and needs to be differentiated from metastatic hepatocarcinoma. We here report a case of severe osteomalacia whose focal uptakes of radiotracer on the Tc-MDP SPECT/CT images mimicked that of metastatic hepatocarcinoma.

  5. Attenuation measuring ultrasound shearwave elastography and in vivo application in post-transplant liver patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W.; Zhao, Heng; Sanchez, William; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography techniques are used to assess mechanical properties of soft tissues. Tissue stiffness is related to various pathologies such as fibrosis, loss of compliance, and cancer. One way to perform elastography is measuring shear wave velocity of propagating waves in tissue induced by intrinsic motion or an external source of vibration, and relating the shear wave velocity to tissue elasticity. All tissues are inherently viscoelastic and ignoring viscosity biases the velocity-based estimates of elasticity and ignores a potentially important parameter of tissue health. We present attenuation measuring ultrasound shearwave elastography (AMUSE), a technique that independently measures both shear wave velocity and attenuation in tissue and therefore allows characterization of viscoelasticity without using a rheological model. The theoretical basis for AMUSE is first derived and validated in finite element simulations. AMUSE is validated against the traditional methods for assessing shear wave velocity (phase gradient) and attenuation (amplitude decay) in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised tissue. The results agreed within one standard deviation. AMUSE was used to measure shear wave velocity and attenuation in 15 transplanted livers in patients with potential acute rejection, and the results were compared with the biopsy findings in a preliminary study. The comparison showed excellent agreement and suggests that AMUSE can be used to separate transplanted livers with acute rejection from livers with no rejection.

  6. Repeatability of shear wave elastography in liver fibrosis phantoms—Evaluation of five different systems

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and validate the repeatability and agreement of quantitative elastography of novel shear wave methods on four individual tissue-mimicking liver fibrosis phantoms with different known Young’s modulus. We used GE Logiq E9 2D-SWE, Philips iU22 ARFI (pSWE), Samsung TS80A SWE (pSWE), Hitachi Ascendus (SWM) and Transient Elastography (TE). Two individual investigators performed all measurements non-continued and in parallel. The methods were evaluated for inter- and intraobserver variability by intraclass correlation, coefficient of variation and limits of agreement using the median elastography value. All systems used in this study provided high repeatability in quantitative measurements in a liver fibrosis phantom and excellent inter- and intraclass correlations. All four elastography platforms showed excellent intra-and interobserver agreement (interclass correlation 0.981–1.000 and intraclass correlation 0.987–1.000) and no significant difference in mean elasticity measurements for all systems, except for TE on phantom 4. All four liver fibrosis phantoms could be differentiated by quantitative elastography, by all platforms (p<0.001). In the Bland-Altman analysis the differences in measurements were larger for the phantoms with higher Young’s modulus. All platforms had a coefficient of variation in the range 0.00–0.21 for all four phantoms, equivalent to low variance and high repeatability. PMID:29293527

  7. SU-F-T-433: Evaluation of a New Dose Mimicking Application for Clinical Flexibility and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D; Nair, C Kumaran; Wright, C

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical workflow and machine down time occasionally require patients to be temporarily treated on a system other than the initial treatment machine. A new commercial dose mimicking application provides automated cross-platform treatment planning to expedite this clinical flexibility. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of automatic plan creation and establish a robust clinical workflow for prostate and pelvis patients. Methods: Five prostate and five pelvis patients treated with helical plans were selected for re-planning with the dose mimicking application, covering both simple and complex scenarios. Two-arc VMAT and 7- and 9-field IMRT plans were generatedmore » for each case, with the objective function of achieving similar dose volume histogram from the initial helical plans. Dosimetric comparisons include target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) (rectum, bladder, small bowel, femoral heads, etc.). Dose mimicked plans were evaluated by a radiation oncologist, and patient-specific QAs were performed to validate delivery. Results: Overall plan generation and transfer required around 30 minutes of dosimetrist’s time once the dose-mimicking protocol is setup for each site. The resulting VMAT and 7- and 9-field IMRT plans achieved equivalent PTV coverage and homogeneity (D99/DRx = 97.3%, 97.2%, 97.2% and HI = 6.0, 5.8, and 5.9, respectively), compared to helical plans (97.6% and 4.6). The OAR dose discrepancies were up to 6% in rectum Dmean, but generally lower in bladder, femoral heads, bowel and penile bulb. In the context of 1–5 fractions, the radiation oncologist evaluated the dosimetric changes as not clinically significant. All delivery QAs achieved >90% pass with a 3%/3mm gamma criteria. Conclusion: The automated dose-mimicking workflow offers a strategy to avoid missing treatment fractions due to machine down time with non-clinically significant changes in dosimetry. Future work will further optimize dose mimicking plans and

  8. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan-Barre Syndrome, hence reported.

  9. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  10. Evaluation of 2D- Shear Wave Elastography for Characterisation of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ludmila; Fitting, Daniel; Srikantharajah, Kajana; Weiler, Nina; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Bojunga, Joerg; Schulze, Falko; Bon, Dimitra; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2017-09-01

    This is a prospective study for evaluation of 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for characterisation and differentiation of benign und malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs). The patients referred to our ultrasound unit were prospectively included. B-mode ultrasound and 2D-SWE (Aixplorer® France) were performed for one FLL in each patient. Liver histology and/or contrast-enhanced imaging were used as a reference method. 140 patients with FLL were included. SWE acquisitions failed in 24% of them. Therefore, 106 patients with FLL could be analysed, 42/106 with benign and 64/106 with malignant FLLs. The median stiffness for benign FLLs was 16.4 (2.1-71.9) kPa: 16.55 kPa for 18 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 16.35 kPa for 18 hemangioma, 9.8 kPa for 3 focal fatty sparings (FFS), 8.9 kPa for 1 adenoma, 20 kPa for one regenerative node and 29 kPa for one cholangiofibroma, and for the malignant FLLs 36 (4.1-142.9) kPa: 44.8 kPa for 16 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 70.7 kPa for 7 cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and 29.5 kPa for the 41 metastasis (p<0.001). Malignant FLLs were significantly stiffer than benign FLLs (p<0.0001). Cholangiocarcinomas were the stiffest malignant FFLs with significantly higher values as compared to HCCs and metastases (p=0.033 and p=0.0079, respectively). No significant difference in stiffness could be observed between the different benign FLL entities. No significant difference was observed whether 2D-SWE included the whole FLL, the periphery or only the hardest area of the FLL. 2D-SWE provides further characterising information for interpretation of FLLs and may be useful at least in differentiation of CCCs and HCCs.

  11. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment causes obesity, diabetes, and macrovesicular steatohepatitis with liver nodules in DIAR mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyama, Koichi; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Taira, Shu; Fujimoto, Makoto; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Nakajima, Takahiko; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Oda, Emu; Hokao, Ryoji; Imura, Johji

    2014-09-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MS). Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated ICR mice is a useful model of MS and NASH, but it shows the different patterns of steatosis from human NASH. Because inbred aged DIAR (ddY, Institute for Animal Reproduction) mice spontaneously show the similar pattern of steatosis as NASH, we analyzed their liver pathology after administering MSG. MSG-treated DIAR mice (DIAR-MSG) and untreated DIAR mice (DIAR-controls) were sacrificed and assessed histopathologically at 29, 32, 40, 48, and 54 weeks of age. The NASH activity score, body mass index, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test were also assessed. The body mass index and blood glucose levels of DIAR-MSG were significantly higher than controls. The oral glucose tolerance test revealed a type 2 diabetes pattern in DIAR-MSG. The livers of DIAR-MSG mice showed macrovesicular steatosis, lobular inflammation with neutrophils, and ballooning degeneration after 29 weeks. At 54 weeks, mild fibrosis was observed in 5/6 DIAR-MSG and 2/5 DIAR-control mice. In imaging mass spectrometry analysis, cholesterol as well as triglyceride accumulated in the liver of DIAR-MSG mice. Atypical liver nodules were also observed after 32 weeks in DIAR-MSG, some with cellular and structural atypia mimicking human hepatocellular carcinoma. The NASH activity score of DIAR-MSG after 29 weeks was higher than that of control mice, suggesting the development of NASH. DIAR-MSG had NASH-like liver pathology and liver nodules typically associated with MS symptoms. DIAR-MSG provides a valuable animal model to analyze NASH pathogenesis and carcinogenesis. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation mimicking melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Felipe; Leocadia, Elizabeth; Macarenco, Ricardo S.; Lapins, Jan; Huet, Pascale; Akay, Bengu Nisa; Steiner, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation (RASD) is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor with peculiar histopathologic characteristics [1]. RASD had been described under various synonyms such as superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, sebocrine adenoma, poroma with sebaceous differentiation, and seborrheic keratosis with sebaceous differentiation [2]. Clinical differential diagnosis of RASD includes cutaneous superficial epithelial neoplasia such as Bowen’s disease, superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and intraepidermal eccrine poroma [1]. We report the first case of RASD mimicking both clinically and dermoscopically a melanoma. PMID:29085717

  14. Demodex folliculitis mimicking acute graft-vs-host disease.

    PubMed

    Cotliar, Jonathan; Frankfurt, Olga

    2013-12-01

    Acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) typically requires high-dose systemic steroids as first-line treatment. Like drug eruptions, viral exanthema, and toxic erythema of chemotherapy, Demodex folliculitis is a clinical mimicker of acute GVHD and requires nonimmunosuppressive therapy. This case of Demodex folliculitis mimicking acute GVHD highlights the need for skin biopsy in patients who have undergone a stem cell transplant with eruptions on the head and neck. A 46-year-old white woman with a history of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 acute myeloid leukemia presented to the dermatology clinic with a 5-day history of a nonpruritic eruption on her face and neck 28 days after undergoing a double umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Findings from the skin biopsy demonstrated a deep dermal lymphocytic infiltrate adjacent to follicular units along with an abundance of Demodex mites noted within the hair follicles consistent with Demodex folliculitis. Oral ivermectin, 12 mg, was given, and the eruption cleared within 24 hours. To our knowledge, this is only the fifth reported case of Demodex folliculitis following HSCT, but the first ever reported to be successfully treated with oral ivermectin. Demodex folliculitis should be added to the differential diagnosis of skin eruptions that arise after HSCT.

  15. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain–Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan–Barre Syndrome, hence reported. PMID:28706599

  16. Fibromatosis of the breast mimicking an abscess: case report of unusual sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Min; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Joo, Mee; Kim, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Fibromatosis of the breast, also known as a desmoid tumor, is extremely rare and most often appears as an aggressive lesion mimicking breast carcinoma. It lacks metastatic potential but can grow aggressively in a localized area. Ultrasonography often shows an irregular spiculated hypoechoic mass with posterior acoustic shadowing. We discuss a case of breast fibromatosis that presented as a painful palpable breast mass in a 32-year-old woman and mimicked an abscess in the sonogram. We found that this lesion displayed atypical sonographic features such as a heterogeneous echoic mass with an internal anechoic area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subdural Hematoma Mimickers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Catana, Dragos; Koziarz, Alex; Cenic, Aleksa; Nath, Siddharth; Singh, Sheila; Almenawer, Saleh A; Kachur, Edward

    2016-09-01

    A variety of subdural pathologies that may mimic hematomas are reported in the literature. We aimed to identify the atypical clinical and radiologic presentations of subdural masses that may mimic subdural hematomas. A systematic review of MEDLINE and Embase was conducted independently by 2 reviewers to identify articles describing subdural hematoma mimickers. We also present a patient from our institution with a subdural pathology mimicking a subdural hematoma. We analyzed patient clinical presentations, underlying pathologies, radiologic findings, and clinical outcomes. We included 43 articles totaling 48 patients. The mean ± SD patient age was 55.7 ± 16.8 years. Of the 45 cases describing patient history, 13 patients (27%) had a history of trauma. The underlying pathologies of the 48 subdural collections were 10 metastasis (21%), 14 lymphoma (29%), 7 sarcoma (15%), 4 infectious (8%), 4 autoimmune (8%), and 9 miscellaneous (19%). Findings on computed tomography (CT) scan were 18 hyperdense (41%), 11 hypodense (25%), 9 isodense (20%), 3 isodense/hyperdense (7%), and 3 hypodense/isodense (7%). Thirty-four patients (71%) were treated surgically; among these patients, 65% had symptom resolution. Neither the pathology (P = 0.337) nor the management strategy (P = 0.671) was correlated with improved functional outcomes. Identification of atypical history and radiologic features should prompt further diagnostic tests, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to elucidate the proper diagnosis, given that certain pathologies may be managed nonsurgically. A subdural collection that is hyperdense on CT scan and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI, along with a history of progressive headache with no trauma, may raise the suspicion of an atypical subdural pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neoplastic stomach lesions and their mimickers: spectrum of imaging manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, Vivek; Sethi, Vineeta; Fraser-Hill, Margret; Fasih, Najla; Kielar, Ania

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This review illustrates a wide spectrum of gastric neoplasms with emphasis on imaging findings helpful in characterizing various gastric neoplasms. Both the malignant and benign neoplasms along with focal gastric masses mimicking tumour are illustrated. Moreover, imaging clues to reach an accurate diagnosis are emphasized. PMID:22935192

  19. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulwani, Hanni; Jain, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome. PMID:21151719

  20. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  1. Cogan's syndrome mimicking acute Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schwegmann, J P; Enzenauer, R J

    1995-05-01

    A pediatric case of Cogan's syndrome mimicking acute Lyme arthritis is described. A 12-year-old black boy was admitted to the pediatric service for presumed right knee septic arthritis. Symptoms included acute pain and swelling with decreased range-of-motion. Although the patient's right knee symptoms and positive Lyme serology were consistent with a diagnosis of Lyme arthritis, the presence of sensorineural hearing loss and interstitial keratitis with inflammatory arthritis suggested a diagnosis of Cogan's syndrome. Subsequent Western blot analysis was negative for Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. The patient had dramatic clinical improvement of musculoskeletal and ophthalmologic complaints shortly after receiving high-dose corticosteroids, although residual sensorineural hearing loss persisted.

