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  1. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Warm acupuncture for chronic atrophic gastritis with spleen-stomach deficiency cold].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Guangqi

    2017-02-12

    To observe the clinical effect of warm acupuncture at Zhongwan(CV 12) for chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) with spleen-stomach deficiency cold by the comparison with conventional acupuncture. Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned into a warm acupuncture group and a conventional acupuncture group,31 cases in each one. The acupoints in the two groups were Zhongwan(CV 12),Zusanli(ST 36),Neiguan(PC 6),Gongsun(SP 4),Qihai(CV 6),Pishu(BL 20) and Weishu(BL 21). Warm acupuncture was intervened at Zhongwan(CV 12) in the warm acupuncture group. Twirling reinforcing was applied at Zhongwan(CV 12) in the conventional acupuncture group. All the treatment was given for 3 courses continuously,5 days as one course,once a day. TCM syndrome score and symptom rating scale were observed before and after treatment in the two groups,and the effects were compared. The total effective rate was 93.5%(29/31) in the warm acupuncture group,which was better than 87.0%(27/31) in the conventional acupuncture group( P <0.05). The TCM syndrome score and symptom rating score were improved in the two groups after treatment( P <0.01, P <0.05),with more apparent improvement in the warm acupuncture group( P <0.01, P <0.05). Warm acupuncture at Zhongwan(CV 12) can improve gastrointestinal discomfort,which is better than twirling reinforcing at Zhongwan(CV 12) for CAG with spleen-stomach deficiency cold.

  3. Return to play after liver and spleen trauma.

    PubMed

    Juyia, Rushad F; Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-05-01

    Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Clinical review. Level 3. Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. C.

  4. Return to Play After Liver and Spleen Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Juyia, Rushad F.; Kerr, Hamish A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Conclusion: Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy: C. PMID:24790694

  5. Perioperative liver and spleen elastography in patients without chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sam; Borsiin, Hanna; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Brange, Hannes; Mijovic, Zoran; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-02-27

    To investigate changes in hepatic and splenic stiffness in patients without chronic liver disease during liver resection for hepatic tumors. Patients scheduled for liver resection for hepatic tumors were considered for enrollment. Tissue stiffness measurements on liver and spleen were conducted before and two days after liver resection using point shear-wave elastography. Histological analysis of the resected liver specimen was conducted in all patients and patients with marked liver fibrosis were excluded from further study analysis. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of resection and whether they had received preoperative chemotherapy or not. The relation between tissue stiffness and postoperative biochemistry was investigated. Results are presented as median (interquartile range). 35 patients were included. The liver stiffness increased in patients undergoing a major resection from 1.41 (1.24-1.63) m/s to 2.20 (1.72-2.44) m/s ( P = 0.001). No change in liver stiffness in patients undergoing a minor resection was found [1.31 (1.15-1.52) m/s vs 1.37 (1.12-1.77) m/s, P = 0.438]. A major resection resulted in a 16% (7%-33%) increase in spleen stiffness, more ( P = 0.047) than after a minor resection [2 (-1-13) %]. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy ( n = 20) did not differ from others in preoperative right liver lobe [1.31 (1.16-1.50) vs 1.38 (1.12-1.56) m/s, P = 0.569] or spleen [2.79 (2.33-3.11) vs 2.71 (2.37-2.86) m/s, P = 0.515] stiffness. Remnant liver stiffness on the second postoperative day did not show strong correlations with maximum postoperative increase in bilirubin ( R 2 = 0.154, Pearson's r = 0.392, P = 0.032) and international normalized ratio ( R 2 = 0.285, Pearson's r = 0.534, P = 0.003). Liver and spleen stiffness increase after a major liver resection for hepatic tumors in patients without chronic liver disease.

  6. Perioperative liver and spleen elastography in patients without chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Borsiin, Hanna; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Brange, Hannes; Mijovic, Zoran; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM To investigate changes in hepatic and splenic stiffness in patients without chronic liver disease during liver resection for hepatic tumors. METHODS Patients scheduled for liver resection for hepatic tumors were considered for enrollment. Tissue stiffness measurements on liver and spleen were conducted before and two days after liver resection using point shear-wave elastography. Histological analysis of the resected liver specimen was conducted in all patients and patients with marked liver fibrosis were excluded from further study analysis. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of resection and whether they had received preoperative chemotherapy or not. The relation between tissue stiffness and postoperative biochemistry was investigated. RESULTS Results are presented as median (interquartile range). 35 patients were included. The liver stiffness increased in patients undergoing a major resection from 1.41 (1.24-1.63) m/s to 2.20 (1.72-2.44) m/s (P = 0.001). No change in liver stiffness in patients undergoing a minor resection was found [1.31 (1.15-1.52) m/s vs 1.37 (1.12-1.77) m/s, P = 0.438]. A major resection resulted in a 16% (7%-33%) increase in spleen stiffness, more (P = 0.047) than after a minor resection [2 (-1-13) %]. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy (n = 20) did not differ from others in preoperative right liver lobe [1.31 (1.16-1.50) vs 1.38 (1.12-1.56) m/s, P = 0.569] or spleen [2.79 (2.33-3.11) vs 2.71 (2.37-2.86) m/s, P = 0.515] stiffness. Remnant liver stiffness on the second postoperative day did not show strong correlations with maximum postoperative increase in bilirubin (R2 = 0.154, Pearson’s r = 0.392, P = 0.032) and international normalized ratio (R2 = 0.285, Pearson’s r = 0.534, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION Liver and spleen stiffness increase after a major liver resection for hepatic tumors in patients without chronic liver disease. PMID:29492187

  7. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (<20 years) with blunt liver and spleen injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effects of infrasound exposure on several enzymes activities of spleen and liver in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-ming; Ye, Lin; Gao, Shuang-bin; Zhu, Dong-hai; Luo, Weng-jing; Liu, Xiu-hong; Chen, Jing-yuan; Chen, Jing-zao

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the changes of several enzymes activities in the spleen and liver of rats after exposure to 8 Hz 130 dB infrasound for different time. Thirty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats of group 1 served as control, rats from group 2 to 5 were exposed to 8 Hz 130 dB infrasound, 2 hours per day, for 1 wk, 2 wk, 3 wk, and 4 wk, respectively. The changes of enzymes activities in spleen and liver of rats were observed. Monoamine oxidase activities in spleen were significantly increased at 1 wk and 2 wk, it was decreased at 3 wk, and increased again at 4 wk (P < 0.05). There were no changes in the liver compared with the control group. Glutathione peroxides activities in spleen were significantly increased at 4 wk (P < 0.05) and it also increased in liver at 1 wk (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activities in spleen were increased significantly from 1 wk to 4 wk, but there were no markedly changes in liver. The level of malondialdehyde in spleen were increased at 3 wk and 4 wk. In the liver, it were increased at 1 wk and 2 wk, and decreased at 3 wk, but it increased again at 4 wk (P < 0.05). The results indicated that lipid peroxidation and oxygen free radicals in spleen and liver were increased after infrasound exposure and it might induce the damage in tissue or cells.

  9. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  10. [Effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on PI3K and AKT in spleen, stomach and lung of nude mice with lung adenocarcinoma transplantation tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Li; Wang, Ying; Yi, Jia-Li; Jing, Huan; Liu, Chun-Ying

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in spleen, stomach and lung of nude mice with lung adenocarcinoma transplantation tumor. Totally 60 nude mice were randomly divided into the blank control group, the tumor-bearing control group, the cisplatin group, the low-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group, the middle-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group and the high-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group. After the corresponding interventions, efforts were made to measure the transplanted tumor volume and calculate the tumor inhibiting rate. The immunohistochemical method and real time PCR were used to detect the expression of PI3K and AKT level in nude mice spleen, stomach and lung. Buzhong Yiqi decoction of different concentrations combined with cisplatin could inhibit the growth of the transplanted tumor, with the strongest inhibitory effect in the middle-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group and the high-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group. All of the expressions of PI3K and AKT protein and gene in the spleen, stomach and lung increased, with the most significant increase in the tumor-bearing group. Along with the increase of the concentration of cisplatin and Buzhong Yiqi decoction, the expressions of PI3K and AKT gradually reduced. Compared with the tumor-bearing control group, there were statistical differences in spleen and stomach tissues (P < 0.05). Compared with the cisplatin group, the middle-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group and the high-dose Buzhong Yiqi decoction group showed statistical differences (P < 0.05), but without statistical difference compared with the blank control group. Among nude mice with lung adenocarcinoma transplantation tumor, the PI3K and AKT protein and gene expressions in spleen, stomach and lung tissues increased, which might indicated the effect of cisplatin and Buzhong Yiqi decoction in reducing PI3K and AKT expressions and the relations between the reduction degree and the concentrations of Buzhong Yiqi

  11. Association between Helicobacter pylori and liver-to-spleen ratio: a randomized-controlled single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Zeynal; Filik, Levent; Ergül, Bilal; Sarikaya, Murat; Akbal, Erdem

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is reported to be associated with some extragastrointestinal manifestations, such as hematological diseases (thrombocytopenia, anemia), obesity, and fatty liver disease. The length or the volume ratio of liver to spleen was suggested to be changed in some hematological and hepatobiliary disorders. We hypothesized that the liver-to-spleen ratio may be affected in H. pylori-positive patients. In this respect, we aimed to evaluate the effect of H. pylori infection on the liver-to-spleen ratio and platelet indices. A total of 174 patients with functional dyspepsia were included in the study. Patients were divided into group 1 (H. pylori-positive gastritis) (n=95) and group 2 (H. pylori negative, control group) (n=79). Liver, spleen length measurement, and liver steatosis scores were performed by ultrasonography by the same physicians who were blinded to the H. pylori results. Blood count values including the platelet count and the mean platelet volume (MPV) were compared between the two groups. BMI was also evaluated as a potential confounding factor for fatty liver. The liver-to-spleen ratio, platelet-to-spleen ratio, MPV-to-spleen ratio, and the MPV-to-liver ratio were significantly lower in the H. pylori-positive group compared with the H. pylori-negative group (P<0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.038, respectively). Fatty liver was significantly more frequent in H. pylori-positive patients. Liver-to-spleen ratio and the MPV-to-spleen ratio are important indices in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-linked liver and spleen manifestations, and thrombocytopenia.

  12. The safety of low molecular-weight heparin after blunt liver and spleen injuries.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Manley, Justin; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Frotan, Mohammad Amin; Mitchell, Ellen; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation is routinely administered to all trauma patients owing to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the timing of administration of anticoagulation is not clearly defined when patients have blunt spleen or liver injuries because of the perceived risk of hemorrhage with early administration. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients who sustained blunt liver and/or spleen injuries during the 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Data were collected for all patients managed with nonoperative therapy for these injuries while also receiving routine prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular-weight heparin. Patients were categorized based on the initiation of enoxaparin therapy after injury: early (<48 hours), intermediate (48 to 72 hours), and late (>72 hours). Primary and secondary outcomes were designated as need for operative or radiologic intervention secondary to spleen or liver hemorrhage, number of transfusions, and incidence of VTE. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. There were no enoxaparin-related hemorrhagic complications or hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention. Patients in the early, intermediate, and late groups received an average of .9, .93, and 1.55 units of blood, respectively. There was 1 pulmonary embolism in the early group, and there were 6 VTE complications in the late group (3 deep venous thromboses and 3 pulmonary embolisms). There are currently no standards for the initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation in trauma patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries. Early administration may be safe and reduce the incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with blunt spleen and liver injuries. Prospective studies in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The spleen in liver cirrhosis: revisiting an old enemy with novel targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Duan, Mubing; Chen, Weisan; Jiang, An; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Jun; Li, Zongfang

    2017-05-23

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ which can influence the progression of multiple diseases, notably liver cirrhosis. In chronic liver diseases, splenomegaly and hypersplenism can manifest following the development of portal hypertension. These splenic abnormalities correlate with and have been postulated to facilitate the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis, although precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the literature to highlight the mechanistic contributions of splenomegaly and hypersplenism to the development of liver cirrhosis, focusing on three key aspects: hepatic fibrogenesis, hepatic immune microenvironment dysregulation and liver regeneration. We conclude with a discussion of the possible therapeutic strategies for modulating splenic abnormalities, including the novel potential usage of nanomedicine in non-surgically targetting splenic disorders for the treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  14. Clinical value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Da-Feng; Zhang, Mei-Wu; Fan, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in patients with liver cirrhosis combined with portal hypertension, and assess the value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension. METHODS All 67 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed as portal hypertension by hepatic venous pressure gradient in our hospital from June 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study. The baseline information of these patients was recorded. Furthermore, 67 patients were followed-up at 20 mo after treatment, and liver and spleen shear wave velocity were measured by acoustic radiation force impulse at the 1st week, 3rd month and 9th month after treatment. Patients with favorable prognosis were assigned into the favorable prognosis group, while patients with unfavorable prognosis were assigned into the unfavorable prognosis group. The variation and difference in liver and spleen shear wave velocity in these two groups were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the effect of liver and spleen shear wave velocity on the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension, Cox’s proportional hazard regression model analysis was applied. The ability of those factors in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS The liver and spleen shear wave velocity in the favorable prognosis group revealed a clear decline, while those in the unfavorable prognosis group revealed an increasing tendency at different time points. Furthermore, liver and spleen shear wave velocity was higher in the unfavorable prognosis group, compared with the favorable prognosis group; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was significantly affected by spleen hardness at the 3rd month after treatment [relative risk (RR) = 3

  15. Clinical value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Da-Feng; Zhang, Mei-Wu; Fan, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-12-07

    To explore the relationship of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in patients with liver cirrhosis combined with portal hypertension, and assess the value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension. All 67 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed as portal hypertension by hepatic venous pressure gradient in our hospital from June 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study. The baseline information of these patients was recorded. Furthermore, 67 patients were followed-up at 20 mo after treatment, and liver and spleen shear wave velocity were measured by acoustic radiation force impulse at the 1 st week, 3 rd month and 9 th month after treatment. Patients with favorable prognosis were assigned into the favorable prognosis group, while patients with unfavorable prognosis were assigned into the unfavorable prognosis group. The variation and difference in liver and spleen shear wave velocity in these two groups were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the effect of liver and spleen shear wave velocity on the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension, Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis was applied. The ability of those factors in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The liver and spleen shear wave velocity in the favorable prognosis group revealed a clear decline, while those in the unfavorable prognosis group revealed an increasing tendency at different time points. Furthermore, liver and spleen shear wave velocity was higher in the unfavorable prognosis group, compared with the favorable prognosis group; the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). The prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was significantly affected by spleen hardness at the 3 rd month after treatment [relative risk (RR) = 3.481]. At the 9 th

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan.

    PubMed

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females.

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    PubMed Central

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females. PMID:28553763

  18. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Mili, E-mail: milimandal@gmail.com

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b{sup +} infiltrating Ly6G{sup +} granulocytic and Ly6G{sup −} monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G{sup +} cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G{sup −} cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressingmore » high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80{sup +}) and immature (F4/80{sup −}) pro-inflammatory Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C{sup lo}) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3{sup +} macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen

  20. Stomach position versus liver-to-thoracic volume ratio in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Anne-Gaël; Cannie, Mieke M; Guilbaud, Lucie; De Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Martinovic, Jéléna; Nowakowska, Dorota; Milejska-Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Rodó, Carlota; Viaris de Lesegno, Benjamin; Votino, Carmela; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Jani, Jacques C; Benachi, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe a new grading method for stomach position (SP) in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) using ultrasound and to correlate SP to liver position and to liver-to-thoracic cavity volume ratio (LiTR) using magnetic resonance imaging. SP were graded at the level of the 4-chamber view as following: grade 1-to-4 for stomach not visualised, visualised anteriorly at the apex of the heart, stomach showing abdominal structures anteriorly and stomach with its larger part posterior to the level of the atrial-ventricular heart valves, respectively. The LiTR was calculated and correlated to SP using the Mann-Whitney U test. Seventy-four fetuses were included. Median LiTR for grade 1 SP was 0% and was not different from median LiTR for grade 2 SP (0%, p=NS). Median LiTR for grade 3 SP was 14.9% and was significantly higher than for grade 2 SP (p<0.001). Similarly, median LiTR for grade 4 SP was 20.7% and was significantly higher than for grade 3 SP (p<0.05). When SP was grade 1 or 2, liver was intra-abdominal in 21 (84%) out of 25 fetuses while it was always intrathoracic for SP 3 or 4. In L-CDH, SP as described represents a simple indirect measurement of intrathoracic position and quantification of liver.

  1. Portal Hypertension in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spleen Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Youichi; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spleen stiffness (SS) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis, with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as a reference standard. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective single-center study. From February 2012 to August 2013, 60 patients with liver cirrhosis (mean age, 70.8 years; age range, 34-88 years; 34 men, 26 women) with HVPG, LS, and SS measurements and gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory data were included if they met the following criteria: no recent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, no history of splenectomy, no history of partial splenic embolization, no history of β-blocker therapy, and absence of portal thrombosis. The efficacy of the parameters for the evaluation of portal hypertension was analyzed by using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation coefficient between SS and HVPG (r = 0.876) was significantly better than that between LS and HVPG (r = 0.609, P < .0001). The areas under the ROC curve of SS for the identification of clinically important portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg), severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg), esophageal varices (EVs), and high-risk EVs were significantly higher (0.943, 0.963, 0.937, and 0.955, respectively) than those of LS, spleen diameter, platelet count, and platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (P < .05 for all). SS could be used to accurately rule out the presence of clinically important portal hypertension, severe portal hypertension, EVs, and high-risk EVs (negative likelihood ratios, 0.051, 0.056, 0.054, and 0.074, respectively). SS is reliable and has better diagnostic performance than LS for identifying portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available

  2. Shear wave elastography (SWE) of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Inglot, Marcin; Szymańska, Kinga; Inglot, Małgorzata; Patyk, Mateusz; Słonina, Joanna; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Janczak, Dariusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the elasticity of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without liver fibrosis with that of healthy subjects using a shear wave elastography (SWE) examination. Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2015, 35 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and 45 patients with (hepatitis C virus) HCV infections and liver stiffness below 7.1 kPa were included in the study. The control group was composed of 53 healthy volunteers without any chronic liver disease, with no abnormal findings in their ultrasound examinations and with an SWE of the liver below 6.5 kPa. The SWE measurements were a part of routine ultrasound abdominal examinations. The examinations were performed using an Aixplorer device by two radiologists with at least 6 years' experience. To compare spleen stiffness between the groups, the Mann–Whitney U-test was applied. To analyze the dependency between liver and spleen elasticity, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated. Results: A total of 133 SWE findings were analyzed. Stiffness of the spleen was significantly higher in patients with HBV and HCV but without significant liver fibrosis than it was in the healthy controls (p = 0.0018 and 0.0000, respectively). This correlation was also present in patients with liver stiffness below 6.5 kPa (p = 0.0041 and 0.0000, respectively). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between liver and spleen stiffness in patients with hepatitis B and C and without significant fibrosis (p = 0.3216 and 0.0626, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis have stiffer spleens than healthy controls. There is no dependency between liver and spleen elasticity in patients without significant fibrosis. Advances in knowledge: The SWE examination might be an important tool and could be used in addition to conventional imaging. Our study may become a starting point in

  3. Shear wave elastography (SWE) of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Inglot, Marcin; Chabowski, Mariusz; Szymańska, Kinga; Inglot, Małgorzata; Patyk, Mateusz; Słonina, Joanna; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Janczak, Dariusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the elasticity of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without liver fibrosis with that of healthy subjects using a shear wave elastography (SWE) examination. Between December 2014 and December 2015, 35 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and 45 patients with (hepatitis C virus) HCV infections and liver stiffness below 7.1 kPa were included in the study. The control group was composed of 53 healthy volunteers without any chronic liver disease, with no abnormal findings in their ultrasound examinations and with an SWE of the liver below 6.5 kPa. The SWE measurements were a part of routine ultrasound abdominal examinations. The examinations were performed using an Aixplorer device by two radiologists with at least 6 years' experience. To compare spleen stiffness between the groups, the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. To analyze the dependency between liver and spleen elasticity, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated. A total of 133 SWE findings were analyzed. Stiffness of the spleen was significantly higher in patients with HBV and HCV but without significant liver fibrosis than it was in the healthy controls (p = 0.0018 and 0.0000, respectively). This correlation was also present in patients with liver stiffness below 6.5 kPa (p = 0.0041 and 0.0000, respectively). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between liver and spleen stiffness in patients with hepatitis B and C and without significant fibrosis (p = 0.3216 and 0.0626, respectively). Patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis have stiffer spleens than healthy controls. There is no dependency between liver and spleen elasticity in patients without significant fibrosis. The SWE examination might be an important tool and could be used in addition to conventional imaging. Our study may become a starting point in further investigations into the role of the spleen in HCV and HBV

  4. Disseminated Nonleukemic Myeloid Sarcoma of the Spleen With Involvement of the Liver in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yueli; Wu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Ao; Zhu, Kun; Li, Wei; Cai, Shenyang; Yang, Min; Yan, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Nonleukemic myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare tumor that can occur in several locations without myeloid leukemia. We reported a first case of nonleukemic MS of the spleen involving the liver in a 5-month-old boy presenting with hematochezia, petechial hemorrhage, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. Bone marrow trephine biopsy and immunophenotypic flow cytometry revealed no evidence of myeloid leukemia. The patient underwent liver biopsy and splenectomy. Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry suggested a disseminated nonleukemic MS. The patient died of respiratory failure on the seventh postoperative day. Early diagnosis of a disseminated nonleukemic MS may be quite important for patient survival and it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of hepatosplenomegaly with atypical clinical features.

  5. [Liver and spleen biometrics in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients].

    PubMed

    Guariento, Andressa; Silva, Marco Felipe C; Tassetano, Priscilla S F; Rocha, Sílvia Maria S; Campos, Lúcia M A; Valente, Marcelo; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate liver and spleen dimensions in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) patients and healthy controls. 30 c-SLE patients and 30 healthy control volunteers underwent abdominal ultrasound. The following two liver measurements were performed in left hepatic lobe: craniocaudal and anteroposterior and three in right hepatic lobe (RHL): posterior craniocaudal (PCC-RHL), anterior craniocaudal and anteroposterior. Three spleen dimension measurements were also evaluated: longitudinal, transverse and anteroposterior. Demographic, clinical and laboratorial data, SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, SLAM and treatment were assessed. Mean current age was similar in c-SLE and controls (170.31 ± 27.81 vs. 164.15 ± 39.25 months; p = 0.486). The mean of PCC-RHL dimension was significantly higher in c-SLE compared to controls (13.30 ± 1.85 vs. 12.52 ± 0.93, p = 0.044). There were no differences between the other hepatic biometrics and splenic parameters (p > 0.05). Further analysis in c-SLE patients according to PCC-RHL dimension ≥ 13.3cm versus < 13.3 cm showed that the median of SLEDAI-2K [8(0-18) vs. 2(0-8), p=0.004], ECLAM [4(0-9) vs. 2(0-5), p = 0.019] and SLAM [5(1-13) vs. 2(0-14), p = 0.016] were significantly higher in patients with higher PCC-RHL dimension, likewise the frequencie of nephritis (77% vs. 29%, p = 0.010). Liver enzymes were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Positive correlation was observed between SLEDAI-2K and PCC-RHL (p = 0.001, r = +0.595). Negative correlation was evidenced between disease duration and longitudinal dimension of spleen (p = 0.031, r = -0.394). Our data raises the possibility that disease activity could lead to a subclinical and localized hepatomegaly during the disease course. Long disease duration resulted to spleen atrophy in c-SLE patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [A Case of Gastric Cancer with Splenic Artery Aneurysm, Intraoperative ICG Fluorography Is Useful in Evaluating the Blood Flow of Stomach and Spleen].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Akabane, Kentaro; Hayasaka, Kazuki; Mizuki, Toru; Yagi, Yutaka; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Saito, Kiyohiro; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-11-01

    An 81-year-oldwoman with advancedgastric cancer was referredto our hospital. Preoperative contrast-enhancedCT revealeda roundcalcification of the splenic hilum with 15mm in diameter as a splenic artery aneurysm. She underwent transcatheter arterial embolization(TAE)for the splenic artery aneurysm. Celiac artery angiography showedcollateral arterial network of the spleen from left gastric artery. Surgery for the gastric cancer was performed1 4 days after TAE. We cut the right gastric andbilateral epigastric arteries. After the left gastric artery clamping, we performedintraoperative indocyanine green(ICG)fluorography. ICG fluorography confirmedthat the bloodflow of the upper thirdof the stomach andspleen were maintained. We safely performed distal gastrectomy, and the postoperative course was uneventful.

  7. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. IV. HEMOGLOBIN INJECTIONS AND CONSERVATION OF PIGMENT BY KIDNEY, LIVER AND SPLEEN

    PubMed Central

    Newman, William V.; Whipple, George H.

    1932-01-01

    When the minimal renal threshold for blood hemoglobin is exceeded there is observed a deposit of iron staining pigment in the epithelium of the renal convoluted tubules. At a certain point this epithelium cannot take up more hemoglobin and this coincides with the minimal renal threshold level. When the injections of blood hemoglobin are kept below the minimal renal threshold level we note a complete absence of iron staining pigment in the renal tubular epithelium. Given a deposit of iron staining pigment in the tubular epithelium, it will slowly disappear during rest periods with no hemoglobin injections. Anemia due to bleeding will accelerate this removal of pigment from the renal epithelium and this indicates a conservation of material by the kidney for use in construction of new hemoglobin. Pigment giving a positive stain for iron will be found in the liver and spleen when hemoglobin injections are given, regardless of the renal threshold. Removal of this pigment is accelerated by anemia due to bleeding and as a rule an anemia period of 2 months at a level of 1/3 normal (40 to 50 per cent hemoglobin) will render the spleen, liver and kidney free from iron staining pigment. Pigment giving a positive iron stain is frequently observed in the mesenteric and lower retroperitoneal lymph glands. This is merely a drainage of pigment and phagocytes including pigment from some organ in which the pigment deposit was primary. In stock dogs in this laboratory the hemoglobin level is quite high when the animals are in a perfectly normal state. The blood hemoglobin averages 120 to 150 per cent hemoglobin. In such dogs iron staining pigment in the spleen is a common finding and on occasion is observed in the liver. To establish an accurate base line for the study of iron and iron staining pigment storage due to diet intake one must submit these dogs to a preliminary anemia period of at least 2 months. Muscle hemoglobin has a very low renal threshold and escapes freely into the

  9. Iron in spleen and liver: Some cases of normal tissues and tissues from patients with hematological malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenkina, Irina V.; Oshtrakh, Michael I.; Felner, Israel; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Konstantinova, Tatiana S.; Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2016-10-01

    Iron deposits in spleen and liver tissues obtained from several healthy people and patients with mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia and primary myelofibrosis were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The results obtained demonstrated differences in the iron content in tissues as well as some variations in the ferrihydrite-like iron core structure in the iron storage proteins in these tissues. The presence of tiny amount of magnetite and paramagnetic component in spleen and liver tissue was also detected in different quantities in the studied tissues.

  10. Predictive value of liver and spleen stiffness in advanced alcoholic cirrhosis with refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Franziska; Mühlberg, Reinhard; Wiegand, Johannes; Tröltzsch, Michael; Hoffmeister, Albrecht; Keim, Volker; Karlas, Thomas

    2018-06-01

     Recurrent ascitic decompensation is a frequent complication of advanced alcoholic liver disease. Ascites can be controlled by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation, but specific pre-procedural outcome predictors are not well established. Liver and spleen stiffness measurement (LSM, SSM) correlate with outcome of compensated liver disease, but data for decompensated cirrhosis disease are scarce. Therefore, the predictive value of LSM and SSM was evaluated in patients with refractory ascites treated with TIPS insertion or receiving conservative therapy.  Patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and recurrent or refractory ascites were stratified according to TIPS eligibility. LSM was prospectively assessed by transient elastography (TE, XL probe) and point shear wave elastography (pSWE). pSWE was also used for SSM. The primary study endpoint was transplant-free survival after 12 months. In addition, correlation of LSM and SSM with TIPS complications was analyzed.  43 patients (16 % female, age 55.5 [28.6 - 79.6] years) were recruited, n = 20 underwent TIPS and n = 23 were treated with repeated paracenteses only. 15 patients died and five underwent liver transplantation during follow-up. LSM and SSM at baseline did not predict the patients' outcome in the TIPS cohort and in patients with conservative therapy. SSM was increased in two cases with spontaneous TIPS occlusion and declined after revision.  LSM and SSM cannot be recommended for risk stratification in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. SSM may be useful in monitoring TIPS function during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  12. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  13. Anti-ageing effects of protocatechuic acid from Alpinia on spleen and liver antioxidative system of senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Shi, Gui-Fang; Liu, Xiu-zhen; An, Li-jia; Guan, Shui

    2011-06-01

    The effects of Alpinia protocatechuic acid (PCA) on spleen and liver antioxidant system in aged rats have been studied. Alpinia PCA, a phenolic compound, was first isolated from the dried fruits of Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq. in our laboratory. Young and aged rats were injected intraperitoneally with Alpinia PCA at single doses of 5 mg kg(-1) (low dose) or 10 mg kg(-1) (high dose) per day for 7 days. The activities of endogenous antioxidants and the content of lipid peroxide in spleen and liver were assayed. Compared with young group, aged rats had significantly lower splenic weights, lower activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and catalase (CAT), higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in spleen and liver. The results proved that Alpinia PCA significantly elevated the splenic weights, increased the activities of GSH-PX and CAT and decreased the MDA level of aged rats. All these suggested that Alpinia PCA was a potential anti-ageing agent, and its effects on spleen and liver were achieved at least partly by promoting endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities and normalizing age-associated alterations. It may be therapeutically useful to minimize age-associated disorders where oxidative damage is the major cause. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of hydrocortisone and insulin on oxidative phosphorylation in liver and spleen mitochondria of rats exposed to fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sutkovoi, D.A.; Alferov, A.N.; Letov, V.N.

    The radioprotective effects of hydrocortisone and insulin on postradiation disturbances of energy metabolism in rats was investigated. The effects of neutron radiation on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of the liver and spleen as well as the response modifying effects of hydrocortisone and insulin were discussed.

  15. Hemostasis of the liver, spleen, and bone achieved by electrocautery greased with lidocaine gel.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Andy

    2011-02-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, achieving hemostasis of the liver, spleen, and bone during major surgery, especially after trauma, is still difficult. I describe a new procedure my colleagues and I devised to achieve parenchymatous hemostasis using electrocautery greased with lidocaine gel. After achieving good results in experimental studies and obtaining approval from our ethics committee, we used electrocautery greased with lidocaine gel for hemostasis in the following 36 procedures: multisegmental hepatectomy to remove hepatic tumors (n = 6); partial hepatectomy to allow hepatojejunostomy for intrahepatic biliary obstruction (n = 10); laparoscopic liver biopsy (n = 4); subtotal splenectomy (n = 8; for portal hypertension in 5 patients, splenic ischemia in 2, and Gaucher's disease in 1); laparoscopic splenic biopsy (n = 1); and bone resection (n = 7; as pelvic-femoral resection in 6 patients and to remove a rectal tumor invading the coccyx in 1). This procedure was easy to perform and achieved complete hemostasis of the minor blood vessels in all patients. No postoperative bleeding occurred and the follow-up course was satisfactory. Electrocautery greased with lidocaine gel is an inexpensive, readily available, and efficient method to achieve hemostasis of minor vessels in hepatic, splenic, and bone operations.

  16. Diminazene aceturate liposomes: morphometric and biochemical liver, kidney, and spleen of rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Belmonte; Rigo, Lucas Almeida; França, Raqueli T; Gressler, Lucas T; Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Ourique, Aline F; Oliveira, Dionatan T; Doyle, Rovaina L; Moreira, Karen Luise dos Santos; Veiga, Marcelo L; Lopes, Sonia T A; Beck, Ruy Carlos R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with liposomal (L-DMZ) and conventional (C-DMZ) diminazene aceturate formulations on hepatic and renal functions of rats, experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, 72 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Each group was subdivided into two other subgroups in order to assess the biochemical and histological results on days 7 and 40 post-treatment (PT). Treatments were carried out based on two different therapeutic protocols: L-DMZ and C-DMZ at 3.5mg/kg(-1), single dose (groups C and D), and five successive doses within intervals of 24h (groups E and F). Groups A and B corresponded to uninfected and infected (without treatment) animals, respectively. Sample collections were held on days 7 and 40 PT for the assessment of hepatic [alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine transferase (ALT), albumin, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT) and renal functions (creatinine and urea). Additionally, the histology of fragments of liver, kidney, and spleen was performed. Animals in group B showed a significant increase in AP, GGT, ALT, and urea when compared with group A. On day 7 post-inoculation (PI), the biochemical analysis showed a reduction (P<0.05) of AP and GGT, while the levels of urea were increased in groups C, D, E, F. On day 40 PT, ALT was increased in these same groups when compared with group A. In histopathology, changes in liver samples were observed on day 7 PT in groups D and F, especially regarding the area and density of the hepatocytes. Renal analysis exhibited changes in glomerular space, glomerular, and corpuscular areas in group E. Therefore, these results allowed us to conclude that the treatment with L-DMZ and C-DMZ led to variable biochemical changes, which defined the functions of the liver and kidneys of treated animals, since the main histopathology alterations were observed in animals treated with liposomes, at their higher

  17. Spleen dimensions are inversely associated with lysosomal acid lipase activity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Licia; Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Tozzi, Giulia; Novo, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Troisi, Giovanni; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Ceci, Fabrizio; Scardella, Laura; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver and splenomegaly are typical features of genetic lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency. No data in adult patients with non-genetic reduction of LAL activity are available. We investigate the association between spleen dimensions and LAL activity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, in whom a reduced LAL activity has been reported. We include 425 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound to evaluate hepatic steatosis and spleen dimensions. LAL activity was measured with dried blood spot method (Lalistat2). NAFLD was present in 74.1% of screened patients. Higher median spleen longitudinal diameter (10.6 vs. 9.9 cm; p < 0.001) and spleen area (SA) (32.7 vs. 27.7 cm 2 ; p < 0.001), together with a higher and proportion of splenomegaly (17.8 vs. 5.5%, p = 0.001), are present in patients with NAFLD compared to those without. In NAFLD patients, median LAL activity is 0.9 nmol/spot/h. LAL activity is lower in 56 patients with splenomegaly, as compared to those without (p = 0.009). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (above median, OR 0.344; p = 0.003), LAL activity (below median, OR 2.206, p = 0.028), and platelets (OR 0.101, p = 0.002) are significantly associated with splenomegaly. NAFLD patients disclose a relatively high prevalence of spleen enlargement and splenomegaly, which are significantly associated with a reduced LAL activity, suggesting that LAL may contribute to spleen enlargement in this setting.

  18. Spleen Stiffness Is Superior to Liver Stiffness for Predicting Esophageal Varices in Chronic Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaowen; Wang, Le; Wu, Hao; Feng, Yuemin; Han, Xibiao; Bu, Haoran; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Liver stiffness (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) are two most widely accessible non-invasive parameters for predicting esophageal varices (EV), but the reported accuracy of the two predictors have been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of LS and SS measurement for detecting EV in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), and compare their accuracy. Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Ovid were searched for all studies assessing SS and LS simultaneously in EV diagnosis. A total of 16 studies including 1892 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the pooled statistical parameters were calculated using the bivariate mixed effects models. In detection of any EV, for LS measurement, the summary sensitivity was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.87), and the specificity was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.60-0.72). While for SS measurement, the pooled sensitivity and specificity was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.92) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73-0.83). The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve values of LS and SS were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.84) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91) respectively, and the results had statistical significance (P<0.01). The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of SS (25.73) was significantly higher than that of LS (9.54), with the relative DOR value was 2.48 (95%CI: 1.10-5.60), P<0.05. Under current techniques, SS is significantly superior to LS for identifying the presence of EV in patients with CLD. SS measurement may help to select patients for endoscopic screening.

  19. Spleen and Liver Stiffness Is Positively Correlated with the Risk of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Buechter, Matthias; Kahraman, Alisan; Manka, Paul; Gerken, Guido; Jochum, Christoph; Canbay, Ali; Dechêne, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic liver disease and results in esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding, which is associated with a high mortality rate. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is considered the gold standard for diagnosing PH and estimating the risk of varices and bleeding. In contrast, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy (UGE) can reliably demonstrate the presence of varices and bleeding. Both measures are invasive, and HVPG is mainly restricted to tertiary centers. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods of assessing the severity of PH and the risk of variceal bleeding is warranted. We retrospectively examined the correlation of spleen stiffness (SSM) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) with the incidence of variceal bleeding among 143 patients who underwent combined liver and spleen elastography between 2013 and 2015. For 19 of 103 patients (16.8%), upper GI variceal bleeding was diagnosed and treated endoscopically. The median SSM of all patients was 35.3 kilopascals (kPa); the median LSM, 11.7 kPa. Patients with previous bleeding episodes had significantly higher SSM (75.0 kPa) and LSM (37.3 kPa) than those without a history of bleeding (SSM, 30.6 kPa; LSM, 8.2 kPa; p < 0.0001). Seventy-five patients (66.4%) underwent UGE in addition to SSM and LSM: 25 with no esophageal varices (EVs; SSM, 29.5 kPa; LSM, 11.4 kPa), 16 with EV grade 1 (SSM, 35.9 kPa; LSM, 33.4 kPa), 21 with EV grade 2 (SSM, 67.8 kPa; LSM, 27.0 kPa) and 13 with EV grade 3 (SSM, 75.0 kPa; LSM, 26.3 kPa). No statistically significant differences were found between respective grades of EV but were found between the presence and absence of varices. At a calculated cutoff level of 42.6 kPa (with application of 95% CI), SSM had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 64% in determining the risk of bleeding, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.97 (LSM sensitivity, 84%; LSM specificity, 80%; LSM NPV, 0.96 at LSM cutoff

  20. Spatially constrained incoherent motion method improves diffusion-weighted MRI signal decay analysis in the liver and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Taimouri, Vahid; Afacan, Onur; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Callahan, Michael J.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Warfield, Simon K.; Freiman, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the spatially constrained incoherent motion (SCIM) method on improving the precision and robustness of fast and slow diffusion parameter estimates from diffusion-weighted MRI in liver and spleen in comparison to the independent voxel-wise intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. Methods: We collected diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data of 29 subjects (5 healthy subjects and 24 patients with Crohn’s disease in the ileum). We evaluated parameters estimates’ robustness against different combinations of b-values (i.e., 4 b-values and 7 b-values) by comparing the variance of the estimates obtained with the SCIM and the independent voxel-wise IVIM model. We also evaluated the improvement in the precision of parameter estimates by comparing the coefficient of variation (CV) of the SCIM parameter estimates to that of the IVIM. Results: The SCIM method was more robust compared to IVIM (up to 70% in liver and spleen) for different combinations of b-values. Also, the CV values of the parameter estimations using the SCIM method were significantly lower compared to repeated acquisition and signal averaging estimated using IVIM, especially for the fast diffusion parameter in liver (CVIV IM = 46.61 ± 11.22, CVSCIM = 16.85 ± 2.160, p < 0.001) and spleen (CVIV IM = 95.15 ± 19.82, CVSCIM = 52.55 ± 1.91, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The SCIM method characterizes fast and slow diffusion more precisely compared to the independent voxel-wise IVIM model fitting in the liver and spleen. PMID:25832079

  1. Curcumin Attenuates Iron Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Spleen of Chronic Iron-Overloaded Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badria, Farid A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Badria, Adel F.; Elmarakby, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Iron overload is now recognized as a health problem in industrialized countries, as excessive iron is highly toxic for liver and spleen. The potential use of curcumin as an iron chelator has not been clearly identified experimentally in iron overload condition. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of curcumin to alleviate iron overload-induced hepatic and splenic abnormalities and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Design and Methods Three groups of male adult rats were treated as follows: control rats, rats treated with iron in a drinking water for 2 months followed by either vehicle or curcumin treatment for 2 more months. Thereafter, we studied the effects of curcumin on iron overload-induced lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant depletion. Results Treatment of iron-overloaded rats with curcumin resulted in marked decreases in iron accumulation within liver and spleen. Iron-overloaded rats had significant increases in malonyldialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) in liver and spleen when compared to control group. The effects of iron overload on lipid peroxidation and NO levels were significantly reduced by the intervention treatment with curcumin (P<0.05). Furthermore, the endogenous anti-oxidant activities/levels in liver and spleen were also significantly decreased in chronic iron overload and administration of curcumin restored the decrease in the hepatic and splenic antioxidant activities/levels. Conclusion Our study suggests that curcumin may represent a new horizon in managing iron overload-induced toxicity as well as in pathological diseases characterized by hepatic iron accumulation such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes possibly via iron chelation, reduced oxidative stress derived lipid peroxidation and improving the body endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:26230491

  2. Histopathological changes in the liver and stomach of Didelphis virginiana (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) during natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G

    2017-11-06

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.

  3. Diagnostic value of Doppler assessment of the hepatic and portal vessels and ultrasound of the spleen in liver disease.

    PubMed

    O'Donohue, John; Ng, Chaan; Catnach, Susan; Farrant, Patricia; Williams, Roger

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the clinical utility and the intra-observer and inter-observer variability of Doppler ultrasound assessment of the hepatic and portal vessels along with measurement of spleen size in the diagnosis of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Ultrasound measurements of portal vein diameter (PVD), portal vein velocity (PVV), hepatic arterial resistance index (HARI), hepatic vein profile (HVP), and spleen size were obtained in 49 controls and 45 patients with liver disease (23 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 22 with hepatitis C) by two experienced observers, who each performed three blinded measurements of each variable. Control values were derived from normal hospital workers. Percutaneous liver biopsies in 41 of the patients showed cirrhosis (14 patients), moderate/severe fibrosis (13 patients), and early disease (14 patients). Seventy-one percent of cirrhotic patients had splenomegaly (> 13.6 cm). The spleen size was significantly larger in cirrhotics (16.0 cm) than in non-cirrhotics (13.0 cm, P < 0.009) and healthy controls (10.7 cm, P < 0.00005), and was the only independent predictor of cirrhosis, with a threshold of 15 cm predicting cirrhosis with a specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 93%, sensitivity of 57% and negative predictive value of 80%. HVP was abnormal in 76.9% of cirrhotics, 57.7% of non-cirrhotics and 2.1% of controls (P < 0.04). However, the mean PVV, PVD and HARI were no different between controls and patients or between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic liver disease. There was significant inter-observer variability for PVV, but intra-observer and inter-observer variability was acceptable for the other measurements. Splenomegaly size and abnormal HVP are useful predictors of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and both can be measured reliably and reproducibly. However, Doppler measurements of PVV, PVD and HARI are not useful in distinguishing patients with chronic liver disease from normal controls.

