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Sample records for livers decreases wait

  1. Bridging and downstaging treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Francica, Giampiero; Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Iezzi, Roberto; Avolio, Alfonso Wolfango

    2013-01-01

    Several therapeutic procedures have been proposed as bridging treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT). The most used treatments include transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Surgical resection has also been successfully used as a bridging procedure, and LT should be considered a rescue treatment in patients with previous HCC resection who experience tumor recurrence or post-treatment severe decompensation of liver function. The aims of bridging treatments include decreasing the waiting list dropout rate before transplantation, reducing HCC recurrence after transplantation, and improving post-transplant overall survival. To date, no data from prospective randomized studies are available; however, for HCC patients listed for LT within the Milan criteria, prolonging the waiting time over 6-12 mo is a risk factor for tumor spread. Bridging treatments are useful in containing tumor progression and decreasing dropout. Furthermore, the response to pre-LT treatments may represent a surrogate marker of tumor biological aggressiveness and could therefore be evaluated to prioritize HCC candidates for LT. Lastly, although a definitive conclusion can not be reached, the experiences reported to date suggest a positive impact of these treatments on both tumor recurrence and post-transplant patient survival. Advanced HCC may be downstaged to achieve and maintain the current conventional criteria for inclusion in the waiting list for LT. Recent studies have demonstrated that successfully downstaged patients can achieve a 5-year survival rate comparable to that of patients meeting the conventional criteria without requiring downstaging. PMID:24282343

  2. Decreasing Wait Times and Increasing Patient Satisfaction: A Lean Six Sigma Approach.

    PubMed

    Godley, Mary; Jenkins, Jeanne B

    2018-06-08

    Patient satisfaction scores in the vascular interventional radiology department were low, especially related to wait times in registration and for tests/treatments, with low scores for intentions to recommend. The purpose of our quality improvement project was to decrease wait times and improve patient satisfaction using Lean Six Sigma's define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) framework with a pre-/postintervention design. There was a statistically significant decrease in wait times (P < .0019) and an increase in patient satisfaction scores in 3 areas: registration wait times (from 17 to 99 percentiles), test/treatment (from 19 to 60 percentiles), and likelihood to recommend (from 6 to 97 percentiles). Lean Six Sigma was an effective framework for use in decreasing wait times and improving patient satisfaction.

  3. Reduction in liver transplant wait-listing in the era of direct-acting antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Jennifer A; Kim, W Ray; Brosgart, Carol L; Terrault, Norah A

    2017-03-01

    Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, recently approved for patients with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV), is associated with improved hepatic function. We analyzed trends in liver transplant (LT) wait-listing (WL) to explore potential impact of effective medical therapy on WL registration. This is a cohort study using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database from 2003 to 2015. A total of 47,591 adults wait-listed for LT from HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were identified. LT indication was defined as DC if the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) at WL was ≥15 or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Era of listing was divided into interferon (IFN; 2003-2010), protease inhibitor (PI; 2011-2013), and direct-acting antiviral (DAA; 2014-2015). Annual standardized incidence rates of WL were analyzed using Poisson regression. Adjusted incidences of LT WL for DC in HCV patients decreased by 5% in the PI era (P = 0.004) and 32% in the DAA era (P < 0.001) compared to the IFN era. Listing for DC in HBV also decreased in the PI (-17%; P = 0.002) and DAA eras (-24%; P < 0.001). Conversely, WL for DC in NASH increased by 41% in the PI era (P < 0.001) and 81% in the DAA era (P < 0.001). WL for HCC in both the HCV and NASH populations increased in both the PI and DAA eras (P < 0.001 for all) whereas HCC WL in HBV remained stable (P > 0.05 for all). The rate of LT WL for HCV complicated by DC has decreased by over 30% in the era of DAA therapy. Further reductions in WL are anticipated with increased testing, linkage to care, and access to DAA therapy. (Hepatology 2017;65:804-812). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Living donor liver transplantation: eliminating the wait for death in end-stage liver disease?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A2ALDLT), outside of Asia, remains an important yet underutilized gift of life. For patients with end-stage liver disease, A2ALDLT is a proven transplantation option, with lower waiting list mortality and suffering, and equivalent or better allograft and patient survival than deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT). The risks to living donors and the benefit to their recipients have been carefully defined with long-term level 1 and 2 evidence-based study. An overview of the development and practice of living donor liver transplant (LDLT), including donor and recipient surgical allograft innovation, is provided. The issues of recipient selection, outcomes and morbidity, including disease-variable study and challenges past and present are presented in comparison with DDLT cohorts, and future insights are described. Central to practice is the careful and concise review of donor evaluation and selection and donor outcome, morbidity, quality of life and present and future strategies for donor advocacy and growth of the technique.

  5. Common issues in the management of patients in the waiting list and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Belli, Luca Saverio; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Volpes, Riccardo; Marzioni, Marco; Giannini, Edoardo; Toniutto, Pierluigi

    2017-03-01

    The present document contains the recommendations of an expert panel of transplant hepatologists, appointed by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on how to manage the most common aspects of liver transplantation: the topics covered include: new treatments for HCV in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; antiviral treatments in patients with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation; prophylaxis for HBV recurrence after liver transplantation; indications for liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease; and Immunosuppressive therapy. The statements on each topic were approved by participants at the AISF Transplant Hepatologist Expert Meeting (organized by the Permanent Committee on Liver Transplantation in Mondello on 4-5 October 2015), and are graded according to the Oxford classification of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreasing Psychiatric Admission Wait Time in the Emergency Department by Facilitating Psychiatric Discharges.

    PubMed

    Stover, Pamela R; Harpin, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Limited capacity in a psychiatric unit contributes to long emergency department (ED) admission wait times. Regulatory and accrediting agencies urge hospitals nationally to improve patient flow for better access to care for all types of patients. The purpose of the current study was to decrease psychiatric admission wait time from 10.5 to 8 hours and increase the proportion of patients discharged by 11 a.m. from 20% to 50%. The current study compared pre- and post-intervention data. Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles aimed to improve discharge processes and timeliness through initiation of new practices. Admission wait time improved to an average of 5.1 hours (t = 3.87, p = 0.006). The proportion of discharges occurring by 11 a.m. increased to 46% (odds ratio = 3.42, p < 0.0001). Improving discharge planning processes and timeliness in a psychiatric unit significantly decreased admission wait time from the ED, improving access to psychiatric care. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Family experience of waiting for living donor liver transplantation: from parental donor perspective.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chih; Chen, Chao-Long; Chen, Jo-Lin; Mu, Pei-Fan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate from the perspectives of the donor parents of children with biliary atresia, the essence of family experiences during the period when waiting for a living donor liver transplant. Living donor liver transplantation is a new hope for children and families when the child suffers from biliary atresia. It is obvious, during the waiting period, for a family with a child undergoing living donor liver transplantation, that the process has a serious impact and there is a need for them to be well-prepared. A descriptive phenomenological design was used in this study. Nine donor parents from a medical centre in Taiwan participated in this study. The inclusion criteria were that the parent had a child with biliary atresia, that the child had received living donor liver transplantation over the last year and a half and that the parent was the living donor for child's liver transplantation. An open in-depth interview technique encouraged the parents to reflect on their experiences as the process raised their feelings to a conscious level. The data were analysed using the Colaizzi's approach. This study explores the essence of families undergoing the waiting period for living donor liver transplantation surgery from the point of view of the donating parents. Five themes emerged: (1) surgery as hope of rebirth, (2) negotiating the decision to have surgery, (3) the selection of the donor to achieve family welfare, (4) preparing and planning for the surgery and (5) worry over the impact of the surgery. The results demonstrate that the parents' experiences included a variety of domains: hope of rebirth, mental negotiation while deciding on surgery and choice of donor, coping with the preparation for surgery and the possible impact on the family of the surgery. The findings indicated that nursing professionals should provide family-centred care to assist the family with the steps needed to move toward surgery.

  8. Algorithm for prioritization of patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gambato, M; Senzolo, M; Canova, D; Germani, G; Tomat, S; Masier, A; Russo, F P; Perissinotto, E; Zanus, G; Cillo, U; Burra, P

    2007-01-01

    Prioritization of patients on the waiting list (WL) for OLT is still a critical issue. Numerous models have been developed to predict mortality before and after OLT. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate cirrhotics with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) severity of liver disease on the WL and at transplant, mortality on the WL and after OLT, and their correlations. An algorithm based on seven patient variables (MELD, CTP, UNOS, HCC, BMI, waiting time, age) was created by software dedicated to prioritize patients on the waiting list. We evaluated 118 patients including 75 men and 43 women of age range 19 to 66 years, who underwent OLT from July 2004 to June 2006. Mean CTP and MELD at listing were 8.44 (range 6-12) and 13 (range 2-24), respectively. Overall mortality on the WL at 24 months was 13%, which was significantly higher among patients with MELD > 25 compared to patients with MELD 0 to 15 (P < .0001) or MELD 16 to 25 (P = .0007) at listing. Mean MELD at OLT was 15 (range 7-36), which was significantly lower in patients with than without HCC (MELD 12 vs 16; P = .0003). Six hundred-day patient survival was significantly lower among patients with MELD > 25 compared to patients with MELD < 25 at OLT (P = .017), whereas no difference in survival was observed between patients with and without HCC. The sickest patients are characterized by high mortality both on the waiting list and after liver transplantation. Patients with HCC are transplanted in better condition compared to patients without HCC with the same survival.

  9. The outcome of surgical resection versus assignment to the liver transplant waiting list for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; Muzikansky, Alona; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Ott, Mark J

    2005-07-01

    Optimal management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of tumor resection versus assignment to a liver transplant waiting list (WL) in patients with HCC. Prospectively collected patient data from 1970 to 1997 on 313 patients with HCC were retrospectively analyzed by multivariate analysis to determine the effect of liver disease, method of treatment, and tumor-related factors on survival. A total of 199 patients underwent nonsurgical palliative care (PC), 81 underwent partial liver resection (LR), and 33 were assigned to a liver transplant WL, of which 22 received a donor liver. A total of 91%, 53%, and 91% of the patients had cirrhotic livers in the PC, LR, and WL groups, respectively (P < .001). In the LR group, the absence of a tumor capsule (P < .0001) and a poorly differentiated tumor (P = .027) were both adverse prognostic factors. In the WL group, hepatitis B (P = .02) and American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage III (P = .019) were adverse prognostic factors. The 3-year survival rates were 4%, 33%, and 38% for the PC, LR, and WL patients, respectively (P < .0001). The 3-year survival rate in the LR patients was 51% in patients without cirrhosis and 15% in patients with cirrhosis (P < .0001). Patients with locally unresectable tumors, distant disease, or both will continue to receive PC. Patients assigned to liver transplant WLs run the risk of not receiving a donor liver, in which case their survival is predicted to be poor. Survival after resection in a group of patients with advanced tumors is worse than that after transplantation; however, shortages of donor livers presently preclude transplantation in this population of patients.

  10. Global lessons in graft type and pediatric liver allocation: A path toward improving outcomes and eliminating wait-list mortality.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Evelyn K; Mazariegos, George V

    2017-01-01

    Current literature and policy in pediatric liver allocation and organ procurement are reviewed here in narrative fashion, highlighting historical context, ethical framework, technical/procurement considerations, and support for a logical way forward to an equitable pediatric liver allocation system that will improve pediatric wait-list and posttransplant outcomes without adversely affecting adults. Where available, varying examples of successful international pediatric liver allocation and split-liver policy will be compared to current US policy to highlight potential strategies that can be considered globally. Liver Transplantation 23:86-95 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation: Impact on Liver Transplant Patients and the Kidney Transplant Waiting List.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Westphal, Scott; Liapakis, AnnMarie; Formica, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants (SLKT) performed in the USA has been rising. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network implemented a new policy governing SLKT that specifies eligibility criteria for candidates to receive a kidney with a liver, and creates a kidney waitlist "safety net" for liver recipients with persistent renal failure after transplant. This review explores potential impacts for liver patients and the kidney waitlist. Factors that have contributed to the rise in SLKT including Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation, regional sharing for high MELD candidates, and the rising incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis will continue to increase the number of liver transplant candidates with concurrent renal insufficiency. The effect of center behavior based on the new policy is harder to predict, given wide historic variability in SLKT practice. Continued increase in combined liver/kidney failure is likely, and SLKT and kidney after liver transplant may both increase. Impact of the new policy should be carefully monitored, but influences beyond the policy need to be accounted for.

  12. The efficacy of direct anti-HCV drugs improves early post-liver transplant survival and induces significant changes in waiting list composition.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Trota, Núria; Londoño, Maria-Carlota; Mauro, Ezequiel; Baliellas, Carme; Castells, Lluís; Castellote, Jose; Tort, Jaume; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2018-07-01

    The efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to evaluate the impact of DAA therapy on the composition of the liver transplant (LT) waiting list and the early post-transplant survival. We evaluated all patients admitted to the waiting list for a primary LT between 1st January 2008 and 31st of December 2016 in Catalonia, Spain. Time span was divided into two periods according to the availability of different antiviral therapies: 2008-2013 (interferon-based therapies) and 2014-2016 (DAA). Changes in the indications of LT and the aetiology of liver disease, as well as post-LT patient survival, were evaluated according to the year of inclusion and transplantation, respectively. We included 1,483 patients. Admissions in the waiting list for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease decreased significantly, from 47% in 2008-2013 to 35% in 2014-2016 (p <0.001), particularly because of a reduction in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In contrast, NASH-related inclusions increased from 4% to 7% (p = 0.003). Three-year post-LT patient survival increased significantly in the second period in the whole cohort (82% vs. 91%, p = 0.002), because of better survival in anti-HCV positive patients (76% vs. 91%, p = 0.001), but not in anti-HCV negative patients (88% vs. 91% p = 0.359). Anti-HCV positive serology, the time period of 2008-2013 and higher donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in the whole cohort; while time period and donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in anti-HCV positive recipients. The high efficacy of DAAs is associated with significant changes in the composition of the LT waiting list and, more importantly, results in improved post-transplant survival. The efficacy of the new direct-acting antivirals is associated with a significant improvement in survival of patients undergoing liver transplantation

  13. Decreasing laboratory turnaround time and patient wait time by implementing process improvement methodologies in an outpatient oncology infusion unit.

    PubMed

    Gjolaj, Lauren N; Gari, Gloria A; Olier-Pino, Angela I; Garcia, Juan D; Fernandez, Gustavo L

    2014-11-01

    Prolonged patient wait times in the outpatient oncology infusion unit indicated a need to streamline phlebotomy processes by using existing resources to decrease laboratory turnaround time and improve patient wait time. Using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) method, a project to streamline phlebotomy processes within the outpatient oncology infusion unit in an academic Comprehensive Cancer Center known as the Comprehensive Treatment Unit (CTU) was completed. Laboratory turnaround time for patients who needed same-day lab and CTU services and wait time for all CTU patients was tracked for 9 weeks. During the pilot, the wait time from arrival to CTU to sitting in treatment area decreased by 17% for all patients treated in the CTU during the pilot. A total of 528 patients were seen at the CTU phlebotomy location, representing 16% of the total patients who received treatment in the CTU, with a mean turnaround time of 24 minutes compared with a baseline turnaround time of 51 minutes. Streamlining workflows and placing a phlebotomy station inside of the CTU decreased laboratory turnaround times by 53% for patients requiring same day lab and CTU services. The success of the pilot project prompted the team to make the station a permanent fixture. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. No More Waits and Delays: Streamlining Workflow to Decrease Patient Time of Stay for Image-guided Musculoskeletal Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yvonne Y; Goodman, Eric M; Osunkoya, Tomiwa O

    2016-01-01

    Long wait times limit our ability to provide the right care at the right time and are commonly products of inefficient workflow. In 2013, the demand for musculoskeletal (MSK) procedures increased beyond our department's ability to provide efficient and timely service. We initiated a quality improvement (QI) project to increase efficiency and decrease patient time of stay. Our project team included three MSK radiologists, one senior resident, one technologist, one administrative assistant/scheduler, and the lead technologist. We adopted and followed the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) approach. The team used tools such as voice of the customer (VOC), along with affinity and SIPOC (supplier, input, process, output, customer) diagrams, to understand the current process, identify our customers, and develop a project charter in the define stage. During the measure stage, the team collected data, created a detailed process map, and identified wastes with the value stream mapping technique. Within the analyze phase, a fishbone diagram helped the team to identify critical root causes for long wait times. Scatter plots revealed relationships among time variables. Team brainstorming sessions generated improvement ideas, and selected ideas were piloted via plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. The control phase continued to enable the team to monitor progress using box plots and scheduled reviews. Our project successfully decreased patient time of stay. The highly structured and logical Lean Six Sigma approach was easy to follow and provided a clear course of action with positive results. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  15. Patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation: caregiver burden and stress.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Eliane Tiemi; Dos Santos, Randolfo; Miyazaki, M Cristina; Domingos, Neide M; Felicio, Hellen C; Rocha, Marcia F; Arroyo, Paulo C; Duca, William J; Silva, Renato F; Silva, Rita C M A

    2010-10-01

    Over the last few decades, informal caregivers of patients with chronic diseases have received more attention, and there is a growing volume of studies demonstrating high rates of burden, stress, and mental disorders in this group of individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden, stress, and psychosocial characteristics of informal caregivers of liver transplantation candidates. Participants were assessed by individual evaluations with the following instruments: a semistructured interview, the Caregiver Burden Scale, the Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. The characteristics of the study group (n = 61) were similar to those of groups in other studies with respect to gender (82% were women), kinship (64% were spouses), and age (the mean age was 47.6 years). The main stressors identified by the participants were as follows: doubts about ways to react in a crisis or in emergency situations (42.6%), mood swings of the patient (29.5%), and care involving food and medications (27.9%). Approximately 25% of the caregivers reported that they felt unprepared to adequately perform their roles. Data analysis indicated a greater burden overall on caregivers when the patient's Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was greater than or equal to 15 points (P = 0.041). Furthermore, caregivers of patients with alcoholic liver disease showed higher depression (P = 0.034) and overall burden scores (P = 0.031) versus caregivers of patients with liver disease due to other etiologies. In conclusion, the participants showed significantly high levels of burden, stress, and depression. Support measures and caregiver preparation should be implemented by health care providers. © 2010 AASLD.

  16. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Gender, renal function, and outcomes on the liver transplant waiting list: assessment of revised MELD including estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Myers, Robert P; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M; Aspinall, Alexander I; Quinn, Robert R; Burak, Kelly W

    2011-03-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system for liver transplantation (LT) may present a disadvantage for women by including serum creatinine, which is typically lower in females. Our objectives were to investigate gender disparities in outcomes among LT candidates and to assess a revised MELD, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), for predicting waiting list mortality. Adults registered for LT between 2002 and 2007 were identified using the UNOS database. We compared components of MELD, MDRD-derived eGFR, and the 3-month probability of LT and death between genders. Discrimination of MELD, MELDNa, and revised models including eGFR for mortality were compared using c-statistics. A total of 40,393 patients (36% female) met the inclusion criteria; 9% died and 24% underwent LT within 3 months of listing. Compared with men, women had lower median serum creatinine (0.9 vs. 1.0 mg/dl), eGFR (72 vs. 83 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and mean MELD (16.5 vs. 17.2; all p <0.0005), but within most MELD strata, had higher bilirubin and INR. After adjusting for relevant covariates including creatinine and body weight, women were less likely than men to receive a LT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI 0.79-0.87) and had greater 3-month mortality (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.05-1.21). Revision of MELD and MELDNa to include eGFR did not improve discrimination for 3-month mortality (c-statistics: MELD 0.896, MELD-eGFR 0.894, MELDNa 0.911, MELDNa-eGFR 0.905). Women are disadvantaged under MELD potentially due to its inclusion of creatinine. However, since including eGFR in MELD does not improve mortality prediction, alternative refinements are necessary. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  19. Desferrioxamine in warm reperfusion media decreases liver injury aggravated by cold storage

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Peter G; Niu, Xian-Wa; Huang, Wen-Hua; DeBoer, Bastiaan; Lai, Ching Tat; Rossi, Enrico; Joseph, John; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether desferrioxamine decreases ischemia and perfusion injury aggravated by cold storage (CS) in a rat liver perfusion model. METHODS: Isolated rat livers were kept in CS in University of Wisconsin Solution for 20 h at 4 °C, then exposed to 25 min of warm ischemia (WI) at 37 °C followed by 2 h of warm perfusion (WP) at 37 °C with oxygenated (95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide) Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, was added at different stages of storage, ischemia and perfusion: in CS only, in WI only, in WP only, in WI and perfusion, or in all stages. Effluent samples were collected after CS and after WI. Perfusate samples and bile were collected every 30 min (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h) during liver perfusion. Cellular injury was assessed by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the effluent and perfusate samples. Total iron was analysed in the perfusate samples. After WP, the liver was collected for the determination of liver swelling (wet to dry ratio) and liver morphological examination (hematoxylin and eosin staining). RESULTS: Increased CS time caused increased liver dysfunction during WP. After 2 h of WP, liver injury was indicated by increased release of AST (0.5 h CS: 9.4 ± 2.2 U/g liver vs 20 h CS: 45.9 ± 10.8 U/g liver, P < 0.05) and LDH (0.5 h CS: 59 ± 14 U/g liver vs 20 h CS: 297 ± 71 U/g liver, P < 0.05). There was an associated increase in iron release into the perfusate (0.5 h CS: 0.11 ± 0.03 μmoL/g liver vs 20 h CS: 0.58 ± 0.10 μmoL/g liver, P < 0.05) and reduction in bile flow (0.5 h CS: 194 ± 12 μL/g vs 20 h CS: 71 ± 8 μL/g liver, P < 0.05). When DFO was added during WI and WP following 20 h of CS, release of iron into the perfusate was decreased (DFO absent 0.58 ± 0.10 μmoL/g liver vs DFO present 0.31 ± 0.06 μmoL/g liver, P < 0.05), and liver function substantially improved with decreased release of AST (DFO absent 45.9 ± 10.8 U

  20. Pilot study of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation as a bridging therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients wait-listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Lo, Regina C L; Chu, Ferdinand S K; Tsang, Simon H Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Sharr, William W; Fung, James Y Y; Dai, Wing Chiu; Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat; Lo, Chung Mau

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation as a bridging therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had been wait-listed for deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Adult patients with unresectable and unablatable HCCs within the University of California San Francisco criteria who had been wait-listed for DDLT were screened for their suitability for HIFU ablation as a bridging therapy if they were not suitable for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Treatment outcomes for patients receiving HIFU ablation, TACE, and best medical treatment (BMT) were compared. Fifty-one patients were included in the analysis. Before the introduction of HIFU ablation, only 39.2% of the patients had received bridging therapy (TACE only, n = 20). With HIFU ablation in use, the rate increased dramatically to 80.4% (TACE + HIFU, n = 41). The overall dropout rate was 51% (n = 26). Patients in the BMT group had a significantly higher dropout rate (P = 0.03) and significantly poorer liver function as reflected by higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores and higher Child-Pugh grading. Clinically relevant ascites was found in 5 patients in the HIFU group and 2 patients in the BMT group, but none was found in the TACE group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The TACE and HIFU groups had comparable percentages of tumor necrosis in excised livers (P = 0.35), and both were significantly higher than that in the BMT group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, HIFU ablation was safe even for HCC patients with Child-Pugh C disease. Its adoption increased the percentage of patients receiving bridging therapy from 39.2% to 80.4%. A randomized controlled trial for further validation of its efficacy is warranted. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. The psoas muscle transversal diameter predicts mortality in patients with cirrhosis on a waiting list for liver transplantation: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Audrey; Latournerie, Marianne; Debry, Pauline Houssel; Jezequel, Caroline; Legros, Ludivine; Rayar, Michel; Boudjema, Karim; Guyader, Dominique; Jacquet, Edouard Bardou; Thibault, Ronan