  2. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  3. PKCλ in liver mediates insulin-induced SREBP-1c expression and determines both hepatic lipid content and overall insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Michihiro; Ogawa, Wataru; Akimoto, Kazunori; Inoue, Hiroshi; Miyake, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Kensuke; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Iguchi, Haruhisa; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Shigeo; Kasuga, Masato; Noda, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    PKCλ is implicated as a downstream effector of PI3K in insulin action. We show here that mice that lack PKCλ specifically in the liver (L-λKO mice), produced with the use of the Cre-loxP system, exhibit increased insulin sensitivity as well as a decreased triglyceride content and reduced expression of the sterol regulatory element–binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene in the liver. Induction of the hepatic expression of Srebp1c and of its target genes involved in fatty acid/triglyceride synthesis by fasting and refeeding or by hepatic expression of an active form of PI3K was inhibited in L-λKO mice compared with that in control animals. Expression of Srebp1c induced by insulin or by active PI3K in primary cultured rat hepatocytes was inhibited by a dominant-negative form of PKCλ and was mimicked by overexpression of WT PKCλ. Restoration of PKCλ expression in the liver of L-λKO mice with the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer corrected the metabolic abnormalities of these animals. Hepatic PKCλ is thus a determinant of hepatic lipid content and whole-body insulin sensitivity. PMID:12975478

  4. Being Mimicked Increases Prosocial Behavior in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Malinda; Uebel, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most previous research on imitation in infancy has focused on infants' learning of instrumental actions on objects. This study focused instead on the more social side of imitation, testing whether being mimicked increases prosocial behavior in infants, as it does in adults (van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004).…

  5. Histopathology of a benign bile duct lesion in the liver: Morphologic mimicker or precursor of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-09-01

    A bile duct lesion originating from intrahepatic bile ducts is generally regarded as an incidental pathologic finding in liver specimens. However, a recent study on the molecular classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has focused on the heterogeneity of this carcinoma and has suggested that the cells of different origins present in the biliary tree may have a major role in the mechanism of oncogenesis. In this review, benign intrahepatic bile duct lesions-regarded in the past as reactive changes or remnant developmental anomalies and now noted to have potential for developing precursor lesions of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma-are discussed by focusing on the histopathologic features and its implications in clinical practice.

  6. Mimicking the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    When Galileo first observed Venus displaying a crescent phase, he excitedly wrote to Kepler (in anagram) of Venus mimicking the moon-goddess. He would have been delirious with joy to see Saturn and Titan, seen in this image, doing the same thing. More than just pretty pictures, high-phase observations -- taken looking generally toward the Sun, as in this image -- are very powerful scientifically since the way atmospheres and rings transmit sunlight is often diagnostic of compositions and physical states. In this example, Titan's crescent nearly encircles its disk due to the small haze particles high in its atmosphere refracting the incoming light of the distant Sun. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 3 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in violet light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 11, 2013. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.7 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 154 degrees. Image scale is 64 miles (103 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18291

  7. The cutaneous manifestations and common mimickers of physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Shawna S; Findlay, Jeanne S

    2004-01-01

    The cutaneous manifestations of physical child abuse are some of the most common and easily recognized forms of injury. To make an accurate assessment and diagnosis, it is important to differentiate between inflicted cutaneous injuries and mimickers of physical abuse. Likewise, an understanding of reporting guidelines helps guide practitioners in their decision making.

  8. Cardiolipin content is involved in liver mitochondrial energy wasting associated with cancer-induced cachexia without the involvement of adenine nucleotide translocase.

    PubMed

    Julienne, Cloé Mimsy; Tardieu, Marine; Chevalier, Stéphan; Pinault, Michelle; Bougnoux, Philippe; Labarthe, François; Couet, Charles; Servais, Stéphane; Dumas, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia describes the progressive skeletal muscle wasting associated with many cancers leading to shortened survival time in cancer patients. We previously reported that cardiolipin content and energy-wasting processes were both increased in liver mitochondria in a rat model of peritoneal carcinosis (PC)-induced cachexia. To increase the understanding of the cellular biology of cancer cachexia, we investigated the involvement of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in mitochondrial energy-wasting processes in liver mitochondria of PC and pair-fed control rats and its interactions with cardiolipin in isolated liver mitochondria from healthy rats exposed to cardiolipin-enriched liposomes. We showed in this study that functional ANT content was decreased in liver mitochondria from PC rats but without any effects on the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Moreover, non-phosphorylating energy wasting was not affected by saturating concentrations of carboxyatractylate (CAT), a potent inhibitor of ANT, in liver mitochondria from PC rats. Decreased efficiency of ATP synthesis was found in normal liver mitochondria exposed to cardiolipin-enriched liposomes, with increased non-phosphorylating energy wasting, thus mimicking mitochondria from PC rats. However, the functional ANT content in these cardiolipin-enriched mitochondria was unchanged, although non-phosphorylating energy wasting was reduced by CAT-induced inhibition of ANT. Finally, non-phosphorylating energy wasting was increased in cardiolipin-enriched mitochondria with substrates for complexes 1 and 2, but not for complex 4. In conclusion, increased energy wasting measured in liver mitochondria from rats with cancer cachexia is dependent on cardiolipin but independent of ANT. Interactions between ANT and cardiolipin are modified when cancer cachexia occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with renal lesions mimicking metastatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rudmik, Lucas; Trpkov, Kiril; Nash, Carla; Kinnear, Susan; Falck, Vincent; Dushinski, John; Dixon, Elijah

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is often misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer. Since autoimmune pancreatitis is benign and responds to steroid management, it is important to diagnose it to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. We describe a novel case of IgG4-associated autoimmune pancreatitis presenting with tubulointerstitial nephritis as renal lesions mimicking metastatic tumours but with no change in renal function. PMID:16908897

  10. Involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in liver ischemic conditioning induced cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuai; Abbott, Geoffrey W.; Gao, Wei Dong; Liu, Jin; Luo, Chaozhi

    2017-01-01

    Remote ischemic conditioning has been convincingly shown to render the myocardium resistant to a subsequent more severe sustained episode of ischemia. Compared with other organs, little is known regarding the effect of transient liver ischemic conditioning. We proposed the existence of cardioprotection induced by remote liver conditioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated control (no further hepatic intervention) and remote liver ischemic conditioning groups. For liver ischemic conditioning, three cycles of 5 min of liver ischemia-reperfusion stimuli were conducted before-(liver preconditioning), post-myocardial ischemia (liver postconditioning), or in combination of both (liver preconditioning + liver postconditioning). Rats were exposed to 45 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 3 h of reperfusion thereafter. ECG and hemodynamics were measured throughout the experiment. The coronary artery was reoccluded at the end of reperfusion for infarct size determination. Blood samples were taken for serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB test. Heart tissues were taken for apoptosis measurements and Western blotting. Our data demonstrate that liver ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning, or a combination of both, offered strong cardioprotection, as evidenced by reduction in infarct size and cardiac tissue damage, recovery of cardiac function, and inhibition of apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion. Moreover, liver ischemic conditioning increased cardiac (not hepatic) glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation. Accordingly, inhibition of GSK-3β mimicked the cardioprotective action of liver conditioning. These results demonstrate that remote liver ischemic conditioning protected the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury via GSK-3β-dependent cell-survival signaling pathway. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Remote ischemic conditioning protects hearts against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury

  11. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The contribution of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the characterization of benign liver lesions in clinical practice - a monocentric experience.

    PubMed

    Martie, Alina; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Sirli, Roxana; Popescu, Alina; Danila, Mirela

    2012-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) uses second generation microbubble contrast agents and is considered to be a useful imaging method for focal liver lesions (FLLs) characterization. To observe if CEUS increases the diagnostic performance of benign FLLs as compared with standard ultrasonography examination (US). This is a single centre study developed during September 2009- December 2011 in the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, in Timisoara. We evaluated 386 benign FLLs diagnosed by means of CEUS. Before performing CEUS, all FLLs were examined by US and Power Doppler techniques. At CEUS, the benign nature of a lesion was established by the absence of washout in the portal and late phase. The typical features observed using contrast, allowed their classification in a particular type of pathology, according to the 2008 EFSUMB Guidelines. From 386 benign FLLs, 81 (20.9%) of them were diagnosed in patients with chronic liver disease, while 305 (79.1%) were in patients without chronic hepatopathy. In 355 (92%) cases CEUS established a particular type of pathology. The most frequent lesions were: hemangiomas (37.5%), focal fatty alterations (24.8%), complex cysts (10.7%) and regenerative nodules (11.8%). Based on US we correctly estimated the positive diagnosis in 55.7% cases and using CEUS, the diagnostic performance increased up to 92%. In our study, by means of US the estimate positive diagnosis was made in 55.7% of cases. CEUS properly characterized 92% of benign FLLs and increased the diagnostic performance of these lesions, as compared with US.

  13. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  14. Programmable Control in Extracellular Matrix-mimicking Polymer Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hof, Kevin S; Bastings, Maartje M C

    2017-06-28

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells have a reciprocal relationship, one shapes the other and vice versa. One of the main challenges of synthetic material systems for developmental cell culturing, organoid and stem cell work includes the implementation of this reciprocal nature. The largest hurdle to achieve true cell-instructive materials in biomaterials engineering is a lack of spatial and temporal control over material properties and the display of bioactive signals compared to the natural cell environment. ECM-mimicking hydrogels have been developed using a wide range of polymers, assembly and cross-linking strategies. While our synthetic toolbox is larger than nature, often our systems underperform when compared to ECM systems with natural components like Matrigel. Material properties and three-dimensional structure ill-represent the three-dimensional ECM reciprocal nature and ligand presentation is an oversimplified version of the complexity found in nature. We hypothesize that the lack of programmable control in properties and ligand presentation forms the basis of this mismatch in performance and analyze the presence of control in current state of the art ECM-mimicking systems based on covalent, supramolecular and recombinant polymers. We conclude that through combining the dynamics of supramolecular materials, robustness from covalent systems and the programmable spatial control of bio-activation in recombinant ECM materials, the optimal synthetic artificial ECM could be assembled.