  4. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension: A prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim; Thiele, Maja; Möller, Philipp; Görtzen, Jan; Lehmann, Jennifer; Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Vonghia, Luisa; Praktiknjo, Michael; Chang, Johannes; Krag, Aleksander; Strassburg, Christian P; Francque, Sven; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-03-01

    Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis of CSPH. We recently showed the algorithm to rule-out CSPH using sequential liver- (L-SWE) and spleen-Shear-wave elastography (S-SWE). This study investigated the diagnostic value of S-SWE for diagnosis of CSPH. One hundred and fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with pressure gradient measurements were included into this prospective multicentre study. L-SWE was measured in 155 patients, S-SWE in 112 patients, and both in 109 patients. Liver-shear-wave elastography and S-SWE correlated with clinical events and decompensation. SWE of liver and spleen revealed strong correlations with the pressure gradient and to differentiate between patients with and without CSPH. The best cut-off values were 24.6 kPa:L-SWE and 26.3 kPa:S-SWE. L-SWE ≤16.0 kPa and S-SWE ≤21.7 kPa were able to rule-out CSPH. Cut-off values of L-SWE >29.5 kPa and S-SWE >35.6 kPa were able to rule-in CSPH (specificity >92%). Patients with a L-SWE >38.0 kPa had likely CSPH. In patients with L-SWE ≤38.0 kPa, a S-SWE >27.9 kPa ruled in CSPH. This algorithm has a sensitivity of 89.2% and a specificity of 91.4% to rule-in CSPH. Patients not fulfilling these criteria may undergo HVPG measurement. Liver and spleen SWE correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rapid liver and spleen stiffness improvement in compensated advanced chronic liver disease patients treated with oral antivirals.

    PubMed

    Pons, Mònica; Santos, Begoña; Simón-Talero, Macarena; Ventura-Cots, Meritxell; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar; Esteban, Rafael; Augustin, Salvador; Genescà, Joan

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the early changes in liver and spleen stiffness measurement (LSM, SSM) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) treated with new antivirals (DAA) to elucidate factors determining the initial change in stiffness and its implications for the long-term follow up of HCV-cured patients. A total of 41 patients with cACLD who started DAA therapy underwent LSM and SSM at baseline, week 4, end of treatment (EOT), 24 and 48 weeks of follow up using transient elastography. LSM improved rapidly during the first 4 weeks of treatment (baseline: 20.8kPa; week 4: 17.5kPa, p = 0.002), with no significant changes between week 4 and EOT (18.3kPa, p = 0.444) and between EOT and 48-week follow up (14.3kPa, p = 0.148). Likewise, SSM improved rapidly (baseline: 45.7kPa; week 4: 33.8kPa, p = 0.047), with no significant changes between week 4 and EOT (30.8kPa, p = 0.153) and between EOT and 48-week follow up (31.2kPa, p = 0.317). A higher decrease in LSM was observed in patients with baseline ALT ⩾ twofold upper limit normal (2 × ULN) than in those with ALT < 2 × ULN (-5.7kPa versus -1.6kPa). Patients who presented a decrease in LSM ⩾ 10% during treatment compared with those with LSM < 10% decrease, showed lower SSM values, higher platelet counts and lower bilirubin levels at 24-week follow up. Those with decrease in SSM ⩾ 10%, presented a higher increase in platelets than those with SSM < 10% change ( p = 0.015). LSM and SSM decrease very rapidly during DAA treatment in cACLD patients suggesting that it most probably reflects a reduction in inflammation rather than in fibrosis. cACLD patients should be maintained under surveillance independently of stiffness changes, because advanced fibrosis can still be present.

  6. Melanomacrophage centers in kidney, spleen and liver: A toxic response in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to mercury chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Sulmartiwi, Laksmi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the potential of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) as a bioindicators of environment polluted with mercury chloride. This study used the carp fish that were kept in an environment that contained mercury chloride with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm for 21 days. The rate of accumulation of macrophages in the tissue of kidney, spleen and liver were measured by the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase. The results showed that the MMCs in the spleen and liver tissue of the carp fish potential as the bio-indicators of polluted environment ≥0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The increased in accumulation of macrophages found in the kidney tissue of carp fish exposed to mercury chloride concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, although no significant difference with control (0 ppm). The suppressive effect of the accumulation of immune response showed at the carp fish liver tissue macrophages which were exposed to mercury chloride lower than carp fish that were not exposed.

  7. National trends in pediatric blunt spleen and liver injury management and potential benefits of an abbreviated bed rest protocol.

    PubMed

    Dodgion, Christopher M; Gosain, Ankush; Rogers, Andrew; St Peter, Shawn D; Nichol, Peter F; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that an abbreviated bed rest protocol (ABRP) may safely reduce length of stay (LOS) and resource utilization in pediatric blunt spleen and liver injury (BSLI) patients. This study evaluates national temporal trends in BLSI management and estimates national reduction in LOS using an ABRP. Pediatric patients (<18 years old) sustaining BLSI were identified in the Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009. Yearly rates of injury and operative intervention were examined and stratified by type of injury. APSA guidelines and the reported ABRP were applied based on abbreviated injury score (AIS) and compared with actual LOS. 22,153 patients were identified. Over the study period, operative rates for spleen and liver injuries and overall mortality significantly declined: LOS=3.1 days (±1.6) and 2.7 days (±1.9) for spleen and liver, respectively. If APSA guidelines were followed, the rates were LOS=3.7 days (±1.1) and 3.4 days (±0.7), respectively. Application of the ABRP would result in LOS=1.3 days (±0.5) for all BSLI patients. An ABRP could potentially save 1.7 hospital days/patient or 36,964 patient hospital days nationally. Our study confirms a significant national decrease in operative intervention and overall mortality in patients with BSLI. Additionally, it appears that a shorter observation period than the APSA guidelines is being utilized. The implementation of ABRP holds potential in further reducing LOS and resource utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sonographic Assessment of the Normal Dimensions of Liver, Spleen, and Kidney in Healthy Children at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapa, N B; Shah, S; Pradhan, A; Rijal, K; Pradhan, A; Basnet, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography is one of the most common imaging modality to measure dimensions of visceral organs in children. However, the normal limit of size of visceral organs according to age and body habitus has not been specified in the standard textbooks. This might result in under detection of organomegaly in pediatrics population. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of dimensions for the liver, spleen, and kidney in healthy children. Method This is prospective cross-sectional, hospital-based study done at Tertiary-care teaching hospital. Participants included 272 pediatric subjects (152 male and 120 female) with normal physical or sonographic findings who were examined because of problems unrelated to the measured organs. The subjects were one month to 15 year (180 months) old. All measured organs were sonographically normal. Relationships of the dimensions of these organs with sex, age, body weight and height were investigated. Limits of normal dimensions of these organs were defined. Result Normal length of liver, kidneys and spleen were obtained sonographically for 272 children (152 male [55.9%] and 120 female [44.1%]) in the age group from 1 months to 15 (180 months) years. The mean age was 45.78 months (SD, 44.73). The measured dimensions of all these organs showed highest correlation with height and age so the descriptive analysis of the organ dimensions (mean, minimum, and maximum values, SD and 5th and 95th percentiles) were expressed in 10 age groups along with height range of the included children. The mean length of right kidney was shorter than the left kidney length, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion This study provides practical and comprehensive guide to the normal visceral organ dimension in pediatric population. The normal range limit of the liver, spleen, and kidney determined in this study could be used as a reference in daily practice in local radiology clinics.

  9. A novel anti-inflammatory role for spleen-derived interleukin-10 in obesity-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Considering that obesity decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen, we assessed the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by the spleen, in the pathogenesis of obesity. Changes in obesity-related pathogenesis, including inflammatory responses in multiple organs, were assessed after systemic administration of exogenous IL-10 to splenectomy (SPX)-treated obese wild-type and IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice. Obesity resulted in the inability of the spleen to synthesize cytokines, including IL-10, and proinflammatory cytokines in obesity are then likely to emerge from tissues other than the spleen because serum levels of IL-10, but not proinflammatory cytokines, decreased despite the expression of these cytokines in the spleen being reduced in high fat-induced obese mice. SPX aggravated the inflammatory response in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver and suppressed adiposity in WAT. However, it accentuated adiposity in the liver. These SPX-induced changes were inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver of IL-10KO mice. These data show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 in diet-induced changes as a result of inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver.

  10. Long survival and immunologic reconstitution following transplantation with syngeneic or allogeneic fetal liver and neonatal spleen cells. [X radiation, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yunis, E.J.; Fernandes, G.; Smith, J.

    1976-12-01

    Spleen cells from newborn syngeneic and allogeneic mice that lack fully differentiated T lymphocytes can be used as a hematopoietic source to reconstitute both hematopoietic and lymphoid systems of lethally irradiated mice without producing a GVHR. Fetal liver cells from syngeneic and allogeneic mice that lack postthymic T lymphocytes can also be used for hematopoietic and immunologic reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice without producing GVHR. Immunologic deficiency is observed in some experiments in mice given supralethal irradiation (1000 R) and fetal liver as reconstituting hematopoietic tissue. The findings suggest that T cells, at an early stage of differentiation, are moremore » susceptible to tolerance induction than are T lymphocytes at later stages of differentiation and do not, in general, produce GVHR. It is postulated that hematopoietic cells, free of postthymic lymphoid cells, can be used for hematopoietic or immunologic reconstitution and celular engineering without producing GVHD.« less

  11. The allele combinations of three loci based on, liver, stomach cancers, hematencephalon, COPD and normal population: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Liping; Liu, Hui; Cui, Jing-Hui; Yu, Weijian; Ding, Xiao-Dong

    2017-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the specific allele combinations of three loci connected with the liver cancers, stomach cancers, hematencephalon and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore the feasibility of the research methods. We explored different mathematical methods for statistical analyses to assess the association between the genotype and phenotype. At the same time we still analyses the statistical results of allele combinations of three loci by difference value method and ratio method. All the DNA blood samples were collected from patients with 50 liver cancers, 75 stomach cancers, 50 hematencephalon, 72 COPD and 200 normal populations. All the samples were from Chinese. Alleles from short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the STR Profiler plus PCR amplification kit (15 STR loci). Previous research was based on combinations of single-locus alleles, and combinations of cross-loci (two loci) alleles. Allele combinations of three loci were obtained by computer counting and stronger genetic signal was obtained. The methods of allele combinations of three loci can help to identify the statistically significant differences of allele combinations between liver cancers, stomach cancers, patients with hematencephalon, COPD and the normal population. The probability of illness followed different rules and had apparent specificity. This method can be extended to other diseases and provide reference for early clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 99mTc-tagged chicken liver as a marker of solid food in the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J H; MacGregor, I L; Gueller, R; Martin, P; Cavalieri, R

    1976-04-01

    Past measurement of gastric emptying of solid food in man has depended on external counting of surface-absorbed isotopes without verification that isotopic labels remain attached to solid food in the stomach. In this study chicken liver was isotopically labeled with 99mTc incorporated uniformly and intracellularly throughout the liver substance. In vitro studies showed less than 10% loss of 99mTc from liver incubated with pepsin HC1. By contrast, up to 90% of 51Cr absorbed to scrambled eggs became detached under similar conditions. In feeding experiments less than 10% of 99mTc was liberated from fed 99mTc liver, while significantly more 51Cr became detached from egg under identical intragastric conditions. We conclude that 99mTc-tagged chicken liver is an adequate marker of the rate of emptying of solid food and appears to be more reliable than 51Cr-labeled scrambled eggs from which 51Cr dissociates in the stomach.

  13. Cytomorphological alterations of the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver in cardinal fish (Apogonidae, Teleostei) as bioindicators of stress.

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and cytological alterations at the light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) levels were observed in the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver of cardinal fishes (Apogonidae, Teleostei) from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, sampled from a strongly polluted site at the northern end of the gulf, and compared to similar samples from a clean, reference site. At the polluted site, the most prominent change was the formation of numerous deposits of cells rich in phagosomes with lipofucin, melanin granules, and phagocytosed debris, including a high increase in number and dimensions of Hassall's corpuscles and melano-macrophage centers. The number of Hassall's corpuscles was 20 (+/-8.0)/mm(2) and of melano-macrophage centers 18 (+/-4.0)/mm(2) at the polluted site, and 7.0 (+/-4.0)/m(2) vs. 5.0 (+/-2.0)/mm(2) respectively at the reference site. In numerous instances the head kidney's melano-macrophage centers in fishes from the polluted site were encapsulated by reticulocytes, a phenomenon recognized as a marker of neoplasmosis and possible malignancy. In the spleens of fishes from the polluted site, numerous deposits of cell debris, peroxisomes, and enlarged lysosomes were also observed. The livers (hepatopancreas) of fishes from polluted waters demonstrated very strong hyperlipogeny. Many of their hepatocytes were laden with lipid vesicles, fragmented endoplasmic reticulula, and aberrant mitochondria. Although the observed alterations in the glands and liver do not indicate any immediate threat to the life of the fish, they can become crucial with respect to energy turnover and fecundity trajectories. This study strongly suggests the use of cytological alterations in vital organs, such as were observed, as pathological biomarkers to environmental stress. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Long-term Effects on the Histology and Function of Livers and Spleens in Rats after 33% Toploading of PEG-PLA-nano Artificial Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate the long-term effects of nanodimension PEG-PLA artificial red blood cells containing hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes on the liver and spleen after 1/3 blood volume top loading in rats. The experimental rats received one of the following infusions: Nano artificial red blood cells in Ringer lactate, Ringer lactate, stroma-free hemoglobin, polyhemoglobin, and autologous rat whole blood. Blood samples were taken before infusions and on days 1, 7, and 21 after infusions for analysis. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not have any significant adverse effects on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, amylase and creatine kinase. On the other hand, stroma-free hemoglobin induced significant adverse effects on liver as shown by elevation in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase throughout the 21 days. On day 21 after infusions rats were sacrificed and livers and spleens were excised for histological examination. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not cause any abnormalities in the microscopic histology of the livers and spleens. In the stroma-free hemoglobin group the livers showed accumulation of hemoglobin in central veins and sinusoids, and hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, injected nano artificial red blood cells can be efficiently metabolized and removed by the reticuloendothelial system, and do not have any biochemical or histological adverse effects on the livers or the spleens. PMID:19043818

  15. [Spleen, liver and kidney-strengthening formula combined with polyethylene glycol interferon in treatment of chronic hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of spleen, liver and kidney-strengthening formula combined with polyethylene glycol interferon in the treatment of HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B(HP-HBV).One hundred and twenty-six patients with HP-HBV, who were treated in the hospital from June 2012 to December 2014, were selected and injected with polyethylene glycol interferon α-2a(or α-2b). The treatment course for the patients lasted for 24 weeks. Base on the level of HBV-DNA, patients are divided into response group and poor response group. According to random number table, the poor response group were randomized into control group and test group. Patients in the control group were injected with polyethylene glycol interferon α-2a(or α-2b), and patients in the test group were treated with spleen, liver and kidney-strengthening formula combined with polyethylene glycol interferon. Clinical efficacies of the 2 groups were observed, and changes in the level of HBeAg, ALT and HBV-DNA were observed before treatment and at the 24th week after treatment, and virological and serological response, biochemical responses, integral clinical symptoms and signs, adverse reactions were observed after 48 weeks of treatment.After 24 weeks of treatment, the response group was significantly better than the poor response group in HBeAg, ALT and the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05). After 48 weeks of treatment, there was statistical significance in HBV-DNA negative conversion rate, HBeAg negative conversion rate between the 2 groups(P<0.05), and the test group was better in the two indicators. And the test group was significantly lower than the control group in clinical symptoms and signs score at the 48th week after treatment(P<0.05), with a significantly lower adverse reaction rate than the control group(P<0.05).Combination of spleen, liver and kidney-strengthening formula and polyethylene glycol interferon α-2a was effective and safe in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, and so worth

  16. Determination of metallic traces in kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens of rats with metallic implants after a long implantation time.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Alonso, Maria Cristina; Alonso, Concepcion; Alobera, Miguel Angel; Clemente, Celia; Munuera, Luis; Escudero, Maria Lorenza

    2008-01-01

    Metallic transfer from implants does not stop at surrounding tissues, and metallic elements may be transferred by proteins to become lodged in organs far from the implant. This work presents an in vivo study of metallic implant corrosion to measure metallic element accumulation in organs located far from the implant, such as kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens. The studied metallic implant materials were CoCr alloy, Ti, and the experimental alloy MA956 coated with alpha-alumina. The implants were inserted in the hind legs of Wistar rats. Analysis for Co, Cr, Ti and Al metallic traces was performed after a long exposure time of 12 months by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) with Mass Spectrometry (MS). According to the results, the highest Cr and Ti concentrations were detected in spleens. Co is mainly found in kidneys, since this element is eliminated via urine. Cr and Ti traces increased significantly in rat organs after the long implantation time. The organs of rats implanted with the alpha-alumina coated experimental MA956 did not present any variation in Al content after 12 months, which means there was no degradation of the alumina layer surface.

  17. Evaluation of Liver and Spleen Stiffness with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Quantification Elastography for Diagnosing Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Attia, D; Schoenemeier, B; Rodt, T; Negm, A A; Lenzen, H; Lankisch, T O; Manns, M; Gebel, M; Potthoff, A

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic vein pressure gradient (HVPG) is the gold standard for diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH). The aim of this study was to investigate-in comparison to HVPG-the ability to diagnose CSPH by liver and spleen stiffness measurements obtained by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. A total of 78 patients (mean age: 53 ± 13 years, 62 % male) with chronic liver disease were enrolled in this study. Each patient received liver (LSM) and spleen (SSM) stiffness measurements by ARFI, an HVPG measurement and a transjugular liver biopsy on the same day. Patients were classified according to their HVPG into three different groups: HVPG < 10 mmHg, HVPG ≥ 10-< 12 mmHg and HVPG ≥ 12 mmHg. LSM, SSM were significantly higher in patients with HVPG ≥ 10 - < 12 in comparison to HVPG < 10 mmHg (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively), and in patients with HVPG ≥ 12 mmHg in comparison to ≥ 10 - < 12 mmHg (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). LSM and SSM were able to diagnose HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg and HVPG ≥ 12 mmHg with high diagnostic performance (AUC LSM: 0.93 and 0.87, respectively; AUC SSM: 0.97 and 0.95, respectively). The AUC of SSM in predicting esophageal varices (EVs) plus HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg and EVs plus HVPG ≥ 12 mmHg were higher compared to LSM in both groups of patients (SSM: 0.90 and 0.93 vs. LSM: 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). No significant difference between both AUCs was detected in the different HVPG groups. In the multivariate -analysis SSM remained a factor predicting HVPG (HVPG > 10 mmHg p = 0.007; HVPG ≥ 12 mmHg p = 0.003). LSM and SSM by ARFI are noninvasive diagnostic tools that may help in diagnosing CSPH. LSM and SSM could be used as a guiding noninvasive screening tool in patients with esophageal varices requiring endoscopic evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  19. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  20. Ratio of platelet count/spleen diameter predicted the presence of esophageal varices in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Chun-Fang; Dai, Jian-Jun; Qian, Jian-Qing; Pin, Xun

    2016-05-01

    To examine the platelet count (PC)/spleen diameter (SD) ratio in predicting the presence of esophageal varices (EV) in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis. A total of 95 consecutive patients with EV induced by schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this trial. A total of 141 schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis patients without EV were enrolled as controls. All patients were diagnosed by endoscopy. Demographic, laboratory, and Doppler ultrasound parameters were collected and analyzed. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify independent risk factors associated with EV occurrence. Receiver operating curves were generated to obtain the PC/SD ratio cutoff values for the optimal sensitivity and specificity with respect to EV. The accuracy was increased in diagnosing for EV using the ratio of PC/SD compared with the SD alone [area under the curve: 0.891 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.844-0.928 vs. 0.764 95% CI: 0.705-0.817; P<0.01]. The optimal cutoff value was 1004, with a 77.1% (95% CI: 67.9-84.8%) positive-predictive value and an 89.3% (95% CI: 82.7-94.0%) negative-predictive value. Using a cutoff of 1004, it was determined that 117/141 (83.0%) patients without EV could avoid undergoing unnecessary endoscopy, whereas 14/95 (14.7%) patients with EV would be misdiagnosed. In contrast, when the ratio was set at 909, the positive-predictive and negative-predictive values were 79.5% (95% CI: 69.5-87.4%) and 83.1% (95% CI: 76.1-88.8%), respectively. A ratio of 909 would accurately predict the absence of EV in 123/141 (87.2%) patients; however, 24/95 (25.3%) patients with EV would miss the necessary screening endoscopy. The ratio of PC/SD was a useful marker in predicting the presence of EV in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis.

  1. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PLT count of patients with thrombocytopenia (PLT count or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  2. Liver and spleen stiffness and their ratio assessed by real-time two dimensional-shear wave elastography in patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Ivica; Puljiz, Zeljko; Brnic, Darko; Bokun, Tomislav; Heinzl, Renata; Lukic, Anita; Luksic, Boris; Kujundzic, Milan; Brkljacic, Boris

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the performance of real-time 2D shear wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE) for non-invasive staging of liver disease in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH). Naive CVH patients underwent liver (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) measurements by an intercostal approach. Patients with ALT >3× upper limit of normal, cholestasis as revealed by dilated intrahepatic biliary tree, and liver congestion were excluded. Results were expressed in kPa and compared to histological stage (Ishak) of liver fibrosis (LF). Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) were diagnosed using standard clinical, ultrasound, and endoscopic criteria. Of 123 patients, LS was successfully measured in 79.7% and SS in 53.7%. LS accurately differentiated between liver disease stages, with cut-off values of 8.1 (AUC 0.991) for F ≥ 3, 10.8 kPa (AUC 0.954) for F ≥ 5, and 27 kPa (AUC 0.961) for decompensated LC. SS was significantly different between non-cirrhotic stages (F0-4) and LC (cut-off 24 kPa; AUC 0.821). While both LS and SS increased with liver disease progression, the difference between them decreased, as reflected by the stiffness ratio index. RT 2D-SWE can accurately differentiate between the stages of LF, and can distinguish LF from LC and compensated from decompensated LC. • RT 2D-SWE is an accurate method for assessment of liver fibrosis. • RT 2D-SWE is applicable in 80% of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. • RT 2D-SWE accurately differentiates compensated from decompensated liver cirrhosis. • Both liver and spleen stiffness increase with progression of liver fibrosis. • In cirrhosis, the difference between liver and spleen stiffness decreases.

  3. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  4. Evaluation of a 99mTc-labeled AnnexinA5 variant for non-invasive SPECT imaging of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate.

    PubMed

    Greupink, Rick; Sio, Charles F; Ederveen, Antwan; Orsel, Joke

    2009-12-01

    We investigate radio-labeling and pharmacokinetics of a new AnnexinA5 variant (HYNIC-cys-AnxA5) and then assess its utility for the non-invasive detection of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate. AnnexinA5 binds to phosphatidylserine expressed on the surface of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Contrary to other AnnexinA5 variants, the new cys-AnxA5 allows for site-specific conjugation of a hydrazinonicotinamide-maleimide moiety and subsequent radio-labeling with (99m)Tc at a position not involved in the AnxA5-phosphatidylserine interaction. Distribution of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 was studied in rats, both invasively and via SPECT/CT. Cycloheximide was used to induce cell death in liver and spleen, whereas apoptosis in the prostate was induced by castration. HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 was efficiently and reproducibly labeled with (99m)Tc. Blood clearance of radioactivity after iv-injection was adequately described by a two-compartment model, the renal cortex representing the main site of accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment resulted in increased accumulation of intravenous-injected (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 in liver and spleen over controls, which correlated well with TUNEL staining for cell death in corresponding tissue sections. However, the increase in TUNEL-positive prostate epithelial cells observed following castration was not paralleled by greater (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 accumulation. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 appears a suitable tracer for assessment of cell death in liver and spleen, but not prostate.

  5. Failure of nonoperative management of pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries: A prospective Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium study.

    PubMed

    Linnaus, Maria E; Langlais, Crystal S; Garcia, Nilda M; Alder, Adam C; Eubanks, James W; Maxson, R Todd; Letton, Robert W; Ponsky, Todd A; St Peter, Shawn D; Leys, Charles; Bhatia, Amina; Ostlie, Daniel J; Tuggle, David W; Lawson, Karla A; Raines, Alexander R; Notrica, David M

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) is standard of care for most pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries (BLSI); only 5% of patients fail NOM in retrospective reports. No prospective studies examine failure of NOM of BLSI in children. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of failure of NOM in pediatric BLSI patients. A prospective observational study was conducted on patients 18 years or younger presenting to any of 10 Level I pediatric trauma centers April 2013 and January 2016 with BLSI on computed tomography. Management of BLSI was based on the Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium pediatric guideline. Failure of NOM was defined as needing laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 1008 patients met inclusion; 499 (50%) had liver injury, 410 (41%) spleen injury, and 99 (10%) had both. Most patients were male (n = 624; 62%) with a median age of 10.3 years (interquartile range, 5.9, 14.2). A total of 69 (7%) underwent laparotomy or laparoscopy, but only 34 (3%) underwent surgery for spleen or liver bleeding. Other (nonexclusive) operations were for 21 intestinal injuries; 15 hematoma evacuations, washouts, or drain placements; 9 pancreatic injuries; 5 mesenteric injuries; 3 diaphragm injuries; and 2 bladder injuries. Patients who failed were more likely to receive blood (52 of 69 vs. 162 of 939; p < 0.001) and median time from injury to first blood transfusion was 2.3 hours for those who failed versus 5.9 hours for those who did not (p = 0.002). Overall mortality rate was 24% (8 of 34) in those who failed NOM due to bleeding. NOM fails in 7% of children with BLSI, but only 3% of patients failed for bleeding due to liver or spleen injury. For children failing NOM due to bleeding, the mortality was 24%. Therapeutic study, level II.

  6. Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kraynak, A R; Barnum, J E; Cunningham, C L; Ng, A; Ykoruk, B A; Bennet, B; Stoffregen, D; Merschman, M; Freeland, E; Galloway, S M

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined the ability of the assay to determine the genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), azidothymidine (AZT), cisplatin (CPN), and isobutyraldehyde (IBA) in liver and glandular stomach of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given oral doses of test compound or control once daily for three days. High dose levels were approximately maximum tolerated doses and were based on preliminary range-finding studies. Tissues were harvested 3h after the final dose (48h after the initial dose). A bone marrow micronucleus assay (MN) was also conducted on the rats treated with AZT, CPN, and IBA. Acute toxic effects of treatment were determined primarily through histomorphologic analysis of liver and stomach but also by body weight and serum liver enzyme changes. The comet assay was conducted on fresh tissue preparations but frozen samples from two studies were also assayed. Statistically significant dose-related differences in comet % DNA in tail were found in liver and stomach for the genotoxin AZT and in liver for the genotoxin CPN, but not in liver or stomach for the non-genotoxin IBA. Statistically significant differences in % DNA in tail were measured in liver for the low and mid dose of the genotoxin AAF, but not the high dose. The comet assays of frozen liver suspensions from CPN- and AAF-treated rats yielded comparable results to the assays of fresh preparations. There were no indications of significant toxicity induced by any treatment. The micronucleus assay was positive for CPN and AZT and negative for IBA. In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effect of stress on nucleic acid metabolism in the rat spleen and liver after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Komolova, G S; Troitskaia, E N; Egorov, I A; Tigranian, R A

    1982-01-01

    Changes in nucleic acid metabolism of the spleen and liver of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-112 were investigated. Postflight changes in the liver RNA synthesis after an additional stress effect (immobilization) in the flown rats were expressed to a lesser degree than in the controls. The DNA synthesis remained essentially at the preflight level. The tissue content of nucleic acids suggests that postflight the dystrophic changes induced by the additional stress effect increased. It is very likely that an exposure to space flight effects contributes to the depletion of compensatory mechanisms maintaining the normal level of metabolic processes.

  8. Estimated background doses of [67Ga]-DTPA-USPIO in normal Balb/c mice as a potential therapeutic agent for liver and spleen cancers.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Oghabian, Mohammad A; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abolghasem Haeri, Seyed; Amanlou, Massoud; Daha, Fariba J; Allen, Barry J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with gallium-67 (Ga) in various organs by intravenous injection in Balb/c mice. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was successively labeled with Ga-chloride after chelation with freshly prepared cyclic DTPA-dianhydride. The labeling efficiency of USPIOs labeled with Ga is above 98%. Sixty-five mice were killed at 13 different time points. The percentage of injected dose per gram of each organ was measured by direct counting for 19 harvested organs of the mice. The medical internal radiation dose formula was applied to extrapolate data from mouse to human and to predict the absorbed radiation dose for various organs in the human body. The biodistribution of Ga-USPIO in Balb/c mice showed that 75% of the injected dose accumulated in the spleen and liver 15 min after injection. These nanoparticles remained in the liver for more than 7 days after injection, whereas their clearance was very fast from other organs. Extrapolating these data to the intravenous injection of Ga-USPIO in humans gave an estimated absorbed dose of 36.38 mSv/MBq for the total body, and the highest effective absorbed dose was seen in the liver (32.9 mSv/MBq). High uptakes of USPIO nanoparticles in the liver and spleen and their fast clearance from other tissues suggest that these nanoparticles labeled with a β-emitter radioisotope could be suitable as treatment agents for spleen and liver malignancies only if the organ tolerance dose is not exceeded.

  9. Quantitative histochemistry for macrophage biodistribution on mice liver and spleen after the administration of a pharmacological-relevant dose of polyacrylic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Marisa Costa, Vera; Arturo Lopez-Quintela, Manuel; Rivas, José; Freitas, Paulo; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Understanding in vivo biodistribution of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs), and the involvement of the phagocyte system in this process, is crucial for the assessment of their potential health risk. In the present study, the histochemical expression of iron in liver and spleen sections of CD-1 mice (aged 8 weeks) was quantified, 24 h after intravenous administration of polyacrylic acid-coated IONs (PAA-coated IONs) (8, 20, 50 mg/kg). Organ sections were stained with Perls' Prussian blue for iron detection, followed by the quantification of iron deposition with ImageJ software. Our study revealed the existence of a linear dose-dependent increase of iron deposition in macrophages of both organs. Exposed animals showed hepatic iron deposition in all zones, although most marked in periportal region. In the spleen, no iron was detected in the white splenic pulp of both control and treated animals. When compared with control mice, a positive correlation between histochemical detection of iron and PAA-coated ION doses was observed in splenic red pulp of animals. The results confirmed our assumption that liver and spleen are involved in the clearance pathways of PAA-coated IONs from the blood. Excess iron was cytotoxic at the highest dose of PAA-coated IONs tested, but no significant morphologic alterations were observed for the lower doses. Clusters of early necrotic hepatocytes were observed in the hepatic periportal region of mice injected with the higher dose (50 mg/kg) of PAA-coated IONs. Further studies are necessary to determine if liver and spleen macrophages will degrade these IONs, or eventually exocytose both the degraded and intact ones.

  10. Metabolites and JAK/STAT pathway were involved in the liver and spleen damage in male Wistar rats fed with mequindox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Huang, Xian-Ju; Ihsan, Awais; Liu, Zhao-Ying; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhang, Hua-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Qin; Xue, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-02-27

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a novel synthetic quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides antibacterial agent and growth promoter in animal husbandry. This study was to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS), the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and inflammatory cytokines were involved in toxicities of MEQ. Our data demonstrated that high dose of MEQ (275 mg/kg) apparently led to tissue impairment combined with imbalance of redox in liver. In liver and spleen samples, hydroxylation metabolites and desoxymequindox were detected, directly confirming the potential link of N→O group reduction metabolism with its organ toxicity. Moreover, up-regulation of JAK/STAT, SOCS family, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also observed in the high-dose group. Meanwhile, significant changes of oxidative stress indices in liver were observed in the high-dose group. As for NADPH subunit, the mRNA levels of many subunits were significantly up-regulated at low doses but down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in liver and spleen, suggesting an involvement of NADPH in MEQ metabolism and ROS generation. In conclusion, we reported the dose-dependent long-term toxicity as well as the discussion of the potential mechanism and pathways of MEQ, which raised further awareness of its toxicity following with the dose change. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  12. [The determination of the natural content of chemical elements in human biological objects (liver, kidney, stomach) by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma].

    PubMed

    Luzanova, I S; Svetlolobov, D Iu; Zorin, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to continue the studies of the sites of concentration of the chemical elements corresponding to normal homeostasis in human biological objects by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The study yielded the data on the natural content of 27 elements in the cadaveric liver, kidney, and stomach. It is recommended to use these findings as the reference parameters corresponding to normal homeostasis.

  13. Jiangsu Four Cancers Study: a large case-control study of lung, liver, stomach, and esophageal cancers in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Kou; Wu, Ming; Kim, Claire H; Jin, Zi-Yi; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Han, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Gu, Xiaoping; Su, Ming; Hu, Xu; Sun, Zheng; Li, Gang; Li, Liming; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a major public health burden both globally and in China. The most common cancer-related deaths in China are attributable to cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, and esophagus. Previous epidemiologic studies on cancer in China have often been limited by small sample sizes, inconsistent measurements, and lack of precise and accurate data. The Jiangsu Four Cancers (JFC) Study is a population-based case-control study carried out in an effort to obtain consistent and high-quality data to investigate the life style, behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the four major cancers in China. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall design of the JFC Study and report selected findings on the major risk factors for cancers. Epidemiologic data were collected from 2003 to 2010 through in-person interviews using a structured questionnaire and blood samples were drawn. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations of putative risk factors with risks of cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, and esophagus. The study included 2871 lung cancer cases, 2018 liver cancer cases, 2969 esophageal cancer cases, 2216 stomach cancer cases, and 8019 community controls. Low educational level, low income level, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and family history of cancer were confirmed as risk factors for these major cancers. The JFC Study is one of the largest case-control studies of cancers in the Chinese population and will serve as a rich resource for future research on the four major cancers in China.

  14. Comparison of transcutaneous contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided injected hemostatic agents with traditional surgery treatment for liver, spleen and kidney trauma: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Lv, Faqin; Luo, Yukun; An, Lichun; Li, Junlai; Xie, Xia; Tian, Jiangke; Zhao, Weiyan; Tang, Jie

    2012-10-01

    There is lack of studies on the effectiveness of transcutaneous contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided injections of hemostatic agents for liver. spleen and kidney trauma. We compared treatment by hemostatic agents to surgical treatment in a retrospective interventional human study. The study enrolled a total of 135 subjects from emergency unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing. Within the cohort, 62 patients received contrast enhanced ultrasound-guided injection of hemostatic agents and the rest received surgical treatments. The injury severity score was lower in the hemostatic agent treatment group than surgical treatment group (p<0.05), but Glasgow coma scale scores did not reach statistical significance. The patients in the surgical treatment group had significantly higher hospital fees than those in the hemostatic treatment group (p<0.05), although the length of hospitalization did not significantly differ between two groups. Safety outcome variables pre- and post-treatment remained within normal limits in both groups. Hemostatic agents were more cost-effective than surgery to treat patients with liver, spleen and kidney trauma. However, given the limited sample size, subsequent studies drawing upon larger populations from multiple medical centers are necessary for follow-up.

  15. Identification and comparison of aberrant key regulatory networks in breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach cancers through methylome database analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Seongeun; Jeong, Gookjoo; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Sun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of specific CpG sites at the promoter is widely responsible for genesis and development of various cancer types. Even though the microarray-based methylome analyzing techniques have contributed to the elucidation of the methylation change at the genome-wide level, the identification of key methylation markers or top regulatory networks appearing common in highly incident cancers through comparison analysis is still limited. In this study, we in silico performed the genome-wide methylation analysis on each 10 sets of normal and cancer pairs of five tissues: breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach. The methylation array covers 27,578 CpG sites, corresponding to 14,495 genes, and significantly hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes in the cancer were collected (FDR adjusted p-value <0.05; methylation difference >0.3). Analysis of the dataset confirmed the methylation of previously known methylation markers and further identified novel methylation markers, such as GPX2, CLDN15, and KL. Cluster analysis using the methylome dataset resulted in a diagram with a bipartite mode distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells regardless of tissue types. The analysis further revealed that breast cancer was closest with lung cancer, whereas it was farthest from colon cancer. Pathway analysis identified that either the "cancer" related network or the "cancer" related bio-function appeared as the highest confidence in all the five cancers, whereas each cancer type represents its tissue-specific gene sets. Our results contribute toward understanding the essential abnormal epigenetic pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Further, the novel methylation markers could be applied to establish markers for cancer prognosis.

  16. A combined model based on spleen stiffness measurement and Baveno VI criteria to rule out high-risk varices in advanced chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Ravaioli, Federico; Marasco, Giovanni; Colli, Agostino; Dajti, Elton; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2018-05-03

    Recently, Baveno VI guidelines suggested that esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be avoided in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) who have a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) <20 kPa and platelet count >150,000/mm 3 . We aimed to: assess the performance of spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) in ruling out patients with high-risk varices (HRV); validate Baveno VI criteria in a large population and assess how the sequential use of Baveno VI criteria and SSM could safely avoid the need for endoscopy. We retrospectively analyzed 498 patients with cACLD who had undergone LSM/SSM by transient elastography (TE) (FibroScan®), platelet count and EGDs from 2012 to 2016 referred to our tertiary centre. The new combined model was validated internally by a split-validation method, and externally in a prospective multicentre cohort of 115 patients. SSM, LSM, platelet count and Child-Pugh-B were independent predictors of HRV. Applying the newly identified SSM cut-off (≤46 kPa) or Baveno VI criteria, 35.8% and 21.7% of patients in the internal validation cohort could have avoided EGD, with only 2% of HRVs being missed with either model. The combination of SSM with Baveno VI criteria would have avoided an additional 22.5% of EGDs, reaching a final value of 43.8% spared EGDs, with <5% missed HRVs. Results were confirmed in the prospective external validation cohort, as the combined Baveno VI/SSM ≤46 model would have safely spared (0 HRV missed) 37.4% of EGDs, compared to 16.5% when using the Baveno VI criteria alone. A non-invasive prediction model combining SSM with Baveno VI criteria may be useful to rule out HRV and could make it possible to avoid a significantly larger number of unnecessary EGDs compared to Baveno VI criteria only. Spleen stiffness measurement assessed by transient elastography, the most widely used elastography technique, is a non-invasive technique that can help the physician to better stratify the degree of portal

  17. Stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The stomach is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food passing from the esophagus into the ...

  18. Stomach Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach at one time or another. Indigestion and heartburn are common problems. You can relieve some stomach ... you have a bowel movement Severe abdominal pain Heartburn not relieved by antacids Unintended weight loss Ongoing ...

  19. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  20. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). Methods In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. Results All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP. Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, estimated SVGVR showed a significant negative correlation to PVP after reperfusion (R = 0.652), and the best cutoff value for portal hypertension was 0.95. Conclusions In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion. PMID:27472097

  1. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    PubMed

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, estimated SVGVR showed a significant negative correlation to PVP after reperfusion (R = 0.652), and the best cutoff value for portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  2. [Multicentric inflammatory pseudotumor with asynchronic presentation in meninges, liver, spleen and lymph nodes in a patient with seronegative spondiloarthropathy. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vicuña-González, R M; Rivera-Salgado, M I; García-Velarde, P M Pasquel; de León-Bojorge, B; Ortiz-Hidalgo, C

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a reactive process in which the etiology and pathogenesis are not well defined, that can be found in any location. The cases with central nervous system affection have been described in meninges, brain, choroid plexus and cranial and spinal nerves. Multicentric cases, synchronous and asynchronous have been described. A 45 years-old woman with a rheumatologic disease (a seronegative spondiloarthropathy) who developed an inflammatory pseudotumor in spleen, liver and abdominal lymph nodes in 1995, associated to fever of unknown origin, six years later she presented with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the meninges in the convexity of the right frontoparietal region, with fever, malaise, and increase of globular sedimentation rate, microcytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytosis. The clinicopathologic features of this lesion are revised, including the different theories in regard to the etiology and pathogenesis, and the role of cytokines produced by inflammatory cells in the tumor.

  3. Gas gangrene caused by clostridium perfringens involving the liver, spleen, and heart in a man 20 years after an orthotopic liver transplant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kitterer, Daniel; Braun, Niko; Jehs, Margit C; Schulte, Bernhard; Alscher, M Dominik; Latus, Joerg

    2014-04-01

    Despite advances in immunosuppression and liver transplant in the past, mortality and morbidity caused by infections remain major problems. We present a 71-year-old man who was admitted to our internal intensive care unit with septicemia. Upon admission, he had poorly localized epigastric pain and fever of 2 days ' duration. Twenty years earlier, he had undergone an orthotopic liver transplant. Testing revealed a high C-reactive protein level, elevated liver enzymes, and an acute kidney injury. A computer tomography scan showed 2 circular, non--rim-enhancing, totally emphysematous intrahepatic lesions. Additionally, gas could be seen in the portal veins mainly, as well as in the biliary system, in the right auricle, and the splenic veins. To the best of our knowledge, he showed no malignant lesion or predisposing trauma. Empirically, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was begun, and the patient was transferred to the operating suite. When surgery began, blood cultures revealed the presence of gram-positive bacilli, which were identified as Clostridium perfringens. Seven hours after the surgery, the patient developed asystole and died. In septic patients presenting with severe hemolysis, Clostridium perfringens infection must be considered in the absence of a malignant lesion or a predisposing trauma; a previous episode of gastroenteritis might be a predisposing trauma by impairing the barrier of the intestinal flora, leading to Clostridium perfringens infection.