    2018-02-09

    Malnutrition impairs prognosis in liver cirrhosis. Our aims were to determine (1) if transversal (TPTI) and axial (APTI) psoas thickness indices predict mortality in cirrhotic patients and (2) the feasibility and reproducibility of transversal (TDPM) and axial (ADPM) diameters of the psoas muscle measurements. This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria included cirrhosis diagnosis, on liver transplantation waiting list, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan within the 3 mo preceding list inscription. TDPM and ADPM were measured on a single umbilicus-targeted CT image by non-expert and expert operators. TPTI or APTI (mm/m) were calculated as TDPM or ADPM/height (m). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Cox proportional hazard models were assessed. TPTI and APTI interobserver agreement: κ correlation test. A total of 173 patients were included. Low TPTI was associated with increased mortality: AUC = 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.80). TPTI was the only factor associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.99, P = 0.034). There was an almost perfect interobserver agreement between the two operators: TDPM, κ = 0.97; ADPM, κ = 0.94; P <0.0001. TPTI measured on umbilicus-targeted CT scan before inscription on the waiting list for liver transplantation predicts mortality of cirrhotic patients. TPTI measurement is easy and reliable, even by a non-trained operator, and this is highly feasible in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Los Angeles Safety-Net Program eConsult System Was Rapidly Adopted And Decreased Wait Times To See Specialists.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michael L; Yee, Hal F; Mehrotra, Ateev; Giboney, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Lack of timely access to specialty care is a significant problem among disadvantaged populations, such as those served by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. In 2012 the department implemented an electronic system for the provision of specialty care called the eConsult system, in which all requests from primary care providers for specialty assistance were reviewed by specialists. In many cases, the specialist can address the primary care provider's question via an electronic dialogue, thereby eliminating the need for the patient to see a specialist in person. We observed rapid growth in the use of eConsult: By 2015 the system was in use by over 3,000 primary care providers, and 12,082 consultations were taking place per month, compared to 86 in the third quarter of 2012. The median time to an electronic response from a specialist was one day, and 25 percent of eConsults were resolved without a specialist visit. Three to four years after implementation, the median time to a specialist appointment decreased significantly, while the volume of visits remained stable. eConsult systems are a promising and sustainable intervention that could improve access to specialist care for underserved patients. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Drag reducing polymers decrease hepatic injury and metastases after liver ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Hamza O.; Sud, Vikas; Goswami, Julie; Loughran, Patricia; Huang, Hai; Simmons, Richard L.; Tsung, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment. We hypothesize that DRP can potentially be used to ameliorate metastatic capture of tumor cells and tumor growth within the I/R liver. Methods Experiments were performed utilizing a segmental ischemia model of mice livers. Five days prior or immediately prior to ischemia, murine colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) were injected into the spleen. DRP (polyethylene oxide) or a control of low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol without drag reducing properties were administered intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion. Results After three weeks from I/R, we observed that liver I/R resulted in an increased ability to capture and foster growth of circulating tumor cells; in addition, the growth of pre-existing micrometastases was accelerated three weeks later. These effects were significantly curtailed when mice were treated with DRPs at the time of I/R. Mechanistic investigations in vivo indicated that DRPs protected the livers from I/R injury as evidenced by significant decreases in hepatocellular damage, neutrophil recruitment into the liver, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, deposition of platelets, formation of microthrombi within the liver sinusoids and release of inflammatory cytokines

  4. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells

    Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  5. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BAmore » profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile

  6. Characteristics of liver cirrhosis in Italy: Evidence for a decreasing role of HCV aetiology.

    PubMed

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Sagnelli, Caterina; Andriulli, Angelo; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Pirisi, Mario; Colloredo, Guido; Morisco, Filomena; Furlan, Caterina; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2017-03-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been the main agent associated with liver cirrhosis in Italy. To assess epidemiological, laboratory and clinical features of liver cirrhosis in Italy in 2014. Out of the 2557 consecutive subjects evaluated in 16 hospitals located throughout Italy in 2014, 832 (32.6%) had liver cirrhosis and were enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 60.3years, with a male/female ratio of 1.7; 74.9% of cases had Child A cirrhosis and 17.9% superimposed hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV infection, alone or in combination with other aetiologic agents, was responsible of 58.6% of cases, HBV aetiology accounted for the 17.6% and alcohol abuse for the 16.0%. Compared with virus-related cirrhotic patients, those alcohol-related more frequently showed decompensation (p=0.02). Compared to previous surveys performed in 1992 and in 2001, we observe a statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing role of both HCV infection and alcohol abuse as aetiologic agents of liver cirrhosis in Italy, explaining, at least in part, the slow, progressive decline of the mortality rate for liver cirrhosis in the last decades in this country (from 34.5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants in1980 to 10.8 in 2012). Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) expression decreases with aging, acute liver injuries and tumors in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Terai, Shuji, E-mail: terais@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Hirose, Yoshikazu

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging. {yields} Decreased expression was observed in liver tumors as compared to the surrounding area. {yields} SMP30/RGN is important for liver proliferation and tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) is known to be related to aging, hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, expression and function of non-mammalian SMP30/RGN is poorly understood. We found that zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging, partial hepatectomy and thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury. SMP30/RGN expression was also greatly decreased in a zebrafish liver cell line. In addition, we induced liver tumors in adult zebrafish bymore » administering diethylnitrosamine. Decreased expression was observed in foci, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas and mixed tumors as compared to the surrounding area. We thus showed the importance of SMP30/RGN in liver proliferation and tumorigenesis.« less

  8. Coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon decreases liver inflammation and atherosclerosis in dyslipidemic condition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal; Joharapurkar, Amit; Kshirsagar, Samadhan; Sutariya, Brijesh; Patel, Maulik; Pandey, Dheerendra; Patel, Hiren; Ranvir, Ramchandra; Kadam, Shekhar; Patel, Dipam; Bahekar, Rajesh; Jain, Mukul

    2018-02-25

    Dyslipidemia enhances progression of atherosclerosis. Coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon are under clinical investigation for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Earlier, we have observed that coagonist reduced circulating and hepatic lipids, independent of its anorexic effects. Here, we investigated the role of coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors in complications of diet-induced dyslipidemia in hamsters and humanized double transgenic mice. Hamsters fed on high fat high cholesterol diet were treated for 8 weeks with coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors (75 and 150 μg/kg). Pair-fed control was maintained. Cholesterol fed transgenic mice overexpressing hApoB100 and hCETP with coagonist (300 μg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the completion of treatment, biochemical estimations were done. Coagonist treatment reduced triglycerides in plasma, liver and aorta, plasma cholesterol and hepatic triglyceride secretion rate. Expressions of HMG-CoA reductase and SBREBP-1C were reduced and expressions of LDLR, CYP7A1, ABCA1 and ABCB11 were increased in liver, due to coagonist treatment. Coagonist treatment increased bile flow rate and biliary cholesterol excretion. IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced in plasma and expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 decreased in liver. Treatment with coagonist reduced oxidative stress in liver and aorta. Energy expenditure was increased and respiratory quotient was reduced by coagonist treatment. These changes were correlated with reduced hepatic inflammation and lipids in liver and aorta in coagonist treated hamsters. Coagonist treatment also reduced lipids in cholesterol-fed transgenic mice. These changes were independent of glycaemia and anorexia observed after coagonist treatment. Long term treatment with coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptor ameliorated diet-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis by regulating bile homeostasis, liver inflammation and energy expenditure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ezetimibe decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score but not hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Young; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Hyunwoo; Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Ahn, Hyeongsik; Cheung, Ramsey C; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2018-03-20

    A number of clinical trials reported varying effects of cholesterol lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We, therefore, assessed the changes in hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score (NAS) after treatment with cholesterol lowering agents in NAFLD patients by metaanalysis. The Cochrane Library, the MEDLINE, and the Embase databases were searched until May 2015, without any language restrictions, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs). Additional references were obtained from review of bibliography of relevant articles. The quality of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation guidelines. Three RCTs (n = 98) and two NRSs (n = 101) met our study inclusion criteria (adult, NAFLD, liver biopsy). Liver biopsy was performed in all five studies, but only the three studies reported NAS. Ezetimibe significantly decreased NAS (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.57 to -0.03) but not hepatic steatosis in RCT (SMD, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.32), while the effect was significant for both NAS and intrahepatic content in NRSs (SMD, -3.0; 95% CI, -6.9 to 0.91). Ezetimibe decreased NAS without improving hepatic steatosis.

  10. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Osamah; Grosovski, Masha; Lasri, Etti; Svalb, Sergio; Ravid, Uzi; Assy, Nimer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n = 6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters. RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, p < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95 ± 0.07, p < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09 ± 0.1, p < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by 10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group (0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group, ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group (1.58 ± 0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil (3.3 ± 0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0 ± 0.4), and MCDD + butter group (2.9 ± 0.36) were increased by 108%, 91% and 87%, respectively (p < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all

  11. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  12. Orchidectomy of middle-aged rats decreases liver deiodinase 1 and pituitary deiodinase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Sosic-Jurjevic, Branka; Filipovic, Branko; Renko, Kostja; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Manojlovic-Stojanoski, Milica; Milosevic, Verica; Köhrle, Josef

    2012-11-01

    Endogenous androgens are involved in regulation of thyroid function and metabolism of thyroid hormones. As serum testosterone level progressively declines with age, this regulation may change. We tested how androgen deprivation, achieved by orchidectomy, affects thyroid homeostasis in middle-aged rats. Fifteen-month-old Wistar rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham-operated under ketamine anesthesia (15 mg/kg body weight). Five weeks after the surgery, animals were decapitated. Thyroids were used for histomorphometric and ultrastructural examinations and together with livers and pituitaries for real-time quantitative PCR and deiodinase (DIO) activity measurements. Serum testosterone, TSH, l-thyroxine (T(4)), and cholesterol (Chol) levels were determined. As expected, middle-aged control rats had lower (P<0.05) testosterone and T(4) compared with 3-month-old males. In the Orx middle-aged group, we detected diminished serum testosterone (P<0.05), no change in TSH and T(4) levels, and higher Chol level (P<0.05), in comparison with age-matched controls. Histomorphometric analysis of thyroid tissue revealed decreased relative volume densities of follicles and colloid (P<0.05). Relevant gene expressions and DIO1 enzyme activity were not changed in the thyroids of Orx rats. Liver Dio1 gene expression and DIO1 activity were decreased (P<0.05) in comparison with the control values. Pituitary levels of TSHβ, Dio1, and Dio2 mRNAs did not change, while DIO2 activity decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, orchidectomy of middle-aged rats affected thyroid structure with no effect on serum T(4) and TSH. However, decreased liver DIO1 and pituitary DIO2 enzyme activities indicate compensatory-adaptive changes in local T(3) production.

  13. Exercise decreases CLK2 in the liver of obese mice and prevents hepatic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Vitor R; Gaspar, Rafael C; Kuga, Gabriel K; Nakandakari, Susana C B R; Baptista, Igor L; Mekary, Rania A; da Silva, Adelino S R; de Moura, Leandro P; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Cintra, Dennys E; Pauli, José R

    2018-03-25

    The accumulation of fatty acids in the liver associated with obesity condition is also known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The impaired fat oxidation in obesity condition leads to increased hepatic fat accumulation and increased metabolic syndrome risk. On the other hand, physical exercise has been demonstrated as a potent strategy in the prevention of NAFLD. Also, these beneficial effects of exercise occur through different mechanisms. Recently, the Cdc2-like kinase (CLK2) protein was associated with the suppression of fatty acid oxidation and hepatic ketogenesis. Thus, obese animals demonstrated elevated levels of hepatic CLK2 and decreased fat acid oxidation. Here, we explored the effects of chronic physical exercise in the hepatic metabolism of obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed in Lean, Obese (fed with high-fat diet during 16 weeks) and Trained Obese group (fed with high-fat diet during 16 weeks and exercised (at 60% exhaustion velocity during 1 h/5 days/week) during 8 weeks. In our results, the obese animals showed insulin resistance, increased hepatic CLK2 content and increased hepatic fat accumulation compared to the Lean group. Otherwise, the chronic physical exercise improved insulin resistance state, prevented the increased CLK2 in the liver and attenuated hepatic fat accumulation. In summary, these data reveal a new protein involved in the prevention of hepatic fat accumulation after chronic physical exercise. More studies can evidence the negative role of CLK2 in the control of liver metabolism, contributing to the improvement of insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Restricting liver transplant recipients to younger donors does not increase the wait-list time or the dropout rate: the hepatitis C experience.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Jennifer A; Vagefi, Parsia A; Freise, Chris E; Yao, Francis Y; Terrault, Norah A

    2014-10-01

    Older donor age is associated with lower graft and patient survival among all recipients of liver transplantation (LT). Among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), donor age is one of the strongest predictors of fibrosis severity and graft loss. We evaluated the implementation of a donor age restriction policy for LT patients with HCV at a single center and the effects that this policy had on wait-list (WL) and post-LT outcomes for HCV and non-HCV patients. This was a cohort study of 2388 WL patients and 1015 LT recipients between March 2002 and January 2013 and reflected 3 different eras of donor age policies. With the donor age restriction, the median donor age was reduced in LT recipients with HCV versus LT recipients without HCV (30 versus 48 years, P < 0.001) without differences in the WL time (10.6 versus 8.0 months, P = 0.23). According to a competing risks regression, those with HCV and those without HCV had lower subhazard ratios (SHRs) of dropout or death on the WL during the donor age restriction era versus the era without donor age restriction [SHR = 0.68 (P < 0.01) and SHR = 0.64 (P = 0.01), respectively]. No differences were seen in early post-LT survival for patients with or without HCV between eras (P = 0.7 and P = 0.88, respectively). In conclusion, we show that donor age restriction for HCV results in a lower donor age for HCV recipients without obvious adverse WL consequences. Although additional studies are needed, our results demonstrate the feasibility of donor age restriction for LT recipients with HCV, and such information may be relevant to programs with limited access to new antiviral therapies for which modifying the risk of severe disease remains of paramount importance. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Methods to decrease blood loss during liver resection: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Rouse, Benjamin; Simillis, Constantinos; Li, Tianjing; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2016-10-31

    Liver resection is a major surgery with significant mortality and morbidity. Specialists have tested various methods in attempts to limit blood loss, transfusion requirements, and morbidity during elective liver resection. These methods include different approaches (anterior versus conventional approach), use of autologous blood donation, cardiopulmonary interventions such as hypoventilation, low central venous pressure, different methods of parenchymal transection, different methods of management of the raw surface of the liver, different methods of vascular occlusion, and different pharmacological interventions. A surgeon typically uses only one of the methods from each of these seven categories. The optimal method to decrease blood loss and transfusion requirements in people undergoing liver resection is unknown. To assess the effects of different interventions for decreasing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements during elective liver resection. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Science Citation Index Expanded to September 2015 to identify randomised clinical trials. We also searched trial registers and handsearched the references lists of identified trials. We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing different methods of decreasing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in people undergoing liver resection. Two review authors independently identified trials and collected data. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane domains. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method in WinBUGS 1.4, following the guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance documents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the binary outcomes, mean differences (MD) with 95% CrI for continuous outcomes, and rate

  16. Lovastatin decreases mortality and improves liver functions in fulminant hepatic failure from 90% partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, S R; Motoyama, K; Shen, K J; Kennedy, S C; Flye, M W; Ponder, K P

    2000-01-01

    Liver insufficiency occurs when the liver cannot perform critical functions such as ammonia metabolism, gluconeogenesis, or production of coagulation factors The hypothesis of this study was that decreased function of existing hepatocytes may contribute to hepatic failure, and that the function of these cells might be increased pharmacologically. Lovastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitor that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and affects the activity of some signal transduction pathways and liver transcription factors. Changes in hepatic transcription factors during liver regeneration might result in decreased liver functions, and lovastatin might prevent these changes Rats received 90% partial hepatectomy (90% PH), and either lovastatin or vehicle alone daily. Survival and liver functions were assessed. Lovastatin increased survival to 58% (vs. 6% in controls that received 90% PH without drug), decreased the peak ammonia level to 427 microM (vs. 846 microM in controls), increased the nadir of glucose to 88 mg/dl (vs. 57 mg/dl in controls), decreased the peak prothrombin time to 23 s (vs 29 s in controls), and decreased the peak activated partial thromboplastin time to 29 s (vs. 39 s in controls). The full survival and metabolic benefits were observed when lovastatin was started at 30 min after 90% PH, but lovastatin was less efficacious when started at later times. Lovastatin increases the function of existing hepatocytes and might be used to improve liver function after extensive hepatic resection.

  17. Mice mutant for glucokinase regulatory protein exhibit decreased liver glucokinase: A sequestration mechanism in metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Dennis; Brown, Karen S.; Tieman, Aaron; Ren, Jianming; Lira, Sergio A.; Hagan, Deborah; Gregg, Richard; Mookhtiar, Kasim A.; Hariharan, Narayanan

    1999-01-01

    The importance of glucokinase (GK; EC 2.7.1.12) in glucose homeostasis has been demonstrated by the association of GK mutations with diabetes mellitus in humans and by alterations in glucose metabolism in transgenic and gene knockout mice. Liver GK activity in humans and rodents is allosterically inhibited by GK regulatory protein (GKRP). To further understand the role of GKRP in GK regulation, the mouse GKRP gene was inactivated. With the knockout of the GKRP gene, there was a parallel loss of GK protein and activity in mutant mouse liver. The loss was primarily because of posttranscriptional regulation of GK, indicating a positive regulatory role for GKRP in maintaining GK levels and activity. As in rat hepatocytes, both GK and GKRP were localized in the nuclei of mouse hepatocytes cultured in low-glucose-containing medium. In the presence of fructose or high concentrations of glucose, conditions known to relieve GK inhibition by GKRP in vitro, only GK was translocated into the cytoplasm. In the GKRP-mutant hepatocytes, GK was not found in the nucleus under any tested conditions. We propose that GKRP functions as an anchor to sequester and inhibit GK in the hepatocyte nucleus, where it is protected from degradation. This ensures that glucose phosphorylation is minimal when the liver is in the fasting, glucose-producing phase. This also enables the hepatocytes to rapidly mobilize GK into the cytoplasm to phosphorylate and store or metabolize glucose after the ingestion of dietary glucose. In GKRP-mutant mice, the disruption of this regulation and the subsequent decrease in GK activity leads to altered glucose metabolism and impaired glycemic control. PMID:10588736

  18. Epidermal growth factor administration decreases liver glycogen and causes mild hyperglycaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Grau, M; Tebar, F; Ramírez, I; Soley, M

    1996-04-01

    Several laboratories report different effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes. The discrepancies may be attributed to differences in the experimental conditions. It is therefore important to establish the actual effect of EGF in vivo. Because large physiological variations of EGF concentration in plasma occur in mice, we used this species to address this question. In freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes, EGF increased glycogen degradation in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (36% increase over basal glycogenolysis) was smaller than maximal effects of classical glycogenolytic hormones like adrenaline or glucagon (more than 150% increase over basal). This is in keeping with the smaller effect of EGF on phosphorylase a activity. In contrast with these hormones, EGF did not inhibit glycolysis. Thus these effects of EGF in mouse hepatocytes are similar to those recently described by us in rat hepatocytes [Quintana, Grau, Moreno, Soler, Ramirez and Soley (1995) Biochem J 308, 889-894]. When administered to whole animals, EGF increased phosphorylase a activity, decreased the glycogen content in the liver and caused mild hyperglycaemia. Taking together the results obtained for isolated cells and for whole animals, we suggest that the glucosyl residues released from glycogen are used mostly by the liver rather than released to the circulation. This would be different from the action of the classical glycogenolytic hormones, adrenaline and glucagon.

  19. Comparison of two equivalent model for end-stage liver disease scores for hepatocellular carcinoma patients using data from the United Network for Organ Sharing liver transplant waiting list registry.

    PubMed

    Alver, Sarah K; Lorenz, Douglas J; Washburn, Kenneth; Marvin, Michael R; Brock, Guy N

    2017-11-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been advantaged on the liver transplant waiting list within the United States, and a 6-month delay and exception point cap have recently been implemented to address this disparity. An alternative approach to prioritization is an HCC-specific scoring model such as the MELD Equivalent (MELD EQ ) and the mixed new deMELD. Using data on adult patients added to the UNOS waitlist between 30 September 2009 and 30 June 2014, we compared projected dropout and transplant probabilities for patients with HCC under these two models. Both scores matched actual non-HCC dropout in groups with scores <22 and improved equity with non-HCC transplant probabilities overall. However, neither score matched non-HCC dropout accurately for scores of 25-40 and projected dropout increased beyond non-HCC probabilities for scores <16. The main differences between the two scores were as follows: (i) the MELD EQ assigns 6.85 more points after 6 months on the waitlist and (ii) the deMELD gives greater weight to tumor size and laboratory MELD. Post-transplant survival was lower for patients with scores in the 22-30 range compared with those with scores <16 (P = 0.007, MELD EQ ; P = 0.015, deMELD). While both scores result in better equity of waitlist outcomes compared with scheduled progression, continued development and calibration is recommended. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  20. Postoperative Decrease in Platelet Counts Is Associated with Delayed Liver Function Recovery and Complications after Partial Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Oshiro, Yukio; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Sakashita, Shingo; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral platelet counts decrease after partial hepatectomy; however, the implications of this phenomenon are unclear. We assessed if the observed decrease in platelet counts was associated with postoperative liver function and morbidity (complications grade ≤ II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification). We enrolled 216 consecutive patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for primary liver cancers, metastatic liver cancers, benign tumors, and donor hepatectomy. We classified patients as either low or high platelet percentage (postoperative platelet count/preoperative platelet count) using the optimal cutoff value calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and analyzed risk factors for delayed liver functional recovery and morbidity after hepatectomy. Delayed liver function recovery and morbidity were significantly correlated with the lowest value of platelet percentage based on ROC analysis. Using a cutoff value of 60% acquired by ROC analysis, univariate and multivariate analysis determined that postoperative lowest platelet percentage ≤ 60% was identified as an independent risk factor of delayed liver function recovery (odds ratio (OR) 6.85; P < 0.01) and morbidity (OR, 4.90; P < 0.01). Furthermore, patients with the lowest platelet percentage ≤ 60% had decreased postoperative prothrombin time ratio and serum albumin level and increased serum bilirubin level when compared with patients with platelet percentage ≥ 61%. A greater than 40% decrease in platelet count after partial hepatectomy was an independent risk factor for delayed liver function recovery and postoperative morbidity. In conclusion, the decrease in platelet counts is an early marker to predict the liver function recovery and complications after hepatectomy.

  1. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

    PubMed

    Chekuri, Sweta; Nickerson, Jillian; Bichoupan, Kian; Sefcik, Roberta; Doobay, Kamini; Chang, Sanders; DelBello, David; Harty, Alyson; Dieterich, Douglas T; Perumalswami, Ponni V; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR) to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on liver stiffness (LS). LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan), demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN)-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment) were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The median age of the patients (n = 100) was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range) 54-64); 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60) pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38) at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60%) of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38) versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23), p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5) during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63) years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99). LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  2. Genetic variation in PNPLA3 (adiponutrin) confers sensitivity to weight loss-induced decrease in liver fat in humans.

    PubMed

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Kotronen, Anna; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Perttilä, Julia; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Suojanen, Laura; Orho-Melander, Marju; Lundbom, Nina; Ferrannini, Eleuterio; Rissanen, Aila; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    The rs738409 C→G single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3; adiponutrin) leads to a missense mutation (I148M), which is associated with increased liver fat but not insulin resistance. The I148M mutation impedes triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro, and its carriers have an increased risk of developing severe liver disease. We explored whether the rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele influences the ability of weight loss to decrease liver fat or change insulin sensitivity. We recruited 8 subjects who were homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele (PNPLA3-148MM) and 10 who were homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 C allele (PNPLA3-148II). To allow comparison of changes in liver fat, the groups were matched with respect to baseline age, sex, body mass index, and liver fat. The subjects were placed on a hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet for 6 d. Liver fat content (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), whole-body insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism (euglycemic clamp technique), and lipolysis ([(2)H(5)]glycerol infusion) were measured before and after the diet. At baseline, fasting serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly lower in the PNPLA3-148MM group than in the PNPLA3-148II group, as predicted by study design. Weight loss was not significantly different between groups (PNPLA3-148MM: -3.1 ± 0.5 kg; PNPLA3-148II: -3.1 ± 0.4 kg). Liver fat decreased by 45% in the PNPLA3-148MM group (P < 0.001) and by 18% in the PNPLA3-148II group (P < 0.01). Weight loss is effective in decreasing liver fat in subjects who are homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 G or C allele. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 233775.