  15. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  16. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-10-07

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptide Mimicking Primary Amine and Guanidine Containing Methacrylamide Copolymers Prepared by Raft Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Sarah E.; Paslay, Lea C.; Sahukhal, Gyan S.; Abel, Brooks A.; Brown, Tyler D.; McCormick, Charles L.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Koul, Veena; Choudhary, Veena; Elasri, Mohamed O.; Morgan, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) display the ability to eliminate a wide variety of bacteria, without toxicity to the host eukaryotic cells. Synthetic polymers containing moieties mimicking lysine and arginine components found in AMPs have been reported to show effectiveness against specific bacteria, with the mechanism of activity purported to depend on the nature of the amino acid mimic. In an attempt to incorporate the antimicrobial activity of both amino acids into a single water-soluble copolymer, a series of copolymers containing lysine mimicking aminopropyl methacrylamide (APMA) and arginine mimicking guanadinopropyl methacrylamide (GPMA) were prepared via aqueous RAFT polymerization. Copolymers were prepared with varying ratios of the comonomers, with degree of polymerization of 35–40 and narrow molecular weight distribution to simulate naturally occurring AMPs. Antimicrobial activity was determined against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria under conditions with varying salt concentration. Toxicity to mammalian cells was assessed by hemolysis of red blood cells and MTT assays of MCF-7 cells. Antimicrobial activity was observed for APMA homopolymer and copolymers with low concentrations of GPMA against all bacteria tested, with low toxicity toward mammalian cells. PMID:26558609

  18. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Amit Kanta, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis. PMID:28070434

  19. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  20. Floating retained root lesion mimicking apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming-Pang; Chen, Chih-Ping; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2009-10-01

    A case of a retained root tip simulating apical periodontitis on radiographic examination is described. The retained root tip, originating from the left lower first molar, floated under the left lower second premolar apical region mimicking apical periodontitis. It appeared as an ill-defined periapical radiolucency containing a smaller radiodense mass on radiograph. The differential diagnosis included focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis) and ossifying fibroma. Upon exicisional biopsy, a retained root associated with granulation tissue was found. After 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular lesion was healing. Meanwhile, the associated tooth showed a normal response to stimulation testing.

  1. Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver for Treating Acute Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anuj; Jain, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Liver is a vital organ of the human body performing myriad of essential functions. Liver-related ailments are often life-threatening and dramatically deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Management of acute liver diseases requires adequate support of various hepatic functions. Thus far, liver transplantation has been proven as the only effective solution for acute liver diseases. However, broader application of liver transplantation is limited by demand for lifelong immunosuppression, shortage of organ donors, relative high morbidity, and high cost. Therefore, research has been focused on attempting to develop alternative support systems to treat liver diseases. Earlier attempts have been made to use nonbiological therapies based on the use of conventional detoxification procedures such as filtration and dialysis. However, the absence of liver cells in such techniques reduced the overall survival rate of the patients and led to inadequate essential liver-specific functions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of biological therapy-based extracorporeal liver support systems as a bridge to liver transplantation or to support the ailing liver. A bioartificial liver support is an extracorporeal device through which plasma is circulated over living and functionally active hepatocytes packed in a bioreactor with the aim to aid the diseased liver until it regenerates or until a suitable graft for transplantation is available. This review article gives a brief overview of efficacy of various liver support systems that are currently available. Also, the development of advanced liver support systems, which has been analyzed for improving the important system component such as cell source and other culture and circulation conditions for the maintenance of the liver-specific functions, have been described. PMID:22416599

  2. Cell Spheroids with Enhanced Aggressiveness to Mimic Human Liver Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Ryul; Kang, Hyun Mi; Ryu, Jea-Woon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun-Su; Lee, Ho-Joon; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Nam-Soon; Im, Dong-Soo; Lim, Jung Hwa; Jung, Cho-Rok

    2017-09-05

    We fabricated a spheroid-forming unit (SFU) for efficient and economic production of cell spheroids. We optimized the protocol for generating large and homogenous liver cancer cell spheroids using Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The large Huh7 spheroids showed apoptotic and proliferative signals in the centre and at the surface, respectively. In particular, hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and ERK signal activation were detected in the cell spheroids. To diminish core necrosis and increase the oncogenic character, we co-cultured spheroids with 2% human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs promoted proliferation and gene expression of HCC-related genes and cancer stem cell markers in the Huh7 spheroidsby activating cytokine signalling, mimicking gene expression in liver cancer. HUVECs induced angiogenesis and vessel maturation in Huh7 spheroids in vivo by activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenic pathways. The large Huh7 cell spheroids containing HUVECs survived at higher concentrations of anti-cancer drugs (doxorubicin and sorafenib) than did monolayer cells. Our large cell spheroid provides a useful in vitro HCC model to enable intuitive observation for anti-cancer drug testing.

  3. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  4. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  5. Liver transplantation for metastatic liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.

  6. Addison's Disease Mimicking as Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Sayani; Rao, Karthik N; Patil, Navin; Ommurugan, Balaji; Varghese, George

    2017-04-01

    Over past two decades there has been significant improvement in medical field in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology and genetics of Addison's disease. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.8/100,000 cases. The diagnosis may be delayed if the clinical presentation mimics a gastrointestinal disorder or psychiatric illness. We report a case of Addison's disease presenting as acute pain in abdomen mimicking clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis.

  7. Polysome Profiling in Liver Identifies Dynamic Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Translatome by Obesity and Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Suneng; Fan, Jason; Blanco, Joshua; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N.; Watkins, Steve M.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. PMID:22927828

  8. Polysome profiling in liver identifies dynamic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum translatome by obesity and fasting.

    PubMed

    Fu, Suneng; Fan, Jason; Blanco, Joshua; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N; Watkins, Steve M; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  9. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hobnail hemangioma reclassified as superficial lymphatic malformation: a study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Felicidade; Kutzner, Heinz; Tellechea, Óscar; Requena, Luis; Colmenero, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Hobnail hemangioma (HH) is currently classified as a benign vascular tumor, although it is not well understood whether this lesion differentiates toward blood or lymphatic endothelial cells. Immunostaining with the endothelial marker Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) helps distinguish between vascular neoplasms and malformations, being positive in the former and negative in the latter. We sought to investigate WT1, human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen, D2-40, and Ki-67 immunoprofile in HH, to gain further insight into its histogenesis. We evaluated 52 HHs collected in Dermatohistopathologische Gemeinschaftslabor, Friedrichshafen, Germany. Immunohistochemical expression of WT1 was performed in all cases. Ten of 52 lesions were also studied for D2-40 and Ki-67 staining and 12 lesions were stained for human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. All 52 HHs were completely negative for WT1 immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry performed in 10 HHs showed diffuse and strong positive staining for D2-40 in 8 lesions and focal positivity in two. All cases tested showed negative staining for Ki-67 and human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. There are no limitations. Although the exact histogenesis of HH is unknown, most of the performed immunohistochemical studies support a lymphatic line of differentiation. However, on the basis of the WT1 negativity, we believe that HH is better considered as a lymphatic malformation rather than a lymphatic neoplasm. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure-Based Design of Inhibitors of Protein–Protein Interactions: Mimicking Peptide Binding Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pelay-Gimeno, Marta; Glas, Adrian; Koch, Oliver; Grossmann, Tom N

    2015-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are involved at all levels of cellular organization, thus making the development of PPI inhibitors extremely valuable. The identification of selective inhibitors is challenging because of the shallow and extended nature of PPI interfaces. Inhibitors can be obtained by mimicking peptide binding epitopes in their bioactive conformation. For this purpose, several strategies have been evolved to enable a projection of side chain functionalities in analogy to peptide secondary structures, thereby yielding molecules that are generally referred to as peptidomimetics. Herein, we introduce a new classification of peptidomimetics (classes A–D) that enables a clear assignment of available approaches. Based on this classification, the Review summarizes strategies that have been applied for the structure-based design of PPI inhibitors through stabilizing or mimicking turns, β-sheets, and helices. PMID:26119925

  12. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  13. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePlus

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... at the site. Different types of hemangiomas include: Strawberry hemangiomas (strawberry mark, nevus vascularis, capillary hemangioma, hemangioma ...

  14. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  15. Endothelial and circulating C19MC microRNAs are biomarkers of infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Strub, Graham M.; Kirsh, Andrew L.; Whipple, Mark E.; Kuo, Winston P.; Keller, Rachel B.; Kapur, Raj P.; Majesky, Mark W.; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor of infancy, and it uniquely regresses in response to oral propranolol. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of vascular development and are dysregulated in many disease processes, but the role of miRNAs in IH growth has not been investigated. We report expression of C19MC, a primate-specific megacluster of miRNAs expressed in placenta with rare expression in postnatal tissues, in glucose transporter 1–expressing (GLUT-1–expressing) IH endothelial cells and in the plasma of children with IH. Tissue or circulating C19MC miRNAs were not detectable in patients having 9 other types of vascular anomalies or unaffected children, identifying C19MC miRNAs as the first circulating biomarkers of IH. Levels of circulating C19MC miRNAs correlated with IH tumor size and propranolol treatment response, and IH tissue from children treated with propranolol or from children with partially involuted tumors contained lower levels of C19MC miRNAs than untreated, proliferative tumors, implicating C19MC miRNAs as potential drivers of IH pathogenesis. Detection of C19MC miRNAs in the circulation of infants with IH may provide a specific and noninvasive means of IH diagnosis and identification of candidates for propranolol therapy as well as a means to monitor treatment response. PMID:27660822

  16. Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent AKT1 mutations in sclerosing hemangioma of lung

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sung-Hak; Park, Hyun-Chun; Choi, Hyun Joo; Maeng, Leeso; Min, Ki Ouk; Kim, Jeana; Park, Tae In; Shin, Ok Ran; Kim, Tae-Jung; Xu, Haidong; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Song, Sang Yong; Lee, Charles; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a benign tumor with two cell populations (epithelial and stromal cells), for which genomic profiles remain unknown. We conducted exome sequencing of 44 PSHs and identified recurrent somatic mutations of AKT1 (43.2%) and β-catenin (4.5%). We used a second subset of 24 PSHs to confirm the high frequency of AKT1 mutations (overall 31/68, 45.6%; p.E17K, 33.8%) and recurrent β-catenin mutations (overall 3 of 68, 4.4%). Of the PSHs without AKT1 mutations, two exhibited AKT1 copy gain. AKT1 mutations existed in both epithelial and stromal cells. In two separate PSHs from one patient, we observed two different AKT1 mutations, indicating they were not disseminated but independent arising tumors. Because the AKT1 mutations were not found to co-occur with β-catenin mutations (or any other known driver alterations) in any of the PSHs studied, we speculate that this may be the single-most common driver alteration to develop PSHs. Our study revealed genomic differences between PSHs and lung adenocarcinomas, including a high rate of AKT1 mutation in PSHs. These genomic features of PSH identified in the present study provide clues to understanding the biology of PSH and for differential genomic diagnosis of lung tumors. PMID:27601661

  17. A case of cord capillary hemangioma of the spleen: a recently proven true neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Cord capillary hemangioma (CCH) of the spleen is an extremely rare lesion. Once classified under splenic hamartoma, CCH is now differentiated from hamartoma, as its clonality has recently been proven. Herein, we present the case of an incidentally found CCH, measuring 6 × 5.5 × 5 cm, in a 45-year-old man. He underwent splenectomy and has been recurrence-free for 8 years. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the mass showed a central stellate scar with peripheral interspersed reddish areas of variable sizes and intervening fibrous bands. Microscopically, the mass was well demarcated from the splenic tissue. The macroscopic reddish areas were found to correspond to nodules of various sizes, which were predominantly composed of CD34-expressing capillaries without the presence of CD8-expressing sinuses. The relative proportion of these two types of vessels distinguishes CCH from sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT), as SANT shows the apparent presence of CD8-expressing sinuses. In longstanding cases of SANT, sinuses might become ambiguous and the differences between CCH and SANT might become subtle. Nonetheless, immunohistochemistry should be performed when these conditions are suspected, since accurate distinction is usually achieved as a result. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. RF Ablation of Giant Hemangiomas Inducing Acute Renal Failure: A Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Tilborg, Aukje A. J. M. van, E-mail: a.vantilborg@vumc.nl; Dresselaars, Helena F.; Scheffer, Hester J.

    ObjectiveIn patients that require treatment for hepatic giant cavernous hemangiomas (GCH), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been suggested to represent a safe and effective alternative to invasive surgery. In a recent report of bipolar RFA, using two expandable needle electrodes, was uneventfully performed in patients with large GCH (>10 cm). The objective of this report is to present two cases in which bipolar RFA of symptomatic GCH was complicated by acute kidney injury.Materials and methodsIn 2015 we treated two patients for very large symptomatic GCH (15.7 and 25.0 cm) with bipolar RFA during open laparotomy.ResultsIn both patients the urine showed a red–brown discolorationmore » directly after the ablation. They became anuric and presented with progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia, requiring hemodialysis for a period of 1 month in one case. Lab results revealed hemepigment-induced acute kidney. Both patients fully recovered and both showed a complete relief of symptoms at 3 months following the procedure.ConclusionRFA for large GCHs can cause hemepigment-induced acute kidney injury due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The presented cases suggest that caution is warranted and advocate an upper limit regarding the volume of GCHs that can be safely ablated.« less

  19. Ileal Entrapment within a Paracaecal Hernia Mimicking Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Birchley, David

    2009-01-01

    Presented is a case of incarcerated paracaecal hernia mimicking acute appendicitis. The clinical scenario highlights the need for a high index of suspicion in the management of patients with localised peritonism even in the absence of obstructive symptoms and the presence of normal laboratory markers of inflammation.Whilst computed tomography might offer a pre-operative diagnosis, in such a low-risk patient laparoscopy offers the combined advantages of immediate diagnosis and definitive treatment of acute pathology. PMID:19317924

  20. A case of imported tungiasis in Scotland initially mimicking verrucae vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, A D; Norris, J F

    1994-10-01

    A case is described of Tunga penetrans infection in the feet of a tourist returning from South America to Scotland. The condition had initially mimicked verrucae vulgaris, but microscopic examination of the lesions together with the travel history allowed the diagnosis of tungiasis to be made. This is the first case reported in Scotland.