  4. Stomach Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyps are: Chronic stomach inflammation. Also known as gastritis, this condition can cause the formation of hyperplastic ... pylori) bacteria are a common cause of the gastritis that contributes to hyperplastic polyps and adenomas. Familial ...

  5. Genetics of Host Response to Leishmania tropica in Mice – Different Control of Skin Pathology, Chemokine Reaction, and Invasion into Spleen and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Grekov, Igor; Volkova, Valeriya; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Slapničková, Martina; Kurey, Iryna; Sohrabi, Yahya; Svobodová, Milena; Demant, Peter; Lipoldová, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania. The frequent involvement of Leishmania tropica in human leishmaniasis has been recognized only recently. Similarly as L. major, L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans, but can also visceralize and cause systemic illness. The relationship between the host genotype and disease manifestations is poorly understood because there were no suitable animal models. Methods We studied susceptibility to L. tropica, using BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic (RC) strains, which differ greatly in susceptibility to L. major. Mice were infected with L. tropica and skin lesions, cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, and parasite numbers in organs were measured. Principal Findings Females of BALB/c and several RC strains developed skin lesions. In some strains parasites visceralized and were detected in spleen and liver. Importantly, the strain distribution pattern of symptoms caused by L. tropica was different from that observed after L. major infection. Moreover, sex differently influenced infection with L. tropica and L. major. L. major-infected males exhibited either higher or similar skin pathology as females, whereas L. tropica-infected females were more susceptible than males. The majority of L. tropica-infected strains exhibited increased levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. CcS-16 females, which developed the largest lesions, exhibited a unique systemic chemokine reaction, characterized by additional transient early peaks of CCL3 and CCL5, which were not present in CcS-16 males nor in any other strain. Conclusion Comparison of L. tropica and L. major infections indicates that the strain patterns of response are species-specific, with different sex effects and largely different host susceptibility genes. PMID:22679519

  6. Ethanol oxidation and the inhibition by drugs in human liver, stomach and small intestine: Quantitative assessment with numerical organ modeling of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Chou; Lee, Shou-Lun; Lai, Ching-Long; Lee, Yung-Pin; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2016-10-25

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the principal enzyme responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Human ADH constitutes a complex isozyme family with striking variations in kinetic function and tissue distribution. Liver and gastrointestinal tract are the major sites for first-pass metabolism (FPM). Their relative contributions to alcohol FPM and degrees of the inhibitions by aspirin and its metabolite salicylate, acetaminophen and cimetidine remain controversial. To address this issue, mathematical organ modeling of ethanol-oxidizing activities in target tissues and that of the ethanol-drug interactions were constructed by linear combination of the corresponding numerical rate equations of tissue constituent ADH isozymes with the documented isozyme protein contents, kinetic parameters for ethanol oxidation and the drug inhibitions of ADH isozymes/allozymes that were determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.5 and 25 °C containing 0.5 mM NAD(+). The organ simulations reveal that the ADH activities in mucosae of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum with ADH1C*1/*1 genotype are less than 1%, respectively, that of the ADH1B*1/*1-ADH1C*1/*1 liver at 1-200 mM ethanol, indicating that liver is major site of the FPM. The apparent hepatic KM and Vmax for ethanol oxidation are simulated to be 0.093 ± 0.019 mM and 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol/min, respectively. At 95% clearance in liver, the logarithmic average sinusoidal ethanol concentration is determined to be 0.80 mM in accordance with the flow-limited gradient perfusion model. The organ simulations indicate that higher therapeutic acetaminophen (0.5 mM) inhibits 16% of ADH1B*1/*1 hepatic ADH activity at 2-20 mM ethanol and that therapeutic salicylate (1.5 mM) inhibits 30-31% of the ADH1B*2/*2 activity, suggesting potential significant inhibitions of ethanol FPM in these allelotypes. The result provides systematic evaluations and predictions by computer simulation on potential ethanol FPM in target tissues and hepatic

  7. Modified Multivisceral Transplantation with Native Spleen Removal in Rats.

    PubMed

    Stringa, Pablo; Arreola, Nidia Monserrat; Moreno, Ane M Andres; Largo, Carlota; Rumbo, Martín; Hernandez, Francisco

    2018-02-23

     Modified multivisceral transplantation (MMVTx) refers to the use of a graft that includes all abdominal organs except the liver. The use of this type of transplant in children and adults expanded over the last years with good results. However, long-term survival in experimental models has not been reported. Our aim is to describe in detail some technical modifications of MMVTx to obtain long-term survival.  Syngeneic (Lewis-Lewis) heterotopic MMVTx was performed in 16 male rats (180-250 g). All procedures were performed under isoflurane anesthesia. The graft consisted of stomach, duodenopancreatic axis, spleen, and small bowel. The vascular pedicle consisted of a conduit of aorta, including the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and the portal vein (PV). The engraftment was performed by end-to-side anastomosis to the infra-renal cava vein and aorta. After reperfusion, the graft was accommodated in the right side of the abdomen, and a terminal ileostomy performed. The native spleen was removed.  Donor and recipient time was 39 ± 4.4 minutes and 69 ± 7 minutes, respectively; venous and arterial anastomosis time was 14 ± 1 minutes and 12.3 ± 1 minutes, respectively. Total ischemia time was 77.2 ± 7.9 minutes. Survival was 75% (12/16), six were sacrificed after 2 hours, and six were kept alive for long-term evaluation (more than 1 week).  Long-term survival is reported after heterotopic MMVTx in rats. The heterotopic MMVTx with native spleen removal would potentially improve the existent models for transplant research. The usefulness of this model warrants further confirmation in allogeneic experiments. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  9. Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum

  10. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stomach cancer have decreased in the U.S. Dietary supplements It is not known if taking certain vitamins , minerals , and other dietary supplements helps lower the risk of stomach cancer. In ...

  11. Morphology and morphometry of fetal liver at 16-26 weeks of gestation by magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison with embryonic liver at Carnegie stage 23.

    PubMed

    Hamabe, Yui; Hirose, Ayumi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2013-06-01

    Normal liver growth was described morphologically and morphometrically using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of human fetuses, and compared with embryonic liver to establish a normal reference chart for clinical use. MRI images from 21 fetuses at 16-26 weeks of gestation and eight embryos at Carnegie stage (CS)23 were investigated in the present study. Using the image data, the morphology of the liver as well as its adjacent organs was extracted and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Morphometry of fetal liver growth was performed using simple regression analysis. The fundamental morphology was similar in all cases of the fetal livers examined. The liver tended to grow along the transversal axis. The four lobes were clearly recognizable in the fetal liver but not in the embryonic liver. The length of the liver along the three axes, liver volume and four lobes correlated with the bodyweight (BW). The morphogenesis of the fetal liver on the dorsal and caudal sides was affected by the growth of the abdominal organs, such as the stomach, duodenum and spleen, and retroperitoneal organs, such as the right adrenal gland and right kidney. The main blood vessels such as inferior vena cava, portal vein and umbilical vein made a groove on the surface of the liver. Morphology of the fetal liver was different from that of the embryonic liver at CS23. The present data will be useful for evaluating the development of the fetal liver and the adjacent organs that affect its morphology. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Incidental gastric accessory spleen during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Almazeedi, Sulaiman; Alhaddad, Eliana; Al-Khithr, Talal; Alhunaidi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has shown to produce the most predictable and tangible results for weight loss, with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy's being the most popular one of them. However, the occurrence of previously undiagnosed diseases can be encountered during bariatric operations. The work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria. This is the case of a 54year old morbidly obese female, presenting to our hospital for a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. During her procedure, it was discovered that she has an accessory spleen on the fundus of her stomach. The decision was made to resect it with the specimen of the stomach for histopathalogical examination. Incidental findings during routine bariatric surgery are a common occurance, and therefore prompt and effective intra-op management is key to the prognosis of the patient. Accessory spleens, although uncommon, tend to be asymptomatic. However, if undiagnosed, could present with dangerous consequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "Stomach Flu" (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Educators Search English Español "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth / For Kids / "Stomach Flu" Print Many people talk about the " ...

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of splenic enlargement using wave pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    It is known that the spleen accompanied by liver cirrhosis is hypertrophied or enlarged. We have examined a wave pattern at the left boundary of spleen on the abdominal CT images having liver cirrhosis, and found that they are different from those on the images having a normal liver. It is noticed that the abdominal CT images of patient with liver cirrhosis shows strong bending in the wave pattern. In the case of normal liver, the images may also have a wave pattern, but its bends are not strong. Therefore, the total waving area of the spleen with liver cirrhosis is found to be greater than that of the spleen with a normal liver. Moreover, we found that the waves of the spleen from the image with liver cirrhosis have the higher degree of circularity compared to the normal liver case. Based on the two observations above, we propose an automatic method to diagnose splenic enlargement by using the wave pattern of the spleen in abdominal CT images. The proposed automatic method improves the diagnostic performance compared with the conventional process based on the size of spleen.

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the esophagus and stomach as it ... to remove tissue , which is checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A ...

  18. Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Deters, A M; Müller, G; Stark, T; Wittschier, N; Hofmann, T

    2007-02-01

    Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.

  19. Regulation of mouse stomach development and Barx1 expression by specific microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Moo; Woo, Janghee; Kanellopoulou, Chryssa; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2011-01-01

    Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are postulated to fine-tune many developmental processes, their relationships with specific targets and tissues remain largely undefined. The mesenchymal transcription factor Barx1 controls spleen and stomach morphogenesis and is required to specify stomach-specific epithelium in adjacent endoderm. Barx1 expression is precisely regulated in space and time, with a sharp drop in stomach levels after epithelial specification. We tested the hypothesis that specific miRNAs mediate this marked decline in Barx1 levels. Depletion of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer in cultured stomach mesenchyme and conditional Dicer gene deletion in mice significantly increased Barx1 levels, disrupted stomach and intestine development and caused spleen agenesis. Computational and experimental studies identified miR-7a and miR-203 as candidate miRNAs that regulate Barx1 and are expressed in inverse proportion to it in the fetal mouse stomach. Through specific interactions with cognate sequences in the Barx1 3′ untranslated region, miR-7a and miR-203 repress Barx1 expression in stomach mesenchymal cells and its function in inducing gastric epithelium. These results indicate that miRNAs are required for proper digestive tract organogenesis and that miR-7a and miR-203 control expression of the stomach homeotic regulator Barx1. PMID:21307095

  20. Purification, cDNA cloning, and regulation of lysophospholipase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Hayashi, H; Yamashita, S

    1996-03-29

    A lysophospholipase was purified 506-fold from rat liver supernatant. The preparation gave a single 24-kDa protein band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme hydrolyzed lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylserine, and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at pH 6-8. The purified enzyme was used for the preparation of antibody and peptide sequencing. A cDNA clone was isolated by screening a rat liver lambda gt11 cDNA library with the antibody, followed by the selection of further extended clones from a lambda gt10 library. The isolated cDNA was 2,362 base pairs in length and contained an open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids with a Mr of 24,708. The peptide sequences determined were found in the reading frame. When the cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells as the beta-galactosidase fusion, lysophosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing activity was markedly increased. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant similarity to Pseudomonas fluorescence esterase A and Spirulina platensis esterase. The three sequences contained the GXSXG consensus at similar positions. The transcript was found in various tissues with the following order of abundance: spleen, heart, kidney, brain, lung, stomach, and testis = liver. In contrast, the enzyme protein was abundant in the following order: testis, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, lung, brain, and spleen. Thus the mRNA abundance disagreed with the level of the enzyme protein in liver, testis, and spleen. When HL-60 cells were induced to differentiate into granulocytes with dimethyl sulfoxide, the 24-kDa lysophospholipase protein increased significantly, but the mRNA abundance remained essentially unchanged. Thus a posttranscriptional control mechanism is present for the regulation of 24-kDa lysophospholipase.

  1. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000287.htm Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge To use the sharing features on ... The type of surgery you had is called open surgery. The surgeon made a cut (incision) in ...

  2. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.

    1982-02-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after tranplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-(N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99//sup m/Tc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into themore » tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities.« less

  3. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.

    1982-02-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-(N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tailmore » veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities.« less

  4. [Laparoscopic resection of stomach in case of stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Sazhin, I V; Sazhin, V P; Nuzhdikhin, A V

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection of stomach was done in 84 patients with complicated peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum. There were 1.2% post-operative complications in case of laparoscopic resection of stomach in comparison with open resection, which had 33.3% complications. There were not deaths in case of laparoscopic resection of stomach. This indication was about 4% in patients after open resection. It was determined that functionalefficiency afterlaparoscopic resection was in 1.6-1.8 times higher than afteropen resectionof stomach.

  5. [Preventive effects of 4 Se-enriched plants on rat stomach cancer induced by MNNG--3. Se accumulation and distribution in rats of different selenium resources for prevention of stomach cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenije; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Chen, Xiaobin

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the accumulation and distribution of blood and tissue Se in rats with long-term and high-dose of Se supplementation by four Se-enriched plants (Se-enriched garlic, Se-enriched broccoli, Se-enriched green kale and Se-enriched red kale) in the N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced stomach cancer model. Ninety rats were fed by basal diet for a week, divided equally into the control, MNNG and seven Se supplementation groups. Rats were daily given 15 mg/kg bw of MNNG for ten days except those in the control group, and rats in five Se-enriched plant treatment groups were daily given 150 or 300 microg Se/kg of bw of the plant suspension by gavage for 17 weeks. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 18th week, the Se contents of blood, red blood cell, plasma, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and testicle were determined. The Se contents of liver and kidney in rats supplemented by Se-enriched garlic were significantly lower than those in rats supplemented by Se-enriched broccoli and two Se-enriched kales, and the Se contents of red blood cell and spleen higher than those in rats supplemented by Se-enriched broccoli and two Se-enriched kales. The data primarily shows that the differences of the accumulation and distribution of blood and tissue Se in rats are related to the supplemented plant Se components, and that lower Se accumulation of the liver and kidney in rats supplemented by Se-enriched garlic than by other plants may be one of Se safety indices of Se-enriched garlic.

  6. Dietary habits and stomach cancer risk in the JACC Study.

    PubMed

    Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kondo, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2005-06-01

    Despite a declining incidence, stomach cancer is still a dominant cancer in Japan. The association between dietary habits and stomach cancer risk was investigated in a large prospective study in Japan. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1988 through 1990. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the consumption of 33 selected food items. Proportional hazard model was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stomach cancer for different levels of the dietary intakes. A western style breakfast showed an inverse association with stomach cancer risk in males (HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.70). Women who consumed liver three to four times per week and more than once per day had a significant increased risk, respectively (HR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.12-3.63, HR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.16-8.62 ). A clear dose-response relationship between the intake of liver and stomach cancer risk was observed. We found no association between stomach cancer mortality and the consumption of fruit such as mandarin orange, and vegetables such as carrots and spinach in both men and women. The consumption of high salt foods such as miso soup and pickles was also not significantly associated with the mortality of stomach cancer in both sexes. This prospective study suggested that a western-style breakfast is associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer, although some differences in the association were seen between men and women.

  7. Mechanisms of embryonic stomach development.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kyle W; Wells, James M

    2017-06-01

    The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach. Here we will review the literature that has shaped our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate gastric organogenesis. Further we will discuss how developmental paradigms have guided recent efforts to differentiate stomach tissue from pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PANCREATIC TRANSPLANTATIONS IN THE SPLEEN

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Joseph H.; Murphy, Fred T.

    1913-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue implanted in the spleen and separated from its original vascular and nervous connections can live and functionate for months. A small nodule of pancreatic tissue composed of acini without demonstrable islands of Langerhans prevented the development of diabetes. Death occurred 187 days after the extirpation of the pancreas. PMID:19867642

  9. Parastomal Hernia Containing Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Millet, Sebastian; Pous, Salvador; Navarro, Vicente; Iserte, Jose; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is the most common late stomal complication. Its appearance is usually asymptomatic. We report a parastomal hernia containing stomach. A 69-year-old patient with end colostomy arrived at the emergency room presenting with abdominal pain associated with vomiting and functioning stoma. She had a distended and painful abdomen without signs of peritoneal irritation and pericolostomic eventration in the left iliac fossa. X-ray visualized gastric fornix dilatation without dilated intestine bowels, and computed tomography showed parastomal incarcerated gastric herniation. Gastrografin (Bayer Australia Limited, New South Wales, Australia) was administered, showing no passage to duodenum. She underwent surgery, with stomal transposition and placement of onlay polypropylene mesh around the new stoma. Parastomal hernias are a frequent late complication of colostomy. Only four gastric parastomal hernia cases are reported in the literature. Three of these four cases required surgery. The placement of prosthetic mesh in the moment of stoma elaboration should be considered as a potential preventive measure. PMID:25058773

  10. Biochemistry of fish stomach chitinase.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Mana; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Fish are reported to exhibit chitinase activity in the stomach. Analyses of fish stomach chitinases have shown that these enzymes have the physiological function of degrading chitinous substances ingested as diets. Osteichthyes, a group that includes most of the fishes, have several chitinases in their stomachs. From a phylogenetic analysis of the chitinases of vertebrates, these particular molecules were classified into a fish-specific group and have different substrate specificities, suggesting that they can degrade ingested chitinous substances efficiently. On the other hand, it has been suggested that coelacanth (Sarcopterygii) and shark (Chondrichthyes) have a single chitinase enzyme in their stomachs, which shows multiple functions. This review focuses on recent research on the biochemistry of fish stomach chitinases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Castleman's disease of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Damaskos, Christos; Dailiani, Panagiota; Samarkos, Michael; Korkolopoulou, Penelope

    2017-06-01

    Castleman's disease (CD), also known as giant or angiofolicular lymphoid hyperplasia or lymphoid hamartoma, is a group of atypical lymphoproliferative disorders that share common lymph node histological features and may be localized either to a single lymph node (unicentric) or occur systemically (multicentric). Herein, we present a rare case of a of 75-year-old female patient who was referred to our department and after a thorough work-up, underwent splenectomy with synchronous resection of an accessory spleen, splenic artery lymph nodes, and splenic hilar lymph nodes due to splenic involvement in a multicentric CD. The pathology of the specimens led to the conclusion that it was a case of polycentric HHV-8-positive CD, affecting the spleen, the accessory spleen, and the lymph nodes. Incidence of this rare condition is believed to be approximately 0.001-0.05%. CD has been linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), and is associated with malignancies. The pathogenesis mechanism is considered to be a dysregulation and hypersecretion of cytokines, either idiopathic or secondary to a viral infection, with the latter considered the most frequent. Solid organ involvement is very rare as is splenic involvement.

  12. [Professor WANG Yin's academic thoughts and clinical application of acupuncture for spleen-sto-mach care].

    PubMed

    Niu, Hua; Cao, Haibo; Wang, Yin

    Professor WANG Yin 's academic thoughts and clinical application for difficult and miscellaneous di-seases, especially acupuncture for spleen-stomach care, are introduced. Based on TCM basic theory and "ten needles for elderly" by WANG Yueting , Professor WANG Yin proposes the acupuncture for spleen-stomach care. In this method, three-element acupoint selection is applied; the conception vessel, spleen meridian of foot taiyin and stomach meridian of foot yangming were selected. The deep and penetration acupuncture with 0.4 mm×100 mm elongated needles is used at Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6) and Zigong (EX-CA 1), and the mild reinforcing-reducing method is used at remaining acupoints. According to the severity of diseases, fire acupuncture combined with blood-letting cupping is applied at Tianshu (ST 25), Xuehai (SP 10) and Yinlingquan (SP 9); gene-rally, two acupoints are selected and 1 to 3 mL blood-letting is appropriate. The modification based on this me-thod can be applied for various difficult and miscellaneous diseases, leading to superior efficacy.

  13. Semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Ho; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Sanghyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kye, Heewon; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we determined the relative accuracy of semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images compared to standard manual volumetry with DW-MR or CT images. Semiautomated spleen volumetry using simple thresholding followed by 3D and 2D connected component analysis was performed with DW-MR images. Manual spleen volumetry was performed on DW-MR and CT images. In this study, 35 potential live liver donor candidates were included. Semiautomated volumetry results were highly correlated with manual volumetry results using DW-MR (r = 0.99; P < 0.0001; mean percentage absolute difference, 1.43 ± 0.94) and CT (r = 0.99; P < 0.0001; 1.76 ± 1.07). Mean total processing time for semiautomated volumetry was significantly shorter compared to that of manual volumetry with DW-MR (P < 0.0001) and CT (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, semiautomated spleen volumetry with DW-MR images can be performed rapidly and accurately when compared with standard manual volumetry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Natural structural variation in enzymes as a tool in the study of mechanism exemplified by a comparison of the catalytic-site structure and characteristics of cathepsin B and papain. pH-dependent kinetics of the reactions of cathepsin B from bovine spleen and from rat liver with a thiol-specific two-protonic-state probe (2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide) and with a specific synthetic substrate (N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-arginyl-L-arginine 2-naphthylamide).

    PubMed Central

    Willenbrock, F; Brocklehurst, K

    1984-01-01

    Cathepsin B (EC 3.4.22.1) from bovine spleen and the analogous enzyme from rat liver were investigated at 25 degrees C at I0.1 in acidic media by kinetic study of (a) the reactions of their catalytic-site thiol groups towards the two-protonic-state reactivity probe 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and (b) their catalysis of the hydrolysis of N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-arginyl-L-arginine 2-naphthylamide. Reactivity-probe kinetics showed that nucleophilic character is generated in the sulphur atom of cathepsin B by protonic dissociation with pKa 3.4, presumably to form an S-/ImH+ ion-pair. Substrate-catalysis kinetics showed that ion-pair formation is not sufficient to generate catalytic competence in cathepsin B, because catalytic activity is not generated as the pH is raised across pKa 3.4 but rather as it is raised across pKa 5-6 (5.1 for kcat; 5.6 for kcat./Km for the bovine spleen enzyme and 5.8 for kcat./Km for the rat liver enzyme). The implications of these results and of known structural differences between the catalytic sites of the rat liver enzyme and papain (EC 3.4.22.2) for the mechanism of cysteine-proteinase-catalysed hydrolysis are discussed. PMID:6534384

  15. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  16. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  17. The stomach-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour. Other sensory qualities related to the stimulation of gastric tension receptors are satiety and fullness. Receptors that respond to macronutrient content or gastric wall tension influence appetite and meal related hormone responses. The ingestion of food - in contrast to an infusion of nutrients into the stomach - has distinct effects on the activation of specific brain regions. Brain areas such as thalamus, amygdala, putamen and praecuneus are activated by the ingestion of food. Gastric nutrient infusion evokes greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. The brain integrates these interrelated neural and hormonal signals arising from the stomach as well as visual, olfactory and anticipatory stimuli that ultimately influence eating and other behavioural patterns. Furthermore, there is now good evidence from experimental studies that gastric afferents influence mood, and animal studies point towards the possibility that gastric dysfunction may be a risk factor for mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The stomach is also not only colonised by Helicobacter pylori but a large array of bacteria. While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that H. pylori may alter caloric intake and mood, the role of other gastric microbiome for the brain function is unknown. To address this appropriate targeted gastric microbiome studies would be

  18. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  19. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  20. The stomach, cholecystokinin, and satiety.

    PubMed

    McHugh, P R; Moran, T H

    1986-04-01

    The stomach of the rhesus monkey empties liquids in a fashion that varies with the character of the solutions. Physiological saline empties exponentially. Glucose solutions empty biphasically--rapidly for the first minutes, then slowly and proportionately to glucose concentration to deliver glucose calories through the pylorus at a regulated rate (0.4 kcal/min). This prolonged and regulated second phase of gastric emptying depends on intestinal inhibition of the stomach. Cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone released by food in the intestine, is an inhibitor of gastric emptying. In vitro receptor autoradiography demonstrates CCK receptors to be clustered on the circular muscle of the pylorus. Exogenous CCK, in doses that inhibit gastric emptying, will reduce food intake only if combined with an infusion of saline in the stomach. These observations indicate how gastric distension can be a means for provoking satiety. The variably sustained distension produced by the stomach's slow, calorically regulated emptying could prolong intermeal intervals and thus permit high-calorie meals to inhibit further caloric intake over time. CCK, by directly inhibiting gastric emptying during a meal, could promote gastric distension and so restrict the duration and size of individual meals.

  1. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    PubMed

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  2. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  3. Functional disorders of the stomach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  4. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Start here to find information on stomach (gastric) cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  5. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1

    PubMed Central

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1−/− embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1+ intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1−/− stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. PMID:26057579

  6. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spleen magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging for quantitative staging hepatic fibrosis in miniature pigs: An initial study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Chen, Tian-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen-Lin; Li, Hang; Zeng, Nan-Lin; Tang, Hong-Jie; Pu, Yu; Chen, Nan; Yang, Qi; Li, Li; Xie, Xian-Yong; Hu, Jiani

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether spleen diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters might classify liver fibrosis stage. Sixteen miniature pigs were prospectively used to model liver fibrosis, and underwent spleen DWI by using b = 300, 500 and 800 s/mm(2) on 0, 5th, 9th, 16th and 21st weekend after the beginning of modeling. Signal intensity ratio of spleen to paraspinous muscles (S/M), spleen exponential apparent diffusion coefficient (eADC) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for each b-value were statistically analyzed. With increasing stages of fibrosis, S/M for all b-values showed a downward trend; and spleen eADC and ADC for b = 300 s/mm(2) showed downward and upward trends, respectively (all P < 0.05). The area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) of spleen DWI parameters was 0.777 or more by S/M for classifying each fibrosis stage, and 0.65 or more by eADC and 0.648 or more by ADC for classifying stage ≥3 or cirrhosis. Among the spleen DWI parameters, S/M for b = 300 s/mm(2) was the best parameter in classifying stage 1 or more, 2 or more and 3 or more with AUC of 0.875, 0.851 and 0.843, respectively; and spleen eADC for b = 300 s/mm(2) was best in classifying stage 4 with an AUC of 0.988. Spleen DWI may be used to stage liver fibrosis. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  8. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  9. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature.

  10. Pancreatic endocrine tumor with neoplastic venous thrombus and bilobar liver metastasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Turrini, O; Sarran, A; Delpero, J-R

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 56-year-old woman with a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumor, fortuitously discovered by abdominal imaging. A CT-scan showed a large mass in the pancreatic tail invading the spleen and stomach; in addition, there was neoplastic thrombus within the spleno-mesentericoportal venous confluence and bilobar liver metastases. Surgical resection was performed in two stages. The first procedure was an extended left pancreatectomy with venous thrombectomy and "clearance" of the left hepatic lobe. During the interval, embolization of the right portal vein was carried out. Right hepatectomy and radiofrequency destruction of residual metastases was then performed. On the basis of completeness of the resection and the histopathological data, the patient did not undergo any adjuvant therapy, in accordance with French guidelines. At 1 year of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis Protocol of Stomach Distemperament for Clinical Practice in Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    ALIZADEH, Mahdi; KHADEM, Ebrahim; ALIASL, Jale

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stomach is the important organ in the body. Its disorders can affect other organs such as liver, heart and also can cause depression. Stomach distemperaments can cause some disorders. The purpose of this study was to provide a diagnostic method of stomach distemperament for clinical practice. Methods: In this study authoritative ITM books such as Canon of Avicenna, Zakhirah-E-Kharazm Shahi by Hakim Esmail Jorjani, Kamel al-Sina’ah al-Tibbiyah by Ali ibn al-‘Abbas al-Majusi were assessed and symptoms and signs of stomach distemperament were collected. Results: Stomach has some normal temperament. The imbalance in temperament and humor can cause distemperments. There are 12 types of stomach distemperament and based on symptoms and signs a primary protocol is designed for diagnosis of stomach distemperament. Conclusion: There is no available guideline for gastric distemperamet diagnosis protocol. As a result, the presented protocol should be considered for use in clinical practice. PMID:28845397

  12. Evaluation of the safety of irreversible electroporation on the stomach wall using a pig model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiannan; Zeng, Jianying; Chen, Jibing; Shi, Jian; Luo, Xiaomei; Fang, Gang; Chai, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Liu, Tongjun; Niu, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the stomach wall following the direct application of IRE onto the organ surface. IRE ablation was performed in 8 Tibetan mini-pigs, which were randomly assigned into two groups based on their ablated areas: Group A, gastric cardia, fundus of stomach, gastric body and group B, lesser gastric curvature, greater gastric curvature, stomach pylorus. Two IRE needles were placed in the space between the stomach wall and the liver (not inserted into the stomach tissue), and three lesions were created in each pig. Serum aminotransferase and white blood cell (WBC) levels were measured. Gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography were performed. From each group, 2 pigs were sacrificed on day 7 post-IRE; the remaining pigs were sacrificed on day 28 post-IRE. There were no signs of perforation on the stomach wall. Serum aminotransferase and WBC levels increased in both groups on day 1 post-IRE and decreased gradually thereafter. The gastroscopy procedure revealed oval ulcers on day 7 post-IRE and smaller ulcers on day 28 post-IRE. Transmural necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis were observed at 7 days post-IRE. Healing ulcers were observed at 28 days post-IRE. In conclusion, IRE ablation caused damage to the stomach wall; however, IRE did not induce any perforation. PMID:28672987

  13. A case of synchronous metastasis of breast cancer to stomach and colon.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hideya; Hiroshige, Shozi; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Kusumoto, Tetusya; Muto, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    A case of synchronous metastasis of breast cancer to the stomach and colon is reported. A 38-year-old woman with a history of bilateral breast cancer was admitted for endoscopic examination because of occult blood. Endoscopic examination showed elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the stomach and cecum. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens obtained from both sites showed adenocarcinoma, comprised of tumor cells with structural and nuclear atypia, which were similar to those of the primary breast cancer cells. In immunohistochemical analysis, these tumor cells stained positive for ER. Therefore, we diagnosed a synchronous metastasis of breast cancer to the stomach and colon. Synchronous metastasis of breast cancer to the stomach and colon without liver metastasis or peritoneal dissemination is extremely rare, with only 4 reported cases existing in literature.

  14. Metastatic cancer to the stomach.

    PubMed

    Campoli, Paulo Moacir de Oliveira; Ejima, Flávio Hayato; Cardoso, Daniela Medeiros Milhomem; Silva, Osterno Queiroz da; Santana Filho, Jales Benevides; Queiroz Barreto, Paulo Adriano de; Machado, Márcio Martins; Mota, Eliane Duarte; Araujo Filho, João Alves; Alencar, Rita de Cássia G; Mota, Orlando Milhomem da

    2006-01-01

    Metastases in the stomach are rare. The increased use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), associated with better treatment results for malignancies, requires them to be acknowledged. The aim of this study was to describe a series of cases of metastasis to the stomach, their primary sites, clinical and endoscopic features, treatment, and results. Twenty cases were diagnosed between December 1999 and January 2004. Their analysis included symptomatology, macroscopic presentation, time from diagnosis of the primary tumor to the detection of the gastric metastasis, treatment approach, and survival. The primary sites were the esophagus, skin, lung, cervix, breast, sigmoid colon, and testis. The symptom most frequently requiring EGD was upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ten patients showed concomitant metastases to other organs. The mean time between diagnosis of the primary tumor and diagnosis of gastric metastasis was 16 months (range, 0 to 56 months). Only seven patients were given some form of treatment after diagnosis of the gastric metastasis. The median survival was 4.75 months. Overall survival during the first year was 20% and survival was nil at 2 years. Gastric metastasis marks advanced disease and the prognosis is poor. New advances in diagnosis and treatment are required for better results.

  15. Magnetic-Targeted Doxorubicin in Treating Patients With Cancer Metastatic to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Metastases, Neoplasm; Colorectal Neoplasms; Esophageal Neoplasms; Stomach Neoplasms; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Breast Neoplasms; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Lung Neoplasms; Liver Neoplasms; Cholangiocarcinoma

  16. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to bemore » useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.« less

  17. [Clinical study of recurrent stomach cancer].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, T

    1983-11-01

    There are various patterns of recurrence of gastric cancer after radical resection, such as hepatic metastasis, carcinomatous peritonitis, residual stomach recurrence, local lymph node metastasis and establishment of distant metastasis. In cases of residual stomach recurrence, resection is sometimes feasible. Kruckenberg's tumor resulting from metastasis to the ovary can frequently be removed. With such resectable metastasis, surgical procedure is actively employed, with subsequent chemotherapy. Chemotherapy in such a case consists of combined chemotherapy by arterial infusion for induction of remission and administration of oral preparation and/or suppositories for maintenance. In the treatment of recurrent gastric cancer by arterial infusion, we made it a rule to administer drugs through a catheter inserted subselectively into the aorta. In the treatment by arterial infusion, the daily administration of 5-FU serves as the basic regimen. Dissolve 250 mg 5-FU in about 20 cc physiologic saline or 5% dextrose solution, and infuse the solution over 2 hrs with the use of a continuous arterial infusion pump. Administer of 5-FU daily, and fortify this treatment by one-shot injection of MMC 10mg/body each time, MMC is usually given 3-4 times, with intervals between its administrations adjusted according to WBC and platelet counts. ADM is given at dosage of 40 mg/body each time. We found it advisable to continue the administrations of 5-FU until its total dose reached about 20 g, while giving sufficient doses of ADM or MMC for induction of remission. The results obtained from 108 cases of the recurrent gastric cancer were shown as follows. The median survival period was 5 months. The twenty-one cases out of 108 cases in recurrent gastric cancer survived more than one year, because they received the intensive chemotherapy such as arterial infusion chemotherapy and oral or rectal administration of FT. The most patients with liver metastasis were treated with selective

  18. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin−) Sca-1+ c-Kit+ haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit+ HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit+ HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit+/CD45+ HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. PMID:26153045

  19. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Gene profile in the spleen under massive partial hepatectomy using complementary DNA microarray and pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yusuke; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Imura, Satoru; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Hiroki; Kanamoto, Mami; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Takasu, Chie

    2014-08-01

    In general, the spleen is one of the abdominal organs connected by the portal system, and a splenectomy improves hepatic functions in the settings of partial hepatectomy (Hx) for portal hypertensive cases or living donor liver transplantation with excessive portal vein flow. Those precise mechanisms remain still unclear; therefore, we investigated the DNA expression profile in the spleen after 90% Hx in rats using complementary DNA microarray and pathway analysis. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were prepared from three rat spleens at each time point (0, 3, and 6 h after 90% Hx). Using the gene chip, mRNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array (Affymetrix®) and pathway analysis was done with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®). We determined the 3-h or 6-h/0-h ratio to assess the influence of Hx, and cut-off values were set at more than 2.0-fold or less than 1/2 (0.5)-fold. Chemokine activity-related genes including Cxcl1 (GRO1) and Cxcl2 (MIP-2) related pathway were upregulated in the spleen. Also, immediate early response genes including early growth response-1 (EGR1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma (FOS) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) related pathway were upregulated in the spleen. We concluded that in the spleen the expression of numerous inflammatory-related genes would occur after 90% Hx. The spleen could take a harmful role and provide a negative impact during post Hx phase due to the induction of chemokine and transcription factors including GRO1 and EGR1. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Hedgehog Signaling in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Daniel; Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Zavros, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection. Dysregulation of the Shh signaling pathway leads to the disruption of gastric differentiation, loss of gastric acid secretion and the development of cancer. In this chapter, we will review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric physiology, regeneration and disease. PMID:27750091

  2. Hedgehog signaling in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Daniel; Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Zavros, Yana

    2016-12-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection. Dysregulation of the Shh signaling pathway leads to the disruption of gastric differentiation, loss of gastric acid secretion and the development of cancer. In this chapter, we will review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric physiology, regeneration, and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stomach development, stem cells and disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2016-02-15

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Stomach development, stem cells and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. PMID:26884394

  5. Manifestation of Metastatic Potential in Human Gastric Cancer Implanted into the Stomach Wall of Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takumi

    1988-01-01

    The biological properties of human gastric cancer cell line G/F implanted into either the subcutis or the stomach wall of nude mice were compared. The G/F tumor in the stomach wall showed a slower growth rate than that in the subcutis. The level of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum was greater when the tumor was in the stomach wall than when it was in the subcutis. The tumor in the stomach wall invaded the surrounding tissues and metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and distant organs such as the lung and the liver in 27 of the 43 mice (68%). In contrast, the tumor in the subcutis was highly encapsulated and metastasis to other organs was not observed. These findings indicate that the stomach wall might provide a suitable microenvironment for G/F gastric cancer to exert its intrinsic properties. Therefore, implantation of human gastric cancer into the stomach wall of nude mice may provide a useful model to study the intrinsic characteristics of human cancer as well as the effectiveness of experimental chemotherapy. PMID:3141329

  6. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  7. Stomach Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach (gastric) cancer risk factors include smoking and H. pylori. Learn about these and other risk factors for stomach cancer and how to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  8. The stomach in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2016-01-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  9. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-10-28

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. "Dysbiosis" refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric "dysbiosis" may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance.

  10. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending onmore » the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left

  11. An Aggressive Form of MALT Lymphoma of the Stomach with Pancreas Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Mulalic, Edvin; Delibegovic, Samir

    2016-06-01

    MALT lymphoma accounts for 7-8% of all B-cell lymphomas and at least 50% of primary gastric lymphoma, with the highest incidence at between 50 and 60 years of age. Aggressive forms are rare, as are indications for multi-visceral resection. A patient, 33 years old, was admitted to the tertiary hospital due to a biopsy at a small community hospital confirming adenocarcinoma of the stomach. She was Helicobacter pylori positive. CT showed thickening of the fundus and corpus wall, up to 2.7. cm., with numerous lymph nodes, along the small curvature and in the peripancreatic region, up to 1.5 cm in size. There was close contact between the changed and tumorous posterior wall of the stomach and the anterior surface of the pancreas. Neoplasm of the stomach was found that had infiltrated the body and tail of the pancreas and spleen hilum. Infiltration of the left crura of the diaphragm was also found, ex tempore biopsy showed inflammatory infiltration without elements of neoplasm. Total gastrectomy with omentectomy, and subtotal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Definitive patho-histological diagnosis confirmed MALT lymphoma of the stomach with pancreas infiltration, but no tumor cells were found on the spleen. Additional staining and immunohistological examination of the specimen from the community hospital showed that this was a misdiagnosis of carcinoma, and the specimen also contained MALT lymphoma. MALT lymphoma frequently occurs in the stomach. For patients with MALT, systematic staging is indicated. If MALT is considered in the differential diagnosis, multiple random systematic biopsies within the stomach wall are needed to optimize diagnostic accuracy. Samples should be subject to immune phenotype analysis6. The main tumor cells of MALT are: CD 20+, CD 5-, CD 10-, CD 23-, CD 43+-. It is obvious that this kind of analysis cannot be accomplished in a small community hospital in a poor country such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, and suspicion of MALT indicates

  12. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  13. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the esophagus and stomach as it ... to remove tissue , which is checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  16. Pembrolizumab Secures FDA Approval in Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... director of the Yale Cancer Center. Addressing the Biology of Stomach Cancer Patients with advanced gastric cancer ... drugs have been designed to address its specific biology. With the exception of ramucirumab, “there’s never been ...

  17. Microbiota in the stomach: new insights.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen Ming; Yang, Yun Sheng; Peng, Li Hua

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria are sparsely distributed in the stomach due to the gastric microbicidal barrier. Several innate defenses (low pH, migrating motor complex and the entero-salivary circulation of nitrate) as well as external factors (diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics and stomach diseases) have been shown to influence significantly the microbiota composition in the stomach. In recent years new culture-independent technologies have allowed the investigation of the cross talk that occurs between hosts and stomach-associated microflora, which helps us to understand the role of gastric bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal microbiological system, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we reviewed the literatures related to this topic and set the stage for future developments of the field. © 2013 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. [Breast cancer metastases to the stomach and colon: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Pulanić, Roland; Jelavić, Marko; Premuzić, Marina; Opacić, Milorad; Jakic-Razumović, Jasminka; Padovan-Stern, Ranka; Vrbanec, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer has a high potential for metastasis, usually to the lungs, bones, liver and lymph nodes. Metastases in the holow organs of the digestive system are rare and mainly affectes the stomach and colon. They are characterized by very different clinical and radiological manifestations. We have warned that the initial unrecognized breast cancer can appear as a primary tumor of the stomach and colon, and onlya histopathological analysis reveales that it is a metastatic breast cancer. Metastases to the stomach or intestine involve deep layer of the mucosa and pathohistological findings of standard biopsy sample can be falsely negative, despite positive imaging technique (abdominal ultrasound and MSCT, endoscopic ultrasound) that indicate the tumor process. That's,why we emphasize the importance of endoscopic mucosal resection in the detection of malignant process of deeper layers of the gastric mucosa and deep intestinal mucosal biopsies with postoperative analysis of its walls.

  19. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  20. Redefining Myeloid Cell Subsets in Murine Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Ying-Ying; Tan, Jonathan K. H.; O’Neill, Helen C.

    2016-01-01

    Spleen is known to contain multiple dendritic and myeloid cell subsets, distinguishable on the basis of phenotype, function and anatomical location. As a result of recent intensive flow cytometric analyses, splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets are now better characterized than other myeloid subsets. In order to identify and fully characterize a novel splenic subset termed “L-DC” in relation to other myeloid cells, it was necessary to investigate myeloid subsets in more detail. In terms of cell surface phenotype, L-DC were initially characterized as a CD11bhiCD11cloMHCII−Ly6C−Ly6G− subset in murine spleen. Their expression of CD43, lack of MHCII, and a low level of CD11c was shown to best differentiate L-DC by phenotype from conventional DC subsets. A complete analysis of all subsets in spleen led to the classification of CD11bhiCD11cloMHCII−Ly6CloLy6G− cells as monocytes expressing CX3CR1, CD43 and CD115. Siglec-F expression was used to identify a specific eosinophil population, distinguishable from both Ly6Clo and Ly6Chi monocytes, and other DC subsets. L-DC were characterized as a clear subset of CD11bhiCD11cloMHCII−Ly6C−Ly6G− cells, which are CD43+, Siglec-F− and CD115−. Changes in the prevalence of L-DC compared to other subsets in spleens of mutant mice confirmed the phenotypic distinction between L-DC, cDC and monocyte subsets. L-DC development in vivo was shown to occur independently of the BATF3 transcription factor that regulates cDC development, and also independently of the FLT3L and GM-CSF growth factors which drive cDC and monocyte development, so distinguishing L-DC from these commonly defined cell types. PMID:26793192

  1. The stomach in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Sonographic Bands of Hypoechogenicity in the Spleen in Children: Zebra Spleen.