  3. Decreasing mitochondrial fission alleviates hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Brookes, Paul S; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-09-15

    Mitochondria produce the majority of cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and their capacity to do so is influenced by many factors. Mitochondrial morphology is recently suggested as an important contributor in controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, which is affected by environmental factors, including metabolic alterations. Underscoring its bioenergetic influence, altered mitochondrial morphology is reported in tissues of patients and in animal models of metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we found that mitochondrial fission plays a vital role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The development of hepatic steatosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, and hepatic tissue damage, induced by a high-fat diet, were alleviated in genetically manipulated mice suppressing mitochondrial fission. The alleviation of steatosis was recapitulated in primary hepatocytes with the inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, our study indicates that fission inhibition enhances proton leak under conditions of free fatty acid incubation, implicating bioenergetic change through manipulating mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanistic role for mitochondrial fission in the etiology of NAFLD. The efficacy of decreasing mitochondrial fission in the suppression of NAFLD suggests that mitochondrial fission represents a novel target for therapeutic treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Minimizing tacrolimus decreases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiu-Lin; Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Jia-Yin; Wen, Tian-Fu; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Hong; Xu, Ming-Qing; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of minimum tacrolimus (TAC) on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 973 liver transplant recipients between March 1999 and September 2014 in West China Hospital Liver Transplantation Center. Following the exclusion of ineligible recipients, 528 recipients with a TAC-dominant regimen were included in our study. We calculated and determined the mean trough concentration of TAC (cTAC) in the year of diabetes diagnosis in NODM recipients or in the last year of the follow-up in non-NODM recipients. A cutoff of mean cTAC value for predicting NODM 6 mo after LT was identified using a receptor operating characteristic curve. TAC-related complications after LT was evaluated by χ2 test, and the overall and allograft survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for NODM after LT were examined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Of the 528 transplant recipients, 131 (24.8%) developed NODM after 6 mo after LT, and the cumulative incidence of NODM progressively increased. The mean cTAC of NODM group recipients was significantly higher than that of recipients in the non-NODM group (7.66 ± 3.41 ng/mL vs 4.47 ± 2.22 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Furthermore, NODM group recipients had lower 1-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates (86.7%, 71.3%, and 61.1% vs 94.7%, 86.1%, and 83.7%, P < 0.05) and allograft survival rates (92.8%, 84.6%, and 75.7% vs 96.1%, 91%, and 86.1%, P < 0.05) than the others. The best cutoff of mean cTAC for predicting NODM was 5.89 ng/mL after 6 mo after LT. Multivariate analysis showed that old age at the time of LT (> 50 years), hypertension pre-LT, and high mean cTAC (≥ 5.89 ng/mL) after 6 mo after LT were independent risk factors for developing NODM. Concurrently, recipients with a low cTAC (< 5.89 ng/mL) were less likely to become obese (21.3% vs 30.2%, P < 0.05) or to develop dyslipidemia (27.5% vs 44.8%, P <0

  5. Minimizing tacrolimus decreases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiu-Lin; Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Jia-Yin; Wen, Tian-Fu; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Hong; Xu, Ming-Qing; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian

    2016-02-14

    To investigate the impact of minimum tacrolimus (TAC) on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT). We retrospectively analyzed the data of 973 liver transplant recipients between March 1999 and September 2014 in West China Hospital Liver Transplantation Center. Following the exclusion of ineligible recipients, 528 recipients with a TAC-dominant regimen were included in our study. We calculated and determined the mean trough concentration of TAC (cTAC) in the year of diabetes diagnosis in NODM recipients or in the last year of the follow-up in non-NODM recipients. A cutoff of mean cTAC value for predicting NODM 6 mo after LT was identified using a receptor operating characteristic curve. TAC-related complications after LT was evaluated by χ(2) test, and the overall and allograft survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for NODM after LT were examined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Of the 528 transplant recipients, 131 (24.8%) developed NODM after 6 mo after LT, and the cumulative incidence of NODM progressively increased. The mean cTAC of NODM group recipients was significantly higher than that of recipients in the non-NODM group (7.66 ± 3.41 ng/mL vs 4.47 ± 2.22 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Furthermore, NODM group recipients had lower 1-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates (86.7%, 71.3%, and 61.1% vs 94.7%, 86.1%, and 83.7%, P < 0.05) and allograft survival rates (92.8%, 84.6%, and 75.7% vs 96.1%, 91%, and 86.1%, P < 0.05) than the others. The best cutoff of mean cTAC for predicting NODM was 5.89 ng/mL after 6 mo after LT. Multivariate analysis showed that old age at the time of LT (> 50 years), hypertension pre-LT, and high mean cTAC (≥ 5.89 ng/mL) after 6 mo after LT were independent risk factors for developing NODM. Concurrently, recipients with a low cTAC (< 5.89 ng/mL) were less likely to become obese (21.3% vs 30.2%, P < 0.05) or to develop dyslipidemia (27.5% vs 44.8%, P <0.05), chronic kidney

  6. Partial deletion of argininosuccinate synthase protects from pyrazole plus lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung Ming; Ward, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Along with nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, ASS endows cells with the l-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) salvage pathway to continually supply l-arginine from l-citrulline for sustained NO· generation. Because of the relevant role of NOS in liver injury, we hypothesized that downregulation of ASS could decrease the availability of intracellular substrate for NO· synthesis by NOS-2 and, hence, decrease liver damage. Previous work demonstrated that pyrazole plus LPS caused significant liver injury involving NO· generation and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts; thus, wild-type (WT) and Ass+/− mice (Ass−/− mice are lethal) were treated with pyrazole plus LPS, and markers of nitrosative stress, as well as liver injury, were analyzed. Partial ablation of Ass protected from pyrazole plus LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress and hepatic and circulating TNFα. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented, since pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− mice showed decreased phosphorylation of JNK; increased MAPK phosphatase-1, which is known to deactivate JNK signaling; and lower cleaved caspase-3 than treated WT mice, and this was accompanied by less TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive staining. Lastly, hepatic neutrophil accumulation was almost absent in pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− compared with WT mice. Partial Ass ablation prevents pyrazole plus LPS-mediated liver injury by reducing nitrosative stress, TNFα, apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:22052013

  7. Why Wait?

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2–4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female wages 2-3 percent, but has no effect on wage growth. Male wages are unaffected by childbearing. These findings suggest that early marriage and childbearing can lead to substantial decreases in lifetime earnings. PMID:22993452

  8. The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine increases both catecholamine release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and decreases motivation for reward and "waiting" impulsivity, but increases "stopping" impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Korte, S Mechiel; Prins, Jolanda; Van den Bergh, Filip S; Oosting, Ronald S; Dupree, Rudy; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Denys, Damiaan A; Garland, Alexis; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-01-05

    The 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward. How eltoprazine affects monoamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the NAc is unknown. It is also unknown whether eltoprazine affects different forms of impulsivity and brain reward mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the effects of eltoprazine in rats in the following sequence: 1) the activity of the monoaminergic systems using in vivo microdialysis, 2) motivation for reward measured using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, and finally, 3) "waiting" impulsivity in the delay-aversion task, and the "stopping" impulsivity in the stop-signal task. The microdialysis studies clearly showed that eltoprazine increased DA and NE release in both the mPFC and OFC, but only increased DA concentration in the NAc. In contrast, eltoprazine decreased 5-HT release in the mPFC and NAc (undetectable in the OFC). Remarkably, eltoprazine decreased impulsive choice, but increased impulsive action. Furthermore, brain stimulation was less rewarding following eltoprazine treatment. These results further support the long-standing hypothesis that "waiting" and "stopping" impulsivity are regulated by distinct neural circuits, because 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor activation decreases impulsive choice, but increases impulsive action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods to decrease blood loss and transfusion requirements for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Pissanou, Theodora; Pikhart, Hynek; Vaughan, Jessica; Burroughs, Andrew K; Davidson, Brian R

    2011-12-07

    Excessive blood loss and increased blood transfusion requirements may have significant impact on the short-term and long-term outcomes after liver transplantation. To compare the potential benefits and harms of different methods of decreasing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements during liver transplantation. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and metaRegister of Controlled Trials until September 2011. We included all randomised clinical trials that were performed to compare various methods of decreasing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements during liver transplantation. Two authors independently identified the trials and extracted the data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects model using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on available data analysis. We also conducted network meta-analysis. We included 33 trials involving 1913 patients. The sample size in the trials varied from 8 to 209 participants. The interventions included pharmacological interventions (aprotinin, tranexamic acid, epsilon amino caproic acid, antithrombin 3, recombinant factor (rFvIIa), oestrogen, prostaglandin, epinephrine), blood substitutes (blood components rather than whole blood, hydroxy-ethyl starch, thromboelastography), and cardiovascular interventions (low central venous pressure). All the trials were of high risk of bias. Primary outcomes were reported in at least two trials for the following comparisons: aprotinin versus control, tranexamic acid versus control, recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) versus control, and tranexamic acid versus aprotinin. There were no significant differences in the 60-day mortality (3 trials; 6/161 (3.7%) in the aprotinin group versus 8/119 (6.7%) in the control group; RR 0

  10. Activation of PPARα decreases bile acids in livers of female mice while maintaining bile flow and biliary bile acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2018-01-01

    Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that act as activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). In both humans and rodents, females were reported to be less responsive to fibrates than males. Previous studies on fibrates and PPARα usually involved male mice, but little has been done in females. The present study aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of clofibrate (CLOF) and PPARα on bile acid (BA) homeostasis in female mice. Study in WT male mice showed that a 4-day CLOF treatment increased liver weight, bile flow, and biliary BA excretion, but decreased total BAs in both serum and liver. In contrast, WT female mice were less susceptible to these CLOF-mediated responses observed in males. In WT female mice, CLOF decreased total BAs in the liver, but had little effect on the mRNAs of hepatic BA-related genes. Next, a comparative analysis between WT and PPARα-null female mice showed that lack of PPARα in female mice decreased total BAs in serum, but had little effect on total BAs in liver or bile. However, lack of PPARα in female mice increased mRNAs of BA synthetic enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1, and Cyp7b1) and transporters (Ntcp, Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2, and Mrp3). Furthermore, the increase of Cyp7a1 in PPARα-null female mice was associated with an increase in liver Fxr-Shp-Lrh-1 signaling. In conclusion, female mice are resistant to CLOF-mediated effects on BA metabolism observed in males, which could be attributed to PPARα-mediated suppression in females on genes involved in BA synthesis and transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Valsartan decreases TGF-β1 production and protects against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced liver peritoneal fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Subeq, Yi-Maun; Ke, Chen-Yen; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Lee, Chung-Jen; Chiu, Yi-Han; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2011-02-01

    Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a recognized complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) and can lead to ultrafiltration failure. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of valsartan on chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF by decreasing TGF-β1 production in rats. PF was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily administration of 0.5 ml 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate in normal saline via peritoneal dialysis (PD) tube for 1 week. Rats received daily intravenous injections of low dose valsartan (1 mg/kg) or high dose valsartan (3 mg/kg) for 1 week. After 7 days, conventional 4.25% Dianeal (30 ml) was administered via a PD catheter with a dwell time of 4 h and assessed of peritoneal function. At the end of dialysis, rats were sacrificed and the liver peritoneum was harvested for microscopically and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure and heart rate between groups. After 4 h of PD, the D₄/P(4Urea) level was reduced, the D₄/D₀ glucose level, serum and dialysate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) level was increased, the liver peritoneum was markedly thicker, and the expression of TGF-β1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were elevated in the PF group compared with the vehicle group. High dose of valsartan decreased the serum and dialysate TGF-β1 level, decreased the thickness of the liver peritoneum, and decreased the expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, and VEGF-positive cells in liver peritoneum. The low dose of valsartan did not protect against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF in rat. Valsartan protected against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced PF in rats by decreasing TGF-β1 production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in rat liver with subchronic exposure to genotoxic carcinogens riddelliine and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Lian, Christine Guo; Xu, Shuyun; Guo, Weimin; Yan, Jian; Frank, Maximilian Y M; Liu, Robert; Liu, Cynthia; Chen, Ying; Murphy, George F; Chen, Tao

    2015-11-01

    The level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) converted by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family is decreased in cancers. However, whether 5-hmC level is perturbed in early stages of carcinogenesis caused by genotoxic carcinogens is not defined. 5-hmC levels and TET2 expression were measured in liver of rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, riddelliine, or aristolochic acid. Levels of 5-hmC and TET2 expression decreased in the liver of the carcinogens-treated rats. Loss of 5-hmC correlates well with documented induction of genetic mutations by the carcinogens, suggesting that TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation plays an epigenetic role in early state of carcinogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Decrease of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Rat Liver with Subchronic Exposure to Genotoxic Carcinogens Riddelliine and Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Christine Guo; Xu, Shuyun; Guo, Weimin; Yan, Jian; Frank, Maximilian Y M; Liu, Robert; Liu, Cynthia; Chen, Ying; Murphy, George F.; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) converted by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family is decreased in cancers. However, whether 5-hmC level is perturbed in early stages of carcinogenesis caused by genotoxic carcinogens is not defined. 5-hmC levels and TET2 expression were measured in liver of rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, riddelliine, or aristolochic acid. Levels of 5-hmC and TET2 expression decreased in the liver of the carcinogens-treated rats. Loss of 5-hmC correlates well with documented induction of genetic mutations by the carcinogens, suggesting that TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation plays an epigenetic role in early state of carcinogenesis. PMID:25154389

  14. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (SFL model) or a methionine-choline-deficient diet (NASH model) for eight weeks. Hepatic uptake transporter function was determined by bromosulfophthalein (BSP) disposition. Transporter expression was determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and western blotting; inflammation was identified by immunostaining of liver slices for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). MC- rats showed significant retention of BSP in the plasma when compared to control rats. Hepatic NTCP, OATP1a1, 1a4, 1b2 and 2b1; and OAT 2 and 3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in high-fat and MC- diet rats when compared to control. Protein expression of OATP1a1 was significantly decreased in high-fat animals, while OATP1a1 and OATP1b2 expression was significantly lower in MC- rats when compared to control. Liver tissue from high-fat and MC- rats stained positive for IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to decrease expression of NTCP, OATP and OAT transporters, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the observed transporter alterations. These data suggest that different stages of NAFLD result in altered hepatic uptake transporter expression that can lead to a functional impairment of xenobiotic uptake from the blood. Furthermore, NAFLD may alter the plasma retention time of clinically relevant drugs that are reliant on these transporters and may increase the potential drug toxicity. PMID:19358839

  15. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    French, William W.; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A.; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I.

    2017-01-01

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05) compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05) compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05) levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05), with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle. PMID:28594375

  16. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake ( p < 0.05) compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight ( p < 0.05) compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin ( p < 0.05) levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 ( p < 0.05), with no difference in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  17. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Donepudi, Ajay C; Moscovitz, Jamie E; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD), regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting). Male C57BL/6 (WT) and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase) and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36) and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  18. Keap1-Knockdown Decreases Fasting-Induced Fatty Liver via Altered Lipid Metabolism and Decreased Fatty Acid Mobilization from Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jialin; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Moscovitz, Jamie E.; Slitt, Angela L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD), regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting). Methods and Results Male C57BL/6 (WT) and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase) and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36) and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters — CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Conclusion Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation. PMID:24224011

  19. Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Daubioul, Catherine; Rousseau, Nicolas; Demeure, Roger; Gallez, Bernard; Taper, Henryk; Declerck, Barbara; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates, differing in fermentability by colonic bacteria, on hepatic steatosis in growing obese Zucker rats. Male Zucker fa/fa rats were divided into three groups: a control group that received the basal diet, a fructan group that received 10 g highly fermented Synergy 1/100 g diet and a cellulose group that received 10 g poorly fermented Vivapur Microcrystalline cellulose/100 g diet. Rats consuming fructan had a lower energy intake, a lower body weight and less triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver as assessed in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ex vivo by biochemical and histochemical analysis compared with the control and/or cellulose groups. The high fermentation of fructans compared with cellulose was reflected by greater cecal contents and by a twofold greater propionate concentration in the portal vein of rats fed fructan compared with those fed cellulose. By measuring the capacity of hepatocytes isolated from liver of Zucker rats to synthesize triglycerides or total lipids from different precursors, we showed that propionate, at the concentrations measured in the portal vein of rats treated with fructan, selectively decreased the incorporation of acetate into total lipids, a phenomenon that could contribute, along with the lower energy intake, to less triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed dietary fructans.

  20. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a viscous soluble fiber, reduces insulin resistance and decreases fatty liver in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Brockman, David A; Chen, Xiaoli; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2012-11-12

    viscous non-fermentable fiber HPMC decreased diabetic wasting, improved glucose control and reduced insulin resistance and fatty liver in a model of obesity with diabetes.

  1. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  2. Watchful waiting with periodic liver biopsy versus immediate empirical therapy for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, J B; Koff, R S

    2000-11-07

    Not all patients with histologically mild chronic hepatitis C progress to cirrhosis. To compare no antiviral treatment, periodic liver biopsy with subsequent antiviral treatment for moderate hepatitis or cirrhosis, and immediate antiviral therapy. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Clinical trial data and published studies. Hepatitis C virus-infected patients with histologically mild hepatitis. Lifetime. Societal. Immediate combination antiviral treatment or biopsy every 3 years plus combination antiviral therapy for moderate hepatitis or cirrhosis. Life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and costs. Over 20 years, biopsy every 3 years with treatment of moderate hepatitis would avoid treatment in 50% of the cohort and would result in an 18% likelihood of cirrhosis compared with 16% for immediate treatment and 27% for no antiviral therapy. Immediate antiviral treatment should increase life expectancy by 1.0 quality-adjusted life-year compared with biopsy management. Over an average lifetime, biopsy management would lead to six liver biopsies costing $6200; immediate antiviral treatment would cost $5100 less than biopsy management because of savings related to biopsy and prevention of future hepatitis C-related morbidity. Immediate therapy was cost-effective compared with biopsy management and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $7000 compared with no antiviral therapy. When age, sex, genotype, and estimates of histologic progression or compliance with follow-up are varied, immediate therapy should result in an increase of at least 0. 8 quality-adjusted life-year compared with biopsy management. For histologically mild chronic hepatitis C, initial combination treatment compared with periodic liver biopsy should reduce the future risk for cirrhosis, prolong life, and be cost-effective.

  3. Decreasing incidence of symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus disease and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric liver transplant recipients: report of the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience.

    PubMed

    Narkewicz, Michael R; Green, Michael; Dunn, Stephen; Millis, Michael; McDiarmid, Susan; Mazariegos, George; Anand, Ravinder; Yin, Wanrong

    2013-07-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of liver transplantation (LT). Describe the incidence of PTLD and symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (SEBV) disease in a large multicenter cohort of children who underwent LT with a focus on the risk factors and changes in incidence over time. SEBV and PTLD were prospectively determined in 2283 subjects who had undergone LT for the first time with at least 1 year of follow-up in the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation database. SEBV was defined with specific criteria, and PTLD required tissue confirmation. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD was determined with a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate modeling of risk factors was performed with standard methods. SEBV occurred in 199 patients; 174 (87.4%) were EBV-negative at LT. Seventy-five patients developed PTLD, and 64 (85.3%) of these patients were EBV-negative at LT. Among the 2048 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up, 8.3% developed SEBV by the second year after LT, and 2.8% developed PTLD. There were lower rates of SEBV (5.9% versus 11.3%, P < 0.001) and PTLD (1.7% versus 4.2%, P = 0.001) in 2002-2007 versus 1995-2001. In 2002-2007, tacrolimus and cyclosporine trough blood levels in the first year after LT were significantly lower, and fewer children were receiving steroids. Biliary atresia, and recipient EBV status were correlated. In a multivariate analysis, era of LT, recipient EBV status, and frequent rejection episodes were associated with SEBV and PTLD. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD is decreasing in pediatric LT recipients concomitantly with a reduction in immunosuppression. Younger recipients and those with multiple rejections remain at higher risk for SEBV and PTLD. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P < 0·0001) and 1178 ml (747-1178) (P < 0·0001) of RBC were used in excess compared to the high ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P < 0·0001) of RBC in excess when compared to high ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Congenital hypothyroidism in a kitten resulting in decreased IGF-I concentration and abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Quante, Saskia; Fracassi, Federico; Gorgas, Daniela; Kircher, Patrick R; Boretti, Felicitas S; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Reusch, Claudia E

    2010-06-01

    A 7-month-old male kitten was presented with chronic constipation and retarded growth. Clinical examination revealed disproportional dwarfism with mild skeletal abnormalities and a palpable thyroid gland. The presumptive diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum total thyroxine (tT(4)) concentration prior to and after the administration of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), increased endogenous TSH concentration and abnormal thyroid scintigraphic scan. The kitten had abnormal liver function tests and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, both of which returned to normal in correspondence with an improvement of the clinical signs after 6 weeks of thyroxine therapy. Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare disease that may present with considerable variation in clinical manifestation. In cases in which clinical signs are ambiguous, disorders such as portosystemic shunt and hyposomatotropism have to be taken into account as differential diagnosis. As hypothyroidism may be associated with abnormal liver function tests and low IGF-1 concentrations, test results have to be interpreted carefully. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness. PMID:22745735

  7. Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Cheng, Yiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes. PMID:26606973

  8. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding increasing amounts of ruminally protected choline decreased fatty liver in nonlactating, pregnant Holstein cows in negative energy status.

    PubMed

    Zenobi, M G; Scheffler, T L; Zuniga, J E; Poindexter, M B; Campagna, S R; Castro Gonzalez, H F; Farmer, A T; Barton, B A; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2018-04-18

    The objectives were to determine the optimal feeding amount of choline in a ruminally protected form to reduce the triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration in liver and to increase TAG in blood plasma of dairy cows. Pregnant, nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows (n = 77) were blocked by body condition score (3.59 ± 0.33) and assigned to treatment at 64 ± 10 d before calculated calving date. Dietary treatments were top-dressing of 0, 30, 60, 90, or 120 g/d of ruminally protected choline (RPC; Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) ions to supply the equivalent of 0, 6.5, 12.9, 19.4, and 25.8 g/d of choline ions. Diets were formulated to exceed nutrient requirements for maintenance and pregnancy and fed in ad libitum amounts for the first 5 d. From d 6 to 15, cows were restricted to consume approximately 31% of their net energy requirements to simulate early lactating cows in negative energy balance. Methionine intake was maintained throughout each 15-d period. Liver was biopsied at 5 and 14 d and analyzed for TAG and glycogen. Blood was sampled on d 5 and 14 and plasma analyzed for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate, long-chain fatty acids, and haptoglobin. On d 14, a mixture of saturated long-chain fatty acids, ground corn, and dried molasses (50:37:13) was offered (908 g, as-is basis) 10 h after the single daily feeding. Blood samples were collected for 19 h and plasma analyzed for TAG and cholesterol to assess apparent absorption of dietary fat. Mean dry matter intake and energy balance decreased from means of 9.5 to 3.3 kg/d and from 0.6 to -9.2 Mcal of net energy for lactation/d during the ad libitum and restricted feeding periods, respectively. Plasma concentrations of the lipid-soluble choline biomolecules, namely total phosphatidylcholines, total lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin, increased with choline supplementation. Feed restriction increased plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and free long-chain fatty acids, whereas those of

  10. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Ho; Bae, Si Hyun; Oh, Seh Hoon; Kim, Gi Jin

    2016-09-01

    Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Suppresses Lipogenesis in Mouse Liver: Possible Role of the Decrease in β-Muricholic Acid, a Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kyosuke; Iguchi, Yusuke; Une, Mizuho; Watanabe, Shiro

    2017-04-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a major nuclear receptor of bile acids; its activation suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c)-mediated lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the liver. There are many reports showing that the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses lipogenesis and reduces the lipid contents in the liver of experimental animals. Since UDCA is not recognized as an FXR agonist, these effects of UDCA cannot be readily explained by its direct activation of FXR. We observed that the dietary administration of UDCA in mice decreased the expression levels of SREBP1c and its target lipogenic genes. Alpha- and β-muricholic acids (MCA) and cholic acid (CA) were the major bile acids in the mouse liver but their contents decreased upon UDCA administration. The hepatic contents of chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid (DCA) were relatively low but were not changed by UDCA. UDCA did not show FXR agonistic or antagonistic potency in in vitro FXR transactivation assay. Taking these together, we deduced that the above-mentioned change in hepatic bile acid composition induced upon UDCA administration might cause the relative increase in the FXR activity in the liver, mainly by the reduction in the content of β-MCA, a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, which suggests a mechanism by which UDCA suppresses lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the mouse liver.

  12. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) decreases hydrogen sulfide tissue concentration in brain but increases it in the heart, liver and kidney in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Góralska, Marta; Piotrowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The biological action ofN-acetyl-p-aminophenol - paracetamol (acetaminophen) has been demonstrated to involve different mechanisms and is still not clear. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes including nociception. The interaction between acetaminophen and endogenous H2S is unknown. Twenty four female CBA strain mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol solution: paracetemol in doses of 30 mg/kg b.w. per day (group D1, n = 8) or 100 mg/kg b.w. per day (group D2, n = 8).. The control group (n = 8) received physiological saline in portions of the same volume--0.2 ml. The measurements of tissue H2S concentration were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modified method. In the brain, the H2S tissue level decreased, but more significantly in the lower drug dose group. Conversely, there was a significant rise in the H2S tissue concentration in D1 and D2 groups in heart and kidney with the increase more pronounced in the group with the lower paracetamol dose. In the liver only the higher acetaminophen dose elicited a change in H2S concentration, increasing after administration of acetaminophen at 100 mg/kg. Our study demonstrates that paracetamol induces H2S tissue concentration changes in different mouse organs.

  13. Challenging "Waiting for Superman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Molle

    2014-01-01

    A group of New York City public school teachers, angry about the depiction of public schools in 'Waiting for Superman," decide to make their own film about the realities of the current education reform movement. They persevered even though they had no budget when they started and lacked a background in filmmaking. "The Inconvenient Truth…

  14. Waiting in the surgery.

    PubMed

    Fry, F

    1994-07-01

    The concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives, both of which are unfavourable. This is a situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. This paper will present one practitioner's view on the subject of patients waiting to see the doctor.