  1. THE TREATMENT OF CHILDRENS' HEMANGIOMA AND NEVUS FLAMMEUS WITH Sr$sup 90$ AND Y$sup 9$$sup 0$ (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Lossl, H.; Jakob, A.

    The authors report the excellent results obtained in the radiotherapy of the hemangioma of the child and of the nevus flammeus by means of strontium-90 and yttrium-90. The method is preferred to others as it reduces the charge of rays on the growing skeleton of the child ami on the gonads. In case of smaller lesions the application of strontium-90 (total dose 3000 to 5000 rep) and surface irradiation by means of yttrium-90 foils (total dose 3000 to 4000 rep) produce good results. The single dose should be around 1OOO rep. The dosage has to be fixed according to themore » erythema which appears with medium intensity. To judge from the gathered experiences the results of this therapy are equivalent to those of radium treatment or Chaoul's close irradiation. (auth)« less

  2. TLR2/4 ligand-amplified liver inflammation promotes initiation of autoimmune hepatitis due to sustained IL-6/IL-12/IL-4/IL-25 expression.

    PubMed

    Chi, Gang; Feng, Xin-Xia; Ru, Ying-Xia; Xiong, Ting; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Han; Luo, Zhen-Long; Mo, Ran; Guo, Fang; He, Yong-Pei; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Tian, De-An; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2018-05-21

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl 4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4. The amplified inflammation resulted in the increase of multiple cytokines and chemokines in the liver. Among them, the sustained increase of IL-6/IL-12 resulted in the activation of STAT3 and STAT4 in hepatic CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells, thus suppressing Foxp3 gene expression to reduce the suppressive function of Treg cells in the liver, but not those in the spleen. The increase of IL-12 and the impairment of Treg function promoted Th1 response in presence of self-mimicking antigen (human CYP2D6). Intriguingly, the amplified inflammation resulted in the increase of IL-4 and IL-25 in the liver. The moderate increase of IL-4 was sufficient for cooperating with IL-25 to initiate Th2 response, but inefficient in suppressing Th1 response, favoring the initiation of autoimmune response. Consequently, either adenovirus/CYP2D6 or CCl 4 /CYP2D6 could induce the autoimmune response and AIH in the mice, leading to hepatic fibrosis. The findings in this study suggest that the amplified non-AIH inflammation in the liver could be a driving force for the initiation of autoimmune response and AIH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  4. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) α1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MATα1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MATα1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MATα1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MATα1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of

  5. Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes allow adaptation of mitochondrial metabolism to glucose availability in the liver.

    PubMed

    Theurey, Pierre; Tubbs, Emily; Vial, Guillaume; Jacquemetton, Julien; Bendridi, Nadia; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Alam, Muhammad Rizwan; Le Romancer, Muriel; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAM) play a key role in mitochondrial dynamics and function and in hepatic insulin action. Whereas mitochondria are important regulators of energy metabolism, the nutritional regulation of MAM in the liver and its role in the adaptation of mitochondria physiology to nutrient availability are unknown. In this study, we found that the fasted to postprandial transition reduced the number of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact points in mouse liver. Screening of potential hormonal/metabolic signals revealed glucose as the main nutritional regulator of hepatic MAM integrity both in vitro and in vivo Glucose reduced organelle interactions through the pentose phosphate-protein phosphatase 2A (PP-PP2A) pathway, induced mitochondria fission, and impaired respiration. Blocking MAM reduction counteracted glucose-induced mitochondrial alterations. Furthermore, disruption of MAM integrity mimicked effects of glucose on mitochondria dynamics and function. This glucose-sensing system is deficient in the liver of insulin-resistant ob/ob and cyclophilin D-KO mice, both characterized by chronic disruption of MAM integrity, mitochondrial fission, and altered mitochondrial respiration. These data indicate that MAM contribute to the hepatic glucose-sensing system, allowing regulation of mitochondria dynamics and function during nutritional transition. Chronic disruption of MAM may participate in hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction associated with insulin resistance. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Borrelia Lymphocytoma Mimicking Butterfly Rash in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Paredes, Bruno Emilio

    2018-03-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with a facial butterfly rash that persisted for 5 months without arthralgia, fever, malaise, photosensitivity, or other symptoms. Lupus erythematosus was clinically suspected. All blood tests were negative or within normal values. Skin biopsy showed a dense nodular superficial and deep inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes that reaches subcutaneous tissue. The most striking histopathological finding was plasma cells with some perifollicular accentuation. Borrelia polymerase chain reaction assay of the tissue was positive, and we made the diagnoses of borrelia lymphocytoma mimicking butterfly rash of lupus erythematosus. The lesions disappeared with amoxicillin followed by cefuroxime for 28 days. In children, a variety of diseases including lupus erythematous may lead to a butterfly rash that is usually short lasting and commonly associated with systemic symptoms. Borreliosis may be related with long-lasting facial erythema in children and may mimic lupus and present high titers of antinuclear antibodies. In any case, borrelial lymphocytoma has not been previously reported as a cause of butterfly rash, thus mimicking acute lupus in a child, as in our case. From a histopathological point of view, the presence of plasma cells in a pseudolymphomatous infiltrate is a clue for the right diagnosis. Therefore, we suggest that borrelia serology should be done in children with butterfly rash lasting more than a month and empirical antibiotic treatment should be tried even in cases with negative serology.

  7. Subaortic membrane mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark Joseph; Arruda-Olson, Adelaide; Gersh, Bernard; Geske, Jeffrey

    2015-11-04

    A 34-year-old man was referred for progressive angina and exertional dyspnoea refractory to medical therapy, with a presumptive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed asymmetric septal hypertrophy without systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflet and with no dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. However, the LVOT velocity was elevated at rest as well as with provocation, without the characteristic late peaking obstruction seen in HCM. Focused TTE to evaluate for suspected fixed obstruction demonstrated a subaortic membrane 2.2 cm below the aortic valve. Coronary CT angiography confirmed the presence of the subaortic membrane and was negative for concomitant coronary artery disease. Surgical resection of the subaortic membrane and septal myectomy resulted in significant symptomatic relief and lower LVOT velocities on postoperative TTE. This case reminds the clinician to carefully evaluate for alternative causes of LVOT obstruction, especially subaortic membrane, as a cause of symptoms mimicking HCM. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Subaortic membrane mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark Joseph; Arruda-Olson, Adelaide; Gersh, Bernard; Geske, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man was referred for progressive angina and exertional dyspnoea refractory to medical therapy, with a presumptive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed asymmetric septal hypertrophy without systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflet and with no dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. However, the LVOT velocity was elevated at rest as well as with provocation, without the characteristic late peaking obstruction seen in HCM. Focused TTE to evaluate for suspected fixed obstruction demonstrated a subaortic membrane 2.2 cm below the aortic valve. Coronary CT angiography confirmed the presence of the subaortic membrane and was negative for concomitant coronary artery disease. Surgical resection of the subaortic membrane and septal myectomy resulted in significant symptomatic relief and lower LVOT velocities on postoperative TTE. This case reminds the clinician to carefully evaluate for alternative causes of LVOT obstruction, especially subaortic membrane, as a cause of symptoms mimicking HCM. PMID:26538250

  9. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  10. A rare case of primary bone lymphoma mimicking a pelvic abscess

    PubMed Central

    Al Wattar, BH; Mohanty, K

    2011-01-01

    Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is a rare, malignant, neoplastic disorder of the skeleton that accounts for less than 5% of all primary bone tumours. We present an extremely rare case of PBL mimicking a pelvic abscess around the sacroiliac joint, which has never been reported in the medical literature, and discuss learning points highlighted from this case. PMID:22004625

  11. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Carcinomas 2/373 4/357 4/357 14/363b DUODENUM ADENOMA 1/310 5/303 7 / 3 0 9 a 5/308 HEMANGIOMA 5/387 9/371 5/368 22/371b HEMANGIOSARCOMA 1/387 4/371...JP-5 Unexposed 150 mg/m 3 750 mg/m3 Controls Exposed Exposed Liver: Fatty Change 34 30 32 Necrosis 5 2 0 Adenoma 1 4 0 Hemangiosarcoma 1 0 0 Kidney

  12. An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

    2012-01-01

    plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas

  13. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  14. Fibroadenoma in Axillary Ectopic Breast Tissue Mimicking Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ujwala M

    2017-01-01

    Swellings in the axilla especially in women are always viewed with suspicion owing to a large number of these being associated with breast carcinoma presenting as nodal metastasis. In a country like India, tuberculous lymphadenopathy is also amongst the first differentials. We present a case of a woman with right sided axillary swelling mimicking lymphadenopathy which on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) turned out to be fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast tissue. This condition is a rare occurrence in Ectopic Breast Tissue (EBT) as opposed to that in the normal breast, the most common pathology affecting ectopic breast being carcinomas. PMID:28511397

  15. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  16. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton rubrum mimicking favus.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S

    2016-12-01

    Favus is an uncommon form of tinea capitis (TC) currently seen in geographic areas with poor sanitation and limited access to health care such as emerging nations. Several variants of this condition have been described including one exhibiting a plaque composed of parchmentlike material. The makeup of this plaque has not been described. Tinea capitis is rare in adults, particularly when the infectious agent is Trichophyton rubrum , and affected patients often exhibit comorbidities associated with diminished immune surveillance. This case report describes an elderly woman with TC due to T rubrum mimicking a rare form of favus.

  17. Deceptively bland cutaneous angiosarcoma on the nose mimicking hemangioma-A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Christina; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Mentzel, Thomas; Tronnier, Michael; Kutzner, Heinz

    2018-05-15

    We investigated 2 cases of deceptively bland cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS), which showed a uniform clinical presentation with a rapidly growing tumor on the nose. It remains unclear whether this was a primary cutaneous manifestation or a metastasis. Both tumors initially presented a high histologic overlap with a benign vascular tumor. The diagnosis was primarily based on the rapidly progressing clinical course and on the results of the staging procedures. Immunohistochemical stains were performed for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and MNF116), CD31, ERG, CD34 (HPCA1/my10), D2-40/podoplanin, LYVE-1, Ki67, PHH3, αSMA (1A4), MYC, FOS-B, CAMTA-1, TFE-3, WT1, nestin, VEGFR-2(KDR), VEGFR-3(FLT4), HHV8. MYC amplification was also investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The tumor cells were negative for MYC and revealed no D2-40/podoplanin expression. SMA-positive pericytes formed rims around the vessel. The proliferative activity (Ki-67) was elevated, in one case only in a later stage. Cutaneous ASs can be rather bland and may easily be mistaken for benign vascular tumors. Both cases presented a uniform clinical picture, which implied a malignant vascular tumor. In contrast, the cytomorphology of the endothelial cells and the immunohistochemical profile were not suspicious. We worked out subtle histological criteria, which should allow an early detection of such tumors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. P-HPB-21: Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking inoperable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Ayashkanta; Behera, Debasmita; Behera, Manas; Narayan, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic tuberculosis is an uncommon disease, presenting as hypoechoic mass on imaging mimicking malignancy. Consequently, it represents a diagnostic challenge necessitating a tissue diagnosis. Case Report: A 75-year-old female presented with progressive jaundice and weight loss; imaging with computed tomography (CT) showed a large (5.8 cm × 4.6 cm) pancreatic head mass with encasement of portal and superior mesenteric veins, peripancreatic nodes, atrophic pancreatic parenchyma, and dilated main pancreatic duct. Cancer antigen 19-9 was moderately elevated. With a diagnosis of inoperable pancreatic malignancy, she was planned for tissue diagnosis and palliative chemotherapy. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a heterogeneous mass with vascular invasion as in the CT. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and biliary decompression with a plastic stent performed in the same sitting. Cytology demonstrated granuloma with caseous necrosis and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Antituberculosis treatment was started, and repeat CT after 6 months showed resolution of the mass. Discussion and Conclusion: A diagnosis of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis is rare and is difficult by clinical presentation alone; in India, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a pancreatic tumor. Benign lesions can also present with vascular invasions mimicking inoperable malignancy. EUS FNA is a very useful tool in accurate diagnosis of pancreatic head mass avoiding unnecessary surgeries.