    PubMed

    Kuint, Ruth Cytter; Daneman, Alan; Navarro, Oscar M; Oates, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Zebra spleen is the normal pattern of splenic enhancement during the arterial phase of CT and MRI and is attributed to different flow rates. The purpose of this study was to describe the appearance and occurrence of bands of hypoechogenicity in the spleen on unenhanced sonograms of children with no splenic abnormalities. We reviewed 100 abdominal ultrasound studies to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the spleen. Demographic data were collected for all patients. Homogeneous echogenicity of the spleen was found in 92 children. Heterogeneous echogenicity was present in eight. Three of the eight had discrete macronodules due to known splenic disease. The other five had bands of hypoechogenicity. These five had no known splenic disease, but one had mild splenomegaly of unknown cause. The pattern of hypoechoic bands occurred in 5% of our series. This pattern cannot be explained simply by different flow rates and probably reflects different structural components of the parenchyma. At ultrasound this pattern should be considered a normal finding that may simulate a splenic mass.

  3. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  4. Exsanguinating upper GI bleeds due to Unusual Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) of stomach and spleen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Iqbal; Baqai, Muhammad Tariq; Baqai, Mohammad Fahd; Mufti, Naveed

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we are reporting one case of exsanguinating upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed requiring massive blood transfusion and immediate life saving surgery. A 30 years old female, 12 weeks pregnant was referred to our hospital from the earth-quake affected area of Kashmir with history of upper abdominal pain, haematemesis and melaena for one week. After stabilizing the patient, upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy was performed. It revealed gastric ulcer just distal to the gastro-esophageal junction on the lesser curvature. Biopsy from the ulcer edge led to profuse spurting of the blood and patient went into state of shock. Immediate resuscitation led to rebleeding and recurrence of post haemorrahagic shock. The patient was immediately explored and total gastrectectomy with splenectomy concluded as life saving procedure. A review of literature was conducted to make this report possible.

  5. Magnetic mapping of iron in rodent spleen

    PubMed Central

    Blissett, Angela R.; Ollander, Brooke; Penn, Brittany; McTigue, Dana M.; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of iron distribution and density in biological tissues is important to understand the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and the fate of exogenously administered iron-based carriers and contrast agents. Iron distribution in tissues is typically characterized via histochemical (Perl’s) stains or immunohistochemistry for ferritin, the major iron storage protein. A more accurate mapping of iron can be achieved via ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques, which involve stringent sample preparation conditions. In this study, we elucidate the capability of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a label-free technique to map iron at the nanoscale level in rodent spleen tissue. We complemented and compared our MFM results with those obtained using Perl’s staining and TEM. Our results show how MFM mapping corresponded to sizes of iron-rich lysosomes at a resolution comparable to that of TEM. In addition MFM is compatible with tissue sections commonly prepared for routine histology. PMID:27890658

  6. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  7. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  8. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  9. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  10. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  11. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  12. Metastatic angiosarcoma of the spleen after accidental radiation exposure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Geffen, D B; Zirkin, H J; Mermershtain, W; Cohen, Y; Ariad, S

    1998-04-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor arising from endothelial cells of blood vessels or lymphatic channels. Therapeutic irradiation, thoriumdioxide administration, pyothorax, and polyvinyl chloride exposure have been shown to be predisposing factors for developing angiosarcoma. Accidental radiation exposure has not been associated with angiosarcoma. We present an unusual case of angiosarcoma of the spleen, with metastases to bone, liver, breast, and bone marrow, in a woman who lived near the Chernobyl nuclear facility in the former Soviet Union at the time of the reactor accident in 1986. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic angiosarcoma after accidental radiation exposure.

  13. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  14. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 modulates urea hydrolysis in the murine stomach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M; O'Toole, Paul W; Zomer, Aldert; Tannock, Gerald W

    2014-10-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Inactivation of the ureC gene reduced the acid tolerance of strain 100-23 in vitro, and the mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in the gut of ex-Lactobacillus-free mice. Urine analysis showed that stable isotope-labeled urea, administered by gavage, was metabolized to a greater extent in Lactobacillus-free mice than animals colonized by strain 100-23. This surprising observation was associated with higher levels of urease activity and fecal-type bacteria in the stomach digesta of Lactobacillus-free mice. Despite the modulation of urea hydrolysis in the stomach, recycling of urea nitrogen in the murine host was not affected since the essential amino acid isoleucine, labeled with a stable isotope, was detected in the livers of both Lactobacillus-free and 100-23-colonized animals. Therefore, our experiments reveal a new and unexpected impact of Lactobacillus colonization on urea hydrolysis in the murine gut. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Modulates Urea Hydrolysis in the Murine Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charlotte M.; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Zomer, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Inactivation of the ureC gene reduced the acid tolerance of strain 100-23 in vitro, and the mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in the gut of ex-Lactobacillus-free mice. Urine analysis showed that stable isotope-labeled urea, administered by gavage, was metabolized to a greater extent in Lactobacillus-free mice than animals colonized by strain 100-23. This surprising observation was associated with higher levels of urease activity and fecal-type bacteria in the stomach digesta of Lactobacillus-free mice. Despite the modulation of urea hydrolysis in the stomach, recycling of urea nitrogen in the murine host was not affected since the essential amino acid isoleucine, labeled with a stable isotope, was detected in the livers of both Lactobacillus-free and 100-23-colonized animals. Therefore, our experiments reveal a new and unexpected impact of Lactobacillus colonization on urea hydrolysis in the murine gut. PMID:25063664

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH (hydrogen...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH (hydrogen...

  20. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) when chickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ngoan, L T; Mizoue, T; Fujino, Y; Tokui, N; Yoshimura, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between stomach cancer and the low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and/or a high intake of pickled, preserved or salted foods and frequent use of cooking oil. During 139 390 person–year of follow-up of over 13 000 subjects, 116 died from stomach cancer. Using a Cox proportional hazards–regression analysis of relative risk (RR, 95% CI) controlling for age, sex, smoking and other dietary factors, a significant decline was found with a high consumption of green and yellow vegetables (RR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2–0.9). Reductions of between 40 and 50% were also observed with a high consumption of fresh foods (fruit, cuttle fish, tofu, and potatoes), but these associations were not statistically significant. The risk was significantly increased by the high consumption of processed meat (RR=2.7, 95% CI=1.0-7.4) and by the frequent use of cooking oil (RR=4.0, 95% CI=1.3-11.8). The high consumption of pickled food and traditional soups also increased risk, but not significantly. The findings suggest that a diet high in salt and low in vitamins may be associated with an increase in stomach cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 37–42. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600415 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085253

  2. The ''hot spleen'' phenomenon in metastatic malignant melanoma: its incidence and relationship with the immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Phadke, K.; Adam, N.

    1982-02-01

    Of patients with Stage II and III malignant melanoma, 34.7% display reversal of the liver-spleen ratio on technetium-99m-sulfhur colloid isotope scans. Such an occurrence does not suggest a greater likelihood of relapse or a worse survival. The phenomenom is more common in female patients and there is a significant relationship between the presence of a ''hot spleen'' and a high IgM level. Patients with Stage II disease and high IgM levels have relapses more quickly than do those with normal IgM levels. Lymphopenia is common in patients with Stage II and III disease and the survival of these patients ismore » worse than that of those with normal lymphocyte counts. In this report, the data are discussed together with results from other investigations, and a unifying hypothesis is presented which explains the phenomenon and relates it to increased activity of macrophages as a result of the presence of the tumor. The usefulness of isotope liver scanning in stage III malignant melanoma is also discussed.« less

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603

  4. Ultrasound assessment of spleen size in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Hosey, R G; Mattacola, C G; Kriss, V; Armsey, T; Quarles, J D; Jagger, J

    2006-03-01

    To determine normal spleen dimensions in a healthy collegiate athletic population. 631 Division I collegiate athletes from one university participated in the study. During pre-participation examinations, demographic data collected were collected from volunteer athletes including sex, race, measurement of height and weight, and age. Subjects also completed a medical history form to determine any history of mononucleosis infection, platelet disorder, sickle cell disease (or trait), thalassaemia, or recent viral symptoms. Subjects then underwent a limited abdominal ultrasound examination, where splenic length and width were recorded. Mean (SD) splenic length was 10.65 (1.55) cm and width, 5.16 (1.21) cm. Men had larger spleens than women (p<0.001). White subjects had larger spleens than African-American subjects (p<0.001). A previous history of infectious mononucleosis or the presence of recent cold symptoms had no significant affect on spleen size. In more than 7% of athletes, baseline spleen size met current criteria for splenomegaly. There is a wide range of normal spleen size among collegiate athletes. Average spleen size was larger in men and white athletes than in women and black athletes. A single ultrasound examination for determination of splenomegaly is of limited value in this population.

  5. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  6. [Lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. Report of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Talarico, C; Cerasoli, V; Mancini, B; Mulieri, G; Cancellario D'Alena, F; Montemurro, L; Verna, F

    2000-01-01

    Lymphangiomatosis confined to the spleen is a very are condition. The authors in this article describes one new case and briefly reviews the literature. In this case, after the exclusion of an hydatidosis of the spleen, a total splenectomy was performed. The histologic findings confirmed the lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. The authors emphasize the surgical strategy in splenic lymphangiomyomatosis, infact the total splenectomy is mandatory, because the splenic parenchyma is nearly completely substitute by the cysts. For this reason is preferably, before surgery, to perform the antibateric profilaxis against the OPSI.

  7. Multiple stressors including contaminant exposure and parasite infection predict spleen mass and energy expenditure in breeding ring-billed gulls.

    PubMed

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Marcogliese, David J; Verreault, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Daily energy expenditure (DEE) in animals is influenced by many factors although the impact of stressors remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how multiple physiological stressors (parasite infection and contaminant exposure) and natural challenges (energy-demanding activities and weather conditions) may affect DEE in nesting ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) exposed to high concentrations of persistent organic contaminants (POPs). Physical activity, temperature, gastrointestinal parasitic worm abundance, relative spleen mass, plasma thyroid hormone levels and liver concentrations of POPs were determined; field metabolic rate (FMR) was used as a measure of DEE. For females, FMR was best explained by the percent of time spent in nest-site attendance and exposure to temperatures below their lower critical limit (65% of variation); 32% was also explained by relative spleen mass. In males, FMR was best explained by the number of hours spent in nest site attendance and either relative spleen mass or liver concentrations of tetra-brominated diphenyl ethers (tetra-BDEs) (55% of variation). Relative spleen mass, as an important factor relating to FMR, was best explained by models with a combination of parasite abundance (Diplostomum for females and Eucoleus for males) in a negative relationship, and liver POP concentrations (p,p'-DDE for females and tetra-BDEs for males) in a positive relationship (34%, 55% of variation for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrates that immune activity may be an important factor affecting energy expenditure in ring-billed gulls, and that contaminants and parasite abundance may have both a direct and/or indirect influence on FMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma of the stomach. Clinical experiences with a rare stomach tumor].

    PubMed

    Hauser, H; Steindorfer, P; Mischinger, H J; Thalhammer, M; Kronberger, L; Rosanelli, G; Lax, S F

    1995-01-01

    Gastric epithelioid leiomyosarcoma (epLMS), which generally occurs in mid- or late adult life, is a rare smooth muscle tumor of the stomach. Out of 25 soft tissue tumors of the stomach operated at the Department of Surgery, University of Graz, two epLMS were diagnosed. This paper presents the case of a 67-year-old male with an epLMS in the corpus and of a 80-year-old female with an epLMS in the fundus of the stomach. The tumors were not diagnosed by gastroscopy; they were localized by sonography and CT-scan. In both cases the tumor was completely removed surgically, using a TA 90 4.8 mm respectively a TA 55 4.8 mm stapler. Diagnosis was reached by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tumor tissue. Surgical excision with wide tumor-free resection margins is the therapy of choice in this tumor group.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P. W.; Whittaker, M.; Hall, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of spontaneous rupture of the spleen as a complication of infectious mononucleosis are reported. The literature is briefly reviewed and emphasis placed on the need for awareness of this rare complication. PMID:1013006

  10. Comparison of stomach contents of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from the 1981 and 1991 North Sea International Stomach Sampling Projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adlerstein, S.A.; Temming, A.; Mergardt, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses data from over 20 000 haddock stomachs collected during the 1981 and 1991 Stomach Sampling Projects of the North Sea. Sampling was within the framework of the Multispecies Virtual Population Analysis (MSVPA) for fisheries stock assessment. In 1981 stomachs were collected to calculate input feeding parameters from main predators. During 1991 the sampling exercise was repeated to test stability of the parameters in the region. We investigate stability of haddock stomach content weight between years accounting for ontogenic, spatial and temporal variations within the scope of the survey resolution. Analysis using generalized linear and additive models is performed for weight of the stomach content including and excluding empty stomachs and also for proportion of stomachs without food. Results indicate that haddock stomach contents varied significantly between years, quarters and North Sea roundfish areas. Content weights were overall higher in 1981 than in 1991. In 1981 levels were high from spring to fall and in 1991 mostly in spring. During both years levels were lowest in the central North Sea and in winter. Most of the deviance in modelling the stomach weight is explained by the length of the predator. Stomachs sampled in 1981 were most frequently empty in spring and those sampled in 1991 in winter. In both years, proportions decreased with fish length except in winter when levels increased. Proportion of empty stomachs was highest in the central region of the North Sea. Most of the proportion variation is explained by quarterly fluctuation. Variation of content weight can be related to prey composition found in the stomachs. High stomach contents are generally associated with high contribution of fish prey to the total stomach content, mainly sandeels. We propose that sandeels were more vulnerable to predation in 1981 than in 1991 due to colder temperatures. ?? 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier

  11. Spleen rupture in infectious mononucleosis: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Hsiao, C C; Huang, C B

    1998-01-01

    Spleen rupture has been a rare but feared complication in patients with infectious mononucleosis. There have been many cases reported during the last decade. However, it has rarely been mentioned among the young infant group. Here, we present a case of an infant, two months of age, who suffered from spleen rupture due to infectious mononucleosis, and was latter cured by himself under conservative treatment.

  12. [Serous cysts of the spleen treated by laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Deacu, Adriana; Costan, I; Viţalariu, Adriana; Gulinescu, L

    2002-01-01

    The authors present two case of a 25 years and 32 years old male patients with serous cysts of spleen that were detected on an random abdominal ultrasonography. Abdominal pain in the left hypocondrium was only symptom of this patients. The patients was operated by laparoscopic method, with Ultra-Shears and intraoperative ultrasonography examination. This kind of techniques give us the opportunity to performed the ablation of the cysts with preservation of the spleen with fast full recovery.

  13. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    PubMed

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  14. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Siphonophores eat fish larger than their stomachs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Francesc; Madin, Laurence P.

    2010-12-01

    We report a collection of the siphonophore Halistemma cupulifera, collected at 20 meters depth during a night SCUBA dive in the Sargasso Sea. One of its stomachs (gastrozooids) contained a leptocephalus larva of the eel Ariosoma sp. folded in thirds to fit, but 8.3 cm in length fully extended. This finding shows that in situ observations can reveal previously unknown trophic interactions that may be significant in a changing world ocean where gelatinous organisms seem to increase at the expense of fish.

  16. Wandering spleen with horseshoe kidney a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Than, Da Jun; Ern, Teo Ten; Karim, Khasnizal Bin Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity in itself, with only 2 cases reported thus far when correlated with congenital under-development of the kidney, it usually happens due to under development of its surrounding ligaments. Herein we present a case of wandering spleen with underlying congenital deformity of horseshoe kidney which requires splenectomy due to late presentation. A 21 year old lady presented with worsening of chronic abdominal pain for 3 years, associated with nausea and vomiting. Physical examination showed a vague mass located at epigastric region. Consecutively, computed tomography images showed a well-defined, oval, hypoechoic spleen extending from center of abdomen up to epigastric region measuring 15.5 × 13 cm with twisted pedicle. Finally the patient underwent surgical treatment. The intraoperative findings were consistent with computed tomography images. The patient made a full recovery and was discharged well. Wandering Spleen was first described by Van Horne during autopsy back in 1667. Its location is maintained by peritoneal attachments such as lienorenal, splenocolic, splenophrenic, gastrosplenic and phrenicocolic ligaments. Among which, the gastrosplenic ligament and lienorenal ligaments are of greatest significance. Patient with a wandering spleen may present asymptomatic, with a movable mass in the abdomen, or with chronic or intermittent abdominal pain because of partial torsion and spontaneous de-torsion of the spleen as in our case. When feasible especially in young patients, splenopexy should always be the first consideration but however if gross infarct has occurred then splenectomy is inevitable to save the patient. Wandering spleen is a unique surgical entity moreover when appeared in congruence with horseshoe kidney. Its diagnosis should be made in prompt to prevent splenic infarction and to try to salvage with splenopexy especially in younger population. However in patient where splenic torsion with infarction has

  17. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  18. Application of Biodegradable Nanoparticles in Liver Targeting of Tacrolimus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affifi, Nagia N.; Heikal, Ola A.; Hanafi, Rasha S.; Tammam, Salma N.

    2011-06-01

    Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant used in liver transplantation to avoid graft rejection. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index and variable pharmacokinetics, making dose adjustment and therapeutic drug monitoring a complicated task. Increasing the occurrence of adverse effects, especially nephrotoxicity are another concerns. In graft rejection, antigen presentation occurs in the graft and lymphatics. Therefore, by targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen, graft survival could be achieved with a decrease in nephrotoxicity. Poly(lactide) tacrolimus nanoparticles (PLA-TAC-NP) were formulated and characterized with the aim of targeting tacrolimus to the liver and spleen and therefore decreasing its nephrotoxicity. To evaluate the targeting efficiency of PLA-TAC-NP, rats were divided into two groups. They were intravenously injected either PLA-TAC-NP or free tacrolimus. At assigned time intervals, blood, liver, spleen and kidney samples were collected from each rat. Drug extraction and HPLC analysis were used to evaluate tacrolimus tissue distribution and consequently the targeting efficiency of the prepared PLA-TAC-NP. PLA-TAC-NP proved their success in targeting liver and spleen, by showing significantly higher drug amounts compared to the rats injected with free tacrolimus. PLA-TAC-NP increased tacrolimus concentration in the liver 24 fold and in the spleen 1.94 fold whereas tacrolimus concentration in the kidneys decreased by 7.12 fold. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine a liver section, obtained from a rat that has received PLA-TAC-NP. TEM images showed PLA-TAC-NP in a Kupffer cell and in the liver sinusoids. Therefore, PLA-TAC-NP are promising drug delivery systems for achieving localized immunosuppression and minimizing nephrotoxicity in liver transplant patients.

  19. Volvulus of the liver with intrathoracic herniation.

    PubMed

    Moussa, G; Thomson, P M; Bohra, A

    2014-10-01

    We present a rare case of a liver volvulus, stomach and transverse colon herniating through the diaphragm. This scenario has not been reported previously. We discuss the presentation and management of this interesting case. A 65-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and recurrent pericardial effusions, treated previously with a subxiphoid pericardial oval window fenestration, presented with acute upper abdominal pain radiating to the chest. High contrast computed tomography showed a volvulus of the liver with consequent venous congestion, and herniation of the liver, stomach and transverse colon through an anterior diaphragmatic defect. With liver perfusion threatened, an urgent laparoscopic repair was performed. The stomach and transverse colon were reduced, and the twisted left lobe of the liver was unrotated and reduced into the abdominal cavity. A double-sided synthetic mesh was used to repair the defect. The patient made an uneventful recovery. This is a novel complication of a patient presenting with abdominal pain with a previous history of pericardial window fenestration. A laparoscopic reduction and repair can be performed safely with excellent postoperative results.

  20. Radiocolloid liver imaging in tuberculous hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Essop, A.R.; Posen, J.A.; Savitch, I.

    1984-02-01

    Twenty of 22 patients with tuberculous hepatitis had abnormal Tc-99m tin colloid liver scans. However, in the majority of the patients the changes were mild and nonspecific. The most frequent scintigraphic picture was a decreased uptake of the radiocolloid by the liver, with shunting to the spleen and bone marrow. The decreased hepatic uptake was usually mildly heterogeneous, but it was sometimes homogeneous, and in five patients obvious defects were present. The liver was enlarged in six patients and the spleen in six patients. Increased extrahepatic uptake of the radiocolloid was the only abnormality in five patients. The severity ofmore » the scintigraphic changes did not correlate with the following histologic findings: number of granulomas, degree of associated fibrosis, degree of hepatocyte swelling, or extent of fatty change.« less

  1. A perisinusoidal niche for extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Inra, Christopher N; Zhou, Bo O; Acar, Melih; Murphy, Malea M; Richardson, James; Zhao, Zhiyu; Morrison, Sean J

    2015-11-26

    Haematopoietic stresses mobilize haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow to the spleen and induce extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH). However, the cellular nature of the EMH niche is unknown. Here we assessed the sources of the key niche factors, SCF (also known as KITL) and CXCL12, in the mouse spleen after EMH induction by myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. In each case, Scf was expressed by endothelial cells and Tcf21(+) stromal cells, primarily around sinusoids in the red pulp, while Cxcl12 was expressed by a subset of Tcf21(+) stromal cells. EMH induction markedly expanded the Scf-expressing endothelial cells and stromal cells by inducing proliferation. Most splenic HSCs were adjacent to Tcf21(+) stromal cells in red pulp. Conditional deletion of Scf from spleen endothelial cells, or of Scf or Cxcl12 from Tcf21+ stromal cells, severely reduced spleen EMH and reduced blood cell counts without affecting bone marrow haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells and Tcf21(+) stromal cells thus create a perisinusoidal EMH niche in the spleen, which is necessary for the physiological response to diverse haematopoietic stresses.

  2. Detection of eviscerated poultry spleen enlargement by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yang; Shao, June J.; Skeeles, John K.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    1999-01-01

    The size of a poultry spleen is an indication of whether the bird is wholesomeness or has a virus-related disease. This study explored the possibility of detecting poultry spleen enlargement with a computer imaging system to assist human inspectors in food safety inspections. Images of 45-day-old hybrid turkey internal viscera were taken using fluorescent and UV lighting systems. Image processing algorithms including linear transformation, morphological operations, and statistical analyses were developed to distinguish the spleen from its surroundings and then to detect abnormal spleens. Experimental results demonstrated that the imaging method could effectively distinguish spleens from other organ and intestine. Based on a total sample of 57 birds, the classification rates were 92% from a self-test set, and 95% from an independent test set for the correct detection of normal and abnormal birds. The methodology indicated the feasibility of using automated machine vision systems in the future to inspect internal organs and check the wholesomeness of poultry carcasses.

  3. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    PubMed Central

    Mattarelli, Paola; Brandi, Giovanni; Calabrese, Carlo; Fornari, Fabio; Prati, Gian Maria; Biavati, Bruno; Sgorbati, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) or omeprazole-treated (OME) gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME) and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY) media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK) activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium

  4. H-2D (Rfv-1) gene influence on recovery from Friend virus leukemia is mediated by nonleukemic cells of the spleen and bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    H-2D (Rfv-1)-associated control of recovery from FV leukemia was studied in congenic mice. In irradiation chimeras, the high recovery phenotype was transferred by cells of the spleen, bone marrow, and fetal liver. Furthermore, in cell transfers using unirradiated recipients, spleen and bone marrow cells of the high-recovery genotype were able to mediate recovery from leukemia in mice of the low-recovery genotype. Thus, the H-2D (Rfv-1) influence on recovery appeared to operate via nonleukemic cells of the spleen and bone marrow rather than via leukemic cells. The specific nonleukemic cell type(s) involved in recovery remains unknown. However, the mechanism appears to be complex and probably involves both anti-FV antibody and FV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. PMID:6935387

  5. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  6. Amyloidoma of Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Savant, Deepika; Adler, Michael; Kahn, Leonard; Cocker, Rubina

    2018-04-25

    Amyloidomas are tumor-like deposits of amyloid. Amyloidoma of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first instance of diagnosis of an amyloidoma in the gastrointestinal tract by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We report a case of a 64-year-old male with a history of ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis who was incidentally found to have a mass in the stomach wall. Initially thought to be gastrointestinal stromal tumor, FNA demonstrated the lesion to be amyloidoma with a prominent giant cell reaction. This was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the only case report of diagnosis of a gastric amyloidoma by FNA. The presence of a florid giant cell reaction in the absence of ulceration or an inflammatory or neoplastic lesion should alert the pathologist to the possibility of an amyloidoma. This is the only case report of diagnosis of a gastric amyloidoma by FNA. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Conservative management of a spleen trauma using radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Stella, Mattia; Percivale, Andrea; Pasqualini, Massimo; Pittaluga, Michele; Gandolfo, Nicola; Pellicci, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    Conservative operative management of a splenic injury has become more and more employed in order to preserve the immune function of the organ. A case of a rupture of the spleen successfully treated with the use of a radiofrequency thermal energy generator is eported. The parenchymal tear was coagulated by a one cooled tip needle electrode. There were no postoperative complications and the function of the spleen was preserved. The technique cannot be applied in case of lesion of the major vessels or in case of avulsion of the hilum. This technique integrates to the others to make the operative conservative management of a splenic injury more and more feasible.

  9. Robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbura, O; Tudor, S; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is the removal of the pancreatic tissue at the left side of the superior mesenteric vein and it is traditionally approached by an open or laparoscopic exposure. Preservation of the spleen is optional but appears to have a better immunological outcome. We present the case of a 53-year old patient with a 2.4/2.2 tumor located in the tail of the pancreas, with high tumour marker values for whom we decided to perform a robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (RSPDP). The postoperative outcome was satisfactory. In conclusion, we recommend this type of approach for small pancreatic tail lesions.

  10. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  11. Spleen stiffness is positively correlated with HVPG and decreases significantly after TIPS implantation.

    PubMed

    Buechter, Matthias; Manka, Paul; Theysohn, Jens M; Reinboldt, Marcus; Canbay, Ali; Kahraman, Alisan

    2018-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is indicated in patients with decompensated portal hypertension (PH). Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is considered gold standard for assessment of PH. Because HVPG measurement is invasive, non-invasive methods for evaluating severity of PH are warranted. We retrospectively correlated spleen stiffness as measured by FibroScan with HVPG in patients who underwent TIPS. Twenty-four patients with spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) one day before (D-1), one day after (D+1) and 28 days after TIPS (D+28) were included. SSM was positively correlated with pre-TIPS HVPG (HVPG <13mmHg, median SSM: 19.7±8.6kPa; HVPG 13-24mmHg, median SSM: 45.0±15.7kPa; HVPG >24mmHg, median SSM: 75.0±6.2kPa; p<0.05]; r 2 =0.72; p<0.001) and decreased significantly after TIPS implantation (D-1, median SSM: 67.1±17.3kPa; D+1, median SSM: 44.7±18.5kPa; D+28, median SSM: 35.6±17.0kPa; p<0.05), while liver stiffness measurement decrease was not statistically significant. Our study highlights the utility of SSM as non-invasive tool in patients with chronic liver disease in evaluating degree of PH potentially offering a confirmable additional parameter in surveillance of patients undergoing TIPS procedure. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD.

  13. Murine tissue-engineered stomach demonstrates epithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Sala, Frederic G; Matthews, Jamil A; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2011-11-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second largest cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Postgastrectomy morbidity is considerable and quality of life is poor. Tissue-engineered stomach is a potential replacement solution to restore adequate food reservoir and gastric physiology. In this study, we performed a detailed investigation of the development of tissue-engineered stomach in a mouse model, specifically evaluating epithelial differentiation, proliferation, and the presence of putative stem cell markers. Organoid units were isolated from <3 wk-old mouse glandular stomach and seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds. The constructs were implanted into the omentum of adult mice. Implants were harvested at designated time points and analyzed with histology and immunohistochemistry. Tissue-engineered stomach grows as an expanding sphere with a simple columnar epithelium organized into gastric glands and an adjacent muscularis. The regenerated gastric epithelium demonstrates differentiation of all four cell types: mucous, enteroendocrine, chief, and parietal cells. Tissue-engineered stomach epithelium proliferates at a rate comparable to native glandular stomach and expresses two putative stem cell markers: DCAMKL-1 and Lgr5. This study demonstrates the successful generation of tissue-engineered stomach in a mouse model for the first time. Regenerated gastric epithelium is able to appropriately proliferate and differentiate. The generation of murine tissue-engineered stomach is a necessary advance as it provides the transgenic tools required to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this regenerative process. Delineating the mechanism of how tissue-engineered stomach develops in vivo is an important precursor to its use as a human stomach replacement therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graça M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Frøydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (≥ 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

  15. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Cancer of the Gastroesophageal Junction or Stomach

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  16. Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P

    2012-01-01

    Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22096219

  17. The treatment of spleen injuries: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dehli, Trond; Bågenholm, Anna; Trasti, Nora Christine; Monsen, Svein Arne; Bartnes, Kristian

    2015-10-29

    Hemorrhage after blunt trauma is a major contributor to death after trauma. In the abdomen, an injured spleen is the most frequent cause of major bleeding. Splenectomy is historically the treatment of choice. In 2007, non-operative management (NOM) with splenic artery embolization (SAE) was introduced in our institution. The indication for SAE is hemodynamically stable patients with extravasation of contrast, or grade 3-5 spleen injury according to the Abbreviated Organ Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. We wanted to examine if the introduction of SAE increased the rate of salvaged spleens in our trauma center. All patients discharged with the diagnosis of splenic injury in the period 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2013 from the University Hospital of North Norway Tromsø were included in the study. Patients admitted for rehabilitation purposes or with an iatrogenic injury were excluded. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. In the period 2000-7, 20 of 52 patients were splenectomized. During 2007-13, there were 6 splenectomies and 24 SAE among 57 patients. The reduction in splenectomies is significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in the rate of treated patients (splenectomy and SAE) from 38 to 53 % in the two time periods, but not significantly (p = 0.65). The rate of salvaged spleens has increased after the introduction of SAE in our center. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identification number NCT01965548.

  18. [Spleen injuries in Spain: at what point are we?].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David; Jover Navalón, José María; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Ceballos Esparragón, José; Yuste, Pedro; Sánchez Tocino, Juan María; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Montmany, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them. A prospective study using the databases of six Spanish hospitals: Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Torrevieja Hospital, Getafe Hospital, Doce de Octubre Hospital and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. A total of 566 patients who had sustained spleen injuries were analyzed (448 males and 118 females), most of them were due to blunt trauma (94%), and the most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 25.2. The initial treatment was surgical in 56.6% of the patients (85.3% total splenectomy and 14.7% other conservative surgical procedures, of which 4.6% finally failed and required total splenectomy). The remaining 43.4% were initially managed conservatively, but 6.5% of them finally required surgical splenectomy, and in 8.8% angio-embolization was performed. In Spain, management of spleen trauma is mainly surgical (particularly splenectomy). Angio-embolization and conservative surgical procedures are now hardly used. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Stereological study of rat spleen following acute ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Budec, M; Milićević, Z; Koko, V

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the acute effect of ethanol (4 g/kg, i.p.) on spleen adult female Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with: a) ethanol (4 g/kg body wt), b) naltrexone (5 mg/kg body wt) followed 45 minutes later by ethanol (4 g/kg body wt) and c) naltrexone (5 mg/kg body wt) alone. Untreated and saline-treated rats were used as controls. Twenty hours after the ethanol treatment the animals were sacrificed and the spleens were removed. A piece of tissue from the central part of each organ was fixed in Bouin's solution. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analysed using stereological measurements. The volume densities of the following tissue compartments: red pulp, white pulp (divided in follicles, periarterioral lymphatic sheath and marginal zone) and the connective tissue were determined. Stereological analysis also included parameters of follicles: the areal numerical density (the number of follicles per 1 mm2 of tissue section), the numerical density (the number of follicles per mm3 of tissue) and the mean follicle diameter. The immunoarchitecture of the spleen was preserved following acute ethanol treatment. Unlike other parameters that were unaffected, ethanol evoked a decrease in both volume density of follicle and the mean follicle diameter. Naltrexone pretreatment had no influence on ethanol-induced changes. The data obtained indicate that a single dose of ethanol has a profound effect on rat spleen affecting the follicles, but the mechanism of its action remains to be elucidated.

  20. Endocytoscopic findings of lymphomas of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gastric lesions of various lymphomas were observed at the cellular level using endocytoscopy. Methods Endocytoscopy and magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) were performed in 17 patients with lymphomas of the stomach. The lesions consisted of 7 with low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), 5 with gastric involvement by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), 4 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 1 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Results On conventional endoscopy, 9 were classified as having superficial spreading type, 7 were mass-forming type, and 1 was diffuse infiltrating type. Anti-H. pylori treatment was given in the 7 MALT lymphoma cases. NBI magnification endoscopy invariably showed dilatation or ballooning and destruction of gastric pits and elongation and distortion in microvessels. Endocytoscopy showed mucosal aggregation of interstitial cellular elements in almost all gastric lymphoma cases. The nuclear diversity in size and configuration was exclusively seen in gastric lymphomas other than MALT lymphoma, whereas the nuclei of MALT lymphoma cells were regular and small to moderate in size. Inter-glandular infiltration by lymphomatous cell elements was frequently observed in MALT lymphoma and DLBCL, but it was uncommon in peripheral gastric T-cell malignancies. Endocytoscopy could identify the disease-specific histology, the lymphoepithelial origin, as inter-glandular infiltration of cellular components in MALT lymphoma and the possibly related DLBCL cases. Complete regression (CR) was observed in 2 of the 7 MALT lymphoma patients. In the 2 patients with CR who underwent repeat endocytoscopy, the ultra-high magnification abnormalities returned to normal, while they were unchanged in those without tumor regression. Conclusions On endocytoscopy, intra-glandular aggregation of cellular components was invariably identified in lymphomas of the stomach. Nuclear regularity in size and configuration may indicate

  1. Endocytoscopic findings of lymphomas of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Shiota, Junya; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Minami, Hitomi; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Shikuwa, Saburo; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-26

    The gastric lesions of various lymphomas were observed at the cellular level using endocytoscopy. Endocytoscopy and magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) were performed in 17 patients with lymphomas of the stomach. The lesions consisted of 7 with low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), 5 with gastric involvement by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), 4 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 1 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. On conventional endoscopy, 9 were classified as having superficial spreading type, 7 were mass-forming type, and 1 was diffuse infiltrating type. Anti-H. pylori treatment was given in the 7 MALT lymphoma cases. NBI magnification endoscopy invariably showed dilatation or ballooning and destruction of gastric pits and elongation and distortion in microvessels. Endocytoscopy showed mucosal aggregation of interstitial cellular elements in almost all gastric lymphoma cases. The nuclear diversity in size and configuration was exclusively seen in gastric lymphomas other than MALT lymphoma, whereas the nuclei of MALT lymphoma cells were regular and small to moderate in size. Inter-glandular infiltration by lymphomatous cell elements was frequently observed in MALT lymphoma and DLBCL, but it was uncommon in peripheral gastric T-cell malignancies. Endocytoscopy could identify the disease-specific histology, the lymphoepithelial origin, as inter-glandular infiltration of cellular components in MALT lymphoma and the possibly related DLBCL cases. Complete regression (CR) was observed in 2 of the 7 MALT lymphoma patients. In the 2 patients with CR who underwent repeat endocytoscopy, the ultra-high magnification abnormalities returned to normal, while they were unchanged in those without tumor regression. On endocytoscopy, intra-glandular aggregation of cellular components was invariably identified in lymphomas of the stomach. Nuclear regularity in size and configuration may indicate the cytological grade, differentiating

  2. A liver-metastatic model of human primary gastric lymphoma in nude mice orthotopically constructed by using histologically intact patient specimens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Tuo, Shuai; Tuo, Chao-Wei; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Qiu-Zhen

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, incidence and mortality of lymphoma are markedly increasing worldwide. However, the pathogenesis and mechanism of invasion and metastasis for lymphoma are not yet fully clarified. It is mainly due to the lack of ideal animal models, which can precisely simulate the invasion and metastasis of lymphoma in the human body. So, it is very necessary to establish a highly metastatic nude mouse model of human lymphoma. This study developed a liver-metastatic model of primary gastric lymphoma in nude mice by using orthotopic surgical implantation of histologically intact patient specimens into the corresponding organs of the recipient small animals. A histologically intact fragment of liver metastasis derived from a surgical specimen of a patient with primary gastric lymphoma was implanted into the submucosa of the stomach in nude mice. Tumorigenicity, invasion, metastasis, morphologic characteristics (via light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry), karyotype analysis, and DNA content of the orthotopically transplanted tumors were studied. An orthotopic liver metastatic model of human primary gastric lymphoma in nude mice (termed HGBL-0304) was successfully established. The histopathology of the transplanted tumors showed primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79alpha were positive, but CD3 and CD7 were negative. The serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was elevated [(1010.56+/-200.85) U/L]. The number of chromosomes ranged from 75 to 89. The DNA index (DI) was 1.45+/-0.25 (that is, heteroploid). So far, the HGBL-0304 model has been passed on for 45 generations of nude mice. A total of 263 nude mice were used for the transplantation. Both the growth and resuscitation rates of liquid nitrogen cryopreservation of the transplanted tumors were 100%. The transplanted tumors autonomically invasively grew and damaged a whole layer in the stomach of nude mice. The metastasis rates of liver, spleen, lymph

  3. Sonographic demonstration of stomach pathology: Reviewing the cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The stomach can be the source of complaints for many patients attending for upper abdominal ultrasound. It is not routinely imaged as part of most upper abdominal ultrasound protocols, with sonographers and sonologists alike commonly muttering the line; “I can't see the stomach on ultrasound”. However, this is incorrect, as the gastric antrum can almost always be visualised sonographically. Discussion: It is possible to detect a range of pathologies affecting the stomach sonographically, from common, largely tolerable conditions such as hiatus hernias through to life‐threatening neoplasms. Conclusion: The stomach can easily be assessed during routine abdominal ultrasound providing the sonographer has knowledge of stomach anatomy, normal ultrasound appearances and limitations to its visualisation. While endoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract, many patients will initially present for abdominal ultrasound due to its easy, non‐invasive nature, ready availability and low cost. For patients with mild abdominal symptoms, a normal abdominal ultrasound may be the extent of their imaging investigations meaning stomach pathologies may go undiagnosed. PMID:28191199

  4. Fibrocyte-like cells recruited to the spleen support innate and adaptive immune responses to acute injury or infection

    PubMed Central

    von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Reichart, Donna; McGillvray, Shauna M.; Wingender, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Glass, Christopher K.; Nizet, Victor; Brenner, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived fibrocytes are a population of CD45+ and collagen Type I-expressing cells that migrate to the spleen and to target injured organs, such as skin, lungs, kidneys, and liver. While CD45+Col+ fibrocytes contribute to collagen deposition at the site of injury, the role of CD45+Col+ cells in spleen has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatotoxic injury (CCl4), TGF-β1, lipopolysaccharide, or infection with Listeria monocytogenes induce rapid recruitment of CD45+Col+ fibrocyte-like cells to the spleen. These cells have a gene expression pattern that includes antimicrobial factors (myleoperoxidase, cathelicidin, and defensins) and MHC II at higher levels than found on quiescent or activated macrophages. The immune functions of these splenic CD45+Col+ fibrocyte-like cells include entrapment of bacteria into extracellular DNA-based structures containing cathelicidin and presentation of antigens to naïve CD8+ T cells to induce their proliferation. Stimulation of these splenic fibrocyte-like cells with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor or macrophage-colony stimulating factor induces downregulation of collagen expression and terminal differentiation into the dendritic cells or macrophage. Thus, splenic CD45+Col+ cells are a population of rapidly mobilized BM-derived fibrocyte-like cells that respond to inflammation or infection to participate in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:21499735

  5. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Ocoxin®-Viusid® in Advanced Stomach Cancer and Gastric Esophagogastric Junction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-25

    Stomach Neoplasm; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasm; Esophageal Neoplasms; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Disease; Digestive System Disease; Esophageal Diseases; Stomach Diseases; Esophagogastric Junction Disorder

  7. Analysis of computed tomography density of liver before and after amiodarone administration.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masazumi; Otaka, Aoi; Tozawa, Tomoki; Asano, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Koichi; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate CT density of liver changes between before and after amiodarone administration. Twenty-five patients underwent non-enhanced CT including the liver before and after amiodarone administration. We set regions of interest (ROIs) at liver S8, spleen, paraspinal muscle, and calculated average CT density in these ROIs, then compared CT density between liver and other organs. Statistical differences between CT density of liver and various ratios before and after administration were determined, along with correlations between cumulative dose of amiodarone and liver density after administration, density change of liver, and various ratios after administration. Liver density, liver-to-spleen ratio, and liver-to-paraspinal muscle ratio differed significantly between before and after amiodarone administration. No significant correlations were found between cumulative doses of amiodarone and any of liver density after administration, density change of liver, or various ratios after administration. CT density of liver after amiodarone administration was significantly higher than that before administration. No correlations were identified between cumulative dose of amiodarone and either liver density after administration or density change of liver. Amiodarone usage should be checked when radiologists identify high density of the liver on CT.