  15. Caffeine intake decreases oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in experimental liver diseases induced by thioacetamide: Biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mona G; Mazen, Nehad F; Mohamed, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    Liver disease remains a significant global health problem. Increased caffeine consumption has been associated with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of caffeine on liver injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Forty adult male rats were equally classified into four groups: control group, received only tap water; caffeine-treated group, received caffeine (37.5 mg/kg per day); TAA-treated group, received intraperitoneal (i.p.) TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week; and caffeine + TAA-treated group, received combined TAA and caffeine in the same previous doses. After eight weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and liver specimens were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical studies and for assessment of oxidative stress. TAA induced liver toxicity with elevated liver enzymes and histological alterations, fatty changes, apoptosis, and fibrosis evidenced by increased immunohistochemical reaction to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and collagen type IV in hepatocytes. Also, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in serum were significantly elevated. Co-treatment with caffeine and TAA restored normal liver structure and function. Caffeine provided an anti-fibrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect that was associated with recovery of hepatic histological and functional alterations from TAA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Magnitude and Kinetics of Decrease in Liver Stiffness After Antiviral Therapy in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Facciorusso, Antonio; Loomba, Rohit; Falck-Ytter, Yngve T

    2018-01-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the decrease in liver stiffness, measured by vibration-controlled transient elastrography (VCTE), in patients with hepatitis C virus infection who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR). We searched the literature through October 2016 for observational studies or randomized controlled trials of adults with hepatitis C virus infection who received antiviral therapy (either direct-acting antiviral agents or interferon-based therapies), underwent liver stiffness measurement using VCTE before starting therapy, and had at least 1 follow-up VCTE after completion of therapy; studies also provided data on mean or median liver stiffness measurements for patients who did and did not achieve an SVR. We identified 24 studies, and estimated weighted mean difference (and 95% confidence interval) in liver stiffness in patients with versus without SVR using random-effects meta-analysis. In patients who achieved SVR, liver stiffness decreased by 2.4 kPa at the end of therapy (95% CI, -1.7 to -3.0), by 3.1 kPa 1-6 months after therapy (95% CI, -1.6 to -4.7), by 3.2 kPa 6-12 months after therapy (90% CI, -2.6 to -3.9), and 4.1 kPa 12 months or more after therapy (95% CI, -3.3 to -4.9) (median decrease, 28.2%; interquartile range, 21.8-34.8). In contrast, there was no significant change in liver stiffness in patients who did not achieve an SVR (at 6-12 months after therapy, decrease of 0.6 kPa; 95% CI, -1.7 to 0.5). Decreases in liver stiffness were significantly greater in patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents than with interferon-based therapy (decrease of 4.5 kPa vs decrease of 2.6 kPa; P = .03), cirrhosis at baseline (decrease of 5.1 kPa vs decrease of 2.8 kPa in patients with no cirrhosis; P = .02), or high pretreatment levels of alanine aminotransferase (P < .01). Among patients with baseline liver stiffness >9.5 kPa, 47% (95% CI, 27%-68%) achieved posttreatment liver stiffness of <9

  17. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    PubMed

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lickteig, Andrew J.; Csanaky, Iván L.; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver. PMID:26984780

  19. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

  20. Chronic high fat, high cholesterol supplementation decreases 18 kDa Translocator Protein binding capacity in association with increased oxidative stress in rat liver and aorta.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Veenman, Leo; Ristoski, Trpe; Leschiner, Svetlana; Gavish, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that high fat and high cholesterol levels present a contributing factor to pathologies including fatty liver and atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress is also considered to play a role in these pathologies. The 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO), formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is known to be involved in cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular pathology. We applied a high fat high cholesterol atherogenic (HFHC) diet to rats to study correlations between cardiovascular and liver pathology, oxidative stress, and TSPO expression in the liver and the cardiovascular system. This study corroborates the presence of increased oxidative stress markers and decreased anti-oxidants in liver and aorta. In addition, it appeared that induction of oxidative stress in the liver and aorta by atherogenic HFHC diet was accompanied by a reduction in TSPO binding density in both these tissues. Our data suggest that involvement of TSPO in oxidative stress and ROS generation, as reported in other studies, may also take part in atherogenesis as induced by HFHC diet. Presently, it is not clear whether this TSPO response is compensatory for the stress induced by HFHC diet or is a participant in the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Boron (B) deprivation increases plasma homocysteine and decreases liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diverse effects of B deprivation suggest that B affects a biomolecule involved in a variety of biochemical reactions. An experiment was conducted to determine whether dietary B affects the liver concentration of SAM, a frequently used enzyme substrate, especially for methylation reactions that y...

  2. Dapagliflozin significantly reduced liver fat accumulation associated with a decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-31

    We examined dapagliflozin-induced changes in liver fat accumulation. We prospectively recruited Japanese patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7.0%]. Dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) was added to the patients' treatment regimen for 6 months. Changes in liver fat accumulation were assessed by the liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio using abdominal computed tomography (CT). This study enrolled 55 Japanese T2DM patients. The L/S ratio significantly increased in the dapagliflozin group compared with the non-SGLT2i group. Abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area, total fat area assessed by abdominal CT, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase decreased significantly only in the dapagliflozin group. Changes in the L/S ratio showed a significant negative relationship with changes in abdominal SFA, ALT, and non-esterified fatty acid. In sub-group analyses of non-insulin users, hepatic insulin extraction was assessed by the plasma C-peptide-to-insulin ratio, which was significantly increased in the dapagliflozin group but not in the non-SGLT2i group. In patients with inadequately controlled T2DM, additional dapagliflozin-treatment significantly reduced the liver fat accumulation associated with a decrease in abdominal SFA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients of donors with positive blood cultures: a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing dataset.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Moises A; Vilchez, Valery; Mei, Xiaonan; Shah, Malay B; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan; Gedaly, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Liver transplantation using blood culture positive donors (BCPD) has allowed a significant expansion of the donor pool. We aimed to characterize BCPD and assess the outcomes of BCPD liver transplant recipients. We retrieved data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry on all adults who underwent primary, single-organ deceased-donor liver transplantation in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Patients were classified into two cohorts: the BCPD cohort and the non-BCPD cohort. One-year graft and patient survival were compared between cohorts using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. A total of 28 961 patients were included. There were 2316 (8.0%) recipients of BCPD. BCPD were more likely to be older, female, black, diabetic, hypertensive, and obese compared to non-BCPD. Graft survival was significantly lower in BCPD recipients compared to non-BCPD recipients (Kaplan-Meier, 0.85 vs. 0.87; P = 0.009). Results remained significant in propensity-matched analysis (P = 0.038). BCPD was independently associated with decreased graft survival (adjusted HR; 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20; P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in patient survival between study groups. BCPD was associated with decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients. Studies are needed to identify subgroups of BCPD with the highest risk of graft failure and characterize the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil increases fillet oxidative stability and decreases liver glutathione peroxidase activity in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan A R; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2013-12-01

    Complete dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) had no detrimental effects on growth or hepatosomatic index of juvenile fish up to an average size of ~50 g. However, it significantly decreased the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the fish muscle (fillet) lipids. This was particularly true for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which are recognised for their health beneficial effects in the human diet. As a result of their decreased EPA and DHA content, the peroxidation index of the muscle lipids was also decreased. This was associated with increased simulated retail storage shelf life as indicated by decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in muscle samples from fish fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets. Concomitantly, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, but not glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or reduced glutathione concentration, was significantly reduced in the liver of barramundi fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets as compared with the fish fed the fish oil-based diet. Furthermore, GPx and GST activity were very low in muscle, much lower than in gastrointestinal tract, liver or swim bladder. Therefore, we propose that liver GPx activity may be a good predictor of fillet shelf life in barramundi and other fish species.

  5. Neutrophil elastase contributes to the development of ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury by decreasing the production of insulin-like growth factor-I in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Miho; Harada, Naoaki; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Okajima, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) decreases the endothelial production of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) through the inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and thereby contributes to the development of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced liver injury. We previously demonstrated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory neurons increases the insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) production and thereby reduces I/R-induced liver injury. Because PGI(2) is capable of stimulating sensory neurons, we hypothesized that NE contributes to the development of I/R-induced liver injury by decreasing IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this hypothesis in rats subjected to hepatic I/R. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced decreases of hepatic tissue levels of CGRP and IGF-I were prevented significantly by NE inhibitors, sivelestat, and L-658, 758, and these effects of NE inhibitors were reversed completely by the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (IM) and the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-NAME but not by the selective inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W. I/R-induced increases of hepatic tissue levels of caspase-3, myeloperoxidase and the number of apoptotic cells were inhibited by NE inhibitors, and these effects of NE inhibitors were reversed by IM and L-NAME but not by 1400W. Administration of iloprost, a stable PGI(2) analog, produced effects similar to those induced by NE inhibitors. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that NE may play a critical role in the development of I/R-induced liver injury by decreasing the IGF-I production through the inhibition of sensory neuron stimulation, which may lead to an increase of neutrophil accumulation and hepatic apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 in rats.

  6. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 causes decreased protein levels of cyclin D1 via GSK3β activation and increased ROS production in rat pup livers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, Jose L; Sanchez, Domènec J

    2014-02-01

    We here examined the potential liver toxicity in rat pups from dams exposed during the gestational and lactation periods to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). Dams were exposed to 0, 1, and 2mg/kg/day of BDE-99 from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21. When the pups were weaning, the liver from 1 pup of each litter was excised to evaluate oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. To determine whether thyroid hormone (TH) was disrupted, the protein and mRNA expressions of several TH receptor (TR) isoforms, as well as the protein levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylated protein kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), were evaluated. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 produced decreased levels of cyclin D1 in rat pup livers. A decrease in the active form of Akt and an increase in the active form of GSK3β were observed. The decreased Akt pathway may be due to a potential disruption of the nongenomic actions of TH by BDE-99 and its metabolites. This possible TH disruption was noted as a decrease in TR isoforms expression. By contrast, we observed an upregulation of CYP2B1 gene expression, which is correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species production. This outcome indicates activation of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor, which could induce the expression of other enzymes capable of metabolizing TH. The present findings support the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to PBDEs, at levels found in humans, may have serious implications for metabolic processes in rat pup livers.

  7. Ganciclovir prophylaxis decreases frequency and severity of cytomegalovirus disease in seropositive liver transplant recipients treated with OKT3 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, C; Otero, J R; Herrero, J A; Gomez, R; Lizasoain, M; Aguado, J M; Colina, F; Garcia, I; Moreno, E; Noriega, A R

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of ganciclovir, given prophylactically, to prevent cytomegalovirus-related disease was evaluated in liver transplant recipients, mostly seropositive, under treatment with OKT3 monoclonal antibodies. The incidence of cytomegalovirus disease and visceral involvement was reduced, respectively, from 52 and 36% in the control group to 12 and 8% in the ganciclovir-treated patients. Leukopenia was a frequent (32%) side effect of ganciclovir administration. PMID:8285641

  8. Disrupting Hepatocyte Cyp51 from Cholesterol Synthesis Leads to Progressive Liver Injury in the Developing Mouse and Decreases RORC Signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlep, Žiga; Lorbek, Gregor; Perše, Martina; Jeruc, Jera; Juvan, Peter; Matz-Soja, Madlen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Björkhem, Ingemar; Hall, Jason A.; Bonneau, Richard; Littman, Dan R.; Rozman, Damjana

    2017-01-01

    Development of mice with hepatocyte knockout of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (HCyp51-/-) from cholesterol synthesis is characterized by the progressive onset of liver injury with ductular reaction and fibrosis. These changes begin during puberty and are generally more aggravated in the knockout females. However, a subgroup of (pre)pubertal knockout mice (runts) exhibits a pronounced male prevalent liver dysfunction characterized by downregulated amino acid metabolism and elevated Casp12. RORC transcriptional activity is diminished in livers of all runt mice, in correlation with the depletion of potential RORC ligands subsequent to CYP51 disruption. Further evidence for this comes from the global analysis that identified a crucial overlap between hepatic Cyp51-/- and Rorc-/- expression profiles. Additionally, the reduction in RORA and RORC transcriptional activity was greater in adult HCyp51-/- females than males, which correlates well with their downregulated amino and fatty acid metabolism. Overall, we identify a global and sex-dependent transcriptional de-regulation due to the block in cholesterol synthesis during development of the Cyp51 knockout mice and provide in vivo evidence that sterol intermediates downstream of lanosterol may regulate the hepatic RORC activity.

  9. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  10. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  11. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  12. Rhododendron oldhamii leaf extract improves fatty liver syndrome by increasing lipid oxidation and decreasing the lipogenesis pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ling; Lin, Lei-Chen; Tung, Yu-Tang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Chen, Yao-Li; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Some members of Rhododendron genus are traditionally used as medicinal plants for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the protective effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo and in vitro . In this study, the effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on inhibiting the free fatty acid (FFA)-induced accumulation of fat in HepG2 cells and on improving fatty liver syndrome in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD were investigated. For the in vitro assay, HepG2 cells were treated with FFAs (oleate/palmitate = 2:1) with or without treatment with R. oldhamii leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction to observe lipid accumulation using Nile red and oil red O stains. For the in vivo assay, C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups ( n = 5), including the normal diet group, the HFD group and the HFD+EtOAc group. After 11 weeks, body weight, serum biochemical indices and the mRNA expressions of the liver tissue, as well as the outward appearance, weight and histopathological analysis of liver and adipose tissues were evaluated. Among the fractions derived from R. oldhamii leaf, the EtOAc fraction exhibited a strong fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Following reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), four specific phytochemicals, including (2 R , 3 R )-astilbin (AS), hyposide (HY), guaijaverin (GU) and quercitrin (QU), were isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf extract. Among them, AS and HY showed excellent fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Thus, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf and its derived phytochemicals have great potential in preventing FFA-induced fat accumulation. In addition, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf significantly improved fatty liver syndrome and reduced total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in HFD

  13. Treatment of rats with glucagon or mannoheptulose increases mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity and decreases succinyl-CoA content in liver.

    PubMed Central

    Quant, P A; Tubbs, P K; Brand, M D

    1989-01-01

    1. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (EC 4.1.3.5) in extracts of rapidly frozen rat livers was doubled in animals treated in various ways to increase ketogenic flux. 2. Some 90% of the activity measured was mitochondrial, and changes in mitochondrial activity dominated changes in total enzyme activity. 3. The elevated HMG-CoA synthase activities persisted throughout the isolation of liver mitochondria. 4. Intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA content was lower in whole liver homogenates and in mitochondria isolated from animals treated with glucagon or mannoheptulose. 5. HMG-CoA synthase activity in mitochondria from both ox and rat liver was negatively correlated with intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA levels when these were manipulated artificially. Under these conditions, the differences between mitochondria from control and hormone-treated rats were abolished. 6. These findings show that glucagon can decrease intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA concentration, and that this in turn can regulate mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase. They support the hypothesis that the formation of ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA may be regulated by the extent of succinylation of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase. PMID:2573345

  14. Vegetable consumption is linked to decreased visceral and liver fat and improved insulin resistance in overweight Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lauren T; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data on the influence of vegetable consumption on adiposity and metabolic health, specifically nonstarchy vegetables and vegetables that are dark green and deep orange/yellow (also known as nutrient-rich vegetables). Our study examines the relationship between vegetable intake and adiposity, liver fat, and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. This cross-sectional study of 175 overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) Latino youth (aged 8 to 18 years), with data collected during 2006-2011, included the following: dietary intake via multiple 24-hour recalls, total body fat via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, adipose tissue distribution and liver fat via magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin dynamics via frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Linear regression and analysis of covariance were used for analysis, with the following a priori covariates: age, sex, energy intake, and total body fat. Participants who consumed the most nonstarchy vegetables (mean intake=1.7±1.0 servings/day) compared with the least (mean intake=0.1±0.1 servings/day) had 44% less liver fat (10.0%±8.5% vs 5.6%±8.7%; P=0.01). Nutrient-rich vegetable intake was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.19; P=0.03). Consumers of nutrient-rich vegetables (mean intake=0.3±0.4 servings/day [n=107]), compared with nonconsumers (n=68), had 31% increased insulin sensitivity (1.6±1.6 vs 2.1±1.3×10(⁻⁴)/min/μU/mL; P=0.03) and 17% less visceral adipose tissue (2.3±0.9 vs 1.9±0.7 L; P=0.01). Consumption of specific vegetable types by overweight Latino youth is associated with positive metabolic outcomes, including reduced visceral and liver fat and risk factors for type 2 diabetes, even when consumed in small quantities. These may be relevant targets for interventions. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetable consumption linked to decreased visceral and liver fat and improved insulin resistance in overweight Latino youth

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Goran, Michael I.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2014-01-01

    There is limited data on the impact of vegetable consumption on adiposity and metabolic health, specifically non-starchy vegetables (NSV) and vegetables that are dark green and deep orange/yellow (also known as nutrient-rich vegetables, NRV). This study examines the relationship between vegetable intake and adiposity, liver fat and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. This cross-sectional study of 175 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (8–18 years), with data collected 2006–2011, included the following: dietary intake via multiple 24-h recalls, total body fat via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, adipose tissue distribution and liver fat via magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin dynamics via frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Linear regression and analysis of covariance were used for analysis, with the following a priori covariates: age, sex, energy intake and total body fat. Participants who consumed the most NSV (mean intake = 1.7±1.0 servings/d) compared to the least (mean intake = 0.1±0.1 servings/d) had 44% less liver fat (10.0±8.5 vs. 5.6±8.7%, p=0.01). NRV intake was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (SI, r=0.19, p=0.03). Consumers of NRV (mean intake = 0.3±0.4 servings/day, n=107), compared to non-consumers (n=68), had 31% increased SI (1.6±1.6 vs. 2.1±1.3 × 10−4·min−1·μU−1·mL−1, p=0.03) and 17% less visceral adipose tissue (2.3±0.9 vs. 1.9±0.7 L, p=0.01). In conclusion, consumption of specific vegetable types by overweight Latino youth is associated with positive metabolic outcomes, including reduced visceral and liver fat and risk factors for type 2 diabetes, even when consumed in small quantities. These may be relevant targets for interventions. PMID:24685236

  16. Real waiting times for surgery. Proposal for an improved system for their management.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, Ignacio; Barber, Patricia; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Jiménez, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, official information on waiting times for surgery is based on the interval between the indication for surgery and its performance. We aimed to estimate total waiting times for surgical procedures, including outpatient visits and diagnostic tests prior to surgery. In addition, we propose an alternative system to manage total waiting times that reduces variability and maximum waiting times without increasing the use of health care resources. This system is illustrated by three surgical procedures: cholecystectomy, carpal tunnel release and inguinal/femoral hernia repair. Using data from two Autonomous Communities, we adjusted, through simulation, a theoretical distribution of the total waiting time assuming independence of the waiting times of each stage of the clinical procedure. We show an alternative system in which the waiting time for the second consultation is established according to the time previously waited for the first consultation. Average total waiting times for cholecystectomy, carpal tunnel release and inguinal/femoral hernia repair were 331, 355 and 137 days, respectively (official data are 83, 68 and 73 days, respectively). Using different negative correlations between waiting times for subsequent consultations would reduce maximum waiting times by between 2% and 15% and substantially reduce heterogeneity among patients, without generating higher resource use. Total waiting times are between two and five times higher than those officially published. The relationship between the waiting times at each stage of the medical procedure may be used to decrease variability and maximum waiting times. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcitriol decreases TGF-β1 and angiotensin II production and protects against chlorhexide digluconate-induced liver peritoneal fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal fibrosis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis that can lead to ultrafiltration failure. This study investigates the protective effects of calcitriol on chlorhexidine digluconate-induced peritoneal fibrosis in rats. Peritoneal fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily administration of 0.5mL 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate in normal saline via peritoneal dialysis for 1week. Rats received daily intravenous injections of calcitriol (low-dose, 10ng/kg; or high-dose, 100ng/kg) for 1week. After 7days, conventional 4.25% Dianeal (30mL) was administered via peritoneal dialysis over 4h. Peritoneal solute transport was calculated from the dialysate concentration relative to its concentration in the initial infused dialysis solution (D4/D0 glucose) for glucose, and the dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio (D4/P4 urea) at 4h for urea. Rats were then sacrificed and the liver peritoneum was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis via microscopy. After dialysis, the D4/P4 Urea level was reduced; increases were observed in the D4/D0 glucose level and the levels of active transforming growth factor-β1 and angiotensin II in serum and dialysate; the liver peritoneum and muscle peritoneum was markedly thickened, and the expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-β1, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (P-Smad2/3)-positive cells in the liver peritoneum was elevated in the peritoneal fibrosis group compared with the vehicle group. Calcitriol decreased the serum and dialysate active transforming growth factor-β1 and angiotensin II level, decreased the thickness of the liver peritoneum and muscle peritoneum, and decreased the expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-β1, and P-Smad2/3-positive cells in liver peritoneum cells. High-dose calcitriol exhibited better protective effects against

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cussons, Andrea J; Watts, Gerald F; Mori, Trevor A; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2009-10-01

    There is an association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids have favorable effects on cardiovascular risk and could reduce liver fat in NAFLD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on liver fat in PCOS. The secondary aim was to assess their effects on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We conducted a randomized, crossover study at a tertiary cardiovascular research center. Twenty-five women with PCOS (mean age, 32.7 yr; mean body mass index, 34.8 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. We compared 4g/d of omega-3 fatty acids with placebo over 8 wk. The primary outcome measure was hepatic fat content quantified using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Secondary outcome measures included fasting lipids and blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased liver fat content compared with placebo [10.2 (1.1) vs. 8.4 (0.9)%; P = 0.022]. There was also a reduction in triglycerides [1.19 (1.03-1.47) vs. 1.02 (0.93-1.18) mmol/liter; P = 0.002], systolic blood pressure [124.1 (12.1) vs. 122.3 (14.5) mm Hg; P = 0.018], and diastolic blood pressure [73.2 (8.4) vs. 69.7 (8.3) mm Hg; P = 0.005] with omega-3 fatty acids compared with placebo. Omega-3 fatty acids particularly decreased hepatic fat in women with hepatic steatosis, defined as liver fat percentage greater than 5% [18.2 (11.1) vs. 14.8 (9.3)%; P = 0.03]. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a beneficial effect on liver fat content and other cardiovascular risk factors in women with PCOS, including those with hepatic steatosis. Whether this translates into a reduction in cardiometabolic events warrants further study.

  19. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  20. A decrease in fasting FGF19 levels is associated with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Malgorzata; Janus, Dominika; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Drozdz, Dorota; Sztefko, Krystyna; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a hormone released from the small intestine; recently, it has emerged as an endocrine regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of FGF19 in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 23 (17 boys) obese adolescents (mean age of 14.1 years) with NAFLD. The control group consisted of 34 (13 boys) obese peers with normal ultrasonographic imaging and normal liver function tests. The definition of NAFLD was based on clinical criteria: elevated alanine aminotransferase (>35 U/L) and liver steatosis features on ultrasound imaging. Serum FGF19 levels were measured in a fasting blood sample. The definition of insulin resistance was based on the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) threshold: >2.5. There was a significant difference between mean FGF19 levels in patients with NAFLD and controls (142.2 vs. 206 pg/mL, p=0.04). Mean fasting FGF19 levels were decreased in insulin-resistant patients in comparison with the non-insulin-resistant group (155.0 vs. 221.0 pg/mL, p=0.05). There was an inverse correlation between FGF19 and alanine aminotransferase levels (R=-0.3, p<0.05) and triglycerides (R=-0.27, p<0.05). A decrease in fasting FGF19 is associated with the development of NAFLD in obese adolescents. A decrease in fasting FGF19 levels may be a new important risk factor for NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Further studies are needed to explain whether exogenous delivery of FGF19 might be therapeutically beneficial.