  19. An Unusual Foreign Body in the Urinary Bladder Mimicking a Parasitic Worm

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bryan H.; Feder, Marc T.; Rokke, Denise L.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a foreign body removed from the urinary bladder of a 63-year-old male which mimicked a parasitic worm. The foreign body was identified as an artificial fishing worm by morphological comparison to a similar commercially produced product and by infrared spectrum analysis. PMID:22535991

  20. Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma in Regional Hospitals With eHealth Support: Evaluation of Feasibility and Acceptance by Parents and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Pasmans, Suzanne GMA

    2014-01-01

    Background Since beta blockers became the preferred treatment for infantile hemangiomas (IH), the number of patients eligible for treatment is increasing. Currently treatment of IH with beta blockers is mainly reserved for expert centers, where wait times are lengthening. This demonstrated the need for development of a more efficient and accessible way of providing care for children needing treatment for IH. An eHealth intervention, Hemangioma Treatment Plan (HTP), was developed to treat IH in regional hospitals with online support from an academic doctor. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of the eHealth intervention by determining its use, acceptance, and usability. By evaluating the feasibility, usage can be predicted and points for improvement can be defined, thereby facilitating implementation of the intervention. Methods Parents of children with an IH, presenting between October 2012 and November 2013 at the tertiary expert Center for Congenital Vascular Anomalies Utrecht, requiring treatment with a beta blocker, were asked to participate in the digital HTP. Both parents and regional doctors were sent a study questionnaire. Acceptance and usability of the HTP were evaluated by using the modified Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 31 parents and 22 regional doctors participated in the eHealth intervention and received the questionnaire, and 25 parents and 15 doctors responded (response rates respectively 81% and 68%). A majority of the parents (96%, 24/25) and the regional doctors (87%, 13/15) considered the eHealth intervention useful in the care for IH. Most parents (76%, 19/25) and over half of the regional doctors (53%, 8/15) found the HTP easy to use. Technical problems using the HTP were reported by 28% (7/25) of the parents and 73% (11/15) of the doctors. The majority of parents (92%, 23/25) felt positive about usage of the HTP during treatment of their child. All regional doctors (100%, 15/15) felt positive about transition

  1. Traumatic head injury mimicking acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Shunji; Kajimoto, Madoka; Matsushige, Takeshi; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Many studies have reported acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) associated with viral infection at onset, but few studies have reported AESD without infection. We report the case of a 9-month-old boy who had a clinical course mimicking AESD after a traffic accident. The traffic accident caused a mild subdural hematoma without neurological abnormalities on admission. The boy became unconscious on the second day, and he was diagnosed with non-convulsive status epilepticus on the third day. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed reduced water diffusion in the subcortical white matter. On laboratory analysis interleukin (IL)-6 was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but not in the serum. He had severe neurological sequelae with mental retardation, spastic tetraplegia, and epilepsy. We suggest that brain damage mimicking AESD was caused by the traffic accident and the prolonged seizure during infancy. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Thalamic Amnesia Mimicking Transient Global Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Giannantoni, Nadia M; Lacidogna, Giordano; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Morosetti, Roberta; Caliandro, Pietro; Gambassi, Giovanni; Della Marca, Giacomo; Frisullo, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Transient global amnesia is a benign syndrome and one of the most frequent discharges from the emergency department that can hardly be distinguished from other mimicking diseases. No consensus in the evaluation of transient global amnesia has yet been found in the emergency setting. We describe a 69-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with an abrupt onset of anterograde amnesia, preceded by a similar amnesic episode misinterpreted as transient global amnesia. Neuroradiologic, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological evaluations supported the diagnosis of vascular thalamic amnesia. We report a patient who clinically fulfilled transient global amnesia's criteria and in whom nevertheless was disclosed a thalamic ischemic lesion on neuroimaging.This case report highlights the importance of performing neuroradiologic screening in the emergency department even when clinical history and physical findings are highly suggestive for transient global amnesia.

  3. Vertebral hemangioma: an important differential in the evaluation of locally aggressive spinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Justin; Meir, Adam; Vrodos, Nikitas; Yau, Yun-Hom

    2010-08-15

    A case report and a discussion of recent published data. To highlight the importance of vertebral hemangioma (VH) as a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of locally aggressive spinal lesions. VH commonly occur as incidental findings, however, locally aggressive VH have been described. Difficulties in diagnosing these lesions are well reported and relate to changes in fat content causing uncharacteristic appearances on imaging. The management options for these lesions include a combination of observation, embolization, sclerotherapy, surgical decompression, or stabilization and radiotherapy. A 45-year-old patient who was previously well presented with back pain and rapidly progressive paraparesis. Imaging confirmed the presence of an extensive lesion centered within the right T3 vertebral pedicle with intrusion into the spinal canal. Urgent surgical decompression was undertaken and was complicated by extensive intraoperative hemorrhage requiring massive transfusion. Histologically, the lesion was shown to be a cavernous VH with no evidence of malignancy. Following radiation oncology review, he was offered adjuvant radiotherapy to minimize the risks of recurrence. He achieved a near full neurologic recovery within 2 weeks and had a full recovery by 12 months. VH should be considered in the evaluation of locally aggressive spinal lesions. Angiography is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of these lesions, both as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. After diagnosed correctly a wide range of treatment options exist that may prevent the patient from undergoing major surgical resection and reconstruction procedures, which may be associated with high rates of morbidity.

  4. Synonymies of wasp-mimicking species within the katydid genus Aganacris (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five neotropical wasp-mimicking species of the genus Aganacris—two known from females only and three from males only—are reviewed. Based on observations of interspecific interactions and morphological comparisons, sexual dimorphism is shown to occur within species, and that female species are consp...

  5. Characterizing focal hepatic lesions by free-breathing intravoxel incoherent motion MRI at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Haruo; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Goshima, Satoshi; Kajita, Kimihiro; Kawada, Hiroshi; Noda, Yoshifumi; Tatahashi, Yukichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is commonly used to distinguish between benign and malignant liver lesions. To prospectively evaluate the true molecular-diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion-related diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), and ADC of focal hepatic lesions using a free-breathing intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) DW sequence, and to determine if these parameters are useful for characterizing focal hepatic lesions. One hundred and twenty hepatic lesions (34 metastases, 32 hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], 33 hemangiomas, and 21 liver cysts) in 74 patients were examined. Mean D, D*, f, and ADC values of hepatic lesions were compared among pathologies. ROC curve analyses were performed to assess the performances of D, D*, f, and ADC values for the characterization of liver lesions as benign or malignant. The mean D and ADC values of benign lesions were greater than those of malignant lesions (P < 0.001). Although the mean D and ADC values of liver cysts were greater than those of hemangiomas (P < 0.001), and these values were not significantly different between metastases and HCCs (P = 0.99). Area under the ROC curve for ADC values (0.98) was significantly greater (P = 0.048) than that for D values (0.96) for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of malignant lesion were 89% and 98%, respectively, when an ADC cut-off value of 1.40 was applied. D and ADC values have more potential for characterizing focal hepatic lesions than D* or f values, and for the differentiation of malignancy and benignity. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Amplified biosensing using the horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme as an electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Pelossof, Gilad; Tel-Vered, Ran; Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar

    2010-06-01

    The hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme is assembled on Au electrodes. It reveals bioelectrocatalytic properties and electrocatalyzes the reduction of H(2)O(2). The bioelectrocatalytic functions of the hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme are used to develop electrochemical sensors that follow the activity of glucose oxidase and biosensors for the detection of DNA or low-molecular-weight substrates (adenosine monophosphate, AMP). Hairpin nucleic structures that include the G-quadruplex sequence in a caged configuration and the nucleic acid sequence complementary to the analyte DNA, or the aptamer sequence for AMP, are immobilized on Au-electrode surfaces. In the presence of the DNA analyte, or AMP, the hairpin structures are opened, and the hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme structures are generated on the electrode surfaces. The bioelectrocatalytic cathodic currents generated by the functionalized electrodes, upon the electrochemical reduction of H(2)O(2), provide a quantitative measure for the detection of the target analytes. The DNA target was analyzed with a detection limit of 1 x 10(-12) M, while the detection limit for analyzing AMP was 1 x 10(-6) M. Methods to regenerate the sensing surfaces are presented.

  7. Idelalisib-induced colitis and skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Muhammad Bader; Al-Taee, Ahmad; Meeks, Marshall; Fesler, Mark; Hurley, M Yadira; Cao, Dengfeng; Lai, Jin-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib. He underwent a colonoscopy demonstrating a grossly normal-appearing colon and terminal ileum. Biopsies taken during the procedure revealed mild active ileitis, colitis, and proctitis with frequent epithelial apoptosis, and focal intra-epithelial lymphocytosis. Skin biopsies revealed sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis suggestive of either contact dermatitis or an eczematous drug reaction. Symptoms were attributed to idelalisib given their resolution with withdrawal of the drug in conjunction with the skin and colonic biopsies. High clinical suspicion and awareness of the histological features of idelalisib-associated colitis is important to distinguish it from potential mimickers such as GVHD and infectious colitis.

  8. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  9. Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Singh, Sucha; Valore, Erika V; Jung, Grace; Popovic, Branimir; Poddar, Minakshi; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Ganz, Tomas; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-08-01

    Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment options for iron-induced damage are limited, partly because there is lack of animal models of human disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of iron overload in liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO), which are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure. Iron overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times. To ameliorate an oxidant-mediated component of tissue injury, N-Acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine (NAC) was added to drinking water of mice on iron overload diet. KO on iron diet (KO +Fe) exhibited remarkable inflammation, followed by steatosis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, regenerating nodules and occurrence of occasional HCC. Increased injury in KO +Fe was associated with activated protein kinase B (AKT), ERK, and NF-κB, along with reappearance of β-catenin and target gene Cyp2e1, which promoted lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage. Addition of NAC to drinking water protected KO +Fe from hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis, and prevented activation of AKT, ERK, NF-κB and reappearance of β-catenin. The absence of hepatic β-catenin predisposes mice to hepatic injury and fibrosis following iron overload, which was reminiscent of hemochromatosis and associated with enhanced steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Disease progression was notably alleviated by antioxidant therapy, which supports its chemopreventive role in the management of chronic iron overload disorders. Lack of animal models for iron overload disorders makes it hard to study the disease process for improving therapies. Feeding high iron diet to mice that lack the β-catenin gene in liver cells led to increased inflammation followed by fat accumulation, cell death and wound healing that mimicked

  10. A High-Grade Chondrosarcoma of Calcaneum Mimicking as a Benign Pathology: Delayed Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Baba, Muzamil Ahmad; Nazir, Naila; Shabeer, Maajid; Mir, Bashir Ahmed; Kawoosa, Altaf Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    This case is presented to highlight a rare case of chondrosarcoma of calcaneum in a young adult mimicking as a benign pathology and to highlight the diagnosis and early management of such cases to prevent complications and even death. Chondrosarcoma constitutes less than 10% of all primary malignancies of bone and occurs mostly in proximal locations such as pelvis, proximal femur, and proximal humerus. We present a case of high-grade chondrosarcoma at a very rare site, calcaneum of a 40-year-old male that was mimicking as a benign pathology. This case report highlights the importance of proper clinical examination, evaluation, and suspicion for benign occurring lesions to prevent complications related to a delay in diagnosis. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Primary adnexial hydatid cyst mimicking ovarian tumor

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Hüsnü; Api, Murat; Çetin, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We report here the rare case of a 28-year-old woman with a large hydatid cyst in her left lower pelvis with an unusual sonographic presentation mimicking a multicystic ovarian tumor. Laparoscopic evaluation revealed normal uterus and ovaries with a swelling in the left retropritoneal area. We decided to reach this tumour by the vaginal route and multiple scolex, daughter cysts were removed via a left lateral vaginal wall incision. The pericystic cavity was thoroughly washed. The patient was discharged on the first postoperative day. Mebendazole (100 mg twice daily) was administered for 4 months. This parasite should be kept in mind and considered when making the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, particularly if the patient is from an endemic area. PMID:24591878

  12. Ecthyma gangrenosum mimicking acute invasive fungal sinusitis in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Hekiert, Adrianna M; Cohen, Michael B; Montone, Kathleen T; Palmer, James N; Govindaraj, Satish

    2010-06-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare necrotizing cutaneous infection usually caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report a case of ecthyma gangrenosum presenting as a sinonasal eschar and mimicking acute invasive fungal sinusitis in an immunocompromised 39-year-old man with a hematologic malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of ecthyma gangrenosum affecting the sinonasal mucosa to be reported in the literature.