  8. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (pre)malignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  9. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    van Dijck, Willemijn P. M.; Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (pre)malignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered. PMID:27847657

  10. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Lisa A; Crawford, David L; Woodland, Jay H; Patel, Jitendra C; Nattier, Bryce; Thomas, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer, leading to longer survival, has revealed the natural history of this disease process. Linitis plastica of the stomach is a potential long-term sequela of metastatic breast cancer. Here we present a case of metastatic breast cancer presenting as linitis plastica, as well as the treatment algorithm for this rare clinical entity. The world literature describes a clear pattern of linitis plastica for metastatic infiltrating lobular breast cancer and a discrete nodular pattern for infiltrating ductal cancer, in regard to metastasis to the stomach. To our knowledge, this is the first case of infiltrating ductal cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

  11. Interrelation secretory activity of stomach and immunes changes of peripheral blood when ulcerogenesis stomach.

    PubMed

    Matveeva, L V; Mosina, L M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of gastric ulcer is high in almost all countries of the world. On the development and course of the disease affect the state acid- and enzymes production stomach, immune status. The purpose was to determine the presence and power of correlative links secretory activity of the stomach and immune changes in the peripheral blood during exacerbation of ulcer disease stomach. Surveyed in obtaining informed consent 42 patients with gastric ulcer in the acute phase prior to the eradication and antisecretory therapy and 40 healthy volunteers. On the state of function acid- and enzymes production of the gastric mucosa judged by the results of a 2-hour intragastric pH-metry and serum concentration pepsinogen, gastrin before the start of active treatment. Immunophenotype lymphocytes on CD-antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, CD45, CD56) was measured by immunofluorescence, levels immunoglobulin isotype M, G, A, E - ELISA method. When short-term intragastric pH-metry of the stomach hyperacidity patients recorded 6.7 times more likely than healthy, normacidity - 12.3 times less. Reduction of acid production was observed up to 8.6 times more, indicating the development of mucosal atrophy. Basal pH in the antrum was lower by 54.5% than in the control group, with stimulation increased by 33.6%, but remained lower than the values of healthy individuals by 48.7%. When ELISA amount pepsinogen patients showed significant increase in serum levels of PG-I relative to the control group at 33.4%, PG-II - 52%. In assessing the immune status of patients were identified changes in system phagocytes, cellular and humoral links, most pronounced for severe current peptic ulcer disease. The results indicate the presence of positive and negative correlative links mild to moderate force between indicators of secretory activity of gastric mucosal innate and adaptive immunity in patients with acute exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease. The presence and nature of these relationships should

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these can be controlled, but others cannot. Gender Stomach cancer is more common in men than ... and high adenocarcinoma risk in a nation-wide study. Eur J Cancer . 2008;44:2470–2476. Chun ...

  13. HDlive rendering images of the fetal stomach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Abe, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Yukio; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroki, Katumaru; Sugawara, Masaki; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Minami, Kunihiro; Nomura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show reconstruction of the fetal stomach using the HDlive rendering mode in ultrasound. Seventeen healthy singleton fetuses at 18-34 weeks' gestational age were observed using the HDlive rendering mode of ultrasound in utero. In all of the fetuses, we identified specific spatial structures, including macroscopic anatomical features (e.g., the pyrous, cardia, fundus, and great curvature) of the fetal stomach, using the HDlive rendering mode. In particular, HDlive rendering images showed remarkably fine details that appeared as if they were being viewed under an endoscope, with visible rugal folds after 27 weeks' gestational age. Our study suggests that the HDlive rendering mode can be used as an additional method for evaluating the fetal stomach. The HDlive rendering mode shows detailed 3D structural images and anatomically realistic images of the fetal stomach. This technique may be effective in prenatal diagnosis for examining detailed information of fetal organs.

  14. Prognostically favorable abdominal breast cancer metastases with stomach involvement.

    PubMed

    Akcali, Zafer; Sakalli, Hakan; Ozyilkan, Ozgur; Demirhan, Beyhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    Abdominal metastases with stomach involvement are rare in breast cancer. The median disease free interval from the time of breast cancer diagnosis to gastric metastasis is usually very long. Treatment is generally palliative, and expected survival time is less than 1 year. A 59-year-old woman with breast cancer developed diffuse abdominal metastases involving stomach, abdominal lymph nodes, and omentum 9 years after she underwent mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis found by stomach specimen examination was invasive lobular carcinoma, and the cells expressed high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The abdominal metastases were treated with surgery, postoperative chemotherapy, and further hormonal therapy. This was successful, and the patient has been in remission for more than 3 years. Once the definitive diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the abdomen including the stomach is established, treatment that targets systemic breast cancer must be initiated. Our patient's extended survival time suggests that surgical treatment could be considered for selected patients.

  15. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and stomach. PMID:26203446

  16. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach.

    PubMed

    Syal, Gaurav; Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and stomach.

  17. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  20. Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Cen, Dongzhi; Chao, Wei; Chen, Dunjin

    2016-12-01

    Objective Immune dysfunction, including prominent apoptosis of immune cells and decreased functioning of the remaining immune cells, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) is implicated in the regulation of immune cell apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate SARM contributes to sepsis-induced immune cell death and immunosuppression. Methods A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). SARM gene and protein expression, caspase 3 cleavage and intracellular ATP production were measured in the mouse spleens. Results CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis specifically attenuated both the gene and protein expression of SARM in the spleens. Moreover, the attenuation of SARM expression synchronized with splenocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase 3 cleavage and ATP depletion. Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis.

  1. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  2. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  3. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  4. Spleens and holoendemic malaria in West New Guinea.

    PubMed

    METSELAAR, D

    1956-01-01

    The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.

  5. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  6. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kukuk, Guido M; Schaefer, Stephanie G; Fimmers, Rolf; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; Ezziddin, Samer; Spengler, Ulrich; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a

  7. Assessment of functional liver reserve: old and new in 99mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Matesan, Manuela M; Bowen, Stephen R; Chapman, Tobias R; Miyaoka, Robert S; Velez, James W; Wanner, Michele F; Nyflot, Matthew J; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Vesselle, Hubert J

    2017-07-01

    A semiquantitative assessment of hepatic reticuloendothelial system function using colloidal particles scintigraphy has been proposed previously as a surrogate for liver function evaluation. In this article, we present an updated method for the overall assessment of technetium-99m (Tc)-sulfur colloid (SC) biodistribution that combines information from planar and attenuation-corrected Tc-SC single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The imaging protocol described here was developed as an easy-to-implement method to assess overall and regional liver function changes associated with chronic liver disease. Thirty patients with chronic liver disease and primary liver cancers underwent Tc-SC whole-body planar imaging and upper-abdomen SPECT/computed tomography (CT) imaging before external beam radiation therapy. Liver plus spleen and bone marrow counts as a fraction of whole-body total counts were calculated from SC planar imaging. Attenuation correction Tc-SC images were rigidly coregistered with treatment planning CT images that contained liver and spleen regions-of-interest. Ratios of total liver counts to total spleen counts were obtained from the aligned Tc-SC SPECT and CT images, and were subsequently used to separate liver plus spleen counts obtained on the planar images. This hybrid SPECT/CT and planar scintigraphy approach yielded an updated estimation of whole-body SC distribution. These biodistribution estimates were compared with historical data for reference. Statistical associations of Tc-SC biodistribution to liver function parameters and liver disease scoring systems (Child-Pugh) were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation. Percentages of Tc-SC uptake ranged from 19.3 to 77.3% for the liver; 3.4 to 40.7% for the spleen; and 19.0 to 56.7% for the bone marrow. Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a significant statistical association between Child-Pugh score and bone marrow uptake at 0.55 (P≤0.05), liver uptake at 0.71 (P≤0

  8. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  9. Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy: Quantitative Analysis of Microbubble-Induced Stomach Wall Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kiyono, Soichiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kondo, Takayuki; Sekimoto, Tadashi; Shimada, Taro; Yokosuka, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study described here was to elucidate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) prospectively as a tool in the diagnosis of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The peak enhancement time at the upper stomach wall (PT) and intensity ratio at the upper stomach/the spleen (IR) between pre- and peak enhancement were evaluated by CEUS with perflubutane microbubble agent in 56 patients, 42 with cirrhosis (16 with PHG) and 14 controls. The IR was higher in patients with PHG (1.21 ± 0.11) than in those without (0.91 ± 0.15, p < 0.05) and the controls (0.78 ± 0.11, p < 0.01), although PT did not differ between these groups. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for IR was 0.8199 in the presence of PHG, with the best cutoff value of 0.94, sensitivity 65.9%, specificity 72.6%, positive predictive value 62.2%, negative predictive value 73.1% and accuracy 70.4%. CEUS may have potential as a less invasive tool for diagnosis of PHG in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  11. Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach: A Challenging Diagnostic and Therapeutic Disease through a Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fakhruddin, Najla; Bahmad, Hisham F; Aridi, Tarek; Yammine, Yara; Mahfouz, Rami; Boulos, Fouad; Awada, Ahmad; Farhat, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare aggressive tumor with hepatocellular differentiation. HAS often produces alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and the liver. Molecular studies revealed Her2 amplification and overexpression, association with p53 mutations, but no association with KRAS mutations. EGFR and BRAF mutations have not yet been evaluated in hepatoid carcinoma of the stomach so far. Hereby, we present a case of a 41-year-old female patient with HAS with high AFP level and liver metastases. Molecular analysis revealed Her2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), but no EGFR, KRAS , or BRAF mutations were detected. The patient underwent chemotherapy type DCX (docetaxel, cisplatinum, and capecitabine) every 3 weeks with partial response after two cycles, maintained for eight cycles, and then was on maintenance therapy with trastuzumab for 7 months before relapsing and dying 18 months from the day of diagnosis. Conclusively, HAS may be misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma; therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple hepatic nodules with high AFP and no history of hepatitis, liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.

  12. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects.

    PubMed

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm 2 . Maximum shortening velocity ( V max ) and curvature factor ( curv ) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant ( P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force ( F im )] and FE (up to 16% F im ) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of

  13. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm2. Maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) and curvature factor (curv) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force (Fim)] and FE (up to 16% Fim) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of stomach

  14. The Immunological and Migratory Properties of the Lymphocytes Recirculating Through the Rat Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Ford, W. L.

    1969-01-01

    The great majority of the cells released by the isolated, perfused rat spleen were lymphocytes of which about 95 per cent were small lymphocytes. The rate of release of small lymphocytes from the spleen was independent of the prevailing concentration in the perfusate. The cells released by the spleen were immunologically competent in respect of a graft-versus-host reaction and a primary antibody response. They could also transfer secondary responsiveness to a viral antigen. Several spleen donors were given a continuous intravenous infusion of tritiated thymidine prior to spleen perfusion and the proportion of labelled small lymphocytes among the population released by the spleen was compared to the proportion in populations of small lymphocytes from other sources. The small lymphocytes released by the spleen recirculated from the blood to thoracic duct lymph after injection into a syngeneic recipient. Conversely the perfused spleen released thoracic duct small lymphocytes which had been given to the spleen donor 24 hr previously. It is therefore probable that a single population of recirculating small lymphocytes exists which migrates from the blood into both lymph-nodes and spleen. The release of small lymphocytes from the spleen was mostly at the expense of the lymphocyte content of the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. ImagesFigs. 8-9Figs. 4-5Fig. 10Figs. 6-7 PMID:5792901

  15. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection.

    PubMed

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Jacyna, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Jacek; Shafie, Danuta; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Żurada, Anna

    2012-05-28

    The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide. Before that incident, she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression. At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department, the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally. Despite parenteral and enteral feeding, the patient exhibited a drop in body mass. The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation. Intraoperatively, a very small, infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified. A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method. Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep, chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach, reaching up to the pylorus. Additionally, numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed.

  16. Analysis of 178 penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries.

    PubMed

    Salim, Ali; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Brown, Carlos; Browder, Timothy; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs), such as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, and intraabdominal abscess, commonly occur following penetrating abdominal trauma. However, most of the literature involves penetrating colon injuries. There are few reports describing complications following penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries. Based on the hypothesis that SSIs are commonly found following penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma, a prospective observational study was performed at an academic Level I trauma center from March 1, 2004 until August 31, 2006. The subjects were patients who had sustained a penetrating injury to the stomach or small bowel. Patients were followed for the development of an SSI, defined as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, or intraabdominal abscess. A total of 178 patients were admitted with penetrating stomach or small bowel injuries over the 29-month period. There were 121 (68%) gunshot injuries and 57 (32%) stab wounds. Associated intraabdominal injuries occurred in 74% of patients. Overall, SSIs occurred in 20% of cases. Risk factors for SSI included associated duodenal or colon injury, whereas time to operating room, blood loss, and type and duration of antibiotic use were not. When associated colon injuries were excluded, SSIs occurred in 16% of patients with gastric injuries and 13% of those with small bowel injuries. SSIs commonly follow penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma. Risk factors for SSI include associated duodenal or colon injury. Delay to operating room, blood loss, and type and length of antibiotic prophylaxis were not associated with an increased risk of SSI.

  17. Survival in hostile territory: the microbiota of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ines; Nell, Sandra; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    The human stomach is a formidable barrier to orally ingested microorganisms and was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, a carcinogenic bacterial pathogen that infects the stomach mucosa of more than one half of all humans globally, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecological niche for bacteria. The special adaptations that enable H. pylori to colonize this well-protected habitat have been intensively studied over the last three decades. In contrast, our knowledge concerning bacteria other than H. pylori in the human stomach is still quite limited. However, a substantial body of evidence documents convincingly that bacteria can regularly be sampled from the stomachs of healthy adults. Commonly detected phyla include Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and characteristic genera are Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium. In this review, we summarize the available literature about the gastric microbiota in humans and selected model animals, discuss the methods used in its characterization, and identify gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the bacterial colonization of the different layers of the gastric mucosa and its potential role in health and disease. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection

    PubMed Central

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Jacyna, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Jacek; Shafie, Danuta; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Żurada, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide. Before that incident, she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression. At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department, the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally. Despite parenteral and enteral feeding, the patient exhibited a drop in body mass. The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation. Intraoperatively, a very small, infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified. A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method. Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep, chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach, reaching up to the pylorus. Additionally, numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed. PMID:22654458

  19. [Spleen autotransplant. Natural history and description of a case].

    PubMed

    Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S

    1989-09-30

    After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.

  20. Case report: Loiasis with peripheral nerve involvement and spleen lesions.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Boussinesq, Michel; Mascarello, Marta; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbo, Maria; Rossanese, Andrea; Corachán, Manuel; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2011-05-01

    Loiasis, which is caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, affects millions of persons living in the rainforest areas and savannah regions of central Africa. Typical manifestations are calabar swellings and the eyeworm. We report a case of loiasis with unusual clinical complications: a peripheral neuropathy and focal hypo-echogenic lesions of the spleen, which disappeared after treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. The literature reports that L. loa infection can be associated with various manifestations, some of them being serious. More information is needed to better characterize the protean manifestations of the disease in loiasis-endemic areas to evaluate the true incidence of loiasis.

  1. Loiasis with Peripheral Nerve Involvement and Spleen Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Federico; Boussinesq, Michel; Mascarello, Marta; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbo, Maria; Rossanese, Andrea; Corachán, Manuel; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2011-01-01

    Loiasis, which is caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, affects millions of persons living in the rainforest areas and savannah regions of central Africa. Typical manifestations are calabar swellings and the eyeworm. We report a case of loiasis with unusual clinical complications: a peripheral neuropathy and focal hypo-echogenic lesions of the spleen, which disappeared after treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. The literature reports that L. loa infection can be associated with various manifestations, some of them being serious. More information is needed to better characterize the protean manifestations of the disease in loiasis-endemic areas to evaluate the true incidence of loiasis. PMID:21540382

  2. [Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis].

    PubMed

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-10-21

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative treatment of the haemodynamically stable patients, but because of its rarity no clear guidelines have been suggested. We present a case of a 18-year-old boy with IM who had NRS with subcapsular haematoma and was treated conservatively. He recovered completely.

  3. Vascular anatomy of the stomach related to resection procedures strategy.

    PubMed

    Prudius, V; Procházka, V; Pavlovský, Z; Prudius, D; Kala, Z

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on the vascular anatomy of the stomach in relation to the gastric pull-up construction. The vascular anatomy was studied on forty-one human specimens. We find out the differences in blood supplement between anterior and posterior wall. It was maked an review of the main trunk arteries of the stomach. To display the vessels of the stomach we used diaphanoscopy, digital shooting in special mode and micro preparation of the vessels. We find out that left gastric artery gives more branches to the posterior wall and right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) gives more branches to the anterior wall. But brunches of RGEA are longer on the posterior wall than on the anterior. Also we are offering the new classification of the RGEA related to gastric pull-up construction. This classification based not only on the anatomical shapes of RGEA but on the properties of the flow dynamics through the artery.

  4. Symbiotic Bacteria Associated with Stomach Discs of Human Lice▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko ; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Kasai, Shinji; Mihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    The symbiotic bacteria associated with the stomach disc, a large aggregate of bacteriocytes on the ventral side of the midgut, of human body and head lice were characterized. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the symbionts formed a distinct and well-defined clade in the Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution. In situ hybridization revealed that in nymphs and adult males, the symbiont was localized in the stomach disc, while in adult females, the symbiont was not in the stomach disc but in the lateral oviducts and the posterior pole of the oocytes due to female-specific symbiont migration. We propose the designation “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola” for the louse symbionts. PMID:16950915

  5. Application of 5-ALA for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotnikova, Natalja L.; Dadvany, Sergey A.; Kuszin, Michail I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sklyanskaya, Olga A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Volkova, Anna I.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    2001-01-01

    59 patients with stomach diseases including gastric cancer or polyp, gastritis, esofagus disease were investigated. Before gastroscopy all patients were given 5-ALA in doses 5mg, 10mg and 20mg per 1kg of body weight orally. Fluorescence diagnostics which estimates concentration of ALA-induced PPIX in regular and alternated tissues of gastric mucosa were carried out in 2-4 hours. Using of 5-ALA has shown high diagnostic effectiveness for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases. This technique has proved 10 diagnosis of cancer and revealed 15 malignant stomach diseases including 4 cancer in situ for patients with preliminary diagnosis of gastric ulcer. It also revealed 5 patients with enhanced fluorescence for which aimed biopsy has shown high degree of inflammation process. The latter were assigned as a risk group.

  6. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Liver Function Assessment by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images. Simple visual assessment of signal intensity at hepatobiliary phase images is important for the diagnosis of different patterns of liver dysfunction including diffuse, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental forms. Furthermore, preoperative assessment of liver function is feasible before oncologic hepatic surgery, which may be important to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and to estimate future remnant volume. Functional magnetic resonance cholangiography obtained by T1-weighted images at hepatobiliary phase can allow diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, biliary leakage, bile reflux to the stomach, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, and lesions with communication to biliary tree. Functional information can be easily obtained when Gd-EOB-DTPA is used for liver magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Facilitated Leaching of Additive-Derived PBDEs from Plastic by Seabirds' Stomach Oil and Accumulation in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2015-10-06

    Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procellariiformes, acts as an organic solvent, facilitating the leaching of hydrophobic chemicals. Pieces of plastic compounded with deca-BDE were soaked in several leaching solutions. Trace amounts were leached into distilled water, seawater, and acidic pepsin solution. In contrast, over 20 times as much material was leached into stomach oil, and over 50 times as much into fish oil (a major component of stomach oil). Analysis of abdominal adipose, liver tissue, and ingested plastics from 18 wild seabirds collected from the North Pacific Ocean showed the occurrence of deca-BDE or hexa-BDEs in both the tissues and the ingested plastics in three of the birds, suggesting transfer from the plastic to the tissues. In birds with BDE209 in their tissues, the dominance of BDE207 over other nona-BDE isomers suggested biological debromination at the meta position. Model calculation of PBDE exposure to birds based on the results of the leaching experiments combined with field observations suggested the dominance of plastic-mediated internal exposure to BDE209 over exposure via prey.

  9. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori’s ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria’s response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD’s colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium. PMID:28103315

  10. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  11. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments.

    PubMed

    Tupinambás, T H; Pompeu, P S; Gandini, C V; Hughes, R M; Callisto, M

    2015-01-01

    The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle) in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil). We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs) and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples). We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus). Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity). This is especially true for studies

  12. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  13. Modeling of Red Blood Cells and Related Spleen Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A key function of the spleen is to clear red blood cells (RBCs) with abnormal mechanical properties from the circulation. These abnormal mechanical properties may be due to RBC aging or RBC diseases, e.g., malaria and sickle cell anemia. Specifically, 10% of RBCs passing through the spleen are forced to squeeze into the narrow slits between the endothelial cells, and stiffer cells which get stuck are killed and digested by macrophages. To investigate this important physiological process, we employ three different approaches to study RBCs passage through these small slits, including analytical theory, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation and Multiscale Finite Element Method (MS-FEM). By applying the analytical theory, we estimate the critical limiting geometries RBCs can pass. By using the DPD method, we study the full fluid-structure interaction problem, and compute RBC deformation under different pressure gradients. By employing the MS-FEM approach, we model the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct layers, and focus on the cytoskeleton deformation and the bilayer-skeleton interaction force at the molecular level. Finally the results of these three approaches are compared to each other and correlated to the experimental observations.

  14. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  15. Transport of diseased red blood cells in the spleen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming

    2012-11-01

    A major function of the spleen is to remove old and diseased red blood cells (RBCs) with abnormal mechanical properties. We investigated this mechanical filtering mechanism by combining experiments and computational modeling, especially for red blood cells in malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD). First, utilizing a transgenic line for 3D confocal live imaging, in vitro capillary assays and 3D finite element modeling, we extracted the mechanical properties of both the RBC membrane and malaria parasites for different asexual malaria stages. Secondly, using a non-invasive laser interferometric technique, we optically measured the dynamic membrane fluctuations of SCD RBCs. By simulating the membrane fluctuation experiment using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model, we retrieved mechanical properties of SCD RBCs with different shapes. Finally, based on the mechanical properties obtained from these experiments, we simulated the full fluid-structure interaction problem of diseased RBCs passing through endothelial slits in the spleen under different fluid pressure gradients using the DPD model. The effects of the mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer, the cytoskeleton and the parasite on the critical pressure of splenic passage of RBCs were investigated separately. This work is supported by NIH and Singapore-MIT Alliance for Science and Technology (SMART).

  16. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  17. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-α secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:17565606

  18. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and differentiation of hepatic stem cells during liver development.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Akihide; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2006-05-01

    Stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of tissues are found in a number of organs. The liver's remarkable capacity to regenerate after hepatectomy or chemical-induced injury does not involve proliferation of stem cells. However, recent studies suggest that liver stem cells exist in both embryonic and adult livers. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and a culture system in which primitive hepatic progenitor cells form colonies, a novel class of cells with the marker profile c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) was found in the developing liver. This class apparently represents the population of cells that form colonies containing distinct hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. When cells in this class are transplanted into the spleen or liver of mice subjected to liver injury, the cells migrate and differentiate into liver parenchymal cells and cholangiocytes that are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from their native counterparts. During mid-gestation, hematopoietic cells migrate into the liver from a region bounded by aorta, gonad, and mesonephros and produce oncostatin M (OSM). In combination with glucocorticoid hormones, OSM induces maturation of liver stem and progenitor cells, including those of the c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) class. The ability to manipulate the proliferation and differentiation of liver stem cells in vitro will greatly aid in analyzing mechanisms of liver development and offers promise in stem cell therapy of liver diseases.

  20. [Surgical treatment and prognosis of Borrmann type IIII( gastric cancer involving the whole stomach].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruizeng; Zhang, Zewei; Zhou, Yiming; Hua, Yonghong; Guo, Jianmin

    2018-02-25

    To explore the surgical treatment and prognosis of Borrmann type IIII( gastric cancer involving the whole stomach. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival data of 223 patients with Borrmann type IIII( gastric cancer involving the whole stomach (defined as the tumor infiltrating 3 regions of the stomach) receiving surgical treatment at the Department of Abdominal Surgery of Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between January 2002 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The survival time of patients with different clinicopathological features and different treatment methods was compared. Cox regression was used to analyze the independent prognostic factors. Two hundred and twenty-three patients with Borrmann type IIII( gastric cancer involving the whole stomach accounted for 24.0% (223/930) of all Borrmann type IIII( gastric cancer cases undergoing surgical resection at the same period. There were 147 males and 76 females with an average age of 57.8 years. All the patients underwent total gastrectomy. Of these patients, radical resection was performed in 149 cases(66.8%) and palliative resection in 74 cases (33.2%). Combined organ resection was performed in 43 patients (19.3%), including 25 splenectomies, 6 pancreatic body and tail plus spleen and transverse colon resections, 2 transverse colon plus spleen resections, 2 right colon resections, 2 transverse colon resections, 2 ovariectomies, 1 partial jejunal resection, 1 pancreatoduodenectomy, 1 pancreatic tail plus transverse colon resection, and 1 partial pancreatectomy. Postoperative complications occurred in 28 patients(12.6%), including 10 patients with combined organ resection. Esophagojejunal fistula was the most frequent complication, accounting for 39.3%(11/28). Perioperative mortality occurred in 3 patients (1.3%). Thirty-nine patients underwent preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (clinical stage: cT4aN0M0 in 1 patient, cT4bN1-2M0 in 12 patients, cT4aN1-2M0 in 20 patients, and cT4aN3M0 in 6 patients

  1. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established.

  2. A Case of Recurrent Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas with Involvement of the Spleen and Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Eun; Park, Nam Sook; Chun, Jae Min; Park, Nam Whan; Yang, Young Joon; Yun, Gak Won; Lee, Hyo Jin; Yun, Hwan Jung; Jo, Deog Yeon; Song, Kyu Sang

    2006-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare primary pancreatic tumor of an unknown etiology that is usually diagnosed in adolescent girls and young women. Most SPTPs are considered to be benign and only rarely metastasize. We report here on a 27-year old woman with recurrent SPTP with involvement of both the spleen and left kidney at the time of the initial diagnosis, and with aggressive behavior. In July 1995, she was admitted with abdominal discomfort and mass. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with distal pancrea tectomy, left nephrectomy and splenectomy, and was diagnosed with SPTP with invasion to both the spleen and left kidney. In June 2001, she again presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed as having recurrence of the tumor. She underwent mass excision and omentectomy. Then she was lost to follow-up. In November 2005, she presented once again with an abdominal mass and was diagnosed with recurred SPTP, which formed a huge intraperitoneal mass with peritoneal seeding and the tumor showed multiple metastases in the liver. She is currently being treated conservatively. PMID:19771270

  3. Hydrogen and methane gases are frequently detected in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Susumu; Akimoto, Tatsuo; Kato, Hiroto; Hara, Noriko; Honda, Yoshiko; Nagai, Yoko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Shimada, Nagato; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Miki, Kazumasa

    2006-05-21

    To investigate the incidence of bacterial overgrowth in the stomach by using a new endoscopic method in which intragastric hydrogen and methane gases are collected and analyzed. Studies were performed in 490 consecutive patients undergoing esophagogastroscopy. At endoscopy, we intubated the stomach without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intragastric gas was collected through the biopsy channel using a 30 mL syringe. Intragastric hydrogen and methane concentrations were immediately measured by gaschromatography. H pylori infection was also determined by serology. Most of intragastric hydrogen and methane levels were less than 15 ppm (parts per million). The median hydrogen and methane values (interquartile range) were 3 (1-8) ppm and 2 (1-5) ppm, respectively. The high hydrogen and methane levels for indication of fermentation were decided if the patient had the values more than 90 percentile range in each sample. When a patient had a high level of hydrogen or methane in one or more samples, the patient was considered to have fermentation. The overall incidence of intragastric fermentation was 15.4% (73/473). Intragastric methane levels were higher in the postoperative group than in other groups. None of the mean hydrogen or methane values was related to H pylori infection. Hydrogen and methane gases are more frequently detected in the stomach than expected, regardless of the presence of abdominal symptoms. Previous gastric surgery influences on the growth of methane-producing bacteria in the fasting stomach.

  4. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Metastatic Tumors in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Hee; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Ju; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lim, Hyun; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Metastasis to the stomach is rare. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the clinical outcomes of cancers that metastasized to the stomach. Methods We reviewed the clinicopathological aspects of patients with gastric metastases from solid organ tumors. Thirty-seven cases were identified, and we evaluated the histology, initial presentation, imaging findings, lesion locations, treatment courses, and overall patient survival. Results Endoscopic findings indicated that solitary lesions presented more frequently than multiple lesions and submucosal tumor-like tumors were the most common appearance. Malignant melanoma was the tumor that most frequently metastasized to the stomach. Twelve patients received treatments after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. The median survival period from the diagnosis of gastric metastasis was 3.0 months (interquartile range, 1.0 to 11.0 months). Patients with solitary lesions and patients who received any treatments survived longer after the diagnosis of metastatic cancer than patients with multiple lesions and patients who did not any receive any treatments. Conclusions Proper treatment with careful consideration of the primary tumor characteristics can increase the survival period in patients with tumors that metastasize to the stomach, especially in cases with solitary metastatic lesions in endoscopic findings. PMID:25473071

  5. Fetal stomach paracentesis in combined duodenal and esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Kadohira, Ikuko; Miyakoshi, Kei; Shimojima, Naoki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Minegishi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Mamoru; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2014-07-01

    Fetuses with concomitant duodenal atresia (DA) and esophageal atresia (EA) might develop in utero gastric rupture as well as neonatal respiratory complication due to dilated stomach and duodenum. Our patient with the typical "double bubble" appearance was highly suspected to have DA in the second trimester. Follow-up examinations revealed a massively dilated stomach and duodenum with a dilated distal esophagus, indicating concomitant DA and EA. With advancing pregnancy, the fetal abdomen progressively increased in size by retention of fluid in the closed loop of DA and EA. To avoid gastric perforation, prenatal stomach paracentesis using an ultrasound-guided needle was performed three times until delivery. A male neonate born at 37 weeks gestation showed no respiratory complication. Perinatal clinical features and operative findings revealed combined DA and EA (gross type A). He was successfully managed with duodenoduodenostomy, followed by esophago-esophagostomy. On fetal sonography, the marked "double bubble" appearance and the cystic structure presenting peristalsis-like movement above the diaphragm were indicative of concomitant DA and EA. Fetal stomach paracentesis could contribute to the improvement of perinatal outcomes in fetuses with this pathological condition.

  6. Constriction of the Stomach by an Unusual Peritoneal Band

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Mohammad W; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2018-01-01

    Compression of intraabdominal contents can occur due to anomalous congenital bands. Herein, we describe, to our knowledge, the first case of compression of the stomach by an anomalous band extending from the lesser omentum to the greater omentum. Relevant literature is reviewed and the clinical implications of such a case are described. PMID:29632757

  7. Constriction of the Stomach by an Unusual Peritoneal Band.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohammad W; Patel, Mayank; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-03

    Compression of intraabdominal contents can occur due to anomalous congenital bands. Herein, we describe, to our knowledge, the first case of compression of the stomach by an anomalous band extending from the lesser omentum to the greater omentum. Relevant literature is reviewed and the clinical implications of such a case are described.

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Computer decision support system for the stomach cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Sukhova, O. G.; Korenevskaya, P. Y.; Ovcharova, V. S.; Kudryavtseva, I. O.; Vlasova, S. V.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Burov, D. A.; Yemelyanova, G. S.; Selchuk, V. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the creation of the computer knowledge base containing the data of histological, cytologic, and clinical researches. The system is focused on improvement of diagnostics quality of stomach cancer - one of the most frequent death causes among oncologic patients.

  10. Extensive regeneration of the stomach using bioabsorbable polymer sheets.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Aikawa, Masayasu; Watanabe, Yukihiro; Takase, Ken-ichiro; Okamoto, Kojun; Shrestha, Santosh; Okada, Katsuya; Koyama, Isamu; Ikada, Yoshito

    2015-11-01

    The growing prevalence of endoscopic surgery in recent years has led to the minimization of postoperative scarring. However, this procedure does not allow for the regeneration of the resected digestive tract, which compromises the postoperative maintenance of digestive function. In this preliminary study, we developed an artificial gastric wall (AGW) using bioabsorbable polymer (BAP), and evaluated the ability of this BAP patch to repair and regenerate a widely defective gastric wall in an animal model. Pigs were laparotomized under general anesthesia. An 8 × 8-cm, round portion of the anterior gastric wall was excised and replaced by an AGW. The AGW was composed of a copolymer comprising 50% lactic acid and 50% caprolactone. The animals were relaparotomized 4, 8, or 12 weeks after implantation, after which they underwent resection of the entire stomach for gross and histologic evaluation of the graft sites. All recipient pigs survived until killing. By 4-8 weeks, the graft site revealed progressively fewer mucosal defect after each day. Moreover, the grafted area was indistinguishable from the native stomach 12 weeks after AGW implantation. The structures of the regenerated mucous membrane and muscle layers were identical to those of the native stomach. Furthermore, proton pumps were found in the regenerated tissue. The BAP sheets helped to restore extensive gastric defects without causing any deformation. The use of BAP sheets may become a new therapeutic method that prevents alterations of gastric volume after extensive gastrectomy for stomach cancer and other diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-03

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits.

  12. Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast in a 48-year-old woman. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection nine years prior. A gastric endoscopy performed for evaluation of nausea and anorexia showed the presence of a slightly elevated mucosal lesion in the cardia, suggestive of a type IIa EGC. A histological examination revealed nests of a carcinoma in the subepithelial lymphatics, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor was positive. This is an extremely rare case with features of type IIa EGC, but the lesion was finally identified as a cancer metastasis to the cardia of the stomach from an IDC of the breast.

  13. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2017-06-01

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  14. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  15. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female. PMID:26629290

  16. In vitro haematopoiesis of a novel dendritic-like cell present in murine spleen.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jonathan K H; O'Neill, Helen C

    2010-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presenting cells (APC) which induce and control the adaptive immune response. In spleen alone, multiple DC subsets can be distinguished by cell surface marker phenotype. Most of these have been shown to develop from progenitors in bone marrow and to seed lymphoid and tissue sites during development. This study advances in vitro methodology for haematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells from progenitors in spleen. Since spleen progenitors undergo differentiation in vitro to produce these cells, the possibility exists that spleen represents a specific niche for differentiation of this subset. The fact that an equivalent cell subset has been shown to exist in spleen also supports that hypothesis. Studies have been directed at investigating the specific functional role of this novel subset as an APC accessible to blood-borne antigen, as well as the conditions under which haematopoiesis is initiated in spleen, and the type of progenitor involved.

  17. Gastric injury from (90)Y to left hepatic lobe tumors adjacent to the stomach: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Gates, Vanessa L; Hickey, Ryan; Marshall, Karen; Williams, Melissa; Salzig, Krystina; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2015-12-01

    Radioembolization with (90)Y microspheres is a locoregional radiation therapy for unresectable hepatic neoplasm. Non-target delivery of (90)Y microspheres resulting in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is a recognized complication; there is minimal knowledge regarding the radiation effect to the gastric wall from left hepatic lobe (90)Y treatments. Our aim was to study the incidence of GI complications when the target tissue (hepatic parenchyma ± tumor) is in close proximity to the gastric wall. We hypothesized that liver (tumor) to stomach proximity does not correlate with increased toxicity. Between November 2011 and September 2013, we studied all patients who underwent left lobe radioembolization with (90)Y glass microspheres. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we retrospectively reviewed MRI/CT images of these patients, identifying a subset of patients with the left hepatic lobe <1 cm from the gastric wall. Patients were seen in clinic 1 month posttreatment and subsequently at 3-month intervals. Short- and long-term gastric adverse events were tabulated. Ninety-seven patients successfully underwent left hepatic lobe (90)Y microsphere radioembolization in which the average distance from the liver to the stomach wall was 1.0 ± 2.8 mm. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe was 109 ± 57 Gy. Fifty patients had tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe with tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall was 121 ± 41 Gy. There were no reportable or recordable medical events. Of the patients, 34% reported abdominal pain that was grade 1-2; 65% of the patients reported no abdominal pain. None of the 97 patients developed a clinically evident GI ulcer. Patients with left lobe tumors adjacent to or abutting the stomach do not exhibit acute or chronic radiation effects following radioembolization with glass microspheres.

  18. [Organ-preserving method in the surgical treatment of the spleen injuries].

    PubMed

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Salikov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Popov, T V; Urvantseva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have experience in organ-preserving operations for spleen rupture with the splenic artery ligation in 156 casualties. They consider that such operations let to preserve the spleen, to avoid the postoperative rebleeding and ischemia of pancreas tail and body. Also it is accompanied by the low indications of lethality and postoperative complications. The authors consider that this operation is alternative to splenectomy and other techniques of organ-preserving operations in case of spleen trauma.

  19. Intrafractional gastric motion and interfractional stomach deformity using CT images.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Isobe, Koichi; Uno, Takashi; Harada, Rintarou; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the intra- and interfractional gastric motion using repeated CT scans, six consecutive patients with gastric lymphoma treated at our institution between 2006 and 2008 were included in this study. We performed a simulation and delivered RT before lunch after an overnight fast to minimize the stomach volume. These patients underwent repeated CT scanning at mild inhale and exhale before their course of treatment. The repeated CT scans were matched on bony anatomy to the planning scan. The center of stomach was determined in the X (lateral), Y (superior-inferior), and Z (ventro-dorsal) coordinate system to evaluate the intra- and interfractional motion of the stomach on each CT scan. We then calculated the treatment margins. Each patient was evaluated four to five times before their course of RT. The average intrafractional motions were -12.1, 2.4 and 4.6 mm for the superior-inferior (SI), lateral (LAT), and ventro-dorsal (VD) direction. The average interfractional motions of the center of the stomach were -4.1, 1.9 and 1.5 mm for the SI, LAT and VD direction. The average of the vector length was 13.0 mm. The systematic and random errors in SI direction were 5.1, and 4.6 mm, respectively. The corresponding figures in LAT and VD directions were 10.9, 5.4, 10.0, and 6.5 mm, respectively. Thus, the 15.9, 31.0 and 29.6 mm of margins are required for the SI, LAT, and VD directions, respectively. We have demonstrated not only intrafractional stomach motion, but also interfractional motion is considerable.

  20. Allium Vegetables and Stomach Cancer Risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Yu, Guo-Pei; Lu, Qing-Yi; Lu, Ming-Lan; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Kurtz, Robert C; Cai, Lin; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of stomach cancer has been declining, it remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Potential protective effects of allium vegetables against cancer have been reported by a few epidemiologic studies in Chinese populations, but the sample sizes of these studies were relatively small. We examined the associations between allium vegetable consumption and stomach cancer in a large population-based case-control study in Shanghai (750 cases and 750 age- and gender-matched controls) and Qingdao (128 cases and 128 age- and gender-matched controls). Epidemiological data were collected by a standard questionnaire, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression in SAS. After adjusting for matching variables, education, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, alcohol drinking, salt intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, inverse relationships with dose response pattern were observed between frequency of onion intake and stomach cancer in Qingdao (P for trend=0.02) and Shanghai (P for trend=0.04) populations. In Shanghai, negative dose-response relationships were observed between monthly intake of onions (P=0.03), monthly intake of garlic stalks (P=0.04) and distal cancer (but not with cardia cancer). Negative association was also noted between intake of garlic stalks (often vs. never) and risk of stomach cancer in Qingdao (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.12–0.77). Our results confirm the protective effect of allium vegetables (especially garlic and onions) against stomach cancer. PMID:16236005

  1. Suicide ideation in stomach cancer survivors and possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ye-Ni; Kim, Young-Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Sung; Bae, Jae-Moon; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae-Hyung; Sohn, Tae-Sung

    2014-02-01

    Although the suicide rate of cancer survivors is higher than that of the general population, few studies have examined the potential risk factors. We assessed suicide ideation (SI) and investigated its correlates among survivors of stomach cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers in Korea. We surveyed 378 stage I-III stomach cancer survivors who had been disease free for at least 1 year. The survey contained demographic questions and quality of life assessments from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and its stomach cancer-specific module, the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Brief Fatigue Inventory, and one question from the Beck Depression Inventory. We found that 131/378 stomach cancer survivors (34.7 %) experienced SI. Univariate analyses showed that SI was significantly associated with income, comorbidity, smoking, and the following quality of life factors: general health status, emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial problems, eating restriction, anxiety, dry mouth, trouble belching, hair loss, body image, existential well-being, and social support. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that SI was independently associated with diarrhea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.84; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.44-5.62), hair loss (aOR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.04-7.36), existential well-being (aOR 6.18; 95 % CI 2.91-13.1), and usual fatigue (aOR 2.29; 95 % CI 1.30-4.06). Our findings reveal a high prevalence of SI among stomach cancer survivors and identify health-related quality of life issues such as diarrhea, hair loss, existential well-being, and fatigue as important risk factors of SI.