  1. Decreased expression of liver X receptor-α in macrophages infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic arteries in situ.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The expression of LXR-α in macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae and macrophages that were not infected was compared using a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. The analysis revealed a 2.2-fold reduction in the expression of LXR-α in C. pneumoniae-infected cells around the lipid cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the cytoplasm of laser-capture microdissected cells that were immunopositive for C. pneumoniae, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae. We conclude that LXR-α expression is reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions which supports the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection might suppress LXR expression in macrophages transforming into foam cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Severe Liver Cirrhosis Markedly Reduces AhR-Mediated Induction of Cytochrome P450 in Rats by Decreasing the Transcription of Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Floreani, Maura; De Martin, Sara; Gabbia, Daniela; Barbierato, Massimo; Nassi, Alberto; Mescoli, Claudia; Orlando, Rocco; Bova, Sergio; Angeli, Paolo; Gola, Elisabetta; Sticca, Antonietta; Palatini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Although the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) has long been investigated in patients with cirrhosis, the question whether liver dysfunction impairs the response to CYP inducers still remains unresolved. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the possible effect of cirrhosis on induction has not been investigated. Since ethical constraints do not permit methodologically rigorous studies in humans, this question was addressed by investigating the effect of the prototypical inducer benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in cirrhotic rats stratified according to the severity of liver dysfunction. We simultaneously assessed mRNA level, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the CYP1A enzymes, as well as mRNA and protein expressions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which mediates the BP effect. Basal mRNA and protein expressions of CYP1A1 were virtually absent in both healthy and cirrhotic rats. On the contrary, CYP1A2 mRNA, protein and enzyme activity were constitutively present in healthy rats and decreased significantly as liver function worsened. BP treatment markedly increased the concentrations of mRNA and immunodetectable protein, and the enzymatic activities of both CYP1A enzymes to similar levels in healthy and non-ascitic cirrhotic rats. Induced mRNA levels, protein expressions and enzymatic activities of both CYPs were much lower in ascitic rats and were proportionally reduced. Both constitutive and induced protein expressions of AhR were significantly lower in ascitic than in healthy rats. These results indicate that the inducibility of CYP1A enzymes is well preserved in compensated cirrhosis, whereas it is markedly reduced when liver dysfunction becomes severe. Induction appears to be impaired at the transcriptional level, due to the reduced expression of AhR, which controls the transcription of CYP1A genes. PMID:23626760

  3. α7-nAChR Knockout Mice Decreases Biliary Hyperplasia and Liver Fibrosis in Cholestatic Bile-Duct Ligated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Laurent; O'Brien, April; Hall, Chad; White, Tori; Chen, Lixian; Wu, Nan; Venter, Julie; Scrushy, Marinda; Mubarak, Muhammad; Meng, Fanyin; Dostal, David; Wu, Chaodong; Lairmore, Terry C; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon

    2018-03-26

    α7-nAChR is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (specifically expressed on hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells, and cholangiocytes) that regulates inflammation and apoptosis in the liver. Thus, targeting α7-nAChR may be therapeutic in biliary diseases. Bile-duct ligation (BDL) was performed on wild-type (WT) and α7-nAChR-/- mice. We first evaluated the expression of α7-nAChR by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in liver sections. IHC was also performed to assess intrahepatic bile-duct mass (IBDM), and Sirius Red staining was performed to quantify the amount of collagen deposition. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess co-localization of α7-nAChR with bile ducts (co-stained with CK-19) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (co-stained with desmin). The mRNA expression of α7-nAChR, Ki67/PCNA (proliferation), fibrosis genes (TGF-β1, Fibronectin-1, Col1α1, and α-SMA), and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα) was measured by real-time PCR. Biliary TGF-β1 and hepatic CD68 (Kupffer cell marker) expression was assessed using IHC. α7-nAChR immunoreactivity was observed in both bile ducts and HSCs and increased following BDL. α7-nAChR-/- BDL mice exhibited decreased: (i) bile duct mass, liver fibrosis, and inflammation; and (ii) immunoreactivity of TGF-1 as well as expression of fibrosis genes compared to WT BDL mice. α7-nAChR activation triggers biliary proliferation and liver fibrosis and may be a therapeutic target in managing extra-hepatic biliary obstruction.

  4. [Improving the CMP appointment waiting time for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cani, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The increasing activity of mental health centres for children and adolescents and longer waiting times in obtaining a first appointment have led an area of child psychiatry to question the organisation of new consultation applications. Two CMP in the sector had a waiting period of over 40 days for half of the patients. Two improvement actions were implemented:the implementation of organisation and reception nurses and the development of a new applications management process. The evaluation after one year showed a decrease of half of the appointment waiting time without changing the non showed up rate.

  5. Use of patient flow analysis to improve patient visit efficiency by decreasing wait time in a primary care-based disease management programs for anticoagulation and chronic pain: a quality improvement study.

    PubMed

    Potisek, Nicholas M; Malone, Robb M; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Ives, Timothy J; Chelminski, Paul R; DeWalt, Darren A; Pignone, Michael P

    2007-01-15

    Patients with chronic conditions require frequent care visits. Problems can arise during several parts of the patient visit that decrease efficiency, making it difficult to effectively care for high volumes of patients. The purpose of the study is to test a method to improve patient visit efficiency. We used Patient Flow Analysis to identify inefficiencies in the patient visit, suggest areas for improvement, and test the effectiveness of clinic interventions. At baseline, the mean visit time for 93 anticoagulation clinic patient visits was 84 minutes (+/- 50 minutes) and the mean visit time for 25 chronic pain clinic patient visits was 65 minutes (+/- 21 minutes). Based on these data, we identified specific areas of inefficiency and developed interventions to decrease the mean time of the patient visit. After interventions, follow-up data found the mean visit time was reduced to 59 minutes (+/-25 minutes) for the anticoagulation clinic, a time decrease of 25 minutes (t-test 39%; p < 0.001). Mean visit time for the chronic pain clinic was reduced to 43 minutes (+/- 14 minutes) a time decrease of 22 minutes (t-test 34 %; p < 0.001). Patient Flow Analysis is an effective technique to identify inefficiencies in the patient visit and efficiently collect patient flow data. Once inefficiencies are identified they can be improved through brief interventions.

  6. Strategy as active waiting.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  7. Histopathologic patterns as markers of prognosis in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases - Pushing growth as an independent risk factor for decreased survival.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Daniela; Alexandrino, Henrique; Caetano Oliveira, Rui; Martins, João; Ferreira, Luís; Martins, Ricardo; Serôdio, Marco; Martins, Mónica; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Cipriano, Maria Augusta; Castro E Sousa, Francisco

    2018-04-11

    Liver resection combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has reported notable results in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Tumoral response to NAC is associated with specific histopathologic patterns with prognostic implications. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pathological findings on overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and liver recurrence-free survival (LRFS). Analysis of clinical and outcome data from 110 patients who underwent first CRLM resection between January 2010 and July 2013. Blinded pathological review of histological material of several parameters: resection margin, tumor regression grade (TRG), tumor thickness at the tumor-normal interface (TTNI) and the growth pattern (GP). The median survival following hepatic resection was 52 months and 3- and 5- year Kaplan-Meier estimates were 69 and 48%, respectively. Seventy-four patients developed recurrent disease. Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was significantly associated with a pushing GP. A positive resection margin was an independent predictor of decreased DFS (p = 0.018) but not of decreased OS. LRFS was strongly reduced by the absence of histologic tumor response (p = 0.018). The pushing pattern had an adverse impact on both OS (p = 0.007) and DFS (p = 0.004) on multivariate analysis. The prognostic value of histopathological features in patients who underwent CRLM's resection is undeniable. The pushing GP was related with worse prognosis. Further studies are required to clarify the biological mechanisms underlying these findings in order to enhance a more personalized and efficient treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. Liver injury in acute hepatitis A is associated with decreased frequency of regulatory T cells caused by Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Sung, Pil Soo; Jung, Min Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Jung Il; Park, Hana; Cheong, Jae Youn; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury. The study included 71 patients with AHA, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. The suppressive activity of Treg population was determined by assessing anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated proliferation of Treg-depleted and reconstituted PBMCs. Treg cell frequency, phenotype and apoptosis in PBMCs were analysed by flow cytometry. The frequency of circulating Tregs was reduced during AHA. Moreover, the suppressive activity of the total Treg pool in the peripheral blood was attenuated during AHA. Treg frequency and suppressive activity of the Treg population inversely correlated with the serum alanine aminotransferase level. Fas was overexpressed on Tregs during AHA, suggesting their susceptibility to Fas-induced apoptosis. Indeed, increased apoptotic death was observed in Tregs of patients with AHA compared with healthy controls. In addition, agonistic anti-Fas treatment further increased apoptotic death of Tregs from patients with AHA. The decreased Treg frequency and Fas overexpression on Tregs were not observed in other acute liver diseases such as acute hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C and toxic/drug-induced hepatitis. The size of the Treg pool was contracted during AHA, resulting from apoptosis of Tregs induced by a Fas-mediated mechanism. Decrease in Treg numbers led to reduced suppressive activity of the Treg pool and consequently resulted in severe liver injury during AHA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Decreased collagen types I and IV, laminin, CK-19 and α-SMA expression after bone marrow cell transplantation in rats with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S N; Lira, D C; Oliveira, G P; Thole, A A; Stumbo, A C; Caetano, C E; Marques, R G; Carvalho, L

    2010-11-01

    Bone marrow cells have frequently been tested in animal models of liver fibrosis to assess their role in hepatic regeneration. The mononuclear fraction of bone marrow cells is of particular interest, as many studies show that these cells may be beneficial to treat hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we used the bile duct ligation model to induce hepatic fibrosis in an irreversible manner, and rats were treated with bone marrow mononuclear (BMMN) cells after fibrosis was established. Analysis of collagen types I and IV, laminin and α-SMA showed a decreased expression of these proteins in fibrotic livers after 7 days of BMMN cell injection. Moreover, cytokeratin-19 analysis showed a reduction in bile ducts in the BMMN cell-treated group. These results were accompanied by ameliorated levels of hepatic enzymes GPT (Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase), GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Therefore, we showed that BMMN cells decrease hepatic fibrosis by significantly reducing myofibroblast numbers and through reduction of the collagen and laminin-rich extracellular matrix of fibrotic septa and hepatic sinusoids.

  10. Developments in pediatric liver transplantation since implementation of the new allocation rules in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Grabhorn, Enke; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Ganschow, Rainer; Nashan, Björn; Fischer, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    Liver allocation in the Eurotransplant (ET) region has changed from a waiting time to an urgency-based system using the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 2006. To allow timely transplantation, pediatric recipients are allocated by an assigned pediatric MELD independent of severity of illness. Consequences for children listed at our center were evaluated by retrospective analysis of all primary pediatric liver transplantation (LTX) from deceased donors between 2002 and 2010 (110 LTX before/50 LTX after new allocation). Of 50 children transplanted in the MELD era, 17 (34%) underwent LTX with a high-urgent status that was real in five patients (median lab MELD 22, waiting time five d) and assigned in 12 patients (lab MELD 7, waiting time 35 d). Thirty-three children received a liver by their assigned pediatric MELD (lab MELD 15, waiting time 255 d). Waiting time in the two periods was similar, whereas the wait-list mortality decreased (from about four children/yr to about one child/yr). One- and three-yr patient survival showed no significant difference (94.5/97.7%; p = 0.385) as did one- and three-yr graft survival (80.7/75.2%; and 86.5/82%; p = 0.436 before/after). Introduction of a MELD-based allocation system in ET with assignment of a granted score for pediatric recipients has led to a clear priorization of children resulting in a low wait-list mortality and good clinical outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effect of waiting: A meta-analysis of wait-list control groups in trials for tinnitus distress.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Hugo; Weise, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    The response rates and effects of being placed on a wait-list control condition are well documented in psychiatric populations. Despite the usefulness of such estimates and the frequent use of no-treatment controls in clinical trials for tinnitus, the effect of waiting in a tinnitus trial has not been investigated systematically. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall effect of wait-list control groups on tinnitus distress. Studies were retrieved via a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy for tinnitus distress. Outcomes of psychometrically robust tinnitus-specific measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Questionnaire, Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire) from wait-list control groups were quantified using meta-analytic techniques. Percentage of change and standard mean difference effect sizes were calculated using the pre and post wait period. Eleven studies involving 314 wait-list subjects with tinnitus were located. The analysis for a waiting period of 6 to 12 weeks revealed a mean decrease in scores on tinnitus-specific measures of 3% to 8%. Across studies, a statically significant small mean within-group effect size was obtained (Hedges' g=.17). The effects were moderated by methodological quality of the trial, sample characteristics (i.e., age, tinnitus duration), time of the wait-list and how diagnosis was established. Subjects in a tinnitus trial improve in tinnitus distress over a short waiting phase. The effects of waiting are highly variable and depend on the characteristics of the sample and of the trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... but each organ type has its own individual distribution policy reflects reflect factors that are unique to each organ type: Kidney Waiting time Donor/recipient immune system compatibility Prior living donor ...

  13. The effects of publishing emergency department wait time on patient utilization patterns in a community with two emergency department sites: a retrospective, quasi-experiment design.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; Youash, Sabrina

    2011-06-14

    Providing emergency department (ED) wait time information to the public has been suggested as a mechanism to reduce lengthy ED wait times (by enabling patients to select the ED site with shorter wait time), but the effects of such a program have not been evaluated. We evaluated the effects of such a program in a community with two ED sites. Descriptive statistics for wait times of the two sites before and after the publication of wait time information were used to evaluate the effects of the publication of wait time information on wait times. Multivariate logistical regression was used to test whether or not individual patients used published wait time to decide which site to visit. We found that the rates of wait times exceeding 4 h, and the 95th percentile of wait times in the two sites decreased after the publication of wait time information, even though the average wait times experienced a slight increase. We also found that after controlling for other factors, the site with shorter wait time had a higher likelihood of being selected after the publication of wait time information, but there was no such relationship before the publication. These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that the publication of wait time information leads to patients selecting the site with shorter wait time. While publishing ED wait time information did not improve average wait time, it reduced the rates of lengthy wait times.

  14. Feasibility of using marginal liver grafts in living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Fei; Wei, Yong-Gang; Li, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease caused by related risk factors when liver resection is contraindicated. Additionally, despite the decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) over the past two decades, the absolute number of HBsAg-positive people has increased, leading to an increase in HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, a large demand exists for LT. While the wait time for patients on the donor list is, to some degree, shorter due to the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), there is still a shortage of liver grafts. Furthermore, recipients often suffer from emergent conditions, such as liver dysfunction or even hepatic encephalopathy, which can lead to a limited choice in grafts. To expand the pool of available liver grafts, one option is the use of organs that were previously considered “unusable” by many, which are often labeled “marginal” organs. Many previous studies have reported on the possibilities of using marginal grafts in orthotopic LT; however, there is still a lack of discussion on this topic, especially regarding the feasibility of using marginal grafts in LDLT. Therefore, the present review aimed to summarize the feasibility of using marginal liver grafts for LDLT and discuss the possibility of expanding the application of these grafts. PMID:29930466

  15. Metoprolol decreases the plasma exposure of metformin via the induction of liver, kidney and muscle uptake in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Shi, A-Xi; Qin, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Tiffany; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2016-12-01

    Drug interactions are one of the commonest causes of side effects, particularly in long-term therapy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible effects of metoprolol on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in rats and to clarify the mechanism of drug interaction. In this study, rats were treated with metformin alone or in combination with metoprolol. Plasma, urine and tissue concentrations of metformin were determined by HPLC. Western blotting and real-time qPCR were used to evaluate the expression of rOCTs and rMATE1. The results showed that, after single or 7-day repeated administration, the plasma concentrations of metformin in the co-administration group were significantly decreased compared with that in the metformin group. However, the parameter V/F of metformin in the co-administration group was markedly increased compared with that in the metformin group. The hepatic, renal and muscular K p of metformin were markedly elevated after co-administration with metoprolol. Consistently, metformin uptake in rat kidney slices was significantly induced by metoprolol. In addition, multiple administrations of metoprolol significantly reduced the expression of rMATE1 in rat kidney as well as the urinary excretion of metformin. Importantly, after long-term administration, lactic acid and uric acid levels in the co-administration group were increased by 25% and 26%, respectively, compared with that in the metformin group. These results indicate that metoprolol can decrease the plasma concentration of metformin via the induction of hepatic, renal and muscular uptake, and long-term co-administration of metformin and metoprolol can cause elevated lactic acid and uric acid levels. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The British Columbia Nephrologists' Access Study (BCNAS) - a prospective, health services interventional study to develop waiting time benchmarks and reduce wait times for out-patient nephrology consultations.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Michael E; Romann, Alexandra; Djurdev, Ognjenka; Levin, Adeera; Beaulieu, Monica

    2013-08-29

    Early referral and management of high-risk chronic kidney disease may prevent or delay the need for dialysis. Automatic eGFR reporting has increased demand for out-patient nephrology consultations and in some cases, prolonged queues. In Canada, a national task force suggested the development of waiting time targets, which has not been done for nephrology. We sought to describe waiting time for outpatient nephrology consultations in British Columbia (BC). Data collection occurred in 2 phases: 1) Baseline Description (Jan 18-28, 2010) and 2) Post Waiting Time Benchmark-Introduction (Jan 16-27, 2012). Waiting time was defined as the interval from receipt of referral letters to assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, Nephrologists and Family Physicians (FP) developed waiting time targets for commonly referred conditions through meetings and surveys. Rules were developed to weigh-in nephrologists', FPs', and patients' perspectives in order to generate waiting time benchmarks. Targets consider comorbidities, eGFR, BP and albuminuria. Referred conditions were assigned a priority score between 1-4. BC nephrologists were encouraged to centrally triage referrals to see the first available nephrologist. Waiting time benchmarks were simultaneously introduced to guide patient scheduling. A post-intervention waiting time evaluation was then repeated. In 2010 and 2012, 43/52 (83%) and 46/57 (81%) of BC nephrologists participated. Waiting time decreased from 98(IQR44,157) to 64(IQR21,120) days from 2010 to 2012 (p = <.001), despite no change in referral eGFR, demographics, nor number of office hrs/wk. Waiting time improved most for high priority patients. An integrated, Provincial initiative to measure wait times, develop waiting benchmarks, and engage physicians in active waiting time management associated with improved access to nephrologists in BC. Improvements in waiting time was most marked for the highest priority patients, which suggests that benchmarks had an

  17. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  18. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  19. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  20. Decreased Vδ2 γδ T cells associated with liver damage by regulation of Th17 response in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Huang, Ang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Song; Wei, Jun; Xia, Siyuan; Wan, Yajuan; Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Yangguang; Wen, Ti; Chen, Yan; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Puyue; Zhao, Liqing; Wu, Zhenzhou; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Yin, Zhinan

    2013-10-15

     γδ T cells comprise a small subset of T cells and play a protective role against cancer and viral infections; however, their precise role in patients with chronic hepatitis B remains unclear.  Flow cytometry and immunofunctional assays were performed to analyze the impact of Vδ2 γδ (Vδ2) T cells in 64 immune-activated patients, 22 immune-tolerant carriers, and 30 healthy controls.  The frequencies of peripheral and hepatic Vδ2 T cells decreased with disease progression from immune tolerant to immune activated. In the latter group of patients, the decreases in peripheral and intrahepatic frequencies of Vδ2 T cells reversely correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels and histological activity index. These activated terminally differentiated memory phenotypic Vδ2 T cells exhibited impaired abilities in proliferation and chemotaxis, while maintained a relative intact interferon (IFN) γ production. Importantly, Vδ2 T cells, in vitro, significantly suppressed the production of cytokines associated with interleukin 17-producing CD4+ T (Th17) cells through both cell contact-dependent and IFN-γ-dependent mechanisms.  Inflammatory microenvironment in IA patients result in decreased numbers of Vδ2 T cells, which play a novel role by regulating the pathogenic Th17 response to protect the liver in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  1. Reducing pharmacy wait time to promote customer service: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    The present study had 3 objectives: (1) to evaluate the effects of 2 different interventions (feedback regarding customer satisfaction with wait time and combined feedback and goal setting) on wait time in a hospital outpatient pharmacy; (2) to assess the extent to which the previously applied interventions maintained their effects; and (3) to evaluate the differences between the effects of the original study and those of the present follow-up study. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCB within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; and C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction. Wait time decreased after baseline when the combined intervention was introduced, and wait time increased with the reintroduction of satisfaction feedback (alone). The results of the replication study confirm the pattern of the results of the original study and demonstrate high sensitivity of levels of customer satisfaction with wait time. The most impressive result of the replication is the nearly 2-year maintenance of lower wait time between the end of the original study and the beginning (baseline) of the replication.

  2. Rescue allocation for liver transplantation within Eurotransplant: the Heidelberg experience.

    PubMed

    Schemmer, Peter; Nickkholgh, Arash; Gerling, Till; Weitz, Jürgen; Büchler, Markus W; Schmidt, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Organ shortage has driven many transplant centers to extend their criteria for organ acceptance. Graft allocation policies have been modified accordingly. This report focuses on the impact of applying the so-called rescue allocation (RA) strategy for liver transplantation (LT) in a single center within the Eurotransplant (ET) area. Liver grafts are considered for RA when the regular organ allocation is declined by at least three centers or is averted because of donor instability/unfavorable logistical reasons, thus entering a competitive or a single-recipient rescue organ offer procedure, respectively. The accepting center has the advantage to select a recipient from its own waiting list for these RA grafts. Among 253 livers accepted at the University of Heidelberg between January 2004 and December 2006, we transplanted 85 (34%) rescue-allocated livers. The indications for LT were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 43%), chronic liver disease (55%), and acute liver failure (2%). Median cold ischemia time for RA grafts was 10 h (range: 4-17). The MELD score (mean +/- SD) was 13 +/- 7 (range: 6-40) and was 12 +/- 7 for recipients with HCC. Three (3.5%) primary non-functions (PNF) occurred after transplantation of RA livers. One-year patient and graft survival were 84% and 75%, respectively. A comparison between the recipients of RA livers and regularly allocated livers revealed no significant difference regarding initial poor function (IPF), PNF, and surgical complications. Furthermore, a median follow-up of 16 months revealed no significant difference regarding patient and graft survival between the two groups. The use of RA organs has increased the donor pool and transplantation dynamics with satisfying results. The unique possibility to match livers with recipients, which is left to the discretion of accepting center, should be judged according to the center's experience to decrease the waiting times for a timely rescue of organs/recipients while avoiding futile

  3. Review of "Waiting for Superman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutro, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    "Waiting for Superman" offers what appear to be straightforward, commonsense solutions to inequities in schooling. The film argues that heroic action can be taken to fix what it portrays as the disaster of public schooling. The film disregards poverty as a factor in school performance and connection--and therefore never addresses anti-poverty…

  4. Attenuation of warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in the liver by bucillamine through decreased neutrophil activation and Bax/Bcl-2 modulation.

    PubMed

    Junnarkar, Sameer P; Tapuria, Niteen; Mani, Alireza; Dijk, Sas; Fuller, Barry; Seifalian, Alexander M; Davidson, Brian R

    2010-12-01

    Liver transplantation and resection surgery involve a period of ischemia and reperfusion to the liver, which initiates an inflammatory cascade resulting in liver and remote organ injury. Bucillamine is a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant that is capable of rapidly entering cells. We hypothesized that bucillamine acts by replenishing glutathione levels, thus reducing neutrophil activation, modulating Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and subsequently, attenuating the effects of warm ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver. The effect of bucillamine was studied in a rat model of liver IRI with 45 min of partial (70%) liver ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Liver injury was assessed by measuring serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and liver histology. Oxidative stress was quantified by measuring F(2) isoprostane and glutathione levels. Leukocyte adhesion was assessed by intravital microscopy, and inflammatory cytokine response was assessed by measuring serum cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) levels. Bax and Bcl-2 expression was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The model produced significant liver injury with elevated transaminases and an acute inflammatory response. Bucillamine reduced the liver injury, as indicated by reduced AST (932 ± 200.8 vs 2072.5 ± 511.79, P < 0.05). Bucillamine reduced Bax expression, serum CINC-1 levels, and neutrophil adhesion, and upregulated Bcl-2. However, bucillamine did not affect tissue glutathione levels nor the levels of oxidative stress, as measured by plasma and hepatic F(2) isoprostane levels. Bucillamine reduces warm ischemia-reperfusion in the liver by inhibiting neutrophil activation and modulating Bax/Bcl-2 expression. © 2010 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Phyllanthus Niruri Standardized Extract Alleviates the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreases Atherosclerotic Risk in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Al Zarzour, Raghdaa Hamdan; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Kaur, Gurjeet; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Al-Mansoub, Majed Ahmed; Saghir, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed; Usman, Nasiba Salisu; Al-Dulaimi, Dhamraa W; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-07-18

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri ( P. niruri ) . NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis.

  6. Phyllanthus Niruri Standardized Extract Alleviates the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreases Atherosclerotic Risk in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Zarzour, Raghdaa Hamdan; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini; Kaur, Gurjeet; Al-Mansoub, Majed Ahmed; Saghir, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed; Usman, Nasiba Salisu; Al-Dulaimi, Dhamraa W.; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC–HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis. PMID:28718838

  7. Liver-Specific Knockdown of IGF-1 Decreases Vascular Oxidative Stress Resistance by Impairing the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response: A Novel Model of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Pinto, John T.; Ballabh, Praveen; Valcarcel-Ares, M.Noa; Farley, Julie; Koller, Akos; Henthorn, Jim C.; Bass, Caroline; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that age-related dysfunction of NF-E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2)–driven pathways impairs cellular redox homeostasis, exacerbating age-related cellular oxidative stress and increasing sensitivity of aged vessels to oxidative stress–induced cellular damage. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 decline during aging, which significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in humans. To test the hypothesis that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency impairs Nrf2-driven pathways in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1f/f + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels (∼50%). In the aortas of IGF-1–deficient mice, there was a trend for decreased expression of Nrf2 and the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HMOX1. In cultured aorta segments of IGF-1–deficient mice treated with oxidative stressors (high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and H2O2), induction of Nrf2-driven genes was significantly attenuated as compared with control vessels, which was associated with an exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, mimicking the aging phenotype. In conclusion, endocrine IGF-1 deficiency is associated with dysregulation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses in the vasculature, which likely promotes an adverse vascular phenotype under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension) and results in accelerated vascular impairments in aging. PMID:22021391

  8. Activation of Liver X Receptor Decreases Atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/− mice in the Absence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Mojdeh S.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Abramowicz, Sandra; Ntonga, Vusisizwe; Welch, Carrie L.; Tall, Alan R.; Westerterp, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Objective Liver X Receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly up-regulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of NFκB target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate RCT, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis. Approach and Results LXR activator T0901317 (T0) substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr−/− mice were transplanted with Abca1−/−Abcg1−/− or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet (WTD) for 6 weeks with or without T0 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1−/−Abcg1−/− BM transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was due to macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr−/− mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1fl/flAbcg1fl/fl or Abca1fl/flAbcg1fl/fl BM and fed WTD with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1fl/flAbcg1fl/fl group. Conclusions The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their anti-atherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to trans-repress inflammatory genes. PMID:24311381

  9. Waiting for thyroid surgery: a study of psychological morbidity and determinants of health associated with long wait times for thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Antoine; Devins, Gerald M; Freeman, Jeremy; Wei, Alice C; Rotstein, Lorne; Chauhan, Nitin; Sawka, Anna M; Brown, Dale; Irish, Jonathan; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Higgins, Kevin; Enepekides, Danny; Goldstein, David

    2013-02-01

    Patients with thyroid pathology tend have longer surgical wait times. Uncertainty during this wait can have negative psychologically impact. This study aims to determine the degree of psychological morbidity in patients waiting for thyroid surgery. Prospectively assessing patients pre- and postoperative psychological morbidity (level 2c). Patients waiting for thyroidectomy were mailed a sociodemographic and four psychological morbidity questionnaires: Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We assessed whether anxiety was related to length of wait and a number of clinical/sociodemographic factors. We achieved a 53% response rate over a 3-year period, with 176 patients providing complete preoperative data; and 74 (42%) completed postoperative data. The average age was 53 (± 12) years; 82% were female. Respondents with a suspicious or known malignancy waited an average of 107 days while those with benign neoplastic biopsies waited an average of 218 days for thyroidectomy. Respondents reported substantial psychological morbidity with high IES-R, IIRS, PSS, and HADS scores. There was no significant association between psychological morbidity and wait times, clinical or sociodemographic factors. Postoperative anxiety decreased significantly in all psychological morbidity measures except for the IIRS. Patients waiting for thyroid surgery have mild to moderate psychological morbidity and long wait times for surgery. These appear not to be related. Psychological morbidity decreases after surgery. Reducing wait time can potentially reduce the time that patients have to live with unnecessary stress and anxiety. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Advertising emergency department wait times.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-03-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised.