  13. Exquisite Enzyme-Fenton Biomimetic Catalysts for Hydroxyl Radical Production by Mimicking an Enzyme Cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Yu, Hongtao

    2018-03-14

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a key reactant in the Fenton process. As a byproduct of enzymatic reaction, H 2 O 2 can be obtained via catalytical oxidation of glucose using glucose oxidase in the presence of O 2 . Another oxidation product (gluconic acid) can suitably adjust the microenvironmental pH contributing to the Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ cycle in the Fenton reaction. Enzymes are extremely efficient at catalyzing a variety of reactions with high catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and yields in living organisms. Inspired by the multiple functions of natural multienzyme systems, an exquisite nanozyme-modified α-FeOOH/porous carbon (PC) biomimetic catalyst constructed by in situ growth of glucose oxidase-mimicking Au nanoparticles and crystallization of adsorbed ferric ions within carboxyl into hierarchically PC is developed as an efficient enzyme-Fenton catalyst. The products (H 2 O 2 , ∼4.07 mmol·L -1 ) of the first enzymatic reaction are immediately used as substrates for the second Fenton-like reaction to generate the valuable • OH (∼96.84 μmol·L -1 ), thus mimicking an enzyme cascade pathway. α-FeOOH nanocrystals, attached by C-O-Fe bondings, are encapsulated into the mesoporous PC frameworks, facilitating the electron transfer between α-FeOOH and the PC support and greatly suppressing iron leaching. This study paves a new avenue for designing biomimetic enzyme-based Fenton catalysts mimicking a natural system for • OH production.

  14. [Graft-versus-host disease as the cause of symptoms mimicking Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tuchocka-Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Kołczewska, Aleksandra; Majewski, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    A case of chronic graft-versus-host disease (chronic GvHD) mimicking symptoms associated with idiopathic Sjögren's syndrome is presented. Hypotheses on the pathophysiological origin of clinical syndromes associated with graft-versus-host disease are discussed.

  15. Addison’s Disease Mimicking as Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Sayani; Rao, Karthik N; Ommurugan, Balaji; Varghese, George

    2017-01-01

    Over past two decades there has been significant improvement in medical field in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology and genetics of Addison’s disease. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.8/100,000 cases. The diagnosis may be delayed if the clinical presentation mimics a gastrointestinal disorder or psychiatric illness. We report a case of Addison’s disease presenting as acute pain in abdomen mimicking clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis. PMID:28571196

  16. Metastatic carcinoma to the mandible that mimicked pulpal/periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Selden, H S; Manhoff, D T; Hatges, N A; Michel, R C

    1998-04-01

    An oral cavity metastasis from a poorly differentiated carcinoma, presumed to have originated in the pancreas, mimicked a dental abscess. An additional metastasis to the lung caused a postobstructive lobar pneumonia that masked the lesion, thereby delaying the diagnosis of malignancy. This case report illustrates how the clinical manifestations of a widely disseminated neoplasm led to initial medical confusion and subsequent dental misdiagnosis, and serves to caution of a possible pitfall in the dental evaluation of endodontic lesions.

  17. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

  18. Intraepithelial lymphocytes, scores, mimickers and challenges in diagnosing gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease)

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato; Shen, Fan; Bouma, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The upper digestive tract is routinely scoped for several causes of malabsorption, and the number of duodenal biopsy specimens has increased notably in the last 10 years. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is an autoimmune disease, which shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and requires a joint clinico-pathological approach. The classical histopathology of GSE with partial or total villous blunting is well recognized, but the classification of GSE is not straightforward. Moreover, several mimickers of GSE with intraepithelial lymphocytosis have been identified in the last 20 years, with drug interactions and medical comorbidities adding to the conundrum. In this review, we report on the normal duodenal mucosa, the clinical presentation and laboratory diagnosis of GSE, the duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes and immunophenotype of GSE-associated lymphocytes, the GSE mimickers, the differences “across oceans” among guidelines in diagnosing GSE, and the use of a synoptic report for reporting duodenal biopsies in both children and adults in the 21st century. PMID:28216964

  19. Super-Anticoagulant Heparin-Mimicking Hydrogel Thin Film Attached Substrate Surfaces to Improve Hemocompatibility.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Cui, Xiaofei; Jiang, Huiyi; Huang, Xuelian; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, heparin-mimicking hydrogel thin films are covalently attached onto poly(ether sulfone) membrane surfaces to improve anticoagulant property. The hydrogel films display honeycomb-like porous structure with well controlled thickness and show long-term stability. After immobilizing the hydrogel films, the membranes show excellent anticoagulant property confirmed by the activated partial thromboplastin time values exceeding 600 s. Meanwhile, the thrombin time values increase from 20 to 61 s as the sodium allysulfonate proportions increase from 0 to 80 mol%. In vitro investigations of protein adsorption and blood-related complement activation also confirm that the membranes exhibit super-anticoagulant property. Furthermore, gentamycin sulfate is loaded into the hydrogel films, and the released drug shows significant inhibition toward E. coli bacteria. It is believed that the surface attached heparin-mimicking hydrogel thin films may show high potential for the applications in various biological fields, such as blood contacting materials and drug loading materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  1. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  2. Fatal chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Goto, Shigemasa; Yokosuka, Osamu; Imazeki, Fumio; Tanaka, Masamichi; Fukai, Kenichi; Takahashi, Yoko; Tsujimura, Hideki; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2004-02-01

    We report a 22-year-old female who presented with pyrexia, pancytopenia and liver dysfunction. The patient showed mild liver dysfunction with low-grade fever and mild hepatosplenomegaly 6 years previously, and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was diagnosed based on the examination of the laboratory data and liver biopsy. On admission, both markers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and in-situ hybridisation from a liver biopsy specimen indicated chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). The patient was administered an immunosuppressive agent and antiviral drug added to steroid therapy, but ultimately died from liver failure and virus-associated haemophagocytosis 10 months after the definite diagnosis. Retrospective examination of the serum at the diagnosis of AIH revealed extremely high titres of antibody to EBV, and EBV-DNA was also detectable by polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest the possibility that the patient may already have suffered from CAEBV at the initial diagnosis. We presume that hepatic involvement of CAEBV should be considered as differential diagnosis in cases showing liver dysfunction with clinical and biochemical features observed in AIH.

  3. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  4. Ectopic fascioliasis mimicking a colon tumor

    PubMed Central

    Makay, Ozer; Gurcu, Baris; Caliskan, Cemil; Nart, Deniz; Tuncyurek, Muge; Korkut, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a leaf shaped trematode that is common in cattle, sheep and goats, is acquired by eating raw water plants like watercress or drinking water infected with the encysted form of the parasite. The varied clinical presentations of fascioliasis still make a high index of suspicion mandatory. Besides having a wide spectrum of hepatobiliary symptoms like obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and liver cirrhosis, the parasitic infection also has extrabiliary manifestations. Until recently, extrahepatic fascioliasis has been reported in the subcutaneous tissue, brain, lungs, epididymis, inguinal lymph nodes, stomach and the cecum. In this report, a strange manifestation of the fasciola infection in a site other than the liver, a colonic fascioliasis, is presented. PMID:17552017

  5. [One-stage total en bloc spondylectomy and reconstruction via a single posterior approach for thoracic vertebral symptomatic hemangioma associated with spinal cord dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Song, Ruo-xian; Zhang, Yong-gang; Zhang, Xue-song; Zheng, Guo-quan; Wang, Yan

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surgical results of one-stage total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) and reconstruction via a single posterior approach for thoracic symptomatic vertebral hemangioma associated with spinal cord dysfunction and evaluate its curative effect. A total of 9 patients treated with one-stage TES (7 cases) and total vertebrectomy (2 cases) by posterior approach from March 2006 to January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The cases included 2 males and 7 females with a median age of 33.6 years (range 14 to 77 years), and with 1 case of Grade A, 3 cases of Grade B, 3 cases of Grade C, 2 cases of Grade D according to Frankel grade system. All patients suffered from moderate to severe pain and neurological deficit with an average symptom duration of 14.4 months (range 3 - 24 months) MRI revealed severe spinal cord compression. The spinal reconstruction was obtained by titanium mesh filled with autograft and posterior internal fixation with rod-screw system. The operation time was 210 minutes on average (180 - 270 minutes) and the average blood loss was 1800 ml (1000 - 5000 ml). The follow-up period lasted from 18 months to 5 years. All cases with preoperative pain relieved after operation. The visual analogue scale pain scores decreased to 1.1 from 8.3 at 3 months after surgery. No disruption of dural mater, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, iatrogenic spinal cord injury and major vessel damage occurred. Up to now, there was no local recurrence in all cases. Significant neurological function improvement was achieved in all patients with one to three grades in Frankel grade system. Fusion of the autograft was well achieved and no internal fixation failure in all patients. One-stage TES and spine reconstruction by a single posterior approach is feasible, safe and effective to this disease. It is favourable in decreasing the hemangioma recurrence and improvement of the neurological function.

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus: Case series and a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Santana, Iuri Usêda; Dias, Blenda; Nunes, Eduardo Araújo Santana; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro da; Silva, Francisco Saraiva; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto

    2015-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may present manifestations that resemble other diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection whose hallmarks may mimic SLE symptoms. Here, we report a case series and evaluate the published, scientific evidence of the relationship between SLE and VL infection. To assess original studies reporting cases of VL-infected patients presenting manifestations that are capable of leading to inappropriate suspicions of SLE or mimicking an SLE flare, we performed an extensive search in several scientific databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and Scopus). Two authors independently screened all citations and abstracts identified by the search strategy to identify eligible studies. Secondary references were additionally obtained from the selected articles. The literature search identified 53 eligible studies, but only 17 articles met our criteria. Among these, 10 lupus patients with VL mimicking an SLE flare and 18 cases of VL leading to unappropriated suspicions of SLE were described. The most common manifestations in patients infected with VL were intermittent fever, pancytopenia, visceromegaly, and increased serum level of acute phase reactants. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and direct Coombs' test. In endemic areas for VL, the diagnosis of SLE or its exacerbation may be a clinical dilemma. Hepatosplenomegaly or isolated splenomegaly was identified in the majority of the reported cases where VL occurred, leading to unappropriated suspicions of SLE or mimicking an SLE flare. Furthermore, the lack of response to steroids, the normal levels of complement proteins C3 and C4, and the increased level of transaminases suggest a possible infectious origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, J; Podesta, L; LePage, E; Morsiani, E; Moscioni, A D; Hoffman, A; Sher, L; Villamil, F; Woolf, G; McGrath, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and efficacy of a bioartificial liver support system in patients with severe acute liver failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors developed a bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes. The system was tested in vitro and shown to have differentiated liver functions (cytochrome P450 activity, synthesis of liver-specific proteins, bilirubin synthesis, and conjugation). When tested in vivo in experimental animals with liver failure, it gave substantial metabolic and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Seven patients with severe acute liver failure received a double lumen catheter in the saphenous vein; blood was removed, plasma was separated and perfused through a cartridge containing 4 to 6 x 10(9) porcine hepatocytes, and plasma and blood cells were reconstituted and reinfused. Each treatment lasted 6 to 7 hours. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the procedure(s) well, with neurologic improvement, decreased intracranial pressure (23.0 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg; p < 0.005) associated with an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, decreased plasma ammonia (163.3 +/- 21.3 to 112.2 +/- 9.8 microMoles/L; p < 0.01), and increased encephalopathy index (0.60 +/- 0.17 to 1.24 +/- 0.22; p < 0.03). All patients survived, had a liver transplant, and were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This bioartificial liver is safe and serves as an effective "bridge" to liver transplant in some patients. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8185403

  8. Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-28

    navigate in an unstructured environment to a specific target or location. 15. SUBJECT TERMS autonomous vehicles , fuzzy logic, learning behavior...ANSI-Std Z39-18 Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior FINAL REPORT 9/28/2006 Dean B. Edwards Department...the future, as greater numbers of autonomous vehicles are employed, it is hoped that lower LONG-TERM GOALS Use LAGR (Learning Applied to Ground Robots