  2. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  3. NAD+ glycohydrolase, an ecto-enzyme of calf spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H M; Muller, C D; Schuber, F

    1983-01-01

    By using a sensitive fluorimetric assay of NAD+ glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.2.6), we showed that calf spleen cells are able to hydrolyse 1,N6-etheno-NAD+ given in the medium. The observed rates of substrate hydrolysis and product accumulation in the medium are equivalent. Moreover, the splenocytes are able to cleave the nicotinamide-ribose bond of a water-soluble polymer of NAD+, and their NAD+ glycohydrolase activity is fully inhibited by a high-molecular-weight Blue Dextran. Selective permeation of the cellular membrane digitonin revealed an intracellular pool of NAD+ glycohydrolase, which accounts for 25% of the total activity. We conclude that NAD+ glycohydrolase associated with the splenocytes has the characteristics of an ecto-enzyme. PMID:6192807

  4. Histopathology of spleen allograft rejection in miniature swine

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Frank J M F; Gollackner, Bernd; Kuwaki, Kenji; Ko, Dicken S C; Cooper, David K C; Houser, Stuart L

    2005-01-01

    Spleen transplantation (SpTx) has established donor-specific tolerance in rodents, but not in large animals or humans. We report the histopathology of rejection in an established model of SpTx in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-defined miniature swine. Of the 17 SpTx, rejection was observed in two grafts transplanted into untreated, MHC-matched, minor antigen-disparate recipients (group 1, n = 4), but not in the two that received a 12-day course of cyclosporin A (CyA). Rejection also occurred in five grafts transplanted into fully MHC-disparate recipients (group 2, n = 12), one of which was untreated and four of which received some form of immunosuppressive therapy. One recipient of an MHC class-I-mismatched spleen treated with 12 days of CyA did not show rejection. Following biopsy and/or necropsy, fixed allograft tissue sections were treated with multiple stains, immunohistochemical markers and TUNEL assay. Common features of rejection occurred in grafts from both groups, but with varying time courses. Necrosis developed as early as day 8 in group 2 and day 27 in group 1, ranging from focal fibrinoid necrosis of arteriolar walls and sinusoids to diffuse liquefactive necrosis, usually associated with haemorrhage. Other features of rejection included white pulp expansion by atypical cells and decreased staining of basement membranes and reticular fibres. A doubling of the baseline TUNEL index preceded histologically identifiable rejection. This study establishes histologic guidelines for diagnosing and, perhaps, in future studies, predicting acute rejection of splenic allografts transplanted across known histocompatibility barriers in a large-animal model. PMID:15676033

  5. Fetal stomach and gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall is a common ultrasound sign of stomach-down left congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Tara A; Basta, Amaya; Filly, Roy A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sonographic (US) findings that can assist in prenatal diagnosis of stomach-down left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), specifically related to positioning of the abdominal contents including the stomach, bladder, and gallbladder. All US examinations with a postnatally confirmed diagnosis of stomach-down left CDH over a 13-year period were retrospectively reviewed for abnormal position of the abdominal contents, including whether the fetal stomach was in contact with the urinary bladder. Normal fetuses that underwent comprehensive US surveys were similarly evaluated for comparison in a 2:1 ratio. Twenty-two fetuses with stomach-down left CDH were identified in a cohort of 278 fetuses with left CDH. In 15/22 (68.2%) cases of stomach-down left CDH, the bladder and stomach walls were in contact. Contact of the fetal gallbladder with the fetal bladder wall was also observed and was present even more commonly (17/22 cases [77.3%]). There was no case of either the stomach or gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall in the normal fetal cohort (n = 44). Recognition of the fetal stomach and/or gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall can help in the detection of stomach-down left CDH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:8-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Paeoniflorin regulates macrophage activation in dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Macrophages in other organs (e.g. kidneys, lungs, and spleen, et. al) have rarely been reported in the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, it is important to investigate macrophage activation in the main organs in liver fibrosis. We investigated the potential antifibrogenic effects of paeoniflorin (PF) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced rat model with special focus on inhibiting macrophage activation in the main organs. Methods Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by treatment with DMN three times weekly over a 4-week period. DMN rats were treated with water, PF, or gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) from the beginning of the 3rd week. The expression of CD68, marker of macrophage, was investigated using immunohistochemical, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis. Results Hepatic hydroxyproline content markedly decreased and histopathology improved in the DMN-PF rats. Expression of desmin and collagen 1 decreased notably in DMN-PF liver. CD68 expression in the liver, spleen and kidney increased markedly after 2 weeks but decreased in DMN-water rats. PF and GdCl3 decreased CD68 expression in the liver and spleen and there was no effect on kidney. CD68 expression in the lung increased gradually during the course of DMN-induced liver fibrosis, and PF inhibited CD68 expression in the lung significantly while GdCl3 increased CD68 markedly. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was decreased significantly by GdCl3 in the liver, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. However, GdCl3 could not decrease TNF-α level in the serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Conclusions Macrophage activation was disrupted in the liver, spleen, lung and kidney during development of DMN-induced liver fibrosis. PF administration attenuated DMN-induced liver fibrosis at least in part by regulating macrophage disruption in the main organs. PMID:23237422

  7. Efficacy of modified LiuJunZi decoction on functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used in China and some other countries for the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, controlled studies supporting the efficacy of such treatments in patients with FD are lacking. In this trial, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of modified LiuJunZi decoction in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with patients from five centers. Patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome (n = 160) were randomly assigned to groups given CHM modified LiuJunZi decoction or placebo in a 2:1 ratio. Herbal or placebo granules were dissolved in 300 ml of boiled water cooled to 70°C. Patients in both groups were administered 150 ml (50°C) twice daily. The trial included a 4-week treatment period and a 4-week follow-up period. The primary outcomes were dyspepsia symptom scores, measured by the total dyspepsia symptom scale and the single dyspepsia symptom scale at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8. The secondary outcome was the change of radiopaque barium markers emptied from the stomach between week 0 and week 4 of treatment. Results Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the CHM group showed significant improvements according to the scores of total dyspepsia symptoms and single dyspepsia symptoms obtained from patients (P < 0.01) and investigators (P < 0.01). They also showed an improvement in the number of radiopaque barium markers emptied from the stomach (P < 0.05). Conclusions CHM modified LiuJunZi decoction appears to offer symptomatic improvement in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): http://ChiCTR-TRC-10001074 PMID:23453018

  8. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  9. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  10. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  11. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  12. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  13. Strain-specific spleen remodelling in Plasmodium yoelii infections in Balb/c mice facilitates adherence and spleen macrophage-clearance escape

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ferrer, Mireia; Calvo, Maria; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Kalko, Susana; Graewe, Stefanie; Soria, Guadalupe; Cortadellas, Núria; Ordi, Jaume; Planas, Anna; Burns, James; Heussler, Volker; del Portillo, Hernando A

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the dynamic features of the processes driven by malaria parasites in the spleen is lacking. To gain insight into the function and structure of the spleen in malaria, we have implemented intravital microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging of the mouse spleen in experimental infections with non-lethal (17X) and lethal (17XL) Plasmodium yoelii strains. Noticeably, there was higher parasite accumulation, reduced motility, loss of directionality, increased residence time and altered magnetic resonance only in the spleens of mice infected with 17X. Moreover, these differences were associated with the formation of a strain-specific induced spleen tissue barrier of fibroblastic origin, with red pulp macrophage-clearance evasion and with adherence of infected red blood cells to this barrier. Our data suggest that in this reticulocyte-prone non-lethal rodent malaria model, passage through the spleen is different from what is known in other Plasmodium species and open new avenues for functional/structural studies of this lymphoid organ in malaria. PMID:20923452

  14. Fatty Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, ... fat to accumulate in liver cells by causing the body to synthesize more fat or by processing (metabolizing) and excreting fat more slowly. As a ...

  15. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cholangitis Pyogenic liver abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Risks Risks may include: Collapsed lung Complications from the sedation Injury to the gallbladder ...

  16. [Anterior seromyotomy of the body and the functional part of the stomach combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and ulcer excision in the surgical treatment of complicated stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V I; Sytnik, A P; Gorbunov, V N; KOrenev, N N; Naumov, B A; Gordeev, S A

    1990-07-01

    Anterior seromyotomy of the body and fundus of the stomach was combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and excision of the ulcer in 23 patients with gastric ulcer complicated by bleeding or perforation. Seventeen patients had chronic ulcers of the body of the stomach (type I), 3 patients had concurrent ulcers (type II), and 3 more patients had acute ulcers of the body of the stomach. Operation was undertaken for active bleeding from the ulcer in 20 patients and for perforating ulcer in 3 patients. One patient died. Mild disorders of evacuation of an aqueous barium sulfate suspension from the stomach were noted in 4 patients.

  17. Yellow-billed cuckoo in stomach of tiger shark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, G.B.; Clark, E.

    1962-01-01

    On 20 May 1961 an immature female tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), 2.3 meters in length and weighing 52 kg, was caught in the Gulf of Mexico several miles offshore from Sarasota, Florida, by personnel of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory. The contents of its stomach included a leg and some feathers of a land bird. The leg was sent to the Bird and Mammal Laboratories, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Washington, D.C., where it was identified by Mrs. R. C. Laybourne as that of a Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). In addition to this bird, the stomach contained a blue crab, several sea catfishes (Galeichthys felis), and part of a black nose shark (Carcharhinus acronatus).

  18. Metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shivani; Mulki, Ramzi; Sher, Daniel

    2016-03-08

    Metastatic disease from pancreatic carcinoma involving the stomach is an unusual event, and the pattern of spread in the form of linitis plastica, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Local recurrence after curative resection for pancreatic cancer is the most common pattern of disease. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach 4 years after curative resection. A 52-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and melaena 4 years after undergoing a Whipple's procedure for a poorly-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, stage IB; T2N0M0. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed thickening of the gastric wall, and subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) revealed diffuse friable erythaematous tissue. The biopsy specimen obtained during the OGD revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with similar appearance to the prior specimen obtained from the pancreas. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Stomach gas analyses in canine acute gastric dilatation with volvulus.

    PubMed

    Van Kruiningen, H J; Gargamelli, C; Havier, J; Frueh, S; Jin, L; Suib, S

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed. We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia. Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively. With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%. Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Heterotopic pancreas in excluded stomach diagnosed after gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterotopic pancreas is defined as finding of pancreatic tissue without anatomic and vascular continuity with the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition difficult to diagnose and with controversial clinical management. Case presentation We describe a 43 year old female patient previously submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass for primary treatment of morbid obesity; 5 years later, the patient was discovered to have a mass in the antrum of the excluded stomach that was found to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Before gastric bypass surgery, the presence of the pancreatic mass in the gastric wall was unnoticed in the imagiologic records. Conclusion This is the first reported case of pancreatic heterotopy diagnosed in the excluded stomach after gastric bypass. A putative role of incretin hormones in mediating pancreatic cell hyperplasia of heterotopic pancreatic remnants should be considered an additional hypothesis that requires further research. PMID:24267291

  1. A case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the heart and stomach.

    PubMed

    Hisata, Yoichi; Tasaki, Yuichi; Kozaki, Satoshi; Yamada, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Liposarcoma of the heart and stomach is rare. We report a case of liposarcoma in both organs with dedifferentiated histology. A patient was referred to our hospital with anorexia and weight loss. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed 5-10-mm elevated lesions, and echocardiography and computed tomography showed tumorous lesions in the left atrium. Tumor resection and mitral valve replacement were performed, and biopsy was performed for the gastric tumor. Both the tumors were diagnosed as dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Liposarcoma - a mesenchymal malignant tumor that contains lipoblasts - is the second most common soft tissue sarcoma. The tumor occurs most frequently in the limbs and retroperitoneum and rarely originates in the heart and the stomach. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are only adjunctive therapies but not es as standard treatment for cardiac tumors. Therefore, we believe that wide surgical resection was the best choice of treatment in the present case. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  3. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

  4. Spleen size is an indirect indicator of rainbow trout bacterial cold water disease resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity in lower vertebrates is poorly understood. The spleen first appears as a recognizable organ in shark and bony fish lineages while factors influencing its size and functions in lower vertebrates have received little attention. We have previou...

  5. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Alessandro; Cola, Roberto; Favretti, Franco

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Accessory wandering spleen is a rare but dangerous condition. Abnormalities of the ligamentous apparatus of an accessory spleen may evolve into torsion of its vascular axis, which can lead to a splenic infarct making surgery necessary. Patients are often asymptomatic and the diagnosis can be accidental. An early diagnosis and a correct treatment are fundamental. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report a young woman underwent laparoscopic surgery after an incidental finding at a Pelvic Ultrasound of an accessory wandering spleen. DISCUSSION In literature are reported cases of asymptomatic patients with an accessory wandering spleen treated with a conservative approach. However, a torsion or infarct of the accessory wandering spleen leads to emergency surgery. The presence of an independent vascular axis of the accessory spleen reduces the risk of postoperative complications (e.g. thrombocytosis) and the administration of low molecular weight heparin should prevent the risk of portal thrombosis. CONCLUSION We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion. PMID:25460427

  6. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  7. Effects of boron on structure and antioxidative activities of spleen in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qianqian; Li, Shenghe; Qiao, Enmei; Tang, Zhongtao; Jin, Erhui; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the relationship between boron and development of the spleen, especially in the promoting biological effects, we examined the effects of different levels of boron on weight, organ index, microstructure, and antioxidative activities of the spleen in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and treated with different concentrations of boron, and then, the organs were resected and weighed. One half of the tissue was fixed and embedded in paraffin to observe tissue structure changes. The other half of the tissue was homogenated for determining the antioxidant activities. The results showed that 40 mg/L of boron could increase weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and improve the spleen tissue structure, while the boron concentration above 80 mg/L could decrease weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and damage the spleen tissue structure. The higher the concentration, the more serious the damage was. Especially at the concentration of 640 mg/L, it could significantly inhibit the development of the spleen and even exhibit toxic effect. Hence, low boron concentration played a protective role in the development of the spleen, while high boron concentration could damage the organs and even produce toxic effect.

  8. Intrafractional gastric motion and interfractional stomach deformity during radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Isobe, Koichi; Takisima, Haduki; Uno, Takashi; Ueno, Naoyuki; Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Miki; Ito, Hisao

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate intrafractional gastric motion and interfractional variability of the stomach shape during radiation therapy (RT) for gastric lymphoma. For 11 patients with gastric lymphomas, we undertook fluoroscopic examinations at the time of the simulation, and once a week during RT to evaluate inter- and intrafractional gastric variations. We recorded anteroposterior and left to right X-ray images at inhale and exhale in each examination. We gave coordinates based on the bony landmarks in each patient, and identified the most superior, inferior, lateral, ventral, and dorsal points of the stomach on each film. The interfractional motion was assessed as the distance between a point at inhale and the corresponding point at exhale. We also analyzed interfractional variation based on each point measured. The intrafractional gastric motion was 11.7+/-8.3, 11.0+/-7.1, 6.5+/-6.5, 3.4+/-2.3, 7.1+/-8.2, 6.6+/-5.8mm (mean+/-SD) for the superior, inferior, right, left, ventral and dorsal points, respectively, which was significantly different between each point. The interfractional variability of stomach filling was -2.9+/-14.4, -6.0+/-13.4, 9.3+/-22.0mm for the superior-inferior (SI), lateral (LAT), and ventro-dorsal (VD) directions, respectively, and the differences of variabilities were also statistically significant. Thus, the appropriate treatment margins calculated from both systematic and random errors are 30.3, 41.0, and 50.8mm for the SI, LAT, and ventro-dorsal directions, respectively. Both intrafractional gastric motion and interfractional variability of the stomach shape were considerable during RT. We recommend regular verification of gastric movement and shape before and during RT to individualize treatment volume.

  9. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial distribution of osteoblast activating peptide in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sogabe, Maina; Yamano, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Masato; Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-03-01

    Osteoblast activating peptide (OBAP) was previously reported to be expressed in the rat stomach and to have a vital role in osteogenesis, but its distribution in rat stomach has not been determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the cell types expressing OBAP in the rat stomach. The stomachs of twelve 10-to-11-week-old male Jc1:SD rats were used. Samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and dot blot assay. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that OBAP was distributed mainly in parietal cells without any expression in chief cells, X/A-like cells or enterochromaffin-like cells. Moreover, OBAP-immunopositive cells were observed mainly in the upper and lower parts of the gastric gland. Significantly high optical density of immunopositive cells was observed in the upper and lower gastric gland regions. The dot blot assay confirmed that OBAP is secreted by parietal cells and that it is present in the gastric gland lumen. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that OBAP was confined to the mitochondrial inner membrane within parietal cells and that the number of mitochondria in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium was significantly larger than the number in the middle part of the gastric epithelium. Based on the results, it was concluded that OBAP is mainly produced by mitochondria of parietal cells in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium. Moreover, the presence of OBAP in the gastric gland lumen suggests an exocrine mechanism of release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [The medical management of carcinoma of the stomach (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Auden, R R; Barrowman, J A

    1976-01-01

    Only a small proportion of patients with carcinoma of the stomach are suitable for radical surgery. For the remainder symptomatic treatment and radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy can be used to relieve distressing symptoms of pain, nausea and vomiting, and severe anemia. In the case of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, a degree of tumor regression can be expected. There have been encouraging results recently in palliating this disease with new radiotherapy techniques, notably fast neutron irradiation.

  12. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    PubMed

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  13. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE. PMID:27785936

  14. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE.

  15. Burkitt's Lymphoma of the Rectosigmoid and Stomach Presenting as Hematochezia.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Bernal, Marco; Galvis, Juan; Matos, Dubier; Sosa, Omar; Syed, Saad H; Padilla, Osvaldo; Davis, Brian; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2016-02-15

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an uncommon cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults and accounts for only 0.1-0.5% of all malignant tumors of the colon and rectum. Very few cases of rectosigmoid and stomach BL have been reported in adults. A 51-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a 1-month history of hematochezia, associated with a foreign-body sensation in the rectum and 7 kg weight loss. Initial laboratory workup showed normocytic anemia and positive fecal occult blood. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an asymmetric appearance of the stomach and pylorus with nodularity of the mucosa and thickening of the posterior wall, and a 10.8-cm rectal mass. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed and biopsies of the stomach and rectum were obtained; histopathology demonstrated involvement by Burkitt's lymphoma in the gastric body nodule and rectal mass. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy, a follow-up abdominal CT demonstrated complete resolution of the mural thickening of the rectum and no intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Our case illustrates the importance of considering BL in the extensive differential diagnosis of rectal bleeding, change in bowel habits, and other lower and upper GI symptoms, since the rapidly growing nature of this rare malignancy requires a prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy.

  16. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gumuscu, Burak; Norwood, Kevin; Parker, George A.; Bridges, C. Lee; Rountree, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A 13-year-old African–American female presented to her primary care physician's office with fatigue, syncope, and hematemesis. After initial evaluation, the patient was referred to pediatric gastroenterology clinic for further evaluation. Main concerns, important findings: An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the source of her bleeding. Endoscopy revealed a 3-cm mass in the lesser curvature of the stomach, and a biopsy of the mass revealed a concern for carcinoid (neuroendocrine) features. Diagnosis: She underwent an open gastrectomy. Post-surgical pathology reports confirmed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach in children are rare and we presently do not have pediatric-specific diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Although adult-based The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) guidelines are helpful, they are clearly not geared toward pediatric patients. To establish pediatric guidelines and to assess effectiveness of treatments, multicenter data collection is essential. In the long run, accumulation of clinically useful treatment information and long-term follow-up guidelines should enable clinicians to improve standard of care given to children with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27442656

  17. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quiescent gastric stem cells maintain the adult Drosophila stomach.

    PubMed

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2011-10-25

    The adult Drosophila copper cell region or "stomach" is a highly acidic compartment of the midgut with pH < 3. In this region, a specialized group of acid-secreting cells similar to mammalian gastric parietal cells has been identified by a unique ultrastructure and by copper-metallothionein fluorescence. However, the homeostatic mechanism maintaining the acid-secreting "copper cells" of the adult midgut has not been examined. Here, we combine cell lineage tracing and genetic analysis to investigate the mechanism by which the gastric epithelium is maintained. Our investigation shows that a molecularly identifiable population of multipotent, self-renewing gastric stem cells (GSSCs) produces the acid-secreting copper cells, interstitial cells, and enteroendocrine cells of the stomach. Our assays demonstrate that GSSCs are largely quiescent but can be induced to regenerate the gastric epithelium in response to environmental challenge. Finally, genetic analysis reveals that adult GSSC maintenance depends on Wnt signaling. Characterization of the GSSC lineage in Drosophila, with striking similarities to mammals, will advance the study of both homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the stomach.

  19. Stomach in Contact with the Bladder: A Sonographic Sign of Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Horacio; Meller, César; Vázquez, Lucía; Otaño, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the characteristics of the fetal stomach should be part of every routine prenatal ultrasound after 11 weeks. A position that has not been previously described in the literature is the stomach in contact with the bladder. We describe 6 cases with the ultrasonographic finding of the stomach in contact with the bladder, all of them in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Even though the reasons for this striking position of the stomach are not clear, our series highlights the fact that the visualization of the stomach in contact with the bladder may be a specific sonographic marker of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen due to infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Farley, D R; Zietlow, S P; Bannon, M P; Farnell, M B

    1992-09-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of infectious mononucleosis in young adults. Although splenectomy remains effective treatment, reports of successful nonoperative management have challenged the time-honored approach of emergent laparotomy. On retrospective analysis of our institutional experience with 8,116 patients who had this disease during a 40-year period, we found 5 substantiated cases of atraumatic splenic rupture due to infectious mononucleosis. Four additional cases of suspected splenic rupture were noted. All nine patients were hospitalized and treated (seven underwent splenectomy and two were treated with supportive measures only), and they remain alive and well. In patients with infectious mononucleosis suspected of having rupture of the spleen, a rapid but thorough assessment and prompt implementation of appropriate management should minimize the associated morbidity and mortality. On the basis of review of the medical literature and careful scrutiny of our own experience, we advocate emergent splenectomy for spontaneous splenic rupture in patients with infectious mononucleosis.

  1. Immune signatures of protective spleen memory CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Brinza, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Loiseau, Céline; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Lauvau, Grégoire; Grau, Morgan; Wencker, Mélanie; Arpin, Christophe; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-24

    Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge. Protective memory CD8 T cells express a unique set of genes involved in migration and survival that correlate with their unique capacity to rapidly migrate within the infected lung parenchyma in response to influenza infection. We also enlighten a new set of poised genes expressed by protective cells that is strongly enriched in cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl1, Ccl9 and Gm-csf. CCL1 and GM-CSF genes are also poised in human memory CD8 T cells. These immune signatures are also induced by two other pathogens (vaccinia virus and Listeria monocytogenes). The immune signatures associated with immune protection were identified on circulating cells, i.e. those that are easily accessible for immuno-monitoring and could help predict vaccines efficacy.

  2. [Liver injury in visceral leishmaniasis in children: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Francisco Salomao de; Tavares-Neto, Jose; D'Oliveira, Argemiro; Paraná, Raymundo

    2007-09-01

    Visceral Leisshimaniosis or Kalazar is a parasitic infection caused by Leishimania Donovani subspecies. It is transmitted by phlebotomineos and may lead to liver and spleen enlargements as well as immunological impairment. Sometimes it is described liver injury simulating acute or chronic viral hepatitis and even portal hypertension. The liver injury makes difficult the diffencial diagnosis of Kalazar and other liver diseases in endemic regions. To define and clarify the liver injury spectrum described in published cases reports. Systematic revision of published data on Kalazar and liver injury using the following databank: LILACS, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Only paper published in French, English, Portuguese and Spanish were taken into consideration. The procedures for systematic review recommended by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of Cork, were adopted. The paper quality classification was based on the number of reported variables previously defined in our study Only 11/28 (55%) publications were included in our analysis because they filled the minimal required data. Acute and chronic liver disease were well documented in these articles. Serum albumin and prothombine time were associated with severity of liver disease (P < .05). "Liver involvement, even when it is severe, may occur at tha begining of the disease. Kalazar should be considered as a differential diagnosis of cholestasis, acute and chronic liver injury as well as portal hypertension in children.

  3. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Senin, Lucia L; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Castelao, Cecilia; Alonso, Jana; Folgueira, Cintia; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, Maria; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-02-26

    Obesity is a major public health threat for many industrialised countries. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment against obesity, suggesting that gut derived signals are crucial for energy balance regulation. Several descriptive studies have proven the presence of gastric endogenous systems that modulate energy homeostasis; however, these systems and the interactions between them are still not well known. In the present study, we show for the first time the comparative 2-DE gastric secretome analysis under different nutritional status. We have identified 38 differently secreted proteins by comparing stomach secretomes from tissue explant cultures of rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding conditions. Among the proteins identified, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was found to be more abundant in gastric secretome and plasma after re-feeding, and downregulated in obesity. Additionally, two calponin-1 species were decreased in feeding state, and other were modulated by nutritional and metabolic conditions. These and other secreted proteins identified in this work may be considered as potential gastrokines implicated in food intake regulation. The present work has an important impact in the field of obesity, especially in the regulation of body weight maintenance by the stomach. Nowadays, the most effective treatment in the fight against obesity is bariatric surgery, which suggests that stomach derived signals might be crucial for the regulation of the energy homeostasis. However, until now, the knowledge about the gastrokines and its mechanism of action has been poorly elucidated. In the present work, we had updated a previously validated explant secretion model for proteomic studies; this analysis allowed us, for the first time, to study the gastric secretome without interferences from other organs. We had identified 38 differently secreted proteins comparing ex vivo cultured stomachs from rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding regimes

  4. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PRODUCTION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE IN MICE AFTER REPEATED INJECTIONS OF DISRUPTED SPLEEN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, C.; Smith, J. M.; Blaese, M.; Good, R. A.

    1963-01-01

    1. Tolerance of male skin isografts has been regularly produced in female mice of the C57B1 strain sublines 1, 4, and 6 during adult life by repeated injection of completely disrupted spleen cells derived from male donors. The tolerant state is long-lasting since such grafts have remained in place more than 9 months. 2. Prolonged survival of homotransplants of skin has regularly been produced in DBA/2 mice during adult life by repeated injections of completely disrupted spleen cells from Balb/C donors. When injections of disrupted spleen cell material are continued over a sufficiently long period, permanent acceptance of the skin homografts may be obtained between these strains. 3. Immunological tolerance across even the strong H-2 histocompatibility barrier was obtained in the neonatal period and during adult life by repeated injection of disrupted spleen cell preparations. The tolerant state has been revealed by both mammary adenocarcinoma and skin homografting across this strong histocompatibility barrier. 4. In contradistinction to the tolerant state produced by injection of intact spleen cells in neonatal animals or during adult life or that produced by parabiotic union, the tolerance produced by repeated injection of disrupted spleen cell preparations cannot be transferred to syngenic neonatal mice with spleen cells of the tolerant animal. 5. The implications of these findings in transplantation biology and in consideration of the basic nature of tolerance are discussed. PMID:14087619

  6. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  7. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  8. Trauma center variation in splenic artery embolization and spleen salvage: a multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aman; Duane, Therese M; Wilson, Sean P; Haney, Starre; O'Neill, Patrick J; Evans, Heather L; Como, John J; Claridge, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if variation in management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) among Level I trauma centers is associated with different outcomes related to the use of splenic artery embolization (SAE). All adult patients admitted for BSI from 2008 to 2010 at 4 Level I trauma centers were reviewed. Use of SAE was determined, and outcomes of spleen salvage and nonoperative management (NOM) failure were evaluated. A priori, a 10% SAE rate was used to group centers into high- or low-use groups. There were 1,275 BSI patients. There were intercenter differences in age, injury severity, and grade of spleen injury (Spleen Injury Scale [SIS]). Mortality was similar by center; however, BSI treatment varied significantly by center. Overall, SAE use was highest at center A compared with B, C, and D (19%, 11%, 1%, and 4%, respectively; p < 0.01). High SAE use centers had significantly higher spleen salvage rates and fewer NOM failures. Differences in the use of SAE (25% vs. 2%, p < 0.01) and salvage rate (67% vs. 56%, p = 0.03) were most dramatic between high- and low-use SAE centers for Grade 3 and 4 injured spleens. In patients who received initial NOM, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SAE was an independent predictor of spleen salvage (odds ratio, 5; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-13.5; p < 0.01) as were lower age, lower SIS, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients treated at high SAE use centers were more likely to leave the hospital with their spleen in situ (odds ratio, 3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-6.3; p < 0.01). Significant practice variation exists in the use of SAE in treating BSI at Level I trauma centers. Centers with higher rates of SAE use have higher spleen salvage and less NOM failure. SAE was shown to be an independent predictor of spleen salvage. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  9. The protocol for the isolation and cryopreservation of osteoclast precursors from mouse bone marrow and spleen.

    PubMed

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for physiological bone remodeling as well as pathological bone destruction in osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and thus represent a pharmacological target for drug development. We aimed to characterize and compare the cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow and spleen precursors. Established protocols used to generate osteoclasts from bone marrow were modified to examine osteoclastogenesis of the spleen cells of healthy mice. Osteoclast formation was successfully induced from spleen precursors using receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (50 ng/ml) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (50 ng/ml). Compared to bone marrow cultures, differentiation from spleen required a longer cultivation time (9 days for spleen, as compared to 5 days for marrow cultures) and a higher plating density of non-adherent cells (75,000/cm(2) for spleen, as compared to 50,000/cm(2) for bone marrow). Osteoclasts generated from spleen precursors expressed osteoclast marker genes calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and were capable of resorbing hydroxyapatite. The differentiation capacity of spleen and bone marrow precursors was comparable for BALB/c, C57BL/6 and FVB mice. We also developed and tested a cryopreservation protocol for the osteoclast precursors. While 70-80 % of cells were lost during the first week of freezing, during the subsequent 5 weeks the losses were within 2-5 % per week. Osteoclastogenesis from the recovered bone marrow precursors was successful up to 5 weeks after freezing. Spleen precursors retained their osteoclastogenic capacity for 1 week after freezing, but not thereafter. The described protocol is useful for the studies of genetically modified animals as well as for screening new osteoclast-targeting therapeutics.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska, Joanna; Łapińska, Magda; Kalinowska, Alicja; Łapiński, Tadeusz W; Flisiak, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory changes in the stomach caused by Helicobacter pylori indirectly and directly affect liver function. Moreover, the bacteria may worsen the course of the liver cirrhosis. The study aimed at evaluating the incidence of H. pylori infection among patients with liver cirrhosis, depending on the etiology and injury stage, scored according to Child-Pugh classification. Stage of esophageal varices and endoscopic inflammatory lesions in the stomach were evaluated, depending on the presence of H. pylori infection. The study included 147 patients with liver cirrhosis: 42 were infected with hepatitis C virus, 31 were infected with hepatitis B virus, 56 had alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and 18 had primary biliary cirrhosis. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was performed based on the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum. H. pylori infection was found in 46.9% of patients. The incidence of H. pylori infection among patients with postinflammatory liver cirrhosis was significantly higher (P=0.001), as compared with patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Ammonia concentration was significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori, compared with noninfected individuals (129 vs. 112 μmol/l; P=0.002). Incidence of H. pylori infection in patients without esophageal varices was significantly lower compared with patients with esophageal varices (14 vs. 60%; P<0.001). H. pylori infection is significantly more frequent among patients with postinflammatory liver cirrhosis (infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus) than in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis or primary biliary cirrhosis. H. pylori infection correlates with elevated concentration of blood ammonia and the incidence of esophageal varices.

  11. Boerhaave's syndrome in a patient with an upside down stomach: A case report.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Kurashina, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Kanamaru, Rihito; Ui, Takashi; Haruta, Hidenori; Kitayama, Joji; Lefor, Alan K; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation, or Boerhaave's syndrome, is a life-threating condition which usually requires emergent surgery. An upside down stomach is defined as a gastric volvulus in a huge supradiaphragmatic sac. In general, this condition can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach. This is the first report of a patient with Boerhaave's syndrome and an upside down stomach. A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastric pain following hematemesis. Evaluation of the patient showed both an esophageal perforation and an upside down stomach. Surgical drainage and irrigation of the mediastinum and pleural cavities were undertaken emergently. Due to the concurrent gastric volvulus, a gastrostomy was placed to fix and decompress the stomach. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged. Boerhaave's syndrome is a rare but severe complication caused by excessive vomiting, due to a sudden elevation in intraluminal esophageal pressure resulting in esophageal perforation. Acute gastric volvulus can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach, but has not previously been reported with esophageal perforation. The most likely mechanism associating an upside down stomach with Boerhaave's syndrome is acute gastric outlet obstruction resulting in vomiting, and subsequent esophageal perforation. Perforation of the esophagus as well as perforation of the stomach must be considered in patients with an upside down stomach although both upside down stomach and Boerhaave's syndrome are rare clinical entities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells induce epithelial proliferation within the inflamed stomach.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy; Feng, Rui; Xiao, Chang; Boivin, Gregory P; Li, Jing; Houghton, JeanMarie; Zavros, Yana

    2014-06-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sustain cancer cells by creating a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. In particular, MSCs have been implicated in gastric cancer development. There is extensive evidence suggesting that Hedgehog signaling regulates tumor growth. However, very little is known regarding the precise roles of Hedgehog signaling and MSCs in tumor development within the stomach. The current study tests that hypothesis that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium in the presence of inflammation. Red fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs transformed in vitro (stMSCs) were transduced with lentiviral constructs containing a vector control (stMSC(vect)) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the Shh gene (stMSC(ShhKO)). Gastric submucosal transplantation of wild-type MSCs (wtMSCs), wild-type MSCs overexpressing Shh (wtMSC(Shh)), stMSC(vect), or stMSC(ShhKO) cells in C57BL/6 control (BL/6) or gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice was performed and mice analyzed 30 and 60 days posttransplantation. Compared with BL/6 mice transplanted with wtMSC(Shh) and stMSC(vect) cells, inflamed GKO mice developed aggressive gastric tumors. Tumor development was not observed in mouse stomachs transplanted with wtMSC or stMSC(ShhKO) cells. Compared with stMSC(ShhKO)-transplanted mice, within the inflamed GKO mouse stomach, Shh-expressing stMSC(vect)- and wtMSC(Shh)-induced proliferation of CD44-positive cells. CD44-positive cells clustered in gland-like structures within the tumor stroma and were positive for Patched (Ptch) expression. We conclude that Shh, secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium that is associated with tumor development, a response that is sustained by chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells induce epithelial proliferation within the inflamed stomach

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Jessica M.; Engevik, Amy; Feng, Rui; Xiao, Chang; Boivin, Gregory P.; Li, Jing; Houghton, JeanMarie

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sustain cancer cells by creating a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. In particular, MSCs have been implicated in gastric cancer development. There is extensive evidence suggesting that Hedgehog signaling regulates tumor growth. However, very little is known regarding the precise roles of Hedgehog signaling and MSCs in tumor development within the stomach. The current study tests that hypothesis that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium in the presence of inflammation. Red fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs transformed in vitro (stMSCs) were transduced with lentiviral constructs containing a vector control (stMSCvect) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the Shh gene (stMSCShhKO). Gastric submucosal transplantation of wild-type MSCs (wtMSCs), wild-type MSCs overexpressing Shh (wtMSCShh), stMSCvect, or stMSCShhKO cells in C57BL/6 control (BL/6) or gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice was performed and mice analyzed 30 and 60 days posttransplantation. Compared with BL/6 mice transplanted with wtMSCShh and stMSCvect cells, inflamed GKO mice developed aggressive gastric tumors. Tumor development was not observed in mouse stomachs transplanted with wtMSC or stMSCShhKO cells. Compared with stMSCShhKO-transplanted mice, within the inflamed GKO mouse stomach, Shh-expressing stMSCvect- and wtMSCShh-induced proliferation of CD44-positive cells. CD44-positive cells clustered in gland-like structures within the tumor stroma and were positive for Patched (Ptch) expression. We conclude that Shh, secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium that is associated with tumor development, a response that is sustained by chronic inflammation. PMID:24789207

  15. Stomach cancer burden in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Monica S; Cueva, Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Stomach cancer mortality rates in Central and South America (CSA) are among the highest in the world. We describe the current burden of stomach cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer deaths from WHO's mortality database (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 and estimated annual percent change to describe time trends. Stomach cancer was among the 5 most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer mortality. Between CSA countries, incidence varied by 6-fold and mortality by 5-6-fold. Males had up to 3-times higher rates than females. From 2003 to 2007, the highest ASRs were in Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru (males: 19.2-29.1, females: 9.7-15.1). The highest ASMRs were in Chilean, Costa Rican, Colombian and Guatemalan males (17.4-24.6) and in Guatemalan, Ecuadorian and Peruvian females (10.5-17.1). From 1997 to 2008, incidence declined by 4% per year in Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica; mortality declined by 3-4% in Costa Rica and Chile. 60-96% of all the cancer cases were unspecified in relation to gastric sub-site but, among those specified, non-cardia cancers occurred 2-13-times more frequently than cardia cancers. The variation in rates may reflect differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors. High mortality may additionally reflect deficiencies in healthcare access. The high proportion of unspecified cases calls for improving cancer registration processes. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of linked QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size on rainbow trout chromosome Omy19

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and results in significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified a major QTL for BCWD resistance and a QTL for spleen size (SPLW = spleen weight and SPLI = spleen index) in naï...

  17. [Antiulcer activity of dibunol in experimental stomach and duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Shatalov, V N; Korman, D B; Krutova, T V; Sokolov, L K; Andrianova, O P

    1988-01-01

    The antiulcer effect of two medicinal forms (oil solution, liniment) of dibunol in rats with different models of the stomach and duodenum ulcers was studied. The therapeutic activity of dibunol was evaluated by determining the index of ulcer formation as well as during the morphological and histochemical studies. The two medicinal forms of dibunol possessed equal antiulcer activity by all studied criteria. One should note a characteristic property of dibunol--its ability to produce pronounced epithelialization of ulceroerosive and ulceronecrotic lesions of the mucosa without rough scarring.

  18. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  19. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  20. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  1. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  2. 7 CFR 54.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... such organs and parts as livers, kidneys, sweetbreads, brains, lungs, spleens, stomachs, tripe, lips... effectuate use of such quality systems to meet contractual requirements, or as a marketing tool. Service...

  3. 7 CFR 54.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... such organs and parts as livers, kidneys, sweetbreads, brains, lungs, spleens, stomachs, tripe, lips... effectuate use of such quality systems to meet contractual requirements, or as a marketing tool. Service...

  4. 7 CFR 54.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... such organs and parts as livers, kidneys, sweetbreads, brains, lungs, spleens, stomachs, tripe, lips... effectuate use of such quality systems to meet contractual requirements, or as a marketing tool. Service...

  5. Spontaneous bleeding from liver after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Mir, Najeeb H; Shah, Mian T; Obeid, Mahmoud Ali; Gallo, Ricardo; Aliter, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hemorrhage after open heart surgery is very uncommon in routine clinical practice. There are case reports of having bleeding from spleen or liver after starting low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) postoperatively. Our patient is a 58-year-old man with mitral valve regurgitation, who underwent mitral valve repair and developed intra-abdominal hemorrhage 8h after open heart surgery. The exploratory laparotomy revealed the source of bleeding from ruptured sub-capsular liver hematoma and oozing from raw areas of the liver surface. Liver packing was done to control the bleeding. The gastrointestinal complications after open heart surgery are rare and spontaneous bleeding from spleen has been reported. This is the first case from our hospital to have intra-abdominal hemorrhage after open heart surgery. Spontaneous bleeding from liver is a possible complication after open heart surgery. We submit the case for the academic interest and to discuss the possible cause of hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. An adolescent girl with abnormal liver profile.

    PubMed

    Nair, S; Pitchumoni, C S

    1998-04-01

    A 17-year-old previously healthy high school student who lived in a dormitory was referred to our office by her private physician for evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. She was sexually active with one partner but denied any current or past substance abuse. The patient was not taking any medications or nutritional supplements. Family history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus and minimal hepatomegaly. Spleen was not palpable. The liver function tests are shown in table 1. Total leucocyte count was 6.3 x 10(9)/1 with 53% lymphocytes. The platelet count was normal. Anti-Hbc IgM antibody was negative, so were anti-HAV IgM and anti-HCV antibodies. HBsAg was negative and anti-HBs antibody was positive. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 16 mm in the first hour. An abdominal sonogram was done to evaluate a persistent elevation in alkaline phosphatase and it showed only hepatomegaly.

  7. Effect of hydrocortisone on radiosensitivity of hemopoietic stem cells. [. gamma. rays; mice; bone marrow; spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, V.N.

    Studies were made of the direction of differentiation and radiosensitivity of CFU (colony-forming units) of bone marrow and spleen for 1 month after single injection of 5 mg hydrocortisone (HC) per mouse. It was found that there was a sharp change in direction of differentiation of CFU from different sources. Bone marrow CFU enhanced erythropoiesis and CFU of the spleen enhanced myelopoiesis, which is not inherent in the same CFU of normal mice. Determination of radiosensitivity of CFU from different sources according to the spleen colony test failed to demonstrate any differences in value of D/sub 0/ and extrapolation number,more » whereas substantial changes in radiosensitivity were demonstrated in the bone marrow colony test. Radiosensitivity of marrow CFU diminished while that of the spleen increased, as compared to the control. It is assumed that these phenomena are due to redistribution of T lymphocytes in response to HC.« less

  8. Pseudo defect of the spleen in an adolescent with fever of unknown origin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, A.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.

    The development of a pseudo defect in the spleen secondary to perforation of the bowel by a 17 cm lead pencil is described. The approach to diagnosis of a foreign body in the abdominal cavity is discussed.

  9. Radiologic Percutaneous Gastrostomy in Nondistended Stomach: A Modified Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.petrocelli@hsanmartino.it; Salsano, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.salsano@yahoo.it; Bovio, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.bovio@hsanmartino.it

    IntroductionGastrostomy tube placement for patients requiring long-term nutritional support may be performed using different techniques including endoscopic, surgical, and percutaneous radiologically guided methods. Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG), typically performed when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not possible, requires proper gastric distension that is achieved by insufflating air through a nasogastric tube. We describe a simple technique to prevent air escape from the stomach during gastrostomy tube placement. To the best of our knowledge, this technique has not yet been described in the literature.Materials and MethodsFour patients with unsuccessful percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy were referred for fluoroscopic-guided gastrostomy. One patient had a pyriformmore » sinus tumor and three had an ischemic stroke causing dysphagia. Gastric distention was not achieved in the patients due to air escaping into the bowel during the standard RIG procedure. A modified approach using a balloon catheter inflated in the pylorus to avoid air passing into the duodenum permitted successful RIG.ResultsThe modified RIG procedure was successfully carried out in all cases without complications.DiscussionInadequate air distension of the stomach is an unusual event that causes a failure of gastrostomy tube placement and an increased risk of both major and minor complications. The use of a balloon catheter inflated in the first part of the duodenum prevents the air passage into the bowel allowing the correct positioning of the gastrostomy.« less

  10. Nardilysin regulates inflammation, metaplasia, and tumors in murine stomach.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuto; Ikuta, Kozo; Kimura, Takeshi; Chiba, Tsutomu; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Nishi, Eiichiro; Seno, Hiroshi

    2017-02-23

    Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide variety of human disorders. In the stomach, longstanding gastritis often results in structural alterations in the gastric mucosa, including metaplastic changes and gastric cancers. Therefore, it is important to elucidate factors that are involved in gastric inflammation. Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase; Nrdc) is a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family that promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins. Here, we have demonstrated that Nrdc crucially regulates gastric inflammation caused by Helicobacter felis infection or forced expression of prostaglandin E 2 in K19-C2mE mice. Metaplastic changes following gastric inflammation were suppressed by the deletion of Nrdc. Furthremore, the deletion of Nrdc significantly suppressed N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced gastric tumorigenesis in the murine stomach. These data may lead to a global therapeutic approach against various gastric disorders by targeting Nrdc.