  11. Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised. PMID:23599836

  12. Two Effective Ways to Implement Wait Time. A Symposium on Wait Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, J. Nathan; And Others

    The effects of instructional guides and a wait time feedback device (called a "Wait Timer") on the classroom interaction of middle school science teachers are examined. The Wait Timer, an unobtrusive indicator of wait time, is an automatic device that activates a light when a person speaks. The duration of the light at the end of a…

  13. Glutamine synthetase and alanine transaminase expression are decreased in livers of aged vs. young beef cows and GS can be upregulated by 17β-estradiol implants.

    PubMed

    Miles, E D; McBride, B W; Jia, Y; Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Bridges, P J; Matthews, J C

    2015-09-01

    Aged beef cows (≥ 8 yr of age) produce calves with lower birth and weaning weights. In mammals, aging is associated with reduced hepatic expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine transaminase (ALT), thus impaired hepatic Gln-Glu cycle function. To determine if the relative protein content of GS, ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1), and their regulating protein (GTRAP3-18) differed in biopsied liver tissue of (a) aged vs. young (3 to 4 yr old) nonlactating, nongestating Angus cows (Exp. 1 and 2) and (b) aged mixed-breed cows with and without COMPUDOSE (17β-estradiol) ear implants (Exp. 3), Western blot analyses were performed. In Exp. 1, 12 young (3.62 ± 0.01 yr) and 13 aged (10.08 ± 0.42 yr) cows grazed the same mixed forage for 42 d (August-October). In Exp. 2, 12 young (3.36 ± 0.01 yr) and 12 aged (10.38 ± 0.47 yr) cows were individually fed (1.03% of BW) a corn-silage-based diet to maintain BW for 20 d. For both Exp. 1 and 2, the effect of cow age was assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW did not change ( ≥ 0.17). Hepatic ALT (78% and 61%) and GS (52% and 71%) protein content (Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) was decreased ( ≤ 0.01), whereas GTRAP3-18 (an inhibitor of EAAC1 activity) increased ( ≤ 0.01; 170% and 136%) and AST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 contents did not differ ( ≥ 0.17) in aged vs. young cows. In Exp. 2, free concentrations (nmol/g) of Glu, Ala, Gln, Arg, and Orn in liver homogenates were determined. Aged cows tended to have less ( = 0.10) free Gln (15.0%) than young cows, whereas other AA concentrations did not differ ( 0.26). In Exp. 3, 14 aged (> 10 yr) cows were randomly allotted ( = 7) to sham or COMPUDOSE (25.7 mg of 17β-estradiol) implant treatment (TRT), and had ad libitum access to alfalfa hay for 28 d. Blood and liver biopsies were collected 14 and 28 d after implant treatment. Treatment, time after implant (DAY), and TRT × DAY effects were assessed by ANOVA using

  14. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area.

    PubMed

    Mobach, Mark P

    2007-02-01

    To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.

  15. Why wait so long for child care? An analysis of waits, queues and work in a South African urban health centre.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, M O; Barron, P

    1997-01-01

    Long waits at large urban clinics obstruct primary care delivery, imposing time costs on patients, deterring appropriate utilization and causing patient dissatisfaction. This paper reports on an innovative attempt by staff in a large South African urban health centre to analyse a system of queues and preventive and curative services for pre-school children, and thereafter to evaluate changes. The study had a cross-sectional work study design, with repeated measurement of waiting times after 13 months. At baseline the preventive clinic was found to have several inessential processes and waits; these were eliminated or overlapped, and clinic sessions per week were increased. A year later median waiting times had decreased substantially in the preventive clinic, but had increased in the curative clinic. Simple research can explain long waits, inform and measure changes, and provide evidence to justify primary care integration and would be useful in health centres and hospital outpatient departments in developing countries.

  16. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  17. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    PubMed

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a “cooling off” period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. PMID:29078268

  19. Liver-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted (LiGHRKO) mice have decreased endocrine IGF-I, increased local IGF-I, and altered body size, body composition, and adipokine profiles.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Jara, Adam; Kelder, Bruce; Wang, Feiya; Stout, Michael B; Zhi, Xu; Sun, Liou; White, Thomas A; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Pirtskhalava, Tamara; Tchkonia, Tamara; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Wenjuan; Masternak, Michal M; Kirkland, James L; Miller, Richard A; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J

    2014-05-01

    GH is an important regulator of body growth and composition as well as numerous other metabolic processes. In particular, liver plays a key role in the GH/IGF-I axis, because the majority of circulating "endocrine" IGF-I results from GH-stimulated liver IGF-I production. To develop a better understanding of the role of liver in the overall function of GH, we generated a strain of mice with liver-specific GH receptor (GHR) gene knockout (LiGHRKO mice). LiGHRKO mice had a 90% decrease in circulating IGF-I levels, a 300% increase in circulating GH, and significant changes in IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5, and IGFBP-7. LiGHRKO mice were smaller than controls, with body length and body weight being significantly decreased in both sexes. Analysis of body composition over time revealed a pattern similar to those found in GH transgenic mice; that is, LiGHRKO mice had a higher percentage of body fat at early ages followed by lower percentage of body fat in adulthood. Local IGF-I mRNA levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscle and select adipose tissue depots. Grip strength was increased in LiGHRKO mice. Finally, circulating levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were increased in LiGHRKO mice. In conclusion, LiGHRKO mice are smaller despite increased local mRNA expression of IGF-I in several tissues, suggesting that liver-derived IGF-I is indeed important for normal body growth. Furthermore, our data suggest that novel GH-dependent cross talk between liver and adipose is important for regulation of adipokines in vivo.

  20. Can We Predict Patient Wait Time?

    PubMed

    Pianykh, Oleg S; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2015-10-01

    The importance of patient wait-time management and predictability can hardly be overestimated: For most hospitals, it is the patient queues that drive and define every bit of clinical workflow. The objective of this work was to study the predictability of patient wait time and identify its most influential predictors. To solve this problem, we developed a comprehensive list of 25 wait-related parameters, suggested in earlier work and observed in our own experiments. All parameters were chosen as derivable from a typical Hospital Information System dataset. The parameters were fed into several time-predicting models, and the best parameter subsets, discovered through exhaustive model search, were applied to a large sample of actual patient wait data. We were able to discover the most efficient wait-time prediction factors and models, such as the line-size models introduced in this work. Moreover, these models proved to be equally accurate and computationally efficient. Finally, the selected models were implemented in our patient waiting areas, displaying predicted wait times on the monitors located at the front desks. The limitations of these models are also discussed. Optimal regression models based on wait-line sizes can provide accurate and efficient predictions for patient wait time. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a kidney.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Public Service Announcement Kidney Disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a ...

  2. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Waiting time effect of a GM type orifice pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Kakimi, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Yoichi

    In a general GM type orifice pulse tube refrigerator, there are two short periods during which both the high pressure valve and the low pressure valve are closed in one cycle. We call the short period `waiting time'. The pressure differences across the high pressure valve and the low pressure valve are decreased by using long waiting time. The pressure difference loss is decreased. Thus, the cooling capacity and the efficiency are increased, and the no-load temperature is decreased. The mechanism of the waiting time is discussed with numerical analysis and verified by experiments. Experiments show that there is an optimum waiting time for the no-load temperature, the cooling capacity and the efficiency, respectively. The no-load temperature of 40.3 K was achieved with a 90° waiting time. The cooling capacity of 58 W at 80 K was achieved with a 60° waiting time. The no-load temperature of 45.1 K and the cooling capacity of 45 W at 80 K were achieved with a 1° waiting time.

  4. Waiting Online: A Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…

  5. The Religious Meaning in "Waiting for Godot"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    "Waiting for Godot" is one of the classic works of theater of the absurd. The play seems absurd but with a deep religious meaning. This text tries to explore the theme in four parts of God and man, breaking the agreement, repentance and imprecation and waiting for salvation.

  6. Improving Patient Satisfaction with Waiting Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilers, Gayleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Waiting times are a significant component of patient satisfaction. A patient satisfaction survey performed in the author's health center showed that students rated waiting time lowest of the listed categories--A ratings of 58% overall, 63% for scheduled appointments, and 41% for the walk-in clinic. The center used a quality improvement process and…

  7. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  8. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  9. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities. PMID:24895659

  10. Waiting endurance time estimation of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  11. The anti-fibrotic effect of liver growth factor is associated with decreased intrahepatic levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and transforming growth factor beta 1 in bile duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Juan J; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Rúa, Carmen; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Cereceda, Rosa M; Miquilena-Colina, María E; Machín, Celia; Fernández-Martínez, Amalia; García-Cañero, Rarael

    2008-05-01

    Liver growth factor (LGF), a mitogen for liver cells, behaves as an anti-fibrotic agent even in extrahepatic sites, but its mechanistic basis is unknown. We aimed to determine the intrahepatic expression pattern of key modulators of liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats (BDL) after injection of LGF. BDL rats received either LGF (4.5 microg/ratXdose, two doses/week, at time 0 or 2 or 5w after operation, depending on the group (BDL+LGF groups, n=20) or saline (BDL+S groups, n=20). Groups were compared in terms of fibrosis (histomorphometry), liver function (aminopyrine breath test), matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and liver endoglin content (Western blotting), and serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) levels (ELISA). In BDL+LGF rats, the fibrotic index was significantly lower at 5w, p=0.006, and at 8w, p=0.04, than in BDL+S rats. Liver function values in BDL+LGF rats were higher than those obtained in BDL+S rats (80% at 5w and 79% at 8w, versus 38% and 29%, p<0.01, taking healthy controls as 100%). Notably, in BDL+LGF rats the intrahepatic expression levels of both MMPs were lower at 2w (MMP-2, p=0.03; MMP-9, p=0.05) and 5w (MMP-2, p=0.05, MMP-9, p=0.04). In addition, the hepatic TGF-beta1 level in BDL+LGF rats was lower at 2w (36%, p=0.008), 5w (50%) and 8wk (37%), whereas intrahepatic endoglin expression remained constant in all BDL rats studied. LGF ameliorates liver fibrosis and improves liver function in BDL rats. The LGF-induced anti-fibrotic effect is associated with a decreased hepatic level of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TGF-beta1 in fibrotic rats.

  12. IL-10 down-regulates T cell activation by antigen-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through decreased antigen uptake via the mannose receptor and lowered surface expression of accessory molecules.

    PubMed

    Knolle, P A; Uhrig, A; Hegenbarth, S; Löser, E; Schmitt, E; Gerken, G; Lohse, A W

    1998-12-01

    Our study demonstrates that antigen-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) induce production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from cloned Th1 CD4+ T cells. We show that LSEC used the mannose receptor for antigen uptake, which further strengthened the role of LSEC as antigen-presenting cell (APC) population in the liver. The ability of LSEC to activate cloned CD4+ T cells antigen-specifically was down-regulated by exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and by IL-10. We identify two separate mechanisms by which IL-10 down-regulated T cell activation through LSEC. IL-10 decreased the constitutive surface expression of MHC class II as well as of the accessory molecules CD80 and CD86 on LSEC. Furthermore, IL-10 diminished mannose receptor activity in LSEC. Decreased antigen uptake via the mannose receptor and decreased expression of accessory molecules may explain the down-regulation of T cell activation through IL-10. Importantly, the expression of low numbers of antigen on MHC II in the absence of accessory signals on LSEC may lead to induction of anergy in T cells. Because PGE2 and IL-10 are released from LSEC or Kupffer cells (KC) in response to those concentrations of endotoxin found physiologically in portal venous blood, it is possible that the continuous presence of these mediators and their negative effect on the local APC may explain the inability of the liver to induce T cell activation and to clear chronic infections. Our results support the notion that antigen presentation by LSEC in the hepatic microenvironment contributes to the observed inability to mount an effective cell-mediated immune response in the liver.

  13. Selenium and Selenoprotein Deficiencies Induce Widespread Pyogranuloma Formation in Mice, while High Levels of Dietary Selenium Decrease Liver Tumor Size Driven by TGFα

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nianxin; Ward, Jerrold M.; Perella, Christine M.; Hoffmann, Victoria J.; Rogers, Keith; Combs, Gerald F.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Merlino, Glenn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying levels of dietary selenium and altered selenoprotein status using mice carrying a mutant (A37G) selenocysteine tRNA transgene (TrsptG37) and/or a cancer driver TGFα transgene. The use of TrsptG37 altered selenoprotein expression in a selenoprotein and tissue specific manner and, at sufficient dietary selenium levels, separate the effect of diet and selenoprotein status. Mice were maintained on diets deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm selenium) or supplemented with 0.1, 0.4 or 2.25 ppm selenium or 30 ppm triphenylselenonium chloride (TPSC), a non-metabolized selenium compound. TrsptG37 transgenic and TGFα/TrsptG37 bi-transgenic mice subjected to selenium-deficient or TPSC diets developed a neurological phenotype associated with early morbidity and mortality prior to hepatocarcinoma development. Pathology analyses revealed widespread disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation. Pyogranulomas occurred in liver, lungs, heart, spleen, small and large intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes in these transgenic and bi-transgenic mice. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly increased in mice carrying the TGFα transgene, while dietary selenium and selenoprotein status did not affect tumor number and multiplicity. However, adenoma and carcinoma size and area were smaller in TGFα transgenic mice that were fed 0.4 and 2.25 versus 0.1 ppm of selenium. Thus, selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies led to widespread pyogranuloma formation, while high selenium levels inhibited the size of TGFα–induced liver tumors. PMID:23460847

  14. Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Dostalek, Miroslav; Court, Michael H; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2011-03-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used after organ transplantation. Altered concentrations of MPA metabolites have been reported in diabetic kidney transplant recipients, although the reason for this difference is unknown. We aimed to compare MPA biotransformation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) expression and activity between liver (n = 16) and kidney (n = 8) from diabetic and nondiabetic donors. Glucuronidation of MPA, as well as the expression and probe substrate activity of UGTs primarily responsible for MPA phenol glucuronide (MPAG) formation (UGT1A1 and UGT1A9), and MPA acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) formation (UGT2B7), was characterized. We have found that both diabetic and nondiabetic human liver microsomes and kidney microsomes formed MPAG with similar efficiency; however, AcMPAG formation was significantly lower in diabetic samples. This finding is supported by markedly lower glucuronidation of the UGT2B7 probe zidovudine, UGT2B7 protein, and UGT2B7 mRNA in diabetic tissues. UGT genetic polymorphism did not explain this difference because UGT2B7*2 or *1c genotype were not associated with altered microsomal UGT2B7 protein levels or AcMPAG formation. Furthermore, mRNA expression and probe activities for UGT1A1 or UGT1A9, both forming MPAG but not AcMPAG, were comparable between diabetic and nondiabetic tissues, suggesting the effect may be specific to UGT2B7-mediated AcMPAG formation. These findings suggest that diabetes mellitus is associated with significantly reduced UGT2B7 mRNA expression, protein level, and enzymatic activity of human liver and kidney, explaining in part the relatively low circulating concentrations of AcMPAG in diabetic patients.

  15. RTS,S vaccination is associated with serologic evidence of decreased exposure to Plasmodium falciparum liver- and blood-stage parasites.

    PubMed

    Campo, Joe J; Aponte, John J; Skinner, Jeff; Nakajima, Rie; Molina, Douglas M; Liang, Li; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alonso, Pedro L; Crompton, Peter D; Felgner, Philip L; Dobaño, Carlota

    2015-03-01

    The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, targets the sporozoite and liver stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle, yet it provides partial protection against disease associated with the subsequent blood stage of infection. Antibodies against the vaccine target, the circumsporozoite protein, have not shown sufficient correlation with risk of clinical malaria to serve as a surrogate for protection. The mechanism by which a vaccine that targets the asymptomatic sporozoite and liver stages protects against disease caused by blood-stage parasites remains unclear. We hypothesized that vaccination with RTS,S protects from blood-stage disease by reducing the number of parasites emerging from the liver, leading to prolonged exposure to subclinical levels of blood-stage parasites that go undetected and untreated, which in turn boosts pre-existing antibody-mediated blood-stage immunity. To test this hypothesis, we compared antibody responses to 824 P. falciparum antigens by protein array in Mozambican children 6 months after receiving a full course of RTS,S (n = 291) versus comparator vaccine (n = 297) in a Phase IIb trial. Moreover, we used a nested case-control design to compare antibody responses of children who did or did not experience febrile malaria. Unexpectedly, we found that the breadth and magnitude of the antibody response to both liver and asexual blood-stage antigens was significantly lower in RTS,S vaccinees, with the exception of only four antigens, including the RTS,S circumsporozoite antigen. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, these findings suggest that RTS,S confers protection against clinical malaria by blocking sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, thereby reducing exposure to the blood-stage parasites that cause disease. We also found that antibody profiles 6 months after vaccination did not distinguish protected and susceptible children during the subsequent 12-month follow-up period but were strongly associated with exposure. Together

  16. Trends in Wait-list Mortality in Children Listed for Heart Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tajinder P.; Almond, Christopher S.; Piercey, Gary; Gauvreau, Kimberlee

    2014-01-01

    We sought to evaluate trends in overall and race-specific pediatric heart transplant (HT) wait-list mortality in the United States (US) during the last 20 years. We identified all children <18 years old listed for primary HT in the US during 1989–2009 (N=8096, 62% white, 19% black, 13% Hispanic, 6% other) using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network database. Wait-list mortality was assessed in 4 successive eras (1989–1994, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009). Overall wait-list mortality declined in successive eras (26%, 23%, 18% and 13%, respectively). The decline across eras remained significant in adjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70 in successive eras, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67, 0.74) and was 67% lower for children listed during 2005–2009 vs. those listed during 1989–1994 (HR 0.33, CI 0.28, 0.39). In models stratified by race, wait-list mortality decreased in all racial groups in successive eras. In models stratified by era, minority children were not at higher risk of wait-list mortality in the most recent era. We conclude that the risk of wait-list mortality among US children listed for HT has decreased by two-thirds during the last 20 years. Racial gaps in wait-list mortality present variably in the past are not present in the current era. PMID:21883920

  17. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver disease do ... to lose weight sensibly and slowly, without causing malnutrition (especially protein malnutrition). Losing excess weight decreases the ...

  18. Waiting time care guarantees: necessity or nemesis?

    PubMed

    Joshi, N P; Noseworthy, F T; Noseworthy, T W

    2006-01-01

    One of the priorities of governments in Canada is to reduce long waiting times for health services. This has raised the prospect of introducing waiting time care guarantees. Such guarantees affirm the healthcare system's social contract with the public and provide an entitlement to Canadians to receive timely care. There are clinical, legal and political implications, which must be considered and well managed before introduction. Other countries have ventured down this path. They teach us that waiting time care guarantees are good policy and make good sense. Correspondingly, they remind us not to make a promise we are not ready to keep.

  19. Reduction of sitting time has a positive effect on the decrease of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabinicz, Anna; Maciejewska, Dominika; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Ryterska, Karina; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Wyszomirska-Raszeja, Joanna; Gutowska, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large part of the human population. One of the major environmental factors associated with the risk of NAFLD is the lack of physical activity. Aim To compare the level of physical activity and the insulin resistance in NAFLD patients. Material and methods Thirty patients with NAFLD underwent a six-month dietary intervention based on the principles of classical dietetics. Data about diet and physical activity was based on 72-hour nutrition diaries and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Standard blood biochemical analyses were carried out before and after diet at the University Hospital Laboratory. Results The study showed that total physical activity and physical activity in leisure time are negatively correlated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). Insulin (p < 0.05), body weight (p < 0.05), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.05) were also negatively correlated with physical activity in free time. In addition, we noticed a positive correlation between sitting time and the risk of insulin resistance, in the case of HOMA-IR and insulin concentration (p < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary intervention and a physical activity plan are important factors in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Taking regular exercise increases insulin sensitivity and prevents further development of the disease. It seems that diet and physical activity are not the only one risk factors of NAFLD. Our study reveals that the reduction of sitting time has a positive effect on the level of insulin and it reduces insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD. PMID:28053680

  20. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  1. Reward Sensitivity and Waiting Impulsivity: Shift towards Reward Valuation away from Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Mechelmans, Daisy J; Strelchuk, Daniela; Doñamayor, Nuria; Banca, Paula; Robbins, Trevor W; Baek, Kwangyeol

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Impulsivity and reward expectancy are commonly interrelated. Waiting impulsivity, measured using the rodent 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time task, predicts compulsive cocaine seeking and sign (or cue) tracking. Here, we assess human waiting impulsivity using a novel translational task, the 4-Choice Serial Reaction Time task, and the relationship with reward cues. Methods Healthy volunteers (n=29) performed the monetary incentive delay task as a functional MRI study where subjects observe a cue predicting reward (cue) and wait to respond for high (£5), low (£1), or no reward. Waiting impulsivity was tested with the 4-Choice Serial Reaction Time task. Results For high reward prospects (£5, no reward), greater waiting impulsivity on the 4-CSRT correlated with greater medial orbitofrontal cortex and lower supplementary motor area activity to cues. In response to high reward cues, greater waiting impulsivity was associated with greater subthalamic nucleus connectivity with orbitofrontal cortex and greater subgenual cingulate connectivity with anterior insula, but decreased connectivity with regions implicated in action selection and preparation. Conclusion These findings highlight a shift towards regions implicated in reward valuation and a shift towards compulsivity away from higher level motor preparation and action selection and response. We highlight the role of reward sensitivity and impulsivity, mechanisms potentially linking human waiting impulsivity with incentive approach and compulsivity, theories highly relevant to disorders of addiction. PMID:29020291

  2. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-05

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer.

  3. Significantly decreased and more variable expression of major CYPs and UGTs in liver microsomes prepared from HBV-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma and matched pericarcinomatous tissues determined using an isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tongmeng; Gao, Song; Peng, Xiaojuan; Shi, Jian; Xie, Cong; Li, Qiang; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Fuyuan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Hu, Ming

    2015-03-01

    To determine the liver expression of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the major phase I and II metabolism enzymes responsible for clearance and detoxification of drugs, xenobiotic and endogenous substances. A validated isotope label-free method was established for absolute and simultaneous quantification of 9 CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D, 2E1 and 3A4) and 5 UGTs (1A1, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7) in human liver microsomes using LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS method displayed excellent dynamic range (at least 250-fold) and high sensitivity for each of the signature peptides with acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision. The protein expression profile of CYP and UGT isoforms were then determined in match microsomes samples prepared from patients with HBV-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the tumor microsomes, the average absolute amounts of 8 major CYP isoforms (except CYP2C19) and 3 UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7) were decreased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 levels were unchanged (p > 0.05). In addition, among isoforms with altered expression, 6 of 8 CYP isoforms and all three UGT isoforms were much more variable in tumor microsomes. Lastly, the importance of CYP3A4 was greatly diminished whereas the importance of UGT1A6 was enhanced in tumor microsomes. The use of an isotope label-free absolute quantification method for the simultaneous determination of 9 CYPs and 5 UGTs in human liver microsomes reveals that expression levels of CYPs and UGTs in human liver are severely impact by HCC, which could impact drug metabolism, disposition and pharmacotherapy.