  9. Phenotypic analysis of NS5A variant from liver transplant patient with increased cyclosporine susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Israr-ul H.; Allen, Todd; Berical, Andrew; Stock, Peter G.; Barin, Burc; Striker, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is limited by cyclophilin inhibitors but it remains unclear how viral genetic variations influence susceptibility to cyclosporine (cyclosporine A, CsA), a cyclophilin inhibitor. In this study HCV from liver transplant patients was sequenced before and after CsA exposure. Phenotypic analysis of NS5A sequence was performed by using HCV sub genomic replicon to determine CsA susceptibility. The data indicates an atypical proline at position 328 in NS5A causes increases CsA sensitivity both in the context of genotype 1a and 1b residues. Point mutants mimicking other naturally occurring residues at this position also increased (Ala) or decreased (Arg) replicon sensitivity to CsA relative to the typical threonine (genotype 1a) or serine (genotype 1b) at this position. This work has implications for treatment of HCV by cyclophilin inhibitors. PMID:23290631

  10. Liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348

  11. Primary scattered multifocal melanocytomas in spinal canal mimicking neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenlong; Fang, Jingyi; Li, Guang; Yang, Jun; Xu, Yulun

    2016-08-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is an extremely rare pigmented tumor derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes. By and large, it is considered to be a well-differentiated and slow-growing benign lesion. Generally, meningeal melanocytomas are solitary lesions, and the occurrence of the primary multifocal form in the central nervous system is exceedingly rare; it has been previously reported in only six cases. The present report illustrates a 41-year-old woman with primary multifocal meningeal melanocytoma in the spinal canal. Contrary to earlier reports, the tumors presented with a scattered appearance mimicking neurofibromatosis. This study is a case report and review of literature. On admission, the cerebral magnetic resonance images of the patient were normal, whereas the spinal magnetic resonance images showed scattered multifocal nodules mimicking neurofibromatosis. Surgical resection of the responsible lesions was scheduled. In addition to this case presentation, relevant previous reports were reviewed, and the challenging diagnosis, management, and prognosis of meningeal melanocytoma are discussed. Gross total resection of the two largest lesions was achieved, and histopathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis. Despite the benign histopathological findings, the patient had an aggressive clinical course. On follow-up at 18 months after surgery, she succumbed to the disease. Clinicians should be alert to a potential aggressive clinical course of meningeal melanocytoma, despite its benign histopathological nature. Of particular note is multifocality and diffuse leptomeningeal hyperpigmentation, which may suggest a poor prognosis. A combined treatment including surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy should be considered, and long-term close follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Synthetic mimicking of plant oils and comparison with naturally grown products in polyurethane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Stuart R; Barker, Guy; Clark, Andrew J; Kirwan, Kerry; Jacobs, Daniel; Makenji, Kylash; Pink, David

    2008-06-11

    The use of plant oils as industrial feedstocks can often be hampered by their lack of optimization towards a particular process, as well as their development being risky; growing suitable volumes of crops to test can take up to five years. To circumvent this, we aimed to discover a method that would mimic plant oil profiles in the laboratory, and show that they exhibited similar properties to the naturally grown plant oils in a given process. Using the synthesis of polyurethanes as an example, we have synthesized six different polymers and demonstrated that plant oils will produce polymers with similar physical properties to those oils mimicked in the laboratory. The use of this mimicking process can be extended to other types of polymers to obtain a method for predicting the properties of a given material based on the plant oil composition of a crop before it is grown in bulk.

  13. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  14. Dr. Liver: A preoperative planning system of liver graft volumetry for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Yang, Kwangho; Lee, Tae Beom; Hwang, Hong Pil; Ahn, Sungwoo; You, Heecheon

    2018-05-01

    Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry. Automatic segmentation algorithms using histogram analysis, hybrid level-set methods, and a customized region growing method were developed. User-friendly interfaces such as sequential and hierarchical user menus, context-sensitive on-screen hotkey menus, and real-time sound and visual feedback were implemented. Blood vessels were excluded from the liver for accurate liver graft volumetry. A large sphere-based interactive method was developed for dividing the liver into left and right lobes with a customized cutting plane. The proposed system was evaluated using 50 CT datasets in terms of graft weight estimation accuracy and task completion time through comparison to the manual tracing method. The accuracy of liver graft weight estimation was assessed by absolute difference (AD) and percentage of AD (%AD) between preoperatively estimated graft weight and intraoperatively measured graft weight. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of liver graft weight estimation were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using ten cases randomly selected. The proposed system showed significantly higher accuracy and efficiency in liver graft weight estimation (AD = 21.0 ± 18.4 g; %AD = 3.1% ± 2.8%; percentage of %AD > 10% = none; task completion time = 7.3 ± 1.4 min) than the manual tracing method (AD = 70

  15. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: where are the limits?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-08-21

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts.

  16. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: Where are the limits?

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573

  17. Impact of liver volume and liver function on posthepatectomy liver failure after portal vein embolization- A multivariable cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Patrick H; Haelsig, Annabel; Bruners, Philipp; Ulmer, Florian; Klink, Christian D; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Neumann, Ulf P; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening complication after liver resection, and is difficult to predict preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study evaluated different preoperative factors in regard to their impact on posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) after extended liver resection and previous portal vein embolization (PVE). Patient characteristics, liver function and liver volumes of patients undergoing PVE and subsequent liver resection were analyzed. Liver function was determined by the LiMAx test (enzymatic capacity of cytochrome P450 1A2). Factors associated with the primary end point PHLF (according to ISGLS definition) were identified through multivariable analysis. Secondary end points were 30-day mortality and morbidity. 95 patients received PVE, of which 64 patients underwent major liver resection. PHLF occurred in 7 patients (11%). Calculated postoperative liver function was significantly lower in patients with PHLF than in patients without PHLF (67 vs. 109 μg/kg/h; p = 0.01). Other factors associated with PHLF by univariable analysis were age, future liver remnant, MELD score, ASA score, renal insufficiency and heart insufficiency. By multivariable analysis, future liver remnant was the only factor significantly associated with PHLF (p = 0.03). Mortality and morbidity rates were 4.7% and 29.7% respectively. Future liver remnant is the only preoperative factor with a significant impact on PHLF. Assessment of preoperative liver function may additionally help identify patients at risk for PHLF.

  18. Validation of graft and standard liver size predictions in right liver living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau; Chok, Kenneth S H; Sharr, William W; Cheung, Tan To; Tsang, Simon H Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2011-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of a formula derived from 159 living liver donors to estimate the liver size of a normal subject: standard liver weight (g) = 218 + body weight (kg) × 12.3 + 51 (if male). Standard liver volume (SLV) is attained by a conversion factor of 1.19 mL/g. The total liver volume (TLV) of each of the subsequent consecutive 126 living liver donors was determined using the right liver graft weight (RGW) on the back table, right/left liver volume ratio on computed tomography, and the conversion factor. The estimated right liver graft weight (ERGW) was determined by the right liver volume on computed tomography (CT) and the conversion factor. SLV and ERGW were compared with TLV and RGW, respectively, by paired sample t test. Donor characteristics of both series were similar. SLV and TLV were 1,099.6 ± 139.6 and 1,108.5 ± 175.2 mL, respectively, ( R 2  = 0.476) ( p  = 0.435). The difference between SLV and TLV was only -8.9 ± 128.2 mL (-1.0 ± 11.7%). ERGW and RGW were 601.5 ± 104.1 and 597.1 ± 102.2 g, respectively ( R 2  = 0.781) ( p  = 0.332). The conversion factor from liver weight to volume for this series was 1.20 mL/g. The difference between ERGW and RGW was 4.3 ± 49.8 g (0.3 ± 8.8%). ERGW was smaller than RGW for over 10% (range 0.21-40.66 g) in 18 of the 126 donors. None had the underestimation of RGW by over 20%. SLV and graft weight estimations were accurate using the formula and conversion factor.

  19. Endometriosis after surgical menopause mimicking pelvic malignancy: surgeons' predicament.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rani A; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-05-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis.

  20. Endometriosis After Surgical Menopause Mimicking Pelvic Malignancy: Surgeons’ Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani A.; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis. PMID:24936277

  1. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  2. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke.

    PubMed

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-03-26

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sensorium. Neuroimaging revealed features suggestive of vasogenic oedema. The second patient presented with monoplegia of the lower limb. Neuroimaging revealed perfusion deficit in anterior cerebral artery territory. Both patients were managed with dexamethasone and they improved dramatically. Clinical picture and neuroimaging closely resembled acute ischaemic stroke in both cases. Thrombolysis in these patients would have been disastrous. Recent travel to high altitude, young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors and features of raised ICP concomitantly directed the diagnosis to HACO.

  3. Liver natural killer cells: subsets and roles in liver immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Wisse, Eddie; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The liver represents a frontline immune organ that is constantly exposed to a variety of gut-derived antigens as a result of its unique location and blood supply. With a predominant role in innate immunity, the liver is enriched with various innate immune cells, among which natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in host defense and in maintaining immune balance. Hepatic NK cells were first described as ‘pit cells' in the rat liver in the 1970s. Recent studies of NK cells in mouse and human livers have shown that two distinct NK cell subsets, liver-resident NK cells and conventional NK (cNK) cells, are present in this organ. Here, we review liver NK cell subsets in different species, revisiting rat hepatic pit cells and highlighting recent progress related to resident NK cells in mouse and human livers, and also discuss the dual roles of NK cells in liver immunity. PMID:26639736

  4. Hepatic Dendritic Cells, the Tolerogenic Liver Environment, and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Ono, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yi-Fa; Thomson, Angus W; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2018-05-01

    The unique liver immune microenvironment favors resistance to inflammation that promotes normal physiological function. At the same time, it endows the liver with tolerogenic properties that may promote pathological processes. Hepatic dendritic cells (HDCs) initiate and orchestrate immune responses depending on signals they receive from the local environment and are thought to contribute to liver tolerance. Thus, HDCs facilitate impaired T cell responses that are observed in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma progression, and liver allograft transplantation. HDCs also participate in anti-inflammatory responses in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Moreover, they promote the regression of fibrosis from various fibrogenic liver injuries. These findings suggest that HDCs regulate intrahepatic immune responses, allowing the liver to maintain homeostasis and integrity even under pathological conditions. This review focuses on the tolerogenic properties of HDCs based on recent research and in relation to liver disease pathogenesis and its therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. [A giant myxoid leiomyoma mimicking an inguinal hernia].

    PubMed

    Huszár, Orsolya; Zaránd, Attila; Szántó, Gyöngyi; Juhász, Viktória; Székely, Eszter; Novák, András; Molnár, Béla Ákos; Harsányi, László

    2016-03-06

    Leiomyoma is a rare, smooth muscle tumour that can occur everywhere in the human body. The authors present the history of a 60-year-old female, who had a giant, Mullerian type myxoid leiomyoma in the inguinal region mimicking acute abdominal symptoms. After examination the authors removed the soft tissue mass in the right femoral region reaching down in supine position to the middle third of the leg measuring 335 × 495 × 437 mm in greatest diameters in weight 33 kg. Reconstruction of the tissue defect was performed using oncoplastic guidelines. During the follow-up time no tumour recurrence was detected and the quality of life of the patient improved significantly.