  11. Aggravation of Helicobacter pylori stomach infections in stressed military recruits.

    PubMed

    Jia, Keran; An, Liyun; Wang, Fukun; Shi, Lanchun; Ran, Xiangyang; Wang, Xianling; He, Zhanguo; Chen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of military stress on immune response and Helicobacter pylori stomach infections. In this prospective, observational study, the Symptom Checklist-90 questionnaire was completed by military recruits before and following a 3-month basic training programme. H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, C(14)-urea breath-test values and levels of cortisol, catecholamine, and certain humoral and cellular immune responses were measured before and after the basic training. For 60 military recruits, somatization, depression and paranoid ideation scores were significantly increased after, compared with before, basic training. Post-training H. pylori IgG detection revealed three additional cases of H. pylori infection. Post-training C(14)-urea breath-test values were significantly higher compared with before training - thus suggesting higher levels of H. pylori colonization in the stomach. Post-training cortisol and catecholamine levels were increased, while serum IgG levels were decreased; complement component (C)3 and C4 levels remained unchanged. Post-training CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell percentages and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were significantly reduced compared with before training. Serum interleukin (IL)-2 levels were lower and IL-10 levels were higher following training and there was a significant decrease in the IL-2/IL-10 ratio. Military stress may reduce humoral and cellular immune responses and may aggravate the severity of H. pylori infection. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Aggravation of Helicobacter pylori stomach infections in stressed military recruits

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Keran; An, Liyun; Shi, Lanchun; Ran, Xiangyang; Wang, Xianling; He, Zhanguo; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of military stress on immune response and Helicobacter pylori stomach infections. Methods In this prospective, observational study, the Symptom Checklist-90 questionnaire was completed by military recruits before and following a 3-month basic training programme. H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, C14-urea breath-test values and levels of cortisol, catecholamine, and certain humoral and cellular immune responses were measured before and after the basic training. Results For 60 military recruits, somatization, depression and paranoid ideation scores were significantly increased after, compared with before, basic training. Post-training H. pylori IgG detection revealed three additional cases of H. pylori infection. Post-training C14-urea breath-test values were significantly higher compared with before training – thus suggesting higher levels of H. pylori colonization in the stomach. Post-training cortisol and catecholamine levels were increased, while serum IgG levels were decreased; complement component (C)3 and C4 levels remained unchanged. Post-training CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell percentages and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly reduced compared with before training. Serum interleukin (IL)-2 levels were lower and IL-10 levels were higher following training and there was a significant decrease in the IL-2/IL-10 ratio. Conclusion Military stress may reduce humoral and cellular immune responses and may aggravate the severity of H. pylori infection. PMID:26800706

  13. Real-time monitoring of ischemia inside stomach.

    PubMed

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Mir, Mònica; Samitier, Josep

    2013-02-15

    The low pH in the gastric juice of the stomach makes it difficult to fabricate stable and functional all-solid-state pH ISE sensors to sense ischemia, mainly because of anion interference and adhesion problem between the ISE membrane and the electrode surface. In this work, the adhesion of ISE membrane on solid surface at low pH was improved by modifying the surface with a conductive substrate containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. This creates a stable and robust candidate for low pH applications. Moreover, anion interference problem at low pH was solved by integration of all-solid-state ISE and internal reference electrodes on an array. So, the same tendencies of anion interferences for all-solid-state ISE and all-solid-state reference electrodes cancel each other in differential potentiometric detection. The developed sensor presents a novel all-solid-state potentiometric, miniaturized and mass producible pH ISE sensor for detecting ischemia on the stomach tissue on an array designed for endoscopic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impairment of the proximal to distal tonic gradient in the human diabetic stomach.

    PubMed

    Min, Y W; Hong, Y S; Ko, E-J; Lee, J Y; Min, B-H; Sohn, T S; Kim, J J; Rhee, P-L

    2014-02-01

    Little has been known about the contractile characteristics of diabetic stomach. We investigated spontaneous contractions and responses to acetylcholine in the gastric muscle in diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects according to the region of stomach. Gastric specimens were obtained from 26 diabetics and 55 controls who underwent gastrectomy at Samsung Medical Center between February 2008 and November 2011. Isometric force measurements were performed using circular muscle strips from the different regions of stomach under basal condition and in response to acetylcholine. Basal tone of control was higher in the proximal stomach than in the distal (0.63 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.027). However, in diabetics, basal tone was not significantly different between the proximal and distal stomach (0.75 g vs 0.62 g, p = 0.32). The distal stomach of diabetics had higher basal tone and lower frequency than that of control (0.62 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.049 and 4.0/min vs 4.9/min, p = 0.049, respectively). After exposure to acetylcholine, dose-dependent increases of basal tone, peak, and area under the curve (AUC) were noticed in both proximal and distal stomach of the two groups. In the proximal stomach, however, the dose-dependent increase of basal tone and AUC was less prominent in diabetics than in control. On the contrary to control, the proximal to distal tonic gradient was not observed in diabetic stomach. Diabetic stomach also had lower frequency of spontaneous contraction in the distal stomach and less acetylcholine-induced positive inotropic effect in the proximal stomach than control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Splenic Enlargement Using Wave Pattern of Spleen in Abdominal CT Images: Initial Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong-Won

    In general, the spleen accompanied by abnormal abdomen is hypertrophied. However, if the spleen size is originally small, it is hard to detect the splenic enlargement due to abnormal abdomen by simply measure the size. On the contrary, the spleen size of a person having a normal abdomen may be large by nature. Therefore, measuring the size of spleen is not a reliable diagnostic measure of its enlargement or the abdomen abnormality. This paper proposes an automatic method to diagnose the splenic enlargement due to abnormality, by examining the boundary pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images.

  16. Preliminary experimental study on splenic hemodynamics of radiofrequency ablation for the spleen.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Sadao; Nagasato, Kohei; Higashi, Michiyo; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    To test the splenic blood flow change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the spleen in a porcine experimental model. Six pigs underwent RFA of the spleen via laparotomy. During the procedure of RFA, clamping of splenic artery (one) and both splenic artery/vein (one) was also performed. Measurement of blood flow of both splenic artery (SA) and splenic vein (SV) with flow-wire at pre- and post-RFA of the spleen was also performed. Ablated splenic lesions were created as estimating ∼50% area of the spleen in all pigs. Resected specimens reveal not only the coagulated necrosis but also the congestion of the spleen. On the SA hemodynamics, maximum peak velocity (MPV) changed from 37 ± 7 to 24 ± 8 cm/s (normal), 11 to 10 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 12 to 7.5 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. On the SV hemodynamic, MPV changed from 15 ± 5 to 13 ± 4 cm/s (normal), 17 to 15 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 17 to 26 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. RFA of the spleen could induce coagulation necrosis and reduce the splenic arterial blood flow.

  17. Pembrolizumab and Palliative Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Esophagus, Stomach, or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Stomach; Stage IV Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P < 0.001). Colorectal neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). Conclusion The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening. PMID:22102975

  19. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  20. Effects of Cell-Free Spleen Extract Treatment on the Hematopoietic Tissues of Irradiated Guinea-Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger, Friedrigh; Strike, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    Guinea pigs were given whole-body Co 60 irradiation (650 r) and injected daily thereafter with cell-free extracts of homologous and heterologous spleen. Spleen of irradiated control guinea pigs showed a progressive reduction of alkaline phosphatase staining commencing after the 3rd postirradiation day and reaching a maximum on or about the 9th day. Treatment of the animals with spleen extracts modified the radioinduced changes in alkaline phosphatase staining, so that an almost normal appearance was noted over the entire 14-day observation period. Most of the alkaiine phosphatase-staining spleen elements were mature neutrophils. It was concluded that spleen extract treatment affects apparentlymore » various celluiar elements of spleen in a different way. The results support the hypothesis that protection of phosphorylization processes against effects of irradiation represent one of the mechanisms by which the radiation protective effect of spleen extracts is effected.« less

  1. Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fustik, Stojka

    2013-01-01

    As the expected survival improves in individuals with the cystic fibrosis (CF), so they may be faced with a number of medical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population as well as the clinical and genetic characteristics of these patients. All patients older than 2 years (n = 96) were screened for liver disease. Liver cirrhosis was defined by ultrasonographic findings of distinct heterogeneity of liver parenchyma and nodular liver surface and/or by liver biopsy findings. Enlarged spleen, distended portal vein and abnormal portal venous flow indicated portal hypertension. Clinical and genotype data were analyzed. Sixteen patients were found to have liver cirrhosis, three of them with portal hypertension. All patients had pancreatic insufficiency. Nutritional status expressed as standard deviation score (Z score) for weight, height, and body mass index was as follows: zW = -0.40 +/- 1.24, zH = -0.83 +/- 1.02, and BMI = 20.1 +/- 2.3. CF patients with liver cirrhosis generally had mild-to-moderate lung disease, with average FVC and FEV1 values of 97.1 +/- 16.5% of predicted and 87.9 +/- 23.5% of predicted, respectively. Genetic analysis showed high frequency of F508del mutation in the group with cirrhosis (90.6%). The prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population older than 2 years was 16.6%. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency and severe CFTR mutations, especially F508del, were exposed to higher risk of developing liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis has no significant impact on the pulmonary function and the nutritional status, until the end-stage liver disease.

  2. Big spleens and hypersplenism: fix it or forget it?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Thomas D; Habib, Shahid

    2015-05-01

    Hypersplenism is a common manifestation of portal hypertension in the cirrhotic. More than half of cirrhotics will have low platelet counts, but neutropenia is much less common. Despite being common in the cirrhotic population, the presence of hypersplenism is of little clinical consequence. The presence of hypersplenism suggests more advanced liver disease and an increase in risk of complications, but there is no data showing that correcting the hypersplenism improves patient survival. In most series, the most common indications for treating the hypersplenism is to increase platelet and white blood cell counts to allow for use of drugs that suppress the bone marrow such as interferon alpha and chemotherapeutic agents. There are several approaches used to treat hypersplenism. Portosystemic shunts are of questionable benefit. Splenectomy, either open or laparoscopically, is the most effective but is associated with a significant risk of portal vein thrombosis. Partial splenic artery embolization and radiofrequency ablation are effective methods for treating hypersplenism, but counts tend to fall back to baseline long-term. Pharmacological agents are also effective in increasing platelet counts. Development of direct acting antivirals against hepatitis C will eliminate the most common indication for treatment. We lack controlled trials designed to determine if treating the hypersplenism has benefits other than raising the platelet and white blood cell counts. In the absence of such studies, hypersplenism in most patients should be considered a laboratory abnormality and not treated, in other words forget it. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  4. Fluorescence spectral properties of stomach tissues with pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lahina, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state fluorescence and diffuse reflection spectra are measured for in vivo normal and pathological (chronic atrophic and ulcerating defects, malignant neoplasms) stomach mucous lining tissues. The degree of distortion of the fluorescence spectra is estimated taking light scattering and absorption into account. A combination of Gauss and Lorentz functions is used to decompose the fluorescence spectra. Potential groups of fluorophores are determined and indices are introduced to characterize the dynamics of their contributions to the resultant spectra as pathologies develop. Reabsorption is found to quench the fluorescence of structural proteins by as much as a factor of 3, while scattering of the light can increase the fluorescence intensity of flavin and prophyrin groups by as much as a factor of 2.

  5. Esophageal Reconstruction with the Stomach, a Functional Dilemma?

    PubMed

    Predescu, Dragoş; Constantinoiu, Silviu

    2018-01-01

    Background: A few decades ago, esophageal substitution was mainly dedicated particularly in postcaustic esophageal stenosis; currently, the reconstruction has expanded its palette of indications to other areas of benign esophageal pathology (severe motor disorders, esophageal achalasia with multiple relapses, peptic stenosis, etc.) but has also become a quasi-obligatory final time in the esophagectomy for cancer whenever it is possible. The techniques of esophageal reconstruction using the stomach, regardless of the indication and the chosen technical option, remain a valuable and effective method. A number of striking arguments advocate for one or another type of gastric graft: anatomic factors more than convenient (vascularization, sufficient length, a wall structure favorable for suture, etc.) and a sustainable surgical intervention (length, approach, complexity of the surgical steps digestive disorders after surgery, post-therapeutic functionality, etc.). Choosing a technique or another, beyond pathological arguments, should take into account remote functionality, with a clear impact on metabolic status and quality of life. So, according to this criterion, can we functionally justify a type or another of gastric restoration? Finally, the proof of an adequate solution is relatively easy to appreciate: has swallowing been restored and if so, the result has been maintained over time? For oncological cases, the assessment should also take into account the chronological criterion of the postoperative survival rate. Methods: The statistically rated lot ranged from 1981 to 2016 and included 268 patients with surgical interventions for esophageal stenosis, distributed according to etiopathogenesis and indication in 201 reconstructions for post-caustic stenosis, and 67 for post-esophagectomy replacement for neoplasm. The techniques used for remote functional evaluation included: barium swallow, endoscopy + biopsy, and in cases with obvious changes pH measurement/24 h

  6. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhamurthy, Mohana S.; Vallachira, Gopinathan P.; Mahadev, Praveen S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the synchronous occurrence of tumors of different histotypes arising in the same organ has been reported more frequently in the literature. In the stomach, adenocarcinoma has been described with coexisting primary rhabdomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The simultaneous development of adenocarcinoma and gastric mesenchymal tumor has been documented rarely. We report one such case. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with a proximal gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the presence of another tumor at the gastric antrum. This was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of low risk category (GIST). The literature has only a few previous reports of this very rare association. It is not known whether this synchronicity is incidental or there is a causative factor inducing the development of tumors of different histotypes in the same organ. Pathologists, oncologists and surgeons should be aware of this interesting condition. PMID:20616420

  7. [Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma to the breast from stomach].

    PubMed

    Krichen Makni, S; Abbes, K; Khanfir, A; Frikha, M; Sellami Boudawara, T

    2007-09-01

    Metastatic tumors in the breast are quite rare and constitute 0.5 to 6% of all breast malignancies. They often occur in a polymetastatic context. The most frequent primitive tumors are lymphoma, leukaemia and malignant melanoma. The gastric origin is seldom reported. We report here the observation of a 40-years woman operated in urgency for an acute abdominal syndrome. A gastric tumor was discovered intraoperatively with ovarian metastasis and peritoneal carcinosis. The pathological examination revealed a gastric signet ring cell carcinoma with an infiltration of the right ovary. Four months later, the patient presented with a lump of the right breast. The histologic examination corresponded to a mammary metastasis by a signet ring cell carcinoma from stomach. The objective of our work is to discuss through this observation the anatomoclinical and evolutionary characteristics of breast metastasis.

  8. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  9. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number— in an inertialess environment—is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the “belly phase,” peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384

  10. Metaplasia in the Stomach-Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroto; Hayakawa, Yoku; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-27

    Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  11. Obesity-related chronic kidney disease is associated with spleen-derived IL-10.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kentaro; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Matsuoka, Kazue; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Fukunaga, Naoya; Aoki, Kohei; Nawata, Tomoko; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the molecular mechanism remains uncertain. We noticed spleen-derived interleukin (IL)-10 because it is observed that obesity reduces several cytokines in the spleen. We examined whether spleen-derived IL-10 regulates CKD caused by a high-fat diet (HF)-induced obesity as follows: (i) male mice were fed with HF (60% fat) during 8 weeks and IL-10 induction from the spleen was examined, (ii) glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammatory responses in the kidney and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated in splenectomy (SPX)-treated mice fed HF, (iii) exogenous IL-10 was systemically administered to HF-induced obese mice and the alteration of obesity-induced pathogenesis caused by IL-10 treatment was assessed. (iv) IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice were treated with SPX and glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis and the inflammatory condition in the kidney and SBP were also investigated. Obesity decreased serum levels of only IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine even though pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen was significantly lower in the obese group. SPX aggravated HF-induced inflammatory responses in the kidney and hypertension. These HF-induced alterations were inhibited by systemically administered IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on inflammatory responses and SBP in the kidney of IL-10KO mice. We suggest that obesity reduces IL-10 induction from the spleen, and spleen-derived IL-10 may protect against the development of CKD induced by obesity.

  12. The Stomach-Derived Hormone Ghrelin Increases Impulsive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Hansson, Caroline; Fenander, Maya; Richard, Jennifer E; Dickson, Suzanne L; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as impaired decision making, is associated with many psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as eating disorders. Recent data indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between food reward behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach and known to increase food reward behavior, also increases impulsivity. In order to assess the impact of ghrelin on impulsivity, rats were trained in three complementary tests of impulsive behavior and choice: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL), go/no-go, and delay discounting. Ghrelin injection into the lateral ventricle increased impulsive behavior, as indicated by reduced efficiency of performance in the DRL test, and increased lever pressing during the no-go periods of the go/no-go test. Central ghrelin stimulation also increased impulsive choice, as evidenced by the reduced choice for large rewards when delivered with a delay in the delay discounting test. In order to determine whether signaling at the central ghrelin receptors is necessary for maintenance of normal levels of impulsive behavior, DRL performance was assessed following ghrelin receptor blockade with central infusion of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Central ghrelin receptor blockade reduced impulsive behavior, as reflected by increased efficiency of performance in the DRL task. To further investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the impulsivity effect of ghrelin, we microinjected ghrelin into the ventral tegmental area, an area harboring dopaminergic cell bodies. Ghrelin receptor stimulation within the VTA was sufficient to increase impulsive behavior. We further evaluated the impact of ghrelin on dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine turnover in brain areas key in impulsive behavior control. This study provides the first

  13. Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971–89

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, N; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among men and women gainfully employed in 1970 in Sweden for the period 1971–89 and, more specifically, to evaluate whether any excess of incidence of gastric cancer had also occurred among the subcohort of people reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Methods: In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, and geographical risk area were computed for occupational codes specified at one, two, or three level (occupational sector, occupational group, and occupation, respectively). Relative risks were calculated with all other occupations as reference and then, to take socioeconomic status into account, solely other occupations within the same occupational sector were used. Results: Among men, occupations with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, supporting the possible causative role of dusty environments in stomach cancer. In men, the results also provide support for increased risks among electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat preparers, dockers, freight handlers, launderers and dry cleaners. Furthermore, it is worth noting interesting results for women, whose occupational risks have been studied less. Excess risks were found for practical nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry, housekeeping and cleaning workers. Due to the many occupations studied, several significant associations may be expected by chance. Conclusions: The study is explorative but provides support for the relations suggested previously between occupational exposure to dusty environments and stomach cancer, together with some new high risk occupations which should be further studied. PMID:11983848

  14. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T.; Barlow, Brittney J.; O’Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E.; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. Design We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. Results The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1-expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body, although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1-expressing chief cells. While classically-described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed-type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Conclusions Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localization in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. PMID:24488499

  15. PIPAC Nab-pac for Stomach, Pancreas, Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-31

    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIB; Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC; Ovarian Cancer Stage IV; Breast Cancer Stage IIIB; Breast Cancer Stage IIIc; Breast Cancer Stage IV; Stomach Cancer Stage III; Stomach Cancer Stage IV With Metastases; Pancreas Cancer, Stage III; Pancreas Cancer, Stage IV

  16. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  17. Increase of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation associated with cascade stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Akiyo; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Osamu; Akiyama, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu; Akuzawa, Masako

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that cascade stomach was associated with reflux symptoms and esophagitis. Delayed gastric emptying has been believed to initiate transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). We hypothesized that cascade stomach may be associated with frequent TLESR with delayed gastric emptying. Eleven subjects with cascade stomach and 11 subjects without cascade stomach were enrolled. Postprandial gastroesophageal manometry and gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath system were measured simultaneously after a liquid test meal. TLESR events were counted in early period (0–60 min), late period (60–120 min), and total monitoring period. Three parameters of gastric emptying were calculated: the half emptying time, lag time, and gastric emptying coefficient. The median frequency of TLESR events in the cascade stomach and non-cascade stomach groups was 6.0 (median), 4.6 (interquartile range) vs 5.0, 3.0 in the early period, 5.0, 3.2 vs 3.0, 1.8 in the late period, and 10.0, 6.2 vs 8.0, 5.0 in the total monitoring period. TLESR events were significantly more frequent in the cascade stomach group during the late and total monitoring periods. In contrast, gastric emptying parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups. We concluded that TLESR events were significantly more frequent in persons with cascade stomach without delayed gastric emptying. PMID:28584403

  18. HIV Nef-M1 Effects on Colorectal Cancer Growth in Tumor-induced Spleens and Hepatic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Willie; Bond, Vincent; Huang, Ming Bo; Powell, Michael; Lillard, James; Manne, Upender; Bumpers, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    CXCR4 receptors have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation, making it a potential target for colorectal cancer therapy. Expression of this chemokine receptor on cellular surfaces appears to promote metastasis by directly stimulating tumor cell migration and invasion. The receptor/ligand, CXCR4/SDF-1α, pair are critically important to angiogenesis and vascular remodeling which supports cancer proliferation. Our work has shown that a novel apoptotic peptide of HIV-1, Nef-M1, can act as a CXCR4 antagonist, inducing apoptosis in CXCR4 containing cells. Four colorectal tumor cell lines (HT-29, LS174t, SW480, WiDr), were evaluated for their response to Nef-M1 peptide via in vivo and in vitro. The presence of CXCR4 receptors on tumor cells was determined using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Solid xenografts derived from tumor cell lines grown in SCID mice, were evaluated for the persistence of the receptor. Xenografts propagated in SCID mice from each of the four cell lines demonstrated high levels of receptor expression as well. The effects of Nef-M1 in vivo via splenic injected mice and subsequent hepatic metastasis also demonstrated dramatic reduction of primary tumor growth in the spleen and secondary invasion of the liver. We concluded that Nef-M1 peptide, through physical interaction(s) with CXCR4, drives apoptotic reduction in in vivo primary tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:20383296

  19. Anatomical subdivisions of the stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Lan, G; Wang, G X; Li, H Y; Xie, Z M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty stomachs of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) were studied by gross dissection. Based on the configuration of the stomach and the structure of the mucous membrane, the stomach was divided into three ventricles that differ from the arrangement described for ox and sheep. The first and second ventricles of the proventriculus of camel form one stomach rather than two different stomachs. These ventricles of the proventriculus do not correspond to the rumen and reticulum of ox and sheep. The third ventricle appears to be the abomasum. One part of the abomasum has reticular mucosal folds that indicate it is not the reticulum. A second part of the abomasum has longitudinal mucosal folds suggesting it is not the omasum. Three glandular sac areas associated with the preventriculus and abomasum are also described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The Spleen Is an Ideal Site for Inducing Transplanted Islet Graft Expansion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Shohta

    2017-01-01

    Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1)+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV), beneath the kidney capsule (KC), or into the spleen (SP). The marginal number of islets by PV, KC, or SP was 200, 100, and 50, respectively. Some plasma inflammatory cytokine levels in the SP group were significantly lower than those of the PV group after receiving a marginal number of islets, indicating reduced inflammation in the SP group. Insulin contents were increased 280 days after islet transplantation compared with those immediately following transplantation (p<0.05). Additionally, Tlx1-related genes, including Rrm2b and Pla2g2d, were up-regulated, which indicates that islet grafts expanded in the spleen. The spleen is an ideal candidate for an alternative islet transplantation site because of the resulting reduced inflammation and expansion of the islet graft. PMID:28135283

  1. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kodama, Shohta

    2018-05-07

    This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  2. Detection of muramic acid in a carbohydrate fraction of human spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Hoijer, M A; Melief, M J; van Helden-Meeuwsen, C G; Eulderink, F; Hazenberg, M P

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that peptidoglycan polysaccharides from anaerobic bacteria normally present in the human gut induced severe chronic joint inflammation in rats. Our hypothesis is that peptidoglycan from the gut flora is involved in perpetuation of idiopathic inflammation. However, in the literature, the presence of peptidoglycan or subunits like muramyl peptides in blood or tissues is still a matter of debate. We were able to stain red pulp macrophages in all six available human spleens by immunohistochemical techniques using a monoclonal antibody against gut flora-derived antigens. Therefore, these human spleens were extracted, and after removal of most of the protein, the carbohydrate fraction was investigated for the presence of muramic acid, an amino sugar characteristic for peptidoglycan. Using three different methods for detection of muramic acid, we found a mean of 3.3 mumol of muramic acid with high-pressure liquid chromatography, 1.9 mumol with a colorimetric method for detection of lactate, and 0.8 mumol with an enzymatic method for detection of D-lactate per spleen (D-lactate is a specific group of the muramic acid molecule). It is concluded that peptidoglycan is present in human spleen not as small muramyl peptides as were previously searched for by other investigators but as larger macromolecules probably stored in spleen macrophages. PMID:7729869

  3. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    PubMed

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcription factor TLX1 controls retinoic acid signaling to ensure spleen development

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, Elisa; Farinello, Diego; Penkov, Dmitry; Castagnaro, Laura; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Wuputra, Kenly; Tjaden, Naomi E. Butler; Bernassola, Francesca; Caridi, Nicoletta; Wagner, Michael; Kozinc, Katja; Niederreither, Karen; Blasi, Francesco; Pasini, Diego; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie spleen development and congenital asplenia, a condition linked to increased risk of overwhelming infections, remain largely unknown. The transcription factor TLX1 controls cell fate specification and organ expansion during spleen development, and Tlx1 deletion causes asplenia in mice. Deregulation of TLX1 expression has recently been proposed in the pathogenesis of congenital asplenia in patients carrying mutations of the gene-encoding transcription factor SF-1. Herein, we have shown that TLX1-dependent regulation of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is critical for spleen organogenesis. In a murine model, loss of Tlx1 during formation of the splenic anlage increased RA signaling by regulating several genes involved in RA metabolism. Uncontrolled RA activity resulted in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells and reduced vasculogenesis of the splenic primordium. Pharmacological inhibition of RA signaling in Tlx1-deficient animals partially rescued the spleen defect. Finally, spleen growth was impaired in mice lacking either cytochrome P450 26B1 (Cyp26b1), which results in excess RA, or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which results in RA deficiency. Together, these findings establish TLX1 as a critical regulator of RA metabolism and provide mechanistic insights into the molecular determinants of human congenital asplenia. PMID:27214556

  5. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    PubMed

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P < .001), between groups 4 and 2 (P = .03), and between groups 5 and 2 (P = .01). The spleen scintigraphy results did not differ among the groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in the mature coconut water group (P < .007). Solutions containing coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent Upside-Down Stomach after Endoscopic Repositioning and Gastropexy Treated by Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomiting and an inability to eat, and a diagnosis of upside-down stomach was made. Endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy were performed. The anterior stomach wall was fixed to the abdominal wall in three places as widely as possible. Following treatment, she became symptom-free. Three months later, she was hospitalized again because of a recurrent upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic repair of hernias and gastropexy was performed. Using a laparoscope, two causes of recurrence were found. One cause was that the range of adherence between the stomach and the abdominal wall was narrow (from the antrum only to the lower corpus of stomach), so the upper corpus of stomach was rotated and herniated into the esophageal hiatus. The other cause was adhesion between the omentum and the esophageal hiatus which caused the stomach to rotate and repeatedly become herniated. Although endoscopic treatment for upside-down stomach can be a useful alternative method in high-risk patients, its ability to prevent recurrence is limited. Moreover, a repeated case caused by adhesions has risks of recurrence. PMID:24574947

  8. Recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy treated by laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomiting and an inability to eat, and a diagnosis of upside-down stomach was made. Endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy were performed. The anterior stomach wall was fixed to the abdominal wall in three places as widely as possible. Following treatment, she became symptom-free. Three months later, she was hospitalized again because of a recurrent upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic repair of hernias and gastropexy was performed. Using a laparoscope, two causes of recurrence were found. One cause was that the range of adherence between the stomach and the abdominal wall was narrow (from the antrum only to the lower corpus of stomach), so the upper corpus of stomach was rotated and herniated into the esophageal hiatus. The other cause was adhesion between the omentum and the esophageal hiatus which caused the stomach to rotate and repeatedly become herniated. Although endoscopic treatment for upside-down stomach can be a useful alternative method in high-risk patients, its ability to prevent recurrence is limited. Moreover, a repeated case caused by adhesions has risks of recurrence.

  9. Liver-fat and liver-function indices derived from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI for prediction of future liver remnant growth after portal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Barth, Borna K; Fischer, Michael A; Kambakamba, Patryk; Lesurtel, Mickael; Reiner, Caecilia S

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived fat- and liver function-measurements for prediction of future liver remnant (FLR) growth after portal vein occlusion (PVO) in patients scheduled for major liver resection. Forty-five patients (age, 59 ± 13.9 y) who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI within 24 ± 18 days prior to PVO were included in this study. Fat-Signal-Fraction (FSF), relative liver enhancement (RLE) and corrected liver-to-spleen ratio (corrLSR) of the FLR were calculated from in- and out-of-phase (n=42) as well as from unenhanced T1-weighted, and hepatocyte-phase images (n=35), respectively. Kinetic growth rate (KGR, volume increase/week) of the FLR after PVO was the primary endpoint. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine cutoff values for prediction of impaired FLR-growth. FSF (%) showed significant inverse correlation with KGR (r=-0.41, p=0.008), whereas no significant correlation was found with RLE and corrLSR. FSF was significantly higher in patients with impaired FLR-growth than in those with normal growth (%FSF, 8.1 ± 9.3 vs. 3.0 ± 5.9, p=0.02). ROC-analysis revealed a cutoff-FSF of 4.9% for identification of patients with impaired FLR-growth with a specificity of 82% and sensitivity of 47% (AUC 0.71 [95%CI:0.54-0.87]). Patients with impaired FLR-growth according to the FSF-cutoff showed a tendency towards higher postoperative complication rates (posthepatectomy liver failure in 50% vs. 19%). Liver fat-content, but not liver function derived from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI is a predictor of FLR-growth after PVO. Thus, liver MRI could help in identifying patients at risk for insufficient FLR-growth, who may need re-evaluation of the therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spleen-specific suppression of TNF-alpha by cationic hydrogel-delivered antisense nucleotides for the prevention of arthritis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Xia, Suhua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2009-09-01

    This study developed a transplantable platform based on cationic hydrogels to deliver antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASOs) targeting the mRNA of TNF-alpha. Cationic agarose (c-agarose) was obtained by conjugating ethylenediamine to agarose via an N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)-activation method. ASO-c-agarose system was constructed by mixing ASO in cationic agarose gel of proper concentration and gelation temperature. In vivo assessment of ASO distribution suggested that the system specifically target to spleen, wherein the c-agarose-delivered ASO had a concentration remarkably 50-fold higher than that of the naked ASO. The distribution of c-agarose-delivered ASO was scarcely detectable in liver and kidney. Next, three types of animal models were setup to evaluate the therapeutic efficacies of ASO-Gel, including the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA), carrageen/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced arthritis (CLA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models. The effects of ASO-c-agarose in alleviating inflammation and tissue destruction were evidenced in more than 90% of the testing animals, with decrease of main inflammatory cytokines, lightening of joint swelling and tissue damage, as well as increase in their body weights. All these findings suggest that this highly operable devise for the conveyance of antisense nucleotides together with its spleen-targeting property, could become a useful means of antisense-based therapeutics against rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases.

  11. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  12. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... E, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  13. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  14. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  15. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Helpful Links Liver Cancer Information Available in Chinese Learn more about liver cancer HERE . Thanks to ... in Northern California, you can speak to a Chinese speaking agent with your liver cancer questions. Call ...

  16. Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22-, and 34 C-acclimated hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. B.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of norepinephrine (NE) concentration and endogenous turnover rates in both myocardial and spleen tissues in the golden hamster is examined as a function of chronic exposure to either high or low ambient temperatures. Changes in myocardial and spleen NE turnover values are discussed in terms of functional alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the importance of such changes in temperature acclimation. It is found that acclimation of hamsters to 7 C for 7-10 weeks results in decreased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent increase in myocardial NE turnover. In contrast, exposure to 34 C for 6-8 weeks results in increased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent decrease in NE turnover in both myocardial and spleen tissues. The implication of altered NE synthesis is that sympathetic nerve activity is reduced with heat acclimation and is enhanced with cold acclimation.

  17. Rupture of the spleen in a patient with a perforated duodenal ulcer and infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Robin

    1978-01-01

    A 72-year-old patient presented as a sealed perforated duodenal ulcer. This was later confirmed at operation when in addition a haemoperitoneum due to a lacerated friable spleen was discovered. The patient denied antecedent injury. The peripheral blood film was normal but a subsequent differential slide test for infectious mononucleosis was positive. Histology of the spleen showed hyperplasia of the red pulp in addition to capsular and trabecular infiltration with lymphocytes and atypical mononuclear cells confirming the diagnosis. Infectious mononucleosis in the elderly is rare and a complicating rupture of the spleen at this stage has not been reported previously. The diagnosis may depend on the histology alone because the peripheral blood film and serology can be negative. The possible role of the perforated duodenal ulcer is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:625460

  18. [The criteria for choose of treatment method of children with spleen injuries].

    PubMed

    Podkamenev, V V; Pikalo, I A

    2014-01-01

    It was performed cohort prospective study of treatment results of 69 children with through-capsule spleen injuries for the period from 2002 to 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group included 63 patients after non-surgical treatment. The second group included 6 children who underwent surgery. In the first group 95.3% of patients had stable hemodynamics at admission. In the second group only 2 patients had the signs of deferred bleeding. Continuing abdominal bleeding was the indication for surgery in 4 patients although stable hemodynamics. Hemoperitoneum in case of spleen injury is not significant prognostic factor defining the tactics of treatment. The physiological response on bleeding but not the amount of blood in abdominal cavity determines tactics of treatment. Hemodynamic status is single statistically significant criterion for choose of surgical treatment of children with spleen injuries. Unstable hemodynamics increases the risk of surgical treatment in 20 times (p<0.007).

  19. The Spleen Is an HIV-1 Sanctuary During Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nolan, David J; Rose, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Patricia H; Salemi, Marco; Singer, Elyse J; Lamers, Susanna L; McGrath, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eradicate HIV, which persists for years and can re-establish replication if treatment is stopped. The current challenge is identifying those tissues harboring virus through cART. Here, we used HIV env-nef single genome sequencing and HIV gag droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to survey 50 tissues from five subjects on cART with no detectable plasma viral load at death. The spleen most consistently contained multiple proviral and expressed sequences (4/5 participants). Spleen-derived HIV demonstrated two distinct phylogenetic patterns: multiple identical sequences, often from different tissues, as well as diverse viral sequences on long terminal branches. Our results suggested that ddPCR may overestimate the size of the tissue-based viral reservoir. The spleen, a lymphatic organ at the intersection of the immune and circulatory systems, may play a key role in viral persistence.

  20. Dynamic morphological examination and evaluation of biological characteristics of a multinodular liver cancer model in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ru; Wang, Jin-Rui; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Li, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xue-Yao

    2014-04-01

    Compared with single nodular liver cancer, the prominent biological characteristics of multinodular liver cancer include rapid progression and short survival. Here, we developed a multinodular liver cancer model in mice and assessed the biological characteristics of the resulting neoplasms. H22 hepatoma cells at a dose of 2 × 10(5)/mouse, suspended in 1.6 mL, 0.8 mL, or 200 µL saline were injected via the tail vein of BALB/c mice at a velocity of 200 µL per second. The mice were sacrificed at different time points after injection. And at the time of death the liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys and heart were removed for morphological study. The biological characteristics of the tumor nodules were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In the mice treated with a large volume injection of H22 cells, by day 7, there was a 100% occurrence of multinodular tumors in the livers, determined by histology. At the time of death, there were 100%, 100%, 37.5% and 37.5% occurrences of tumors in the lungs, kidneys, spleen and heart, respectively. The neoplastic cells in the liver nodules showed pleomorphism, and exhibited high expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-myc, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). In mice treated with a small or medium volume injection, no tumor cells were identified in the livers, spleen, kidneys or heart at any of the examined time points. By day 7 and at the time of death, there was a 100% occurrence of tumor in the lungs. A multinodular liver cancer model in mice was achieved using a large volume injection of H22 cells.

  1. Evaluation and clinical significance of the stomach age model for evaluating aging of the stomach-a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and established a simple model of cancer risk that can be applied to CAG surveillance. Methods Stomach Age was determined by FISH examination of telomere length in stomach biopsies. Δψm was also determined by flow cytometry. Sixty volunteers were used to confirm the linear relationship between telomere length and age while 120 subjects were used to build a mathematical model by a multivariate analysis. Overall, 146 subjects were used to evaluate the validity of the model, and 1,007 subjects were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage (calculated from the mathematical model). ROC curves were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage and to determine the cut-off point for Δage. Results We established that a tight linear relationship between the telomere length and the age. The telomere length was obvious different between patients with and without CAG even in the same age. Δψm decreased in individuals whose Stomach Age was greater than real age, especially in younger adults. A mathematical model of Stomach Age (real age + Δage) was successfully constructed which was easy to apply in clinical work. A higher Δage was correlated with a worse outcome. The criterion of Δage >3.11 should be considered as the cut-off to select the subgroup of patients who require endoscopic surveillance. Conclusion Variation in Stomach Age between individuals of the same biological age was confirmed. Attention should be paid to those with a greater Stomach Age, especially in younger adults. The Δage in the Simple Model can be used as a criterion to select CAG patients for gastric cancer surveillance. PMID:25057261

  2. Extent of lymph node dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; McCulloch, Peter; Kazi, Hussain; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquin J; Yuan, Yuhong; Nitti, Donato

    2015-08-12

    The impact of lymphadenectomy extent on the survival of patients with primary resectable gastric carcinoma is debated. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the impact of the three main types of progressively more extended lymph node dissection (that is, D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) on the clinical outcome of patients with primary resectable carcinoma of the stomach. The primary objective was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy extent on survival (overall survival [OS], disease specific survival [DSS] and disease free survival [DFS]). The secondary aim was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy on post-operative mortality. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2001, including references from relevant articles and conference proceedings. We also contacted known researchers in the field. For the updated review, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2001 to February 2015. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the three main types of lymph node dissection (i.e., D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) in patients with primary non-metastatic resectable carcinoma of the stomach. Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. Hazard ratios (HR) and relative risks (RR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure differences in survival and mortality rates between trial arms, respectively. Potential sources of between-study heterogeneity were investigated by means of subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The same two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration and the quality of the overall evidence based on the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Eight RCTs (enrolling 2515 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs (all performed in Asian countries) compared D3 with D2 lymphadenectomy: data suggested no significant difference in OS

  3. Morphologic examination of CD3-CD4(bright) cells in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Yosinobu; Abo, Toru; Hatakeyama, Katsuyosi

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we found CD3-CD4(bright) cells with comparative specificity for normal rat liver. In the current study, we investigated the type and form of both CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells in the rat liver. The surface phenotype of hepatic mononuclear cells in Lewis rats was identified by using monoclonal antibodies including anti-CD4, anti-CD3, and antimacrophage in conjunction with two- or three-color immunofluorescence analysis. CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells were examined morphologically using May-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells 48 hours after intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate was also investigated. In comparison to CD3-CD4(dull) cells, CD3-CD4(bright) cells were slightly larger macrophages with abundant cytoplasmic granules, being present with comparative specificity for normal rat liver and showing negligible effects by intravenous liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate administration. These data suggest that in normal young rat liver these CD3-CD4(dull) and CD3-CD4(bright) cells may be dendritic cells and Kupffer cells that shift from the liver to the spleen or vice versa. These cells may also be able to locally proliferate in liver or spleen due to changes in the developing liver.

  4. Altered miRNA expression in aniline-mediated cell cycle progression in rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Khan, M Firoze

    2017-09-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen, however, early molecular events in aniline-induced cell cycle progression in the spleen remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in tumor development by modulating key cell cycle regulators and controlling cell proliferation. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the expression of miRNAs, regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in an experimental condition that precedes a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (1 mmol/kg/day by gavage) for 7 days, and expression of miRNAs, cyclins and CDKs in rat spleens were analyzed. Microarray and/or qPCR analyses showed that aniline exposure led to significantly decreased miRNA expression of let-7a, miR-24, miR-34c, miR-100, miR-125b, and greatly increased miR-181a. The aberrant expression of miRNAs was associated with significantly increased protein expression of cyclins A, B1, D3 and E. Furthermore, remarkably enhanced expression of CDKs like CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, especially p-CDK1 and p-CDK2 as well as alternations in the expression of pRB, p27, and CDC25A in the spleens of aniline-treated rats was also observed. The data suggest that aniline exposure leads to aberrant expression of miRNAs in the spleen which could be important in the regulation of cell cycle proteins. Our findings, thus, provide new insight into the role of miRNAs in cell cycle progression, which may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in the spleen.

  5. Parasitic load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bagues, Naiara Carvalho Teixeira; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Dos-Santos, Washington L C; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2018-02-01

    Leishmania infantum causes from subclinical infection to severe disease in humans and dogs. The spleen is one of the organs most affected by the infection. Although evidence exists that the parasitic load distribution and histological alterations may not be homogeneous in the affected organs of naturally infected individuals, it has not been formally demonstrated using the current techniques used for studying the disease. In six dogs naturally infected with Leishmania, parasitic load and histological changes were compared in samples collected from the lower, middle and upper third of the spleen. Parasitic load in the spleen of the group of dogs was variable, revealing a difference of 61 times between animals with the lowest and the highest parasitism. The set of parasitic load values of each dog showed a cluster trend, when compared to the other animals. Nevertheless, the parasitic load values of each dog showed a variation ranging from 3.2 to 34.7 times between lowest and highest value. Histological changes showed recognizable variation in frequency (granulomas) or intensity (perisplenitis) in the spleen of 2 out of the 6 dogs. The agreement of histological findings between samples collected from the different thirds of the spleen was good (kappa coeficient, 0.61-0.80) very good (0.81-0.99) or perfect (1.00), for most of the parameters analyzed. Variability of parasitic load and, to a lesser extent, histological changes in spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is observed. Such variability may be taken in account in the design of studies on pathogenesis, vaccine and therapeutic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stem cells and cancer of the stomach and intestine.