  4. Application of Queueing Theory to the Analysis of Changes in Outpatients' Waiting Times in Hospitals Introducing EMR

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Kim, Seong Min; Chae, Young Moon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This research used queueing theory to analyze changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. Methods We focused on the exact drawing of two fundamental parameters for queueing analysis, arrival rate (λ) and service rate (µ), from digital data to apply queueing theory to the analysis of outpatients' waiting times. We used outpatients' reception times and consultation finish times to calculate the arrival and service rates, respectively. Results Using queueing theory, we could calculate waiting time excluding distorted values from the digital data and distortion factors, such as arrival before the hospital open time, which occurs frequently in the initial stage of a queueing system. We analyzed changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of EMR using the methodology proposed in this paper, and found that the outpatients' waiting time decreases after the introduction of EMR. More specifically, the outpatients' waiting times in the target public hospitals have decreased by rates in the range between 44% and 78%. Conclusions It is possible to analyze waiting times while minimizing input errors and limitations influencing consultation procedures if we use digital data and apply the queueing theory. Our results verify that the introduction of EMR contributes to the improvement of patient services by decreasing outpatients' waiting time, or by increasing efficiency. It is also expected that our methodology or its expansion could contribute to the improvement of hospital service by assisting the identification and resolution of bottlenecks in the outpatient consultation process. PMID:28261529

  5. Application of Queueing Theory to the Analysis of Changes in Outpatients' Waiting Times in Hospitals Introducing EMR.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Kim, Seong Min; Chae, Young Moon; Song, Yong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This research used queueing theory to analyze changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. We focused on the exact drawing of two fundamental parameters for queueing analysis, arrival rate (λ) and service rate (µ), from digital data to apply queueing theory to the analysis of outpatients' waiting times. We used outpatients' reception times and consultation finish times to calculate the arrival and service rates, respectively. Using queueing theory, we could calculate waiting time excluding distorted values from the digital data and distortion factors, such as arrival before the hospital open time, which occurs frequently in the initial stage of a queueing system. We analyzed changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of EMR using the methodology proposed in this paper, and found that the outpatients' waiting time decreases after the introduction of EMR. More specifically, the outpatients' waiting times in the target public hospitals have decreased by rates in the range between 44% and 78%. It is possible to analyze waiting times while minimizing input errors and limitations influencing consultation procedures if we use digital data and apply the queueing theory. Our results verify that the introduction of EMR contributes to the improvement of patient services by decreasing outpatients' waiting time, or by increasing efficiency. It is also expected that our methodology or its expansion could contribute to the improvement of hospital service by assisting the identification and resolution of bottlenecks in the outpatient consultation process.

  6. General practice cooperatives: long waiting times for home visits due to long distances?

    PubMed Central

    Giesen, Paul; van Lin, Nieke; Mokkink, Henk; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background The introduction of large-scale out-of-hours GP cooperatives has led to questions about increased distances between the GP cooperatives and the homes of patients and the increasing waiting times for home visits in urgent cases. We studied the relationship between the patient's waiting time for a home visit and the distance to the GP cooperative. Further, we investigated if other factors (traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency) influenced waiting times. Methods Cross-sectional study at four GP cooperatives. We used variance analysis to calculate waiting times for various categories of traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate to what degree these factors affected the ability to meet targets in urgent cases. Results The average waiting time for 5827 consultations was 30.5 min. Traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day and urgency of the complaint all seemed to affect waiting times significantly. A total of 88.7% of all patients were seen within 1 hour. In the case of life-threatening complaints (U1), 68.8% of the patients were seen within 15 min, and 95.6% of those with acute complaints (U2) were seen within 1 hour. For patients with life-threatening complaints (U1) the percentage of visits that met the time target of 15 minuts decreased from 86.5% (less than 2.5 km) to 16.7% (equals or more than 20 km). Discussion and conclusion Although home visits waiting times increase with increasing distance from the GP cooperative, it appears that traffic intensity, home visit intensity, and urgency also influence waiting times. For patients with life-threatening complaints waiting times increase sharply with the distance. PMID:17295925

  7. General practice cooperatives: long waiting times for home visits due to long distances?

    PubMed

    Giesen, Paul; van Lin, Nieke; Mokkink, Henk; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2007-02-12

    The introduction of large-scale out-of-hours GP cooperatives has led to questions about increased distances between the GP cooperatives and the homes of patients and the increasing waiting times for home visits in urgent cases. We studied the relationship between the patient's waiting time for a home visit and the distance to the GP cooperative. Further, we investigated if other factors (traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency) influenced waiting times. Cross-sectional study at four GP cooperatives. We used variance analysis to calculate waiting times for various categories of traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate to what degree these factors affected the ability to meet targets in urgent cases. The average waiting time for 5827 consultations was 30.5 min. Traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day and urgency of the complaint all seemed to affect waiting times significantly. A total of 88.7% of all patients were seen within 1 hour. In the case of life-threatening complaints (U1), 68.8% of the patients were seen within 15 min, and 95.6% of those with acute complaints (U2) were seen within 1 hour. For patients with life-threatening complaints (U1) the percentage of visits that met the time target of 15 minutes decreased from 86.5% (less than 2.5 km) to 16.7% (equals or more than 20 km). Although home visits waiting times increase with increasing distance from the GP cooperative, it appears that traffic intensity, home visit intensity, and urgency also influence waiting times. For patients with life-threatening complaints waiting times increase sharply with the distance.

  8. Indication criteria for cataract extraction and gender differences in waiting time.

    PubMed

    Smirthwaite, Goldina; Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate national indication criteria tool for cataract extraction (NIKE), a clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, in relation to gender differences in waiting times for cataract extraction (CE). Data were collected by The Swedish National Cataract Register (NCR). Eye clinics report to NCR voluntarily and on regular basis (98% coverage). Comparisons regarding gender difference in waiting times were performed between NIKE-categorized and non-NIKE-categorized patients, as well as between different indication groups within the NIKE-system. All calculations were performed in spss version 20. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression, and single variable analyses were carried out by Student's t-test or chi square as appropriate. Gender, age, visual acuity and NIKE-categorization were associated with waiting time. Female patients had a longer waiting time to CE than male, both within and outside the NIKE-system. Gender difference in waiting time was somewhat larger among patients who had not been categorized by NIKE. In the non-NIKE-categorized group, women waited 0.20 months longer than men. In the group which was NIKE-categorized, women waited 0.18 months longer than men. It is reasonable to assume that prioritizing patients by means of NIKE helps to reduce the gender differences in waiting time. Gender differences in waiting time have decreased as NIKE was introduced and there may be a variety of explanations for this. However, with the chosen study design, we could not distinguish between effects related to NIKE and those due to other factors which occurred during the study period. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interventions to reduce waiting times for elective procedures.

    PubMed

    Ballini, Luciana; Negro, Antonella; Maltoni, Susanna; Vignatelli, Luca; Flodgren, Gerd; Simera, Iveta; Holmes, Jane; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-02-23

    reduction of 25.2 days, and thereafter a decrease of 3.03 days per month), while another ITS study showed no effect of a direct booking system on proportions of participants receiving a colposcopy appointment within the recommended time. One RCT and one ITS showed no effect of distant consultancy (instant photography for dermatological conditions and telemedicine for ear nose throat (ENT) conditions) on waiting times; another ITS study showed no effect of a pooled waiting list on the number of participants waiting for uncomplicated spinal surgery.Overall quality of the evidence for all outcomes, assessed using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) tool, ranged from low to very low.We found no studies evaluating interventions to increase capacity or to ration demand. As only a handful of low-quality studies are presently available, we cannot draw any firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the evaluated interventions in reducing waiting times. However, interventions involving the provision of more accessible services (open access or direct booking/referral) show some promise.

  10. S-adenosylmethionine decreases the peak blood alcohol levels 3 h after an acute bolus of ethanol by inducing alcohol metabolizing enzymes in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wong, Wesley; Fong, Stephanie; Li, Jun; French, Barbara A; French, Samuel W

    2010-12-01

    An alcohol bolus causes the blood alcohol level (BAL) to peak at 1-2 h post ingestion. The ethanol elimination rate is regulated by alcohol metabolizing enzymes, primarily alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). Recently, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) was found to reduce acute BALs 3 h after an alcohol bolus. The question, then, was: what is the mechanism involved in this reduction of BAL by feeding SAMe? To answer this question, we investigated the changes in ethanol metabolizing enzymes and the epigenetic changes that regulate the expression of these enzymes during acute binge drinking and chronic drinking. Rats were fed a bolus of ethanol with or without SAMe, and were sacrificed at 3 h or 12 h after the bolus. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that SAMe significantly induced ADH1 levels in the 3 h liver samples. However, SAMe did not affect the changes in ADH1 protein levels 12 h post bolus. Since SAMe is a methyl donor, it was postulated that the ADH1 gene expression up regulation at 3 h was due to a histone modification induced by methylation from methyl transferases. Dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2), a modification responsible for gene expression activation, was found to be significantly increased by SAMe at 3 h post bolus. These results correlated with the low BAL found at 3 h post bolus, and support the concept that SAMe increased the gene expression to increase the elimination rate of ethanol in binge drinking by increasing H3K4me2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stochastic nature of series of waiting times.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mehrnaz; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Dashti-Naserabadi, H; Salehi, E; Behjat, E; Qorbani, M; Nezhad, M Khazaei; Zirak, M; Hadjihosseini, Ali; Peinke, Joachim; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2013-06-01

    Although fluctuations in the waiting time series have been studied for a long time, some important issues such as its long-range memory and its stochastic features in the presence of nonstationarity have so far remained unstudied. Here we find that the "waiting times" series for a given increment level have long-range correlations with Hurst exponents belonging to the interval 1/2waiting time distribution. We find that the logarithmic difference of waiting times series has a short-range correlation, and then we study its stochastic nature using the Markovian method and determine the corresponding Kramers-Moyal coefficients. As an example, we analyze the velocity fluctuations in high Reynolds number turbulence and determine the level dependence of Markov time scales, as well as the drift and diffusion coefficients. We show that the waiting time distributions exhibit power law tails, and we were able to model the distribution with a continuous time random walk.

  12. Stochastic nature of series of waiting times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Mehrnaz; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Salehi, E.; Behjat, E.; Qorbani, M.; Khazaei Nezhad, M.; Zirak, M.; Hadjihosseini, Ali; Peinke, Joachim; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2013-06-01

    Although fluctuations in the waiting time series have been studied for a long time, some important issues such as its long-range memory and its stochastic features in the presence of nonstationarity have so far remained unstudied. Here we find that the “waiting times” series for a given increment level have long-range correlations with Hurst exponents belonging to the interval 1/2waiting time distribution. We find that the logarithmic difference of waiting times series has a short-range correlation, and then we study its stochastic nature using the Markovian method and determine the corresponding Kramers-Moyal coefficients. As an example, we analyze the velocity fluctuations in high Reynolds number turbulence and determine the level dependence of Markov time scales, as well as the drift and diffusion coefficients. We show that the waiting time distributions exhibit power law tails, and we were able to model the distribution with a continuous time random walk.

  13. Waiting time distributions in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatelli, L.; Keating, S.; Dudley, J.; Richmond, P.

    2002-05-01

    We study waiting time distributions for data representing two completely different financial markets that have dramatically different characteristics. The first are data for the Irish market during the 19th century over the period 1850 to 1854. A total of 10 stocks out of a database of 60 are examined. The second database is for Japanese yen currency fluctuations during the latter part of the 20th century (1989-1992). The Irish stock activity was recorded on a daily basis and activity was characterised by waiting times that varied from one day to a few months. The Japanese yen data was recorded every minute over 24 hour periods and the waiting times varied from a minute to a an hour or so. For both data sets, the waiting time distributions exhibit power law tails. The results for Irish daily data can be easily interpreted using the model of a continuous time random walk first proposed by Montroll and applied recently to some financial data by Mainardi, Scalas and colleagues. Yen data show a quite different behaviour. For large waiting times, the Irish data exhibit a cut off; the Yen data exhibit two humps that could arise as result of major trading centres in the World.

  14. Decreased alertness

    MedlinePlus

    ... involves the brain Liver failure Thyroid conditions that cause low thyroid hormone levels or very high thyroid hormone levels Brain disorders or injury, such as: Dementia or Alzheimer disease Head trauma Seizure Stroke Infections that affect ...

  15. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  16. Third degree waiting time discrimination: optimal allocation of a public sector healthcare treatment under rationing by waiting.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2009-08-01

    In many public healthcare systems treatments are rationed by waiting time. We examine the optimal allocation of a fixed supply of a given treatment between different groups of patients. Even in the absence of any distributional aims, welfare is increased by third degree waiting time discrimination: setting different waiting times for different groups waiting for the same treatment. Because waiting time imposes dead weight losses on patients, lower waiting times should be offered to groups with higher marginal waiting time costs and with less elastic demand for the treatment.

  17. Are seismic waiting time distributions universal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Goltz, Christian

    2004-11-01

    We show that seismic waiting time distributions in California and Iceland have many features in common as, for example, a power-law decay with exponent α ~ 1.1 for intermediate and with exponent γ ~ 0.6 for short waiting times. While the transition point between these two regimes scales proportionally with the size of the considered area, the full distribution is not universal and depends in a non-trivial way on the geological area under consideration and its size. This is due to the spatial distribution of epicenters which does not form a simple mono-fractal. Yet, the dependence of the waiting time distributions on the threshold magnitude seems to be universal.

  18. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-03-08

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  19. Electron Waiting Times in Mesoscopic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Mathias; Haack, Géraldine; Flindt, Christian; Büttiker, Markus

    2012-05-01

    Electron transport in mesoscopic conductors has traditionally involved investigations of the mean current and the fluctuations of the current. A complementary view on charge transport is provided by the distribution of waiting times between charge carriers, but a proper theoretical framework for coherent electronic systems has so far been lacking. Here we develop a quantum theory of electron waiting times in mesoscopic conductors expressed by a compact determinant formula. We illustrate our methodology by calculating the waiting time distribution for a quantum point contact and find a crossover from Wigner-Dyson statistics at full transmission to Poisson statistics close to pinch-off. Even when the low-frequency transport is noiseless, the electrons are not equally spaced in time due to their inherent wave nature. We discuss the implications for renewal theory in mesoscopic systems and point out several analogies with level spacing statistics and random matrix theory.

  20. ED adds business center to wait area.

    PubMed

    2007-10-01

    Providing your patients with Internet access in the waiting area can do wonders for their attitudes and make them much more understanding of long wait times. What's more, it doesn't take a fortune to create a business center. The ED at Florida Hospital Celebration (FL) Health made a world of difference with just a couple of computers and a printer. Have your information technology staff set the computers up to preserve the privacy of your internal computer system, and block out offensive sites. Access to medical sites can help reinforce your patient education efforts.

  1. Assessing bone status in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wibaux, Cécile; Legroux-Gerot, Isabelle; Dharancy, Sébastien; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Declerck, Nicole; Canva, Valérie; Mathurin, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René; Cortet, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Osteoporosis is common in liver transplant recipients as a result of both iatrogenic factors and preexisting hepatic osteodystrophy. To assess the prevalences of osteoporosis and fractures and to identify risk factors for these two abnormalities in patients awaiting liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease. Between January 2006 and December 2007, patients on a liver transplant waiting list underwent a routine evaluation comprising the identification of risk factors for osteoporosis, radiographs of the spine, bone mineral density measurements (BMD), and laboratory tests (phosphate and calcium levels, hormone assays, liver function tests, and bone turnover markers). We studied 99 patients (70 males and 20 females; mean age, 55 ± 8 years) including 75% with alcohol-induced cirrhosis with or without hepatocarcinoma. Among them, 36% had radiographic vertebral fractures, 38% had osteoporosis, 35% had osteopenia, and 88% had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (25(OH)vitamin D3<20 ng/mL). Lower BMD values were associated with vertebral fractures; the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each BMD decrease of 1 SD were as follows: spine, 1.45 (95%CI, 1.1-1.9); total hip, 2.1 (95%CI, 1.3-3.2); and femoral neck, 2 (95%CI, 1.3-3.1) (P<0.05). Levels of bone resorption markers correlated negatively with BMD at the spine and hip. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score correlated negatively with hip BMD. Our findings suggest high prevalences of low BMD values and vertebral fractures among patients awaiting liver transplantation. Bone status should be evaluated routinely in candidates to liver transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Liver Transplant Capacity Using Discrete Event Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Hector Toro; Mayorga, Maria; Barritt, A. Sidney; Orman, Eric S.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.

    2014-01-01

    The number of liver transplants (LTs) performed in the US increased until 2006, but has since declined despite an ongoing increase in demand. This decline may be due in part to decreased donor liver quality and increasing discard of poor quality livers. We constructed a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model informed by current donor characteristics to predict future LT trends through the year 2030. The data source for our model is the United Network for Organ Sharing database, which contains patient level information on all organ transplants performed in the US. Previous analysis showed that liver discard is increasing and that discarded organs are more often from donors who are older, obese, have diabetes, and donated after cardiac death. Given that the prevalence of these factors is increasing, the DES model quantifies the reduction in the number of LTs performed through 2030. In addition, the model estimates the total number of future donors needed to maintain the current volume of LTs, and the effect of a hypothetical scenario of improved reperfusion technology. We also forecast the number of patients on the waiting list and compare this to the estimated number of LTs to illustrate the impact that decreased LTs will have on patients needing transplants. By altering assumptions about the future donor pool, this model can be used to develop policy interventions to prevent a further decline in this life saving therapy. To our knowledge, there are no similar predictive models of future LT use based on epidemiologic trends. PMID:25391681

  3. Impact of Estimated Liver Volume and Liver Weight on Gender Disparity in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Emre, Sukru H.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES While lower Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores due to lower levels of serum creatinine in women might account for some gender disparity in liver transplant (LT) rates, even within MELD scores, women are transplanted at lower rates than men. It is unclear what causes this disparity, but transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch may be a factor. METHODS We analyzed Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data for patients with end-stage liver disease on the waiting list. Pooled conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between gender and LT and determine the degree to which this association was explained by lower MELD scores or liver size. RESULTS A total of 28,866 patients and 424,001 person-months were included in the analysis. Median estimated liver volume (eLV) and liver weight (eLW) were significantly lower in women than in men on the LT waiting list (P<0.0001). Controlling for region and blood type, women were 25% less likely to receive LT in a given month compared to men (P<0.0001). When MELD was included in the model, the odds ratio (OR) for gender increased to 0.84 suggesting that 9 percentage points of the 25% gender disparity was due to MELD score. When eLV was added to the model, there was an additional 3% increase in OR of gender suggesting that transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch is an underlying factor for lower LT rates in women compared to men (OR=0.87, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Lower LT rates among women on the waiting list can be explained in part by lower MELD scores, eLV and eLW than those of men. However; at least half of the gender disparity still remains unexplained. PMID:23008117

  4. Waiting for cataract surgery--effects of a maximum waiting-time guarantee.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Marianne; Lundström, Mats

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Maximum Waiting-time Guarantee (MWG) policy for cataract surgery on volume, indications, waiting times and priority setting in Sweden. Comparison between 1993 and 1994, when the guarantee had been in force for one year, and 1998 and 1999, when the policy had been terminated for one year. Data from the National Cataract Registry covering 156,657 cataract operations for the years studied. The number of operations increased by 43% between the two study periods. Of this increase, 61% were patients with a visual acuity above 0.5 in the better eye, i.e. low-priority patients. Waiting times were longer for all patient categories in the later period and differences in waiting times between patients with differing priority diminished. Variations among the units in priority setting and waiting times were substantial, and increased after the Guarantee was terminated. The Guarantee with its explicit indications was an effective policy instrument to limit waiting times and improve access for patients with the greatest need. It is unlikely that the Guarantee caused any 'crowding out' of other patient groups. When the Guarantee was not in force, indications for surgery widened. This, however, resulted in longer waiting times for all patient groups. After the Guarantee was terminated, the already substantial differences in access and indications among ophthalmic units became even greater.

  5. Time while waiting: patients' experiences of scheduled surgery.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G

    2014-12-01

    Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [Reducing patient waiting time for the outpatient phlebotomy service using six sigma].

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil

    2009-04-01

    One of the challenging issues of the outpatient phlebotomy services at most hospitals is that patients have a long wait. The outpatient phlebotomy team of Kyungpook National University Hospital applied six sigma breakthrough methodologies to reduce the patient waiting time. The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) model was employed to approach the project. Two hundred patients visiting the outpatient phlebotomy section were asked to answer the questionnaires at inception of the study to ascertain root causes. After correction, we surveyed 285 patients for same questionnaires again to follow-up the effects. A defect was defined as extending patient waiting time so long and at the beginning of the project, the performance level was 2.61 sigma. Using fishbone diagram, all the possible reasons for extending patient waiting time were captured, and among them, 16 causes were proven to be statistically significant. Improvement plans including a new receptionist, automatic specimen transport system, and adding one phlebotomist were put into practice. As a result, the number of patients waited more than 5 min significantly decreased, and the performance level reached 3.0 sigma in December 2007 and finally 3.35 sigma in July 2008. Applying the six sigma, the performance level of waiting times for blood drawing exceeding five minutes were improved from 2.61 sigma to 3.35 sigma.

  7. Impact of waiting time on the quality of life of patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Sampalis, J; Boukas, S; Liberman, M; Reid, T; Dupuis, G

    2001-08-21

    general health (change from baseline score 1.8 v. -0.3, p = 0.001). The incidence of postoperative adverse events was significantly greater among the patients with longer waits for CABG than among those with shorter waits (32 v. 14 events respectively, p = 0.005). Longer waits before CABG were associated with an increased likelihood of not returning to work after surgery (p = 0.08): 10 (53%) of the 19 patients with longer waiting times remained employed after CABG, as compared with 17 (85%) of the 20 with shorter waiting times. The significant decrease in physical and social functioning, both before and after surgery, for patients waiting more than 3 months for CABG is an important observation. Longer waiting times were also associated with increased postoperative adverse events. By decreasing waiting times for CABG, we may improve patients' quality of life and decrease the psychological morbidity associated with CABG.

  8. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Modelling to Reduce Waiting Times in An Iranian Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Haghighinejad, Hourvash Akbari; Kharazmi, Erfan; Hatam, Nahid; Yousefi, Sedigheh; Hesami, Seyed Ali; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED) is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14) was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Results: Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity). The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the “bed area” server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the number waiting to 586 patients. Conclusion: Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution. PMID:26793727

  9. [Gender and age differences in waiting time on hospital waiting list.].

    PubMed

    Thornórðardóttir, Steinunn; Halldórsson, Matthías; Guðmundsson, Sigurður

    2002-09-01

    The size of waiting lists has traditionally been viewed as a fairly good measure of the quality of health care services. No statistical analysis exists in Iceland of the length of waiting times and the potential variation between groups of patients. This study was conducted within the office of the Directorate of Health in Iceland. This location was convenient since standardized information on waiting lists is collected by the office three times a year. Variations in waiting times were studied based on gender on the one hand and on age on the other. Data from the largest waiting lists, those amounting to 400 or more patients, were included in the study. The most frequently awaited operations were identified and the groups of people waiting for them analyzed. The departments and prospective operations included in the study were: Dept. of General Surgery at the University Hospital (UH) (laparoscopic gastro-oesophageal antireflux operation), Opthalmology at UH (phakoemulsification with implantation of artificial lens in posterior chamber), Orthopedic Surgery at UH (primary total prosthetic replacement of hip joint using sement), The Rehabilitation Center at Reykjalundur (rehabilitation, not specified), Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) at UH (tonsillectomy), and Reconstructive Surgery at UH (reduction mammoplasty with transposition of areola). The lists were sorted by gender and age, with the latter consisting of two categories, older and younger patients. Every attempt was made as to ensure similar sample sizes for both age groups within each department. Finally, the median waiting time was determined and a Mann-Whitney test conducted in order to test for significance. The median waiting time for males at the General Surgery Dept. was 73 weeks as compared to 60 weeks for females. This was the only department where the median waiting time was significantly longer for males than for females (p<0.05). At three of the departments the older group had a longer median waiting time

  10. A Tribute to Waiting Room Moms Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansfield, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Waiting rooms are oases for mothers of children with special needs. They congregate in these small holding areas, sitting on musty couches, while their children receive the latest therapeutic interventions. Sometimes they sit quietly, sneaking glances at each other while pretending to read year-old "People" magazines. Sometimes they crawl under a…

  11. Potential etiopathogenesis of seventh day syndrome following living donor liver transplantation: ischemia of the graft?

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiang; Li, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Wei, Yong-Gang; Yan, Lu-Nan; Zhao, Ji-Chun

    2010-02-01

    Seventh-day syndrome (7DS) is an early serious complication following liver transplantation with a high mortality because of its unknown etiopathogenesis. This study aimed to analyze the potential etiopathogenesis of 7DS. A retrospective analysis of 98 consecutive living donor liver transplants performed from 2001 to 2007 at our center revealed that 5 patients had suffered from 7DS; their age, MELD score, portal vein inflow and other parameters were compared with those of the other recipients. The 5 patients showed common features: (a) initial uneventful recovery, and a dramatic rise of serum liver enzyme levels 1 to 2 weeks later; (b) decreased inflow in the portal vein accompanied by augmentation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen level; and (c) serial liver biopsy findings of apoptosis and ischemic necrosis of hepatocytes. Four of the 5 patients died. Age, waiting time to transplantation, MELD score, operation time, cold ischemic time, portal interceptive time and diameter of the portal vein were not significantly different between the 2 groups, but a difference was found in the flow rate of the portal vein (t=3.234, P<0.001). The 5 patients suffered from a decreased portal vein inflow, ischemic liver necrosis, and renal failure. Hence, hypoperfusion of the liver graft was considered to be the etiopathogenesis of 7DS, for which, however sufficient evidence is lacking. More studies of 7DS are needed.

  12. Ramsey waits: allocating public health service resources when there is rationing by waiting.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2008-09-01

    The optimal allocation of a public health care budget across treatments must take account of the way in which care is rationed within treatments since this will affect their marginal value. We investigate the optimal allocation rules for public health care systems where user charges are fixed and care is rationed by waiting. The optimal waiting time is higher for treatments with demands more elastic to waiting time, higher costs, lower charges, smaller marginal welfare loss from waiting by treated patients, and smaller marginal welfare losses from under-consumption of care. The results hold for a wide range of welfarist and non-welfarist objective functions and for systems in which there is also a private health care sector. They imply that allocation rules based purely on cost effectiveness ratios are suboptimal because they assume that there is no rationing within treatments.

  13. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  14. Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. North view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Interior view; Street Car Waiting House North Philadelphia Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view; Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. The British Columbia Nephrologists’ Access Study (BCNAS) – a prospective, health services interventional study to develop waiting time benchmarks and reduce wait times for out-patient nephrology consultations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early referral and management of high-risk chronic kidney disease may prevent or delay the need for dialysis. Automatic eGFR reporting has increased demand for out-patient nephrology consultations and in some cases, prolonged queues. In Canada, a national task force suggested the development of waiting time targets, which has not been done for nephrology. Methods We sought to describe waiting time for outpatient nephrology consultations in British Columbia (BC). Data collection occurred in 2 phases: 1) Baseline Description (Jan 18-28, 2010) and 2) Post Waiting Time Benchmark-Introduction (Jan 16-27, 2012). Waiting time was defined as the interval from receipt of referral letters to assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, Nephrologists and Family Physicians (FP) developed waiting time targets for commonly referred conditions through meetings and surveys. Rules were developed to weigh-in nephrologists’, FPs’, and patients’ perspectives in order to generate waiting time benchmarks. Targets consider comorbidities, eGFR, BP and albuminuria. Referred conditions were assigned a priority score between 1-4. BC nephrologists were encouraged to centrally triage referrals to see the first available nephrologist. Waiting time benchmarks were simultaneously introduced to guide patient scheduling. A post-intervention waiting time evaluation was then repeated. Results In 2010 and 2012, 43/52 (83%) and 46/57 (81%) of BC nephrologists participated. Waiting time decreased from 98(IQR44,157) to 64(IQR21,120) days from 2010 to 2012 (p = <.001), despite no change in referral eGFR, demographics, nor number of office hrs/wk. Waiting time improved most for high priority patients. Conclusions An integrated, Provincial initiative to measure wait times, develop waiting benchmarks, and engage physicians in active waiting time management associated with improved access to nephrologists in BC. Improvements in waiting time was most marked for the highest priority

  20. Activation of liver X receptor decreases atherosclerosis in Ldlr⁻/⁻ mice in the absence of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Mojdeh S; Murphy, Andrew J; Abramowicz, Sandra; Ntonga, Vusisizwe; Welch, Carrie L; Tall, Alan R; Westerterp, Marit

    2014-02-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-κB target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis. LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.

  1. A peer-based intervention to educate liver transplant candidates about living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Delair, Samantha; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Kim, Hyunjung; Del Rio Martin, Juan; Kim-Schluger, Leona; Lapointe Rudow, Dianne; Orloff, Mark; Sheiner, Patricia A; Teperman, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The number of liver donors has not measurably increased since 2004 and has begun to decrease. Although many waitlisted patients may be suitable candidates to receive a living donor graft, they are often reticent to discuss living donation with close friends and family, partly because of a lack of knowledge about donor health and quality of life outcomes after donation. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention that uses testimonials and self-report data from living donors in New York State. The study had an independent sample pretest (n = 437) and posttest (n = 338) design with posttest, between-subjects comparison for intervention exposure. All waitlisted patients at 5 liver transplant centers in New York were provided a peer-based educational brochure and DVD either by mail or at the clinic. The outcome measures were liver candidates' knowledge and self-efficacy to discuss living donation with family and friends. The number and proportion of individuals who presented to centers for living liver donation evaluation were also measured. Liver transplant candidates' self-efficacy to discuss living donation and their knowledge increased from the pretest period to the posttest period. Those exposed to the peer-based intervention reported significantly greater knowledge, a greater likelihood of discussing donation, and increased self-efficacy in comparison with those not exposed to the intervention. The results did not differ by age, length of time on the waiting list, education, or ethnicity. In comparison with the preintervention period, living donation increased 42%, and the number of individuals who presented for donation evaluation increased by 74%.

  2. Waiting narratives of lung transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M

    2013-01-01

    Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.

  3. Waiting Narratives of Lung Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Yelle, Maria T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Lanuza, Dorothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives. PMID:23476760

  4. Sustainability: orthopaedic surgery wait time management strategies.

    PubMed

    Amar, Claudia; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; SanMartin, Claudia; De Coster, Carolyn; Noseworthy, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine Canadian organizational and systemic factors that made it possible to keep wait times within federally established limits for at least 18 months. The research design is a multiple cases study. The paper selected three cases: Case 1 - staff were able to maintain compliance with requirements for more than 18 months; Case 2 - staff were able to meet requirements for 18 months, but unable to sustain this level; Case 3 - staff were never able to meet the requirements. For each case the authors interviewed persons involved in the strategies and collected documents. The paper analysed systemic and organizational-level factors; including governance and leadership, culture, resources, methods and tools. Findings indicate that the hospital that was able to maintain compliance with the wait time requirements had specific characteristics: an exclusive mandate to do only hip and knee replacement surgery; motivated staff who were not distracted by other concerns; and a strong team spirit. The authors' research highlights an important gradient between three cases regarding the factors that sustain waiting times. The paper show that the hospital factory model seems attractive in a super-specialized surgery context. However, patients are selected for simple surgeries, without complications, and so this cannot be considered a unique model.

  5. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  6. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  7. The effect of in-office waiting time on physician visit frequency among working-age adults.

    PubMed

    Tak, Hyo Jung; Hougham, Gavin W; Ruhnke, Atsuko; Ruhnke, Gregory W

    2014-10-01

    Disparities in unmet health care demand resulting from socioeconomic, racial, and financial factors have received a great deal of attention in the United States. However, out-of-pocket costs alone do not fully reflect the total opportunity cost that patients must consider as they seek medical attention. While there is an extensive literature on the price elasticity of demand for health care, empirical evidence regarding the effect of waiting time on utilization is sparse. Using the nationally representative 2003 Community Tracking Study Household Survey, the most recent iteration containing respondents' physician office visit frequency and estimated in-office waiting time in the United States (N = 23,484), we investigated the association between waiting time and calculated time cost with the number of physician visits among a sample of working-age adults. To avoid the bias that literature suggests would result from excluding respondents with zero physician visits, we imputed waiting time for the essential inclusion of such individuals. On average, respondents visited physician offices 3.55 times, during which time they waited 28.7 min. The estimates from a negative binomial model indicated that a doubling of waiting time was associated with a 7.7 percent decrease (p-value < 0.001) in physician visit frequency. For women and unemployed respondents, who visited physicians more frequently, the decrease was even larger, suggesting a stronger response to greater waiting times. We believe this finding reflects the discretionary nature of incremental visits in these groups, and a consequent lower perceived marginal benefit of additional visits. The results suggest that in-office waiting time may have a substantial influence on patients' propensity to seek medical attention. Although there is a belief that expansions in health insurance coverage increase health care utilization by reducing financial barriers to access, our results suggest that unintended consequences

  8. Evaluation of a New Equation for Calculating the Maximum Wait Time for Pilots That Have Used an Impairing Medication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    were treating pre-existing medical conditions using over-the-counter (OTC) medications ( Aspirin ™, Tylenol™, antihistamines, etc.), provided blood...time would decrease to 45 hours for a 150-lb person taking the same dose; a 300 -lb individual taking a 25-mg dose would only need to wait 31 hours...If the 300 -lb person mentioned above had taken a 50- mg dose, the wait time would have been 45 hours, which is approximately the same as the 49

  9. Impact of visual art on patient behavior in the emergency department waiting room.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Upali; Chanaud, Cheryl; Nelson, Michael; Zhu, Xi; Bajema, Robyn; Jansen, Ben H

    2012-07-01

    Wait times have been reported to be one of the most important concerns for people visiting emergency departments (EDs). Affective states significantly impact perception of wait time. There is substantial evidence that art depicting nature reduces stress levels and anxiety, thus potentially impacting the waiting experience. To analyze the effect of visual art depicting nature (still and video) on patients' and visitors' behavior in the ED. A pre-post research design was implemented using systematic behavioral observation of patients and visitors in the ED waiting rooms of two hospitals over a period of 4 months. Thirty hours of data were collected before and after new still and video art was installed at each site. Significant reduction in restlessness, noise level, and people staring at other people in the room was found at both sites. A significant decrease in the number of queries made at the front desk and a significant increase in social interaction were found at one of the sites. Visual art has positive effects on the ED waiting experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Contracting and Quality Improvement in Outpatient Treatment: Effects on Waiting Time and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Maureen T.; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Ritter, Grant; McLellan, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate effects of a performance contract (PC) implemented in Delaware in 2001 and participation in quality improvement (QI) programs on waiting time for treatment and length of stay (LOS) using client treatment episode level data from Delaware (n = 12,368) and Maryland (n = 147,151) for 1998 – 2006. Results of difference-in-difference analyses indicate waiting time declined 13 days following the PC, after controlling for client characteristics and historical trends. Participation in the PC and a formal QI program was associated with a decrease of 20 days. LOS increased 22 days under the PC and 24 days under the PC and QI programs, after controlling for client characteristics. The PC and QI program were associated with improvements in LOS and waiting time, although we cannot determine which aspects of the programs (incentives, training, monitoring) resulted in these changes. PMID:22445031

  11. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American

  12. What's in a wait? Contrasting management science and economic perspectives on waiting for emergency care.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alec; Bevan, Gwyn

    2008-02-01

    The current paper reviews and contrasts a management science view of waiting for healthcare, which centres on queues as devices for buffering demand, with an economic view, which stresses the role of the incentive structure, in the context of English Accident and Emergency Departments. We demonstrate that the management science view provides insight into waiting time performance within a single facility but is limited in its ability to shed light on variations in performance across facilities. We argue, with reference to supporting data, that such variations may be explainable by a proper understanding of the incentive structure in A&E Departments.

  13. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  14. An Efficient Wait-Free Vector

    DOE PAGES

    Feldman, Steven; Valera-Leon, Carlos; Dechev, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The vector is a fundamental data structure, which provides constant-time access to a dynamically-resizable range of elements. Currently, there exist no wait-free vectors. The only non-blocking version supports only a subset of the sequential vector API and exhibits significant synchronization overhead caused by supporting opposing operations. Since many applications operate in phases of execution, wherein each phase only a subset of operations are used, this overhead is unnecessary for the majority of the application. To address the limitations of the non-blocking version, we present a new design that is wait-free, supports more of the operations provided by the sequential vector,more » and provides alternative implementations of key operations. These alternatives allow the developer to balance the performance and functionality of the vector as requirements change throughout execution. Compared to the known non-blocking version and the concurrent vector found in Intel’s TBB library, our design outperforms or provides comparable performance in the majority of tested scenarios. Over all tested scenarios, the presented design performs an average of 4.97 times more operations per second than the non-blocking vector and 1.54 more than the TBB vector. In a scenario designed to simulate the filling of a vector, performance improvement increases to 13.38 and 1.16 times. This work presents the first ABA-free non-blocking vector. Finally, unlike the other non-blocking approach, all operations are wait-free and bounds-checked and elements are stored contiguously in memory.« less

  15. Helpful Tips While Waiting for HCV Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... spirits, wine, or beer accelerates liver damage from hepatitis B and C. No safe level is known. As a result, it is best avoided while awaiting treatment and during treatment 2. Avoid dehydration but do ...

  16. Learning to wait: A laboratory investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oprea, R.; Friedman, D.; Anderson, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Human subjects decide when to sink a fixed cost C to seize an irreversible investment opportunity whose value V is governed by Brownian motion. The optimal policy is to invest when V first crosses a threshold V* = (1 + w*) C, where the wait option premium w* depends on drift, volatility, and expiration hazard parameters. Subjects in the Low w* treatment on average invest at values quite close to optimum. Subjects in the two Medium and the High w* treatments invested at values below optimum, but with the predicted ordering, and values approached the optimum by the last block of 20 periods. ?? 2009 The Review of Economic Studies Limited.

  17. The impact of waiting for intervention on costs and effectiveness: the case of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Aida; Slof, John; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Serra, Vicente; García-Del Blanco, Bruno; Cascant, Purificació; Andrea, Rut; Falces, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Enrique; Del Valle-Fernández, Raquel; Morís-de laTassa, César; Mota, Pedro; Oteo, Juan Francisco; Tornos, Pilar; García-Dorado, David

    2017-11-23

    The economic crisis in Europe might have limited access to some innovative technologies implying an increase of waiting time. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of waiting time on the costs and benefits of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis. This is a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service. Results of two prospective hospital registries (158 and 273 consecutive patients) were incorporated into a probabilistic Markov model to compare quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs for TAVR after waiting for 3-12 months, relative to immediate TAVR. We simulated a cohort of 1000 patients, male, and 80 years old; other patient profiles were assessed in sensitivity analyses. As waiting time increased, costs decreased at the expense of lower survival and loss of QALYs, leading to incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for eliminating waiting lists of about 12,500 € per QALY. In subgroup analyses prioritization of patients for whom higher benefit was expected led to a smaller loss of QALYs. Concerning budget impact, long waiting lists reduced spending considerably and permanently. A shorter waiting time is likely to be cost-effective (considering commonly accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds in Europe) relative to 3 months or longer waiting periods. If waiting lists are nevertheless seen as unavoidable due to severe but temporary budgetary restrictions, prioritizing patients for whom higher benefit is expected appears to be a way of postponing spending without utterly sacrificing patients' survival and quality of life.

  18. Pooled Open Blocks Shorten Wait Times for Nonelective Surgical Cases.

    PubMed

    Zenteno, Ana C; Carnes, Tim; Levi, Retsef; Daily, Bethany J; Price, Devon; Moss, Susan C; Dunn, Peter F

    2015-07-01

    Assess the impact of the implementation of a data-driven scheduling strategy that aimed to improve the access to care of nonelective surgical patients at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Between July 2009 and June 2010, MGH experienced increasing throughput challenges in its perioperative environment: approximately 30% of the nonelective patients were waiting more than the prescribed amount of time to get to surgery, hampering access to care and aggravating the lack of inpatient beds. This work describes the design and implementation of an "open block" strategy: operating room (OR) blocks were reserved for nonelective patients during regular working hours (prime time) and their management centralized. Discrete event simulation showed that 5 rooms would decrease the percentage of delayed patients from 30% to 2%, assuming that OR availability was the only reason for preoperative delay. Implementation began in January 2012. We compare metrics for June through December of 2012 against the same months of 2011. The average preoperative wait time of all nonelective surgical patients decreased by 25.5% (P < 0.001), even with a volume increase of 9%. The number of bed-days occupied by nonurgent patients before surgery declined by 13.3% whereas the volume increased by 4.5%. The large-scale application of an open-block strategy significantly improved the flow of nonelective patients at MGH when OR availability was a major reason for delay. Rigorous metrics were developed to evaluate its performance. Strong managerial leadership was crucial to enact the new practices and turn them into organizational change.

  19. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  20. 24 CFR 982.204 - Waiting list: Administration of waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... size (number of bedrooms for which family qualifies under PHA occupancy standards); (3) Date and time... list. (d) Family size. (1) The order of admission from the waiting list may not be based on family size, or on the family unit size for which the family qualifies under the PHA occupancy policy. (2) If the...

  1. Decreased Libido

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Decreased Libido Editors Bradley Anawalt, MD Maria Yialamas, MD Additional Resources: Mayo Clinic NIDDK MedlinePlus What is libido? Libido is the desire to engage in sexual ...

  2. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... resulting from the liver disorder and decreased bile flow. A pregnant woman should call her health care provider if she has these symptoms. How common is ICP? In the United States, ICP affects less than 1 percent of women ( ...

  4. Waiting for coronary angiography: is there a clinically ordered queue?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, H; Crook, A M; Feder, G; Dawson, J R; Timmis, A

    2000-03-18

    Among over 3000 patients undergoing coronary angiography in the absence of a formal queue-management system, we found that a-priori urgency scores were strongly associated with waiting times, prevalence of coronary-artery disease, rate of revascularisation, and mortality. These data challenge the widely held assumption that such waiting lists are not clinically ordered; however, the wide variation in waiting times within urgency categories suggests the need for further improvements in clinical queueing.

  5. Outcome Probability versus Magnitude: When Waiting Benefits One at the Cost of the Other

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael E.; Webb, Tara L.; Rung, Jillian M.; McCoy, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a continuous impulsivity and risk platform (CIRP) that was constructed using a video game engine, choice was assessed under conditions in which waiting produced a continuously increasing probability of an outcome with a continuously decreasing magnitude (Experiment 1) or a continuously increasing magnitude of an outcome with a continuously decreasing probability (Experiment 2). Performance in both experiments reflected a greater desire for a higher probability even though the corresponding wait times produced substantive decreases in overall performance. These tendencies are considered to principally reflect hyperbolic discounting of probability, power discounting of magnitude, and the mathematical consequences of different response rates. Behavior in the CIRP is compared and contrasted with that in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). PMID:24892657

  6. 'Waiting for' and 'waiting in' public and private hospitals: a qualitative study of patient trust in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Rokkas, Philippa; Cenko, Clinton; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Dean, Nicola; Carney, A Simon; Meyer, Samantha

    2017-05-05

    Waiting times for hospital appointments, treatment and/or surgery have become a major political and health service problem, leading to national maximum waiting times and policies to reduce waiting times. Quantitative studies have documented waiting times for various types of surgery and longer waiting times in public vs private hospitals. However, very little qualitative research has explored patient experiences of waiting, how this compares between public and private hospitals, and the implications for trust in hospitals and healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the impact of waiting times on patient trust in public and private hospitals. A qualitative study in South Australia, including 36 in-depth interviews (18 from public and 18 from private hospitals). Data collection occurred in 2012-13, and data were analysed using pre-coding, followed by conceptual and theoretical categorisation. Participants differentiated between experiences of 'waiting for' (e.g. for specialist appointments and surgery) and 'waiting in' (e.g. in emergency departments and outpatient clinics) public and private hospitals. Whilst 'waiting for' public hospitals was longer than private hospitals, this was often justified and accepted by public patients (e.g. due to reduced government funding), therefore it did not lead to distrust of public hospitals. Private patients had shorter 'waiting for' hospital services, increasing their trust in private hospitals and distrust of public hospitals. Public patients also recounted many experiences of longer 'waiting in' public hospitals, leading to frustration and anxiety, although they rarely blamed or distrusted the doctors or nurses, instead blaming an underfunded system and over-worked staff. Doctors and nurses were seen to be doing their best, and therefore trustworthy. Although public patients experienced longer 'waiting for' and 'waiting in' public hospitals, it did not lead to widespread distrust

  7. [Has the time arrived for the management of waiting lists?].

    PubMed

    Bernal, E

    2002-01-01

    Individuals on the waiting list frequently suffer an additional risk caused by the mean time until they receive treatment; however, other individuals do not need the treatment for which they are waiting.Both arguments, which can be contrasted with empirical evidence, would be sufficient to affirm that waiting list management should be implemented, leaving aside policies that are more of less opportunistic. Opportunistic policies are understood as those providing misinformation on waiting lists or their "manipulation", and using programs of auto-coordination with the sole aim of reaching the end of the year without a waiting list of not more than six months, etc. The panorama is not completely bleak. Some management initiatives (and even Politics with a capital P) are opening the way forward and may enter the Agenda in the next few years. In this context, the application of guaranteed times of medical care or the prioritization of waiting lists according to explicit criteria should be highlighted. It is worth remembering that, except for the queues in the waiting rooms of health centers and emergency departments, waiting lists are mediated by the decision of the physician. Therefore, an essential strategy for managing waiting lists consists of attenuating the problems caused by uncertainty (or ignorance) of the patient's diagnosis or prognosis.

  8. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: where are the limits?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-08-21

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts.

  9. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: Where are the limits?

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573

  10. Long-term survival after liver transplant for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus: case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is considered an aggressive malignancy, and the prognosis of liver transplant for it remains obscure. A 42-year-old man with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma and a history of surgical resection was admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of yellowish urine and itchy skin. There were 3 lesions in the right lobe with the diameter of 2 cm each. A mass was found in the upper part of common bile duct, and the intrahepatic bile duct was dilated. His serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 2476 μg/L, total bilirubin level was 327 μmol/L, direct bilirubin level was 261 μmol/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 714 U/L. There was no main portal vein thrombus or extrahepatic metastases. Because of his poor liver function, he was listed for a liver transplant. During the wait (30 d), he underwent 9 episodes of plasmapheresis to decrease the serum level of bilirubin. He had an orthotopic liver transplant with the graft from a deceased donor. After the liver transplant, he received 5 cycles of chemotherapy with the regimen of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. This patient has survived without recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma for more than 82 months and remains in good condition. Liver transplant may have a favorable result for hepatocellular carcinoma patient with a bile duct tumor thrombus, within the Milan criteria.

  11. Influence of nurse navigation on wait times for breast cancer care in a Canadian regional cancer center.

    PubMed

    Baliski, Christopher; McGahan, Colleen E; Liberto, Caitlyn M; Broughton, Sandra; Ellard, Susan; Taylor, Marianne; Bates, Janet; Lai, Anky

    2014-05-01

    The wait times for breast cancer care in our region do not meet acceptable benchmarks. We implemented the Interior Breast Rapid Access Investigation and Diagnosis (IB-RAPID) nurse navigation program to address this issue. The IB-RAPID prospective database was reviewed for patients entering the program between April 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012 (2011/2012 cohort), and was compared with patients from the same area in 2010. The main end point was the time between the 1st diagnostic imaging test and the surgery. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate factors influencing the wait times. The wait times decreased with the introduction of IB-RAPID (59 vs 48 days; median). Stage of disease, total number of biopsies, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use influenced wait times. MRI significantly delayed surgical intervention in both groups with those not having an MRI having a shorter wait time to surgery (68.5 vs 57.6 days; mean) in 2011/2012. The implementation of nurse navigation for patients with breast cancer appears to be effective at reducing the wait times for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Abuse Pattern of Toluene Exposure Alters Mouse Behavior in a Waiting-for-Reward Operant Task

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Scott E.; McDonald, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Inhaling solvents for recreational purposes continues to be a world-wide public health concern. Toluene, a volatile solvent in many abused products, adversely affects the central nervous system. However, the long-term neurobehavioral effects of exposure to high-concentration, binge patterns typical of toluene abuse remain understudied. We studied the behavioral effects of repeated toluene exposure on cognitive function following binge toluene exposure on behavioral impulse control in Swiss Webster mice using a “wait-for-reward” operant task. Mice were trained on a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule using sweetened milk as a reward. Upon achieving FR15, a wait component was added which delivered free rewards in the absence of responses at increasing time intervals (2 sec, 4 sec, 6 sec, etc…). Mice continued to receive free rewards until they pressed a lever that reinstated the FR component (FR Reset). Once proficient in the FR-Wait task, mice were exposed to either 1,000 ppm, 3,600 ppm or 6,000 ppm toluene, or 0 ppm (air controls) for 30 min per day for 40 days. To avoid acute effects of toluene exposure, behavior was assessed 23 hours later. Repeated toluene exposure decreased response rates, the number of FR resets, and increased mean wait time, resulting in a higher response-to-reinforcer ratio than exhibited by controls. Mice receiving the higher exposure level (6,000 ppm) showed a dramatic decrease in the number of rewards received, which was reversed when toluene exposure ceased. Mice receiving the lower exposure level (1,000 ppm) showed little change in the number of rewards. These results indicate that repeated binge exposures to high concentrations of toluene can significantly interfere with performance as measured by a waiting-for-reward task, suggesting a significant impact on cognitive and/or psychomotor function. PMID:18832024

  13. Reducing Wait Time for Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Impact of a Multidisciplinary, Centralized Referral Program.

    PubMed

    Common, Jessica L; Mariathas, Hensley H; Parsons, Kaylah; Greenland, Jonathan D; Harris, Scott; Bhatia, Rick; Byrne, SuzanneC

    2018-06-04

    A multidisciplinary, centralized referral program was established at our institution in 2014 to reduce delays in lung cancer diagnosis and treatment following diagnostic imaging observed with the traditional, primary care provider-led referral process. The main objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to determine if referral to a Thoracic Triage Panel (TTP): 1) expedites lung cancer diagnosis and treatment initiation; and 2) leads to more appropriate specialist consultation. Patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer and initial diagnostic imaging between March 1, 2015, and February 29, 2016, at a Memorial University