  6. Enterobiasis in Ectopic Locations Mimicking Tumor-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pampiglione, Silvio; Rivasi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Both the clinical and the histopathological diagnostic difficulties of oxyuriasis in unusual sites and their importance from a clinical point of view are pointed out. The authors report two ectoptic cases of enterobiasis observed in Northern Italy, one located in a fallopian tube of a 57-year-old woman and the other in a perianal subcutaneous tissue of a 59-year-old man, mimicking tumor-like lesions. The authors take advantage of the occasion to focus the attention of the medical world on this subject, lamenting the scarce importance given to this parasitosis in university courses of medical schools and in medical textbooks as it is incorrectly considered “out-of-fashion.” PMID:20016678

  7. Extraventricular neurocytoma in a child mimicking oligodendroglioma: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Bellil, K; Jemel, H; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M; Kchir, N

    2009-04-01

    Extraventricular neurocytomas are rare neuronal tumours that have been included in the 2007 WHO classification as a variant of central neurocytoma. They arise outside the ventricles, usually within the cerebral hemisphere,s but also in other regions throughout the neuraxis. The morphological overlap of these tumours with oligodendroglioma often poses diagnostic difficulty. Herein, a case of extraventricular neurocytoma in a 4-year-old girl is reported that mimicked histologically oligodendroglioma. The authors describe the clinicopathological features of this rare entity with special emphasis on differential diagnosis.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of liver from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) exposed to high environmental ammonia reveals the activation of antioxidant and apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiali; Wang, Yao; Wu, Zhixin; Hergazy, Abeer; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Liu, Xiaoling; Chen, Nan; Lin, Li

    2017-04-01

    High concentration of ammonia in aquatic system leads to detrimental effects on the health of aquatic animals. However, the mechanism underlying ammonia-induced toxicity is still not clear. To better understand the mechanism of ammonia toxicity effects on fish, juvenile grass carp was employed in the present study. RNA high-throughput sequencing technique was applied to analyze the total RNAs extracted from the liver of fish after 8 h post exposure to the water containing 2 mM NH 4 HCO 3 which experimentally mimicked the high environmental ammonia (HEA). A total of 49,971,114 and 53,826,986 clean reads were obtained in control and 2 mM HEA group, respectively, in which there were 911 differently expressed genes (DEGs) including 563 up-regulated and 348 down-regulated genes. In addition, 10 DEGs were validated by quantitative PCR. These DEGs were involved in several pathways related with oxidative stress or apoptosis. Further analysis on oxidative stress, histopathology and cellular apoptosis in grass carp liver after HEA exposure revealed interesting findings. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity together with the decreased catalase (CAT) activity were detected, which may be effected by DEGs and related pathways such as FOXO signaling pathway. The histopathology and TUNEL assays results confirmed that apoptosis was induced in liver when fish had suffered HEA. Combined with the results of transcriptomic experiments, c-Myc-Bax-Caspase9 apoptosis pathway could be involved in grass carp liver apoptosis induced by ammonia stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multidisciplinary management of an intra-sellar cavernous hemangioma: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chibbaro, S; Cebula, H; Ganau, M; Gubian, A; Todeschi, J; Lhermitte, B; Proust, F; Noel, G

    2018-06-01

    Extra-axial cavernous hemangiomas (ECH) are rare vascular lesions with a tendency to grow within the medial structures of the middle cranial fossa. This pathological entity lacks specific symptoms, and falls into the category of differential diagnosis of space occupying lesions in the cavernous sinus (CS) with or without sellar involvement, including those of tumoral, vascular and inflammatory nature. Of note, ECH can also be indolent, and is at times discovered incidentally during autopsy investigations. On radiological studies, ECH with sellar extension are frequently mistaken at first for pituitary adenomas. Total removal of intrasellar-CS ECH is technically demanding and burdened by remarkable morbidity and mortality rates, mostly related to the complex neuroanatomy of the CS-sellar region (i.e., peri and postoperative bleeding, and transitory or permanent nerve palsies, hormonal deficits). Consequently, only a few cases of successful total removal have been reported so far in the literature. Surgical debulking with cranial nerve decompression followed by stereotactic radiosurgery is currently considered the best alternative to total removal when the latter carries excessive perioperative risks. We present a rare case of a mainly located intrasellar ECH extending to the left CS discussing its clinical features and focusing on the most relevant aspects of the surgical management along with a review of the pertinent literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term Survivors After Liver Resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    Although breast cancer liver metastases are considered a sign of systemic recurrence and are considered a poor prognostic factor that transforms the patient into a candidate for palliative chemotherapy, surgery might be performed with good results. Success reported after liver resection for colorectal hepatic metastases encouraged the oncological surgeon to apply similar protocols in breast cancer liver metastases. Data of patients submitted to hepatectomies for breast cancer liver metastases in the "Dan Setlacec" Center of Gastrointestinal Disease and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest were retrospectively reviewed. Among five cases survival after liver surgery surpassed 5 years and was considered long-term survival. One of the five cases was submitted to a second liver resection. Most often long-term survivors were reported among patients with single, metachronous and smaller than 5-cm lesions. In selected cases liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be associated with a significant increase in survival. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  12. Laser treatment of infantile hemangioma: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Sathe, Nila A; Surawicz, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    To systematically review studies of laser treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH). We searched multiple databases including MEDLINE® and EMBASE from 1982 to June 2015. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria and extracted key data. Investigators independently assessed study risk of bias and the strength of the evidence of the body of literature. We identified 29 studies addressing lasers: 4 randomized controlled trials, 8 retrospective cohort studies, and 17 case series. Lasers varied across studies in type, pulse width, or cooling materials. Most comparative studies (n = 9) assessed variations of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and examined heterogeneous endpoints. Most studies reported on treatment of cutaneous lesions. Overall, longer pulse PDL with epidermal cooling was the most commonly used laser for cutaneous lesions; Nd:YAG was the most commonly used intralesionally. Most studies reported a higher success rate with longer pulse PDL compared with observation in managing the size of IH, although the magnitude of effect differed substantially. CO2 laser was used for subglottic IH in a single study, and was noted to have a higher success rate and lower complication rate than both Nd:YAG and observation. Studies comparing laser with β-blockers or in combination with β-blockers reported greater improvements in lesion size in combination arms versus β-blockers alone and greater effects of lasers on mixed superficial and deep IH. Strength of the evidence for outcomes after laser treatments ranged from insufficient to low for effectiveness outcomes. Strength of the evidence was insufficient for the effects of laser compared with β-blockers or in combination with β-blockers as studies evaluated different agents and laser types. Studies assessing outcomes after CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers typically reported some resolution of lesion size, but heterogeneity among studies limits our abilities to draw conclusions. Studies of laser

  13. Intramuscular Dirofilariasis Mimicking an Orbital Metastasis in a Patient with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brett M.; Hunt, Christopher H.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Schwartz, Kara M.; Diehn, Felix E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Schembri Wismayer, David J.; Garrity, James A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the unusual case of a 74 year-old female with a history of breast cancer who presented with acute painless orbital swelling and vertical diplopia. MRI revealed a focal enhancing mass within the superior rectus muscle. As the concern for metastatic disease was high, surgical biopsy was performed and revealed an unusual mimicker of metastatic disease, the parasitic infection dirofilariasis. PMID:23008795

  14. Pre-university Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rens, Lisette; Hermarij, Philip; Pilot, Albert; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-10-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry students, aged 16-17, when they enact a design of a mimicked scholarly peer review. This design is based on a model of a human activity system. Twenty-five different schools in Brazil, Germany, Poland and The Netherlands participated. The students (n = 880) conducted in small groups (n = 428) open inquiries on fermentation. All groups prepared an inquiry report for peer review. These reports were published on a website. Groups were randomly paired in an internet symposium, where they posted review comments to their peers. These responses were qualitatively analyzed on small groups' level of understanding regarding seven categories: inquiry question, hypothesis, management of control variables, accurate measurement, presenting results, reliability of results, discussion and conclusion. The mimicked scholarly review prompted a collective practice. Student understanding was significantly well on presenting results, discussion and conclusion, and significantly less on inquiry question and reliability of results. An enacted design, based on a model of a human activity system, created student understanding of quality in inquiries as well as an insight in a peer-reviewing practice. To what extent this model can be applied in a broader context of design research in science education needs further study.

  15. Shared liver-like transcriptional characteristics in liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Song, Xuekun; Ao, Lu; Chen, Rou; Chi, Meirong; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Hongdong; Zhao, Wenyuan; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims : Primary tumors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with liver metastasis might gain some liver-specific characteristics to adapt the liver micro-environment. This study aims to reveal potential liver-like transcriptional characteristics associated with the liver metastasis in primary colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Among the genes up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified "liver-specific" genes whose expression levels ranked among the bottom 10% ("unexpressed") of all measured genes in both normal colorectal tissues and primary colorectal tumors without metastasis. These liver-specific genes were investigated for their expressions in both the primary tumors and the corresponding liver metastases of seven primary CRC patients with liver metastasis using microdissected samples. Results: Among the 3958 genes detected to be up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified 12 liver-specific genes and found two of them, ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 , were unexpressed in microdissected primary colorectal tumors without metastasis but expressed in both microdissected liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). Genes co-expressed with ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 were significantly enriched in metabolism pathways characterizing liver tissues, including "starch and sucrose metabolism" and "drug metabolism-cytochrome P450". Conclusions: For primary CRC with liver metastasis, both the liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors may express some liver-specific genes which may help the tumor cells adapt the liver micro-environment.

  16. Vascular tumors of the iris in 45 patients: the 2009 Helen Keller Lecture.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jerry A; Bianciotto, Carlos; Kligman, Brad E; Shields, Carol L

    2010-09-01

    To report on a series of vascular tumors of the iris. Noncomparative case series. A retrospective medical record review of all patients with an iris vascular tumor was performed to identify the clinical features and develop a simple classification of these lesions. Included were demographics, clinical features, systemic associations, complications, management, and histopathology. There were 54 eyes in 45 patients with an iris vascular tumor. These were categorized as racemose hemangioma (41 eyes: 29 simple and 12 complex), cavernous hemangioma (3 eyes: 2 localized and 1 systemic), capillary hemangioma (1 eye, localized), varix (3 eyes, localized), and microhemangiomatosis (6 eyes, localized). The hemangiomas occurred in adults at a median age of 55 years, whereas capillary hemangioma occurred in infancy and cavernous hemangioma with systemic involvement occurred in a child. Of the 41 eyes with iris racemose hemangioma, none showed systemic involvement. Of all 54 eyes, transient hyphema was the main complication, found at some point in 30% or more of each affected eye except for iris capillary and racemose hemangioma. Surgical resection was necessary in 1 cavernous hemangioma and 1 varix. The remainder were managed with observation. There are now well-documented examples of iris racemose hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, varix, and microhemangiomatosis. Transient hyphema is the main complication. Observation is usually advised. Most are solitary lesions confined to the iris and some (cavernous hemangioma and microhemangiomatosis) can have important systemic associations.

  17. Case report: vertebral foreign body granuloma mimicking a skeletal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Josephina A; Bathaii, Seyed M; Hatfield, Bryce; Hayes, Curtis W

    2018-06-01

    Intraosseous foreign body granuloma formation related to migrated surgical material is a rarely reported condition with variable imaging appearance. In this case report, we describe a foreign body granuloma that occurred in a lumbar vertebral body one level above a prior surgical fusion. The lytic appearance mimicked a skeletal metastasis in a 65-year-old patient with recently diagnosed renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lumbar vertebral foreign body granuloma occurring distant from the site of surgery, indistinguishable from skeletal metastasis on radiologic examination.

  18. Unusual Case of Overt Aortic Dissection Mimicking Aortic Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Disha, Kushtrim; Kuntze, Thomas; Girdauskas, Evaldas

    2016-01-01

    We report an interesting case in which overt aortic dissection mimicked two episodes of aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) (Stanford A, DeBakey I). This took place over the course of four days and had a major influence on the surgical treatment strategy. The first episode of IMH regressed completely within 15 hours after it was clinically diagnosed and verified using imaging techniques. The recurrence of IMH was detected three days thereafter, resulting in an urgent surgical intervention. Overt aortic dissection with evidence of an intimal tear was diagnosed intraoperatively. PMID:27066437

  19. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine material characteristics which resemble normal and cancerous prostate tissue. Acoustic properties and stiffness of tissue mimicking phantoms were measured using compressional mechanical testing and shear wave elastography using supersonic shear imaging. The latter is based on the principles of shear waves generated using acoustic radiation force. The evaluation included tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) within the prostate at different positions and sizes that could mimic cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Patient data on normal and prostate cancer tissues quantified using biopsy histopathology were used to validate the findings. Pathologist reports on histopathology were blinded to mechanical testing and elastographic findings. Young's modulus values of 86.2 ± 4.5 and 271.5 ± 25.7 kPa were obtained for PAA mixed with 2% Al(2)O(3) particles and silicone, respectively. Young's modulus of TMMs from mechanical compression testing showed a clear trend of increasing stiffness with an increasing percentage of agar. The silicone material had higher stiffness values when compared with PAA with Al(2)O(3). The mean Young's modulus value in cancerous tissue was 90.5 ± 4.5 kPa as compared to 93.8 ± 4.4 and 86.2 ± 4.5 kPa obtained with PAA with 2% Al(2)O(3) phantom at a depth of 52.4 and 36.6 mm, respectively. PAA mixed with Al(2)O(3) provides the most suitable tissue mimicking material for prostate cancer tumor material, while agar could form the surrounding background to simulate normal