    PubMed

    Vries, Robert G J; Huch, Meritxell; Clevers, Hans

    2010-10-01

    Cancer in the 21st century has become the number one cause of death in developed countries. Although much progress has been made in improving patient survival, tumour relapse is one of the important causes of cancer treatment failure. An early observation in the study of cancer was the heterogeneity of tumours. Traditionally, this was explained by a combination of genomic instability of tumours and micro environmental factors leading to diverse phenotypical characteristics. It was assumed that cells in a tumour have an equal capacity to propagate the cancer. This model is currently known as the stochastic model. Recently, the Cancer stem cell model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity of a tumour and its progression. According to this model, the heterogeneity of tumours is the result of aberrant differentiation of tumour cells into the cells of the tissue the tumour originated from. Tumours were suggested to contain stem cell-like cells, the cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells, which are uniquely capable of propagating a tumour much like normal stem cells fuel proliferation and differentiation in normal tissue. In this review we discuss the normal stem cell biology of the stomach and intestine followed by both the stochastic and cancer stem cell models in light of recent findings in the gastric and intestinal systems. The molecular pathways underlying normal and tumourigenic growth have been well studied, and recently the stem cells of the stomach and intestine have been identified. Furthermore, intestinal stem cells were identified as the cells-of-origin of colon cancer upon loss of the tumour suppressor APC. Lastly, several studies have proposed the positive identification of a cancer stem cell of human colon cancer. At the end we compare the cancer stem cell model and the stochastic model. We conclude that clonal evolution of tumour cells resulting from genetic mutations underlies tumour initiation and progression in both cancer models. This

  7. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  9. Poor allostimulatory function of liver plasmacytoid DC is associated with pro-apoptotic activity, dependent on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Daisuke; Sumpter, Tina L.; Raimondi, Giorgio; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Wang, Zhiliang; Nakao, Atsunori; Mazariegos, George V.; Abe, Masanori; Thomson, Angus W.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The liver is comparatively rich in plasmacytoid (p) dendritic cells (DC),- innate immune effector cells that are also thought to play key roles in the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. Methods Liver and spleen pDC were purified from fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand-reated control or lipopolysaccharide-injected C57BL/10 mice. Flow cytometric and molecular biologic assays were used to characterize their function and interaction with naturally-occurring regulatory T cells (Treg). Results While IL-10 production was greater for freshly-isolated liver compared with splenic pDC, the former produced less bioactive IL-12p70. Moreover, liver pDC expressed a low Delta4/Jagged1 Notch ligand ratio, skewed towards T helper 2 cell differentiation/cytokine production, and promoted allogeneic CD4+ T cell apoptosis. T cell proliferation in response to liver pDC was, however, enhanced by blocking IL-10 function at the initiation of cultures. In the absence of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, similar levels of T cell proliferation were induced by liver and spleen pDC and the pro-apoptotic activity of liver pDC was reversed. Conclusion The inferior T cell allostimulatory activity of in vivo-stimulated liver pDC may depend on the presence and function of Treg, a property that may contribute to inherent liver tolerogenicity. PMID:18926588

  10. Influence of Cu10x copper nanoparticles intramuscular injection on mineral composition of rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Elena; Glushchenko, Natalia; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Skalny, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Spleen mineral composition was studied for 25 elements using atomic emission and mass spectrometry (AES-ISP and MS-ISP) for the first time by one- and manifold intramuscular injection of Cu10x copper nanoparticles. This was done, because the spleen is considered to be the organ most amenable of immunological defense and sensitive to exposure. The research is new and based on the necessity to check the accumulation of elements, which can result in toxic effects, and also the character of the influence of nanoparticles on the change of the natural fluctuation rhythm, as well as the interrelation between them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen--CT, MR, and sonographic characteristics: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Vrachliotis, T G; Bennett, W F; Vaswani, K K; Niemann, T H; Bova, J G

    2000-01-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is a rare entity, but it is the most common primary splenic malignancy. These tumors demonstrate an aggressive growth pattern and can be single or multiple. The diagnosis should be suspected in a patient who presents with splenomegaly but without evidence of lymphoma, malaria, leukemia, or portal hypertension. The tumor may also present with acute abdominal symptoms secondary to spontaneous splenic rupture. We describe two cases of primary angiosarcoma of the spleen with computed tomographic, magnetic resonance, and sonographic features.

  12. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  13. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  14. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  15. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  16. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  17. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  18. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  19. Primary small cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report with an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is extremely rare; about 110 cases have been reported in the world literature. Immunohistochemical studies of various antigens and genetic studies of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFRA) have not been performed in gastric SCC. An 84-year-old man consulted our hospital because of epigastralgia and weakness. Blood test showed anemia and increased CA19-9 (233 U/ml). Endoscopic examination revealed a large Borrmann type III tumor measuring 6x8 cm in the stomach. Biopsies from the tumor revealed typical small cell carcinoma with very scant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei, absent nucleoli, molded nuclei, and increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin (PCK) WSS, PCK MNF-116, PCK AE1/3, PCK CAM5.2, cytokeratin (CK) 34BE12, CK 5/6, CK7, CK8, CK18, vimentin, EMA, KIT (CD117), CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NSE, CA19-9, CEA, p53 protein, and Ki67 antigen (Ki-67 labeling = 60%). The tumor cells were negative for CK14, CK19, CK20, PDGFRA, CD45, CD45RO, CD3, CD20, CD30, and CD79a. A retrospective genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method in paraffin sections identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. Various imaging modalities including CT and MRI showed multiple small metastases in the liver, bilateral lungs, and perigastric lymph nodes. The patient was thus inoperative. The patient is now treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy four months after the first manifestation.

  20. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    DOE PAGES

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; ...

    2012-12-12

    In this paper, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strainmore » dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. Finally, a comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish.« less

  1. [Is the stomach a main landmark on the abdominal circumference? Audit of 3 operators].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A-C; Blanc, J; Grangé, G

    2016-05-01

    The fetal weight estimation depends largely on the accuracy of abdominal circumference. The quality criteria are standardized to minimize variability and include visualization of the stomach. The objective of this study is to investigate the presence or absence of the stomach on the abdominal circumference for 3 different operators. We conducted re-reading of 204 ultrasound images in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, performed by three operators, at the maternity Port Royal in Paris in 2013. On these images, the presence of the stomach was sought and other quality criteria were verified. Among the 204 images, 166 included the stomach (81%). When studying for each of the three operators, there were 79%, 72% and 98% of the stomach into the abdominal circumference, a significant difference between operators (P=0.0029). Regarding the secondary criteria, the quality criteria found most often were the calipers and well placed ellipse (89%). According to the previous studies, the stomach seems to be a reference to search. Our study shows variability depending on the different operators. If a hierarchy of quality criteria is to be considered, the stomach does not seem to be the first criterion to search. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-01-01

    We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

  3. Synchronous Double Malignant Tumors Consisting of Stomach and Hodgkin's Lymphoma with Collision between Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Naoki; Ogata, Shin-Ya; Fukushima, Norimasa; Maeda, Kunihiko; Tamura, Gen

    2012-09-01

    We report the rare case of a 72-year-old man with double cancers (gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma) with collision between gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed increased wall thickness in the fundus region of the stomach and multiple lymph node swellings in the lesser curvature, periceliac and left cardial regions. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an ulcer approximately 5 cm in diameter with a malignant appearance in the fundus region of the stomach. On histopathologic examination, two completely different tumors were recognized in the stomach. One tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma characterized by poorly developed tubular structures associated with prominent lymphoid infiltration of the stroma. The other tumor was found to have proliferated in the wall of the stomach, with diffuse granulomatous lesions and bordering the adenocarcinoma. Large atypical lymphoid cells with prominent nucleoli and enlarged mononuclei or multinuclei were seen in the latter tumor. Hodgkin's lymphoma was also found in the swollen lesser curvature lymph nodes. As a result, gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis of Hodgkin's lymphoma were collided in the stomach. In conclusion, this case might be helpful in exploring the occurrence mechanism of tumor collision between lymphoma and carcinoma.

  4. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min Young

    2007-01-01

    Synchronous occurrence of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and gastric cancer in the same patient has not yet been reported in the English literature. MCL comprises 2.5 - 7% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and is characterized by a poor prognosis with a median survival probability of 3 - 4 years in most series. A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of an abnormal gastric lesion. The endoscopic finding was compatible with type IIc early gastric cancer (EGC) in the middle third of the stomach, and a biopsy of the lesion proved to be carcinoma. Radical total gastrectomy with splenectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy were performed. The resected specimen revealed two grossly separated lesions. Postoperative histological examination reported both adenocarcinoma and MCL. Immunohistochemical staining showed positivity for CD5, CD20, and cyclin D1 in the infiltrated lymphoid cells. MCL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the current treatment approach is still unsatisfactory. Further advancements in the understanding of the synchronous occurrence of both diseases, and more efforts on investigations of treatment are needed. PMID:18159604

  5. The Hungry Stomach: Physiology, Disease, and Drug Development Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Gareth J.; Hellström, Per M.; Näslund, Erik

    2010-01-01

    During hunger, a series of high-amplitude contractions of the stomach and small intestine (phase III), which form part of a cycle of quiescence and contractions (known as the migrating motor complex, MMC), play a “housekeeping” role prior to the next meal, and may contribute toward the development of hunger. Several gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are associated with phase III MMC activity, but currently the most prominent is motilin, thought to at least partly mediate phase III contractions of the gastric MMC. Additional GI endocrine and neuronal systems play even more powerful roles in the development of hunger. In particular, the ghrelin-precursor gene is proving to have a complex physiology, giving rise to three different products: ghrelin itself, which is formed from a post-translational modification of des-acyl-ghrelin, and obestatin. The receptors acted on by des-acyl-ghrelin and by obestatin are currently unknown but both these peptides seem able to exert actions which oppose that of ghrelin, either indirectly or directly. An increased understanding of the actions of these peptides is helping to unravel a number of different eating disorders and providing opportunities for the discovery of new drugs to regulate dysfunctional gastric behaviors and appetite. To date, ghrelin and motilin receptor agonists and antagonists have been described. The most advanced are compounds which activate the ghrelin and motilin receptors which are being progressed for disorders associated with gastric hypomotility. PMID:21927604

  6. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  8. Postnatal development of the myenteric plexus in cat stomach.

    PubMed

    Lolova, I; Itsev, D

    1983-01-01

    The postnatal development of the myenteric plexus in cat stomach has been studied at birth, on the 14th, 30th, 45th and 180th postnatal days, using light- and electronmicroscopic methods. In newborn kittens the main network of the Auerbach plexus is well formed, but the myenteric ganglia are composed of nerve cells with different maturity and a scarce neuropile. During the first two postnatal weeks the dimensions of the ganglia increase owing to the increase of the nerve bodies and the rising number of glials cells and intercellular fibres. This is accompanied by a potentiation of the AChE-activity, mainly in the nerve cell bodies and to a lesser extent in the neuropile. Impregnation reveals different in calibre and form nerve fibres and terminals. Different ultrastructural types of neurones are identified on the 14th day. Later development is expressed in the formation of large compact ganglia and thick connecting strands. The number of AChE-positive fibres in the neuropile increases. Owing to the increase in the cell organelles and their more advanced maturity, it is possible to define the ultrastructural type of an ever increasing number of neurones.

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takao; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Tomoeda, Naru; Kinoshita, Norikatsu; Kubokawa, Masaru; Yodoe, Kentaro; Hiraki, Yuka; Oya, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ihara, Eikichi

    2018-03-02

    There have been no reports of primary leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We report an extremely rare case of gastric leiomyosarcoma that was successfully treated by ESD. An asymptomatic 74-year-old female underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for screening in December 2013. A centrally depressed submucosal tumor 10 mm in diameter was detected at the posterior wall of the upper gastric body. Follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted 5 months later showed that the tumor diameter had increased to 15 mm. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass located in the second to the middle of the third layer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated a myogenic tumor. The tumor was completely resected by ESD without complications. Immunohistopathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was gastric leiomyosarcoma derived from the muscularis mucosae, with negative lateral and vertical margins. No local recurrence or metastasis has been detected at 36 months after ESD. This is the first report of gastric leiomyosarcoma treated by ESD in the English language literature.

  10. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1982-09-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%).more » The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems.« less

  11. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  12. [Controlled stomach fistula for acute operated ulcer. Case report].

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, D; Brătucu, E; Daha, C; Marincaş, M; Ungurianu, L; Puiu, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyze the case of a 65 old woman which was hospitalized for sigmoidian stenosant and haemorrhagical neoplasm, confined to the colic wall, without peritoneal or hepatic metastases, and without peritoneal or parietal invasion. Surgical management included sigmoidectomy and termino-terminal anastomosis for reconstructing intestinal transit followed by peritoneal drainage. In early postoperative stage the aspect of generalized peritonitis occurs and there is suspicion of anastomotic fistulae. On surgery, acute and perforated gastric ulcer is found, located in close vicinity to the cardia, on the anterior side of the stomach. Suture of the perforation is undertaken with drainage of the peritoneal cavity, but successfully because fistulization of the sutured perforation followed. Under the given circumstances controlled drainage of the gastric fistulae was carried out, using a Folley probe extended through the fistulae orifice and through the anterior abdominal wall, lateral to the median incision. The blowing of the intragastric balloon and the setting into tension of the gastric wall to the front abdominal wall allowed the sealing of the fistulae route but it took about three months. This technical contrivance has afforded good postoperative evolution and recovery of the patient, who after five years from surgery is in a good condition and has no subjective complaints.

  13. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; Dores, Graça M.; Travis, Lois B.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer following radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials We conducted a nested, matched case-control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943–1995, from five international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 gray [Gy], range 0.03–46.1 and following parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12–6.3). Results Over 90% of women received radiotherapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was non-significantly increased (odds ratios [ORs] 1.27–2.28) for women receiving between 0.5–4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (OR=4.20, 95% confidence interval, 1.41–13.4, Ptrend=0.047) compared to non-irradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose-response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (Ptrend=0.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (Ptrend=0.23). Conclusions Our findings showed for the first time a significant linear dose-response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer. PMID:23707149

  14. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity.

  15. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy,more » mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.« less

  16. Association of liver enzymes and computed tomography markers of liver steatosis with familial longevity.

    PubMed

    Sala, Michiel; Kroft, Lucia J M; Röell, Boudewijn; van der Grond, Jeroen; Slagboom, P Eline; Mooijaart, Simon P; de Roos, Albert; van Heemst, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Familial longevity is marked by enhanced peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. The liver has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore we hypothesized that the extent of liver steatosis would be similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and control subjects. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the extent of liver steatosis in non-diabetic offspring of long-lived siblings and age-matched controls by measuring liver enzymes in plasma and liver fat by computed tomography (CT). We measured nonfasting alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Υ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 1625 subjects (736 men, mean age 59.1 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising offspring of long-lived siblings and partners thereof. In a random subgroup, fasting serum samples (n = 230) were evaluated and CT was performed (n = 268) for assessment of liver-spleen (L/S) ratio and the prevalence of moderate-to-severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, use of alcohol and hepatotoxic medication, and correlation of sibling relationship. Offspring of long-lived siblings had higher nonfasting ALT levels as compared to control subjects (24.3 mmol/L versus 23.2 mmol/L, p = 0.03), while AST and GGT levels were similar between the two groups. All fasting liver enzyme levels were similar between the two groups. CT L/S ratio and prevalence of moderate-to-severe NAFLD was similar between groups (1.12 vs 1.14, p = 0.25 and 8% versus 8%, p = 0.91, respectively). Except for nonfasting levels of ALT, which were slightly higher in the offspring of long-lived siblings compared to controls, no differences were found between groups in the extent of liver steatosis, as assessed with liver biochemical tests and CT. Thus, our data indicate that the extent of liver steatosis is similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and

  17. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  18. Release of “neurokinin” on nervous and electrical stimulation of a frog stomach muscle preparation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, I.

    1964-01-01

    Activation of a frog stomach muscle preparation by electrical stimulation of a vagus nerve or by direct stimulation released two polypeptides. One was destroyed by trypsin or chymotrypsin in about 10 min; the activity of the other was enhanced by trypsin for about 10 min, but was destroyed by chymotrypsin. Similar stimulation of dog stomach muscle did not release these polypeptides. Correspondingly, the transmission from vagus nerve to stomach muscle in the frog was resistant to atropine, but was blocked by atropine in the dog. PMID:14190475

  19. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  1. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  2. Differential Susceptibility of Spleen Focus-Forming Virus and Murine Leukemia Viruses to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The streptovaricin complex (SvCx) and rifamycin SV derivatives display potent antiviral activity against the polycythemic strain of Friend leukemia virus (FV-P), as measured by a reduction in the number of spleen foci produced in mice. Such reductions may be explained by inactivation of functions of (i) the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), (ii) its “helper” murine leukemia virus (MuLV), or (iii) both viruses normally present in FV-P. We noted that preincubation of FV-P with fractionation products of SvCx, or derivatives of rifamycin SV, at low concentrations (3 to 5 μg/ml) reduces the number of spleen foci 80 to 97%, whereas titers of MuLV (from the same inoculum) remain unaffected (MuLV titers were measured by XC, S+L−, and “helper activity” assays). Our findings indicate a remarkable biological selectivity of ansamycins, as well as nonansamycin components of SvCx, against the transforming and defective spleen focus-forming virus as compared to MuLV. Thus, the drugs might be useful in distinguishing other types of oncornaviruses. PMID:18986

  3. Profile of the spleen transcriptome in beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also contributing to an animal...

  4. The bovine spleen: Interactions among splenic cell populations in the innate immunologic control of hemoparasitic infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past several years, innate immunity has been recognized as having an important role as a front-line defense mechanism and as an integral part of the adaptive immune response. Innate immunity in cattle exposed to hemoparasites is spleen-dependent and age-related. In this review, we discuss g...

  5. Pro-opiomelanocortin messenger ribonucleic acid and posttranslational processing of beta endorphin in spleen macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lolait, S J; Clements, J A; Markwick, A J; Cheng, C; McNally, M; Smith, A I; Funder, J W

    1986-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated low levels of immunoreactive (ir)-beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and ir-ACTH in a subpopulation of mouse spleen macrophages, which is consistent with an involvement of opioid peptides in modulation of immune responses. Gel chromatography studies suggested the presence of an approximately 3.5,000-molecular weight (mol wt) species, putatively beta-EP, an approximately 11.5,000-mol-wt species, putatively beta-lipotropin, and a higher molecular weight species (putative beta-EP precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In this study we have extended our original findings by demonstrating the presence of messenger RNA for POMC by the use of a complementary DNA probe and Northern blot analysis of extracts of mouse and rat spleen. In addition, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have shown that the major endorphin species in mouse spleen macrophages is beta-EP1-31, and that there are smaller amounts of each of the acetylated forms, N-acetyl-beta-EP1-16 (alpha-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-17 (gamma-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-27, and N-acetyl-beta-EP1-31. We interpret these studies as showing that (a) the spleen is an organ of POMC synthesis and that (b) the predominant COOH-terminal product of macrophage POMC is the opiate-receptor active species beta-EP1-31. Images PMID:2423557

  6. Enhanced gamma interferon responses of mouse spleen cells following immunotherapy for tuberculosis relapse.

    PubMed

    Gil, Olga; Vilaplana, Cristina; Guirado, Evelyn; Díaz, Jorge; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-11-01

    Gamma interferon responses of spleen cells in mice were examined during postchemotherapy relapse of intraperitoneally induced latent tuberculous infection. The mycobacterial extract RUTI, which prevented the relapse, significantly enhanced the immune responses to secreted and structural recombinant mycobacterial antigens, suggesting that RUTI-mediated protection was mediated by activated T cells.

  7. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  8. Biochemical effects of vinyl chloride monomer on the liver of occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Saad, A A; el-Sewedy, S M; Bader, G A; Mousa, S M; Mahdy, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vinyl chloride monomer exposure on the liver of 86 workers by measuring beta-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase A, adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase and routine liver function enzymes in the sera of the workers. In 21 of them, three or more of these parameters were raised, with a significant decrease in the level of blood glutathione and a significant increase in the enzyme activity level of glutathione S-transferase. Of these 21 workers, 14 had fatty liver infiltration, 8 of whom were also suffering from liver enlargement. Also, 4 workers had liver enlargement without fatty infiltration and 3 had enlarged spleens. The study highlights the need for vigilance in environmental monitoring and medical surveillance of workers exposed to this chemical.

  9. Liver Parenchyma Perforation following Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Hiroto; Ikegami, Toru; Kasagi, Yuta; Hidaka, Gen; Yamazaki, Koji; Sadanaga, Noriaki; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Emi, Yasunori; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Okadome, Kenichiro

    2011-05-01

    Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an effective modality for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases, it is still related with several severe complications. We report on the case of a female patient who developed liver parenchyma perforation following ERCP. She underwent ERCP with sphincterotomy and extraction of a common bile duct stone. Shortly after ERCP, abdominal distension was identified. Abdominal computed tomography revealed intraabdominal air leakage and leakage of contrast dye penetrating the liver parenchyma into the space around the spleen. Since periampullary perforation related to sphincterotomy could not be denied, she was referred for immediate surgery. Obvious perforation could not be found at surgery. Cholecystectomy, insertion of a T tube into the common bile duct, placement of a duodenostomy tube and drainage of the retroperitoneum were performed. She did well postoperatively and was discharged home on postoperative day 28. In conclusion, as it is well recognized that perforation is one of the most serious complication related to ERCP, liver parenchyma perforation should be suspected as a cause.

  10. Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.

    PubMed

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following laparotomy, the partial resection of the previously FB-injected stomach prepyloric area was performed in animals of RES group. On the 28th day, all animals were re-anaesthetized and euthanized. The CSMG complex was then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. In control animals, retrograde-labelled perikarya were immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). Partial stomach resection decreased the numbers of FB-positive neurons immunopositive for TH and DβH. However, the strong increase of NPY and GAL expression, as well as de novo-synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and leu5-Enkephalin (LENK) was noted in studied neurons. Furthermore, FB-positive neurons in all pigs were surrounded by a network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and substance P (SP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, LENK- and nNOS- immunoreactive nerve fibers. This may suggest neuroprotective contribution of these neurotransmitters in traumatic responses of sympathetic neurons to peripheral axonal damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Murine Candidiasis Model with Severe Colonization in the Stomach Induced by N-acetylglucosamine-treatment and Its Scoring System Based on Local Characteristic Stomach Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection.

  12. Multi-atlas Segmentation Enables Robust Multi-contrast MRI Spleen Segmentation for Splenomegaly.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuankai; Liu, Jiaqi; Xu, Zhoubing; Harrigan, Robert L; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G; Landman, Bennett A

    2017-02-11

    Non-invasive spleen volume estimation is essential in detecting splenomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to facilitate splenomegaly diagnosis in vivo. However, achieving accurate spleen volume estimation from MR images is challenging given the great inter-subject variance of human abdomens and wide variety of clinical images/modalities. Multi-atlas segmentation has been shown to be a promising approach to handle heterogeneous data and difficult anatomical scenarios. In this paper, we propose to use multi-atlas segmentation frameworks for MRI spleen segmentation for splenomegaly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that integrates multi-atlas segmentation for splenomegaly as seen on MRI. To address the particular concerns of spleen MRI, automated and novel semi-automated atlas selection approaches are introduced. The automated approach interactively selects a subset of atlases using selective and iterative method for performance level estimation (SIMPLE) approach. To further control the outliers, semi-automated craniocaudal length based SIMPLE atlas selection (L-SIMPLE) is proposed to introduce a spatial prior in a fashion to guide the iterative atlas selection. A dataset from a clinical trial containing 55 MRI volumes (28 T1 weighted and 27 T2 weighted) was used to evaluate different methods. Both automated and semi-automated methods achieved median DSC > 0.9. The outliers were alleviated by the L-SIMPLE (≈1 min manual efforts per scan), which achieved 0.9713 Pearson correlation compared with the manual segmentation. The results demonstrated that the multi-atlas segmentation is able to achieve accurate spleen segmentation from the multi-contrast splenomegaly MRI scans.

  13. Multi-atlas segmentation enables robust multi-contrast MRI spleen segmentation for splenomegaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yuankai; Liu, Jiaqi; Xu, Zhoubing; Harrigan, Robert L.; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    Non-invasive spleen volume estimation is essential in detecting splenomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to facilitate splenomegaly diagnosis in vivo. However, achieving accurate spleen volume estimation from MR images is challenging given the great inter-subject variance of human abdomens and wide variety of clinical images/modalities. Multi-atlas segmentation has been shown to be a promising approach to handle heterogeneous data and difficult anatomical scenarios. In this paper, we propose to use multi-atlas segmentation frameworks for MRI spleen segmentation for splenomegaly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that integrates multi-atlas segmentation for splenomegaly as seen on MRI. To address the particular concerns of spleen MRI, automated and novel semi-automated atlas selection approaches are introduced. The automated approach interactively selects a subset of atlases using selective and iterative method for performance level estimation (SIMPLE) approach. To further control the outliers, semi-automated craniocaudal length based SIMPLE atlas selection (L-SIMPLE) is proposed to introduce a spatial prior in a fashion to guide the iterative atlas selection. A dataset from a clinical trial containing 55 MRI volumes (28 T1 weighted and 27 T2 weighted) was used to evaluate different methods. Both automated and semi-automated methods achieved median DSC > 0.9. The outliers were alleviated by the L-SIMPLE (≍1 min manual efforts per scan), which achieved 0.9713 Pearson correlation compared with the manual segmentation. The results demonstrated that the multi-atlas segmentation is able to achieve accurate spleen segmentation from the multi-contrast splenomegaly MRI scans.

  14. Long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs profiling during spleen development in pig.

    PubMed

    Che, Tiandong; Li, Diyan; Jin, Long; Fu, Yuhua; Liu, Yingkai; Liu, Pengliang; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Qianzi; Ma, Jideng; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar. A total of 15,040 lncRNA transcripts were identified among these samples. We found that the temporal expression pattern of lncRNAs was more restricted than observed for protein-coding genes. Time-series analysis showed two large modules for protein-coding genes and lncRNAs. The up-regulated module was enriched for genes related to immune and inflammatory function, while the down-regulated module was enriched for cell proliferation processes such as cell division and DNA replication. Co-expression networks indicated the functional relatedness between protein-coding genes and lncRNAs, which were enriched for similar functions over the series of time points examined. We identified numerous differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lncRNAs in all five developmental stages. Notably, ceruloplasmin precursor (CP), a protein-coding gene participating in antioxidant and iron transport processes, was differentially expressed in all stages. This study provides the first catalog of the developing pig spleen, and contributes to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian spleen development.

  15. Relative importance of the bone marrow and spleen in the production and dissemination of B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C.; Cole, S.B.; Appleton, C.

    1978-04-01

    The relative importance of the bone marrow and spleen in the production of B lymphocytes was investigated in guinea pigs by the combined use of (/sup 3/H)TdR radioautography and fluorescent microscopy after the staining of B cells by FITC-F (ab')/sub 2/-goat-anti-guinea pig Ig. Large and small lymphoid cells possess sIg in the marrow and spleen but B cell turnover in the marrow exceeds that in the spleen. That newly generated bone marrow B cells are not derived from an extramyeloid bursa equivalent was demonstrated by the absence of (/sup 3/H)TdR labeled B cells in tibial marrow 72 hr after (/supmore » 3/H)TdR was administered systemically, while the circulation to the hind limbs was occluded. Pulse and chase studies with (/sup 3/H)TdR showed that large marrow B cells are derived from sIg-negative, proliferating precursors resident in the bone marrow and not from the enlargement of activated small B lymphocytes. The acquisition of (/sup 3/H)TdR by splenic B cells lagged behind that observed in the marrow. Three days after topical labeling of tibial and femoral bone marrow with (/sup 3/H)TdR, a substantial proportion of splenic B cells were replaced by cells that had seeded there from the labeled marrow. The studies unequivocally identify the bone marrow as the organ of primary importance in B cell generation, and indicate that in the guinea pig rapidly renewed B lymphocytes of the spleen are replaced by lymphocytes recently generated in bone marrow. The rate of replacement of B lymphocytes in the lymph node by cells newly generated in the bone marrow takes place at a slower tempo than in the spleen.« less

  16. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G. A. S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. PMID:21708182

  17. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  18. The threatened stomach: management of the acute gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Light, D; Links, D; Griffin, M

    2016-05-01

    Acute presentation of gastric volvulus is a rare condition with a high mortality for acute ischaemia. This study was undertaken to investigate the acute management, diagnosis, and long-term outcomes of patients presenting with acute gastric volvulus. Cases were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 to 2014. Patients presenting as an emergency admission with acute gastric volvulus were included. Thirty-six patients were included, five of whom had previous surgery. The mean age was 71 years old. All patients presented with vomiting and chest/epigastric pain. CT was diagnostic in all 26 patients. Barium swallow was diagnostic in two/four patients. OGD was diagnostic in 9 of 20 patients. All patients had an NG tube placed, and eight patients were treated conservatively and made a full recovery. Twenty-nine patients proceeded to surgery. Nine had a laparoscopic repair with two open conversions. Four patients had gastric necrosis, and all had open surgery with resection. Three patients had a mediastinal perforation, and one patient required an additional thoracotomy. All patients with viable stomach had a hiatal repair (where appropriate), 11 had a gastropexy, and 11 had a fundoplication. Mortality for gastric necrosis/perforation was 30 %. Mean postoperative stay was 4 days for laparoscopic repair and 8 days for uncomplicated open surgery. Nine of twenty-nine had transient dysphagia postoperatively. Three of eight patients treated conservatively had an elective procedure subsequently. Acute paraoesophageal hiatus hernia requires early resuscitation and diagnosis. CT should be favoured in assessment, and an NG tube placed promptly. A conservative management may be considered safely in stable patients. Surgical management should be prompt for unstable patients. Gastric ischaemia or perforation has a mortality of 30 %. Laparoscopic repair has a shorter postoperative stay, but has a higher recurrence rate. Surgery for patients without gastric ischaemia has good long

  19. Neurochemical coding of enteric neurons in the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Schemann, M; Schaaf, C; Mäder, M

    1995-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurochemical coding of myenteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus by using immunohistochemical methods. Antibodies and antisera against calbindin (CALB), calretinin (CALRET), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), beta-endorphin (ENK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), parvalbumin (PARV), serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were used. Double- and triple-labeling studies revealed colocalization of certain transmitters and enabled the identification of distinct subpopulations of gastric enteric neurons. NPY/VIP/NOS/ENK were present in 28% of all neurons, whereas 11% had NPY/VIP/DBH/ChAT; NOS-only neurons made up 2% of the population. The combination SP/ChAT/ENK occurred in 21% of the population, whereas SP/ChAT/ENK/CALRET and SP/CHAT/SOM/ +/- CALRET was identified in 5% and 6% of all cells, respectively. 5-HT-containing neurons comprised 2% of all cells and could be further classified by the presence of additional antigens as 5-HT/SP/(ChAT) or 5-HT/VIP/(ChAT). Approximately 21% of all neurons contained only ChAT with no additional antigen present and are referred to as ChAT/-. Gastric myenteric ganglion cells were not immunoreactive for CALB, PARV, CGRP, or TH. The results of this study indicate that gastric myenteric neurons can be characterized on the basis of different chemical coding. Neurochemical coding of corpus myenteric neurons revealed some similarities and significant differences in comparison with other regions of the gut. These differences might reflect adaptation of enteric nerves according to regional specialization and the distinct functions of the proximal stomach as a gastric reservoir.

  20. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  1. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  2. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring −70 to −120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  3. Lanthanum deposition corresponds to white lesions in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-23

    Although lanthanum deposition in the stomach has been most frequently reported to occur as white lesions, no study has investigated whether the white lesions observed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy are truly lanthanum-related. Here, we retrospectively investigated the amount of lanthanum in endoscopic biopsy specimens. We reviewed four patients showing gastric white spots or annular whitish mucosa in the gastric white lesions (Bw) and peripheral mucosa where the white substance was not endoscopically observed (Bp) during biopsy. We also reviewed three patients with diffuse whitish mucosa and three patients with no whitish lesions. We performed scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to quantify the lanthanum elements (wt%) in the biopsy specimens. The amount of lanthanum in the Bw ranged from 0.15-0.31 wt%, whereas that of Bp was 0.00-0.13 wt%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum in the Bw, endoscopically presented with white spots or annular whitish mucosa, was significantly higher than that of no whitish lesions (0.05-0.14 wt%, P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum was also higher in the diffuse whitish mucosa (0.21-0.23 wt%) compared with no whitish lesions (P < 0.01). This study is the first to reveal that pathological lanthanum deposition corresponds to the endoscopically observed white lesions in the gastric mucosa. Therefore, during esophagogastroduodenoscopy, physicians should pay attention to possible presence of white lesions in patients treated with oral lanthanum carbonate to ensure prompt identification of associated issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  5. Stomach Fermentation in East African Colobus Monkeys in Their Natural State

    PubMed Central

    Ohwaki, Kyoko; Hungate, R. E.; Lotter, Leonard; Hofmann, R. R.; Maloiy, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    The microbial fermentation in the stomachs of two monkeys, Colobus polykomos, collected in Kenya, was studied. The gas accumulated within the stomach contained H2 but no CH4. Volatile fatty acid concentrations were high, but accumulated acid prevented determination of the fermentation rate in untreated, incubated stomach contents. Upon addition of bicarbonate, a very rapid rate could be demonstrated. Some D- and L-lactate were in the stomach contents. Starchy seeds or fruits rather than leaves appeared to have been consumed. Microscopically, the most prominent microorganisms seen were large, very refringent cocci, possibly Sarcina ventriculi, and various smaller cocci and rods. The 28 cultured strains of bacteria included 14 Staphylococcus, 2 Streptococcus, 10 Propionibacterium, and 2 Peptostreptococcus. The culture count constituted 10 to 20% of the direct count. No protozoa or cellulolytic bacteria were found. Images PMID:4207763

  6. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  7. Comparison of bacterial counts obtained from naturally contaminated foods by means of Stomacher and blender.

    PubMed

    Purvis, U; Sharpe, A N; Bergener, D M; Lachapelle, G; Milling, M; Spiring, F

    1987-01-01

    Four Regional Health Protection Branch laboratories each compared aerobic colony counts obtained after "stomaching" and blending, for a minimum of 10 samples in each of the seven food groups: dry pastas; chocolate and cocoa powders; frozen entrees (macaroni and cheese, chow mein, chop suey, fried rice, seafood casseroles, and Salisbury steak); nonfat dry milk; shrimp and crabmeats; spices; and breakfast sausages. Overall, counts obtained after using the Stomacher were equivalent to or higher than counts obtained after using the blender in 73% of the comparisons (alpha = 0.05). Where differences existed, counts obtained after using the Stomacher tended to be higher than counts obtained after using the blender from milk powder and lower from sausage. Aerobic colony counts from these foods are not unacceptably biased when obtained by Stomacher.

  8. Efficacy of cimetidin in the prevention of ulcer formation in the stomach during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorofeyev, G. I.; Litovskiy, I. A.; Gavrovskaya, L. K.; Ivashkin, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of stress on the formation of ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach, the increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in the gastric tissues, and parietal cell structure alteration. Use of cimetidin prevents these effects

  9. Breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Kwangil; Ro, Sang Mi; Lee, Jieun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer with stomach metastasis rare with an incidence of 1% or less among metastatic breast cancer patients. We experienced a case of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach in 65-year-old female patient. She experienced dyspepsia and poor oral intake before visiting the clinic. Diffuse infiltration with nodular mucosal thickening of the stomach wall was observed, suggesting advanced gastric cancer based on gross endoscopic finding. Spread of poorly cohesive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa observed upon hematoxylin and eosin stain resembled signet ring cell carcinoma, but diffuse positive staining for GATA3 in immunohistochemical stain allowed for a conclusive diagnosis of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach. Based on the final diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy was administered instead of primary surgical resection. After 2 cycles of docetaxel administration, she showed a partial response based on abdominal computed tomography scan. This case is an unusual presentation of breast cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:28405154

  10. Breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kwangil; Ro, Sang Mi; Lee, Jieun

    2017-03-28

    Breast cancer with stomach metastasis rare with an incidence of 1% or less among metastatic breast cancer patients. We experienced a case of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach in 65-year-old female patient. She experienced dyspepsia and poor oral intake before visiting the clinic. Diffuse infiltration with nodular mucosal thickening of the stomach wall was observed, suggesting advanced gastric cancer based on gross endoscopic finding. Spread of poorly cohesive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa observed upon hematoxylin and eosin stain resembled signet ring cell carcinoma, but diffuse positive staining for GATA3 in immunohistochemical stain allowed for a conclusive diagnosis of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach. Based on the final diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy was administered instead of primary surgical resection. After 2 cycles of docetaxel administration, she showed a partial response based on abdominal computed tomography scan. This case is an unusual presentation of breast cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Elective living donor liver transplantation by hybrid hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery and short upper midline laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Tomonaga, Tetsuo; Muraoka, Izumi; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Although the technique of liver transplantation is well developed, the invasiveness of the operation can be decreased with laparoscopic procedures. We performed elective living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) through a short midline incision combined with hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). Nine selected patients with end stage liver disease underwent the procedure between July, 2010 and February, 2011 (median age 60, median Child-Pugh 9, median MELD score 14). Splenectomy was performed simultaneously in 7 cases. The liver (and spleen) were mobilized by a sealing device under a HALS procedure with an 8-cm upper midline incision, followed by explantation of the diseased liver (and spleen) through the upper midline incision which was extended to 12 to 15 cm. Partial liver grafts were implanted through the upper midline incision. The median duration of the operation was 741 minutes, the median time needed for anastomosis was 48 minutes, the median blood loss was 3,940 g, and the median liver weight was 866 g. Eight recipients are alive and have good graft function. A difficult implantation for one patient required an additional right transverse incision. When compared with 13 recent liver recipients who underwent LDLT with a regular Mercedes-Benz-type incision, no clinically relevant drawbacks of the HALS hybrid procedure were observed. We have shown the feasibility and safety of LDLT performed through a short midline incision without abdominal muscle disruption with the aid of HALS. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  13. Roles of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy in the Etiology of Stomach Cancer as a Second Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W. van den; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Besseling, Gijs

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated. Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-relatedmore » excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach dose (p for trend, <0.001), at an ERR of 0.84 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-15.6). Mean stomach doses of more than 20 Gy were associated with a RR of 9.9 (95% CI, 3.2-31.2) compared with doses below 11 Gy. The risk was 1.8-fold (95% CI, 0.8-4.4) increased after chemotherapy and 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.2-23.9) increased after high doses of procarbazine (>=13,000 mg) vs. <10,000 mg. The RR of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day vs. no smoking was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2). Conclusions: Stomach cancer risk is strongly radiation dose dependent. The role of chemotherapy, particularly of procarbazine and related agents, needs further study, because of the relatively small numbers of chemotherapy-treated subjects.« less

  14. Soy isoflavone intake and stomach cancer risk in Japan: From the Takayama study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2015-08-15

    Although several experimental studies suggested that soy isoflavone intake inhibits the growth of stomach cancer, previous epidemiological studies have observed inconsistent results. We evaluated the associations of soy or isoflavone intake with stomach cancer incidence after considering several lifestyle factors, including salt intake, in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Subjects were 14,219 men and 16,573 women aged 35 years or older in September 1992. Soy and isoflavone intakes, assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, were controlled for the total energy intake. Cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries. Until March 2008, 441 men and 237 women developed stomach cancer. After adjustments for multiple confounders, a significantly decreased relative risk of stomach cancer was observed in the highest vs. lowest quartile of soy intake; the estimated hazard ratios were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) for men (p for trend = 0.039) and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.94) for women (p for trend = 0.003). Similar inverse associations between isoflavone intake and stomach cancer risk were also observed in women. Higher intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer (p for trend: 0.022 in men and 0.005 in women), whereas there was no significant association between the intake of fermented soy foods and a risk of stomach cancer. These results suggest that a high intake of soy isoflavone, mainly nonfermented soy foods, have a protective effect against stomach cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  15. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T; Barlow, Brittney J; O'Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R

    2014-11-01

    The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of the stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1 expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1 expressing chief cells. While classically described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localisation in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Formation of Stomach Tissue by Organoid Culture Using Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Kurisaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for the induction of stomach organoids from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We used an embryoid body-based differentiation method to induce gastric primordial epithelium covered with mesenchyme and further differentiate it in Matrigel by 3D culture. The differentiated organoid contains both corpus- and antrum-specific mature gastric tissue cells. This protocol may be useful for a variety of studies in developmental biology and disease modeling of the stomach.

  17. MRI of the stomach: a pictorial review with a focus on oncological applications and gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arman; Menias, Christine O; Luna, Antonio; Fowler, Kathryn J; Hara, Amy Kiyo; Silva, Alvin C; Yano, Motoyo; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate gastric pathology seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discuss the essential MRI sequences for the evaluation of benign and malignant gastric pathologies. Common tumors of the stomach, polyposis syndromes, iatrogenic conditions, as well as other conditions of the stomach will be reviewed. The utility of MRI in the evaluation of patients with gastric malignancies and disorders of gastric motility will also be discussed.

  18. Family history, body mass index and survival in Japanese patients with stomach cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Suzuki, Masaki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Yamanami, Hideaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-15

    Family history and nutritional status may affect the long-term prognosis of stomach cancer, but evidence is insufficient and inconsistent. To clarify the prognostic factors of stomach cancer, we conducted a prospective study of 1,033 Japanese patients with histologically confirmed stomach cancer who were admitted to a single hospital between 1997 and 2005. Family history of stomach cancer and pretreatment body mass index (BMI) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical data were retrieved from a hospital-based cancer registry. All patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to family history in parents and siblings and BMI category. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 403 all-cause and 279 stomach cancer deaths were documented. Although no association with family history was observed in the patients overall, analysis according to age group found an increased risk of all-cause death associated with a history in first degree relatives (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.93-2.78, p = 0.09) and with a parental history (HR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) among patients aged under 60 years at diagnosis. BMI was related to all-cause and stomach cancer death among patients aged 60 and over, showing a J-shaped pattern (HR of all-cause death = 2.28 for BMI < 18.5; HR = 1.61 for 25 ≤ vs. ≥ 23.0 to < 25.0 kg/m(2)). A family history of stomach cancer, especially parental history, may affect mortality among younger stomach cancer patients, whereas nutritional status may be a prognostic factor in older patients. © 2014 UICC.

  19. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  20. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, DeAnna E.; Koltz, Amanda M.; Lambert, Joanna E.; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species. PMID:26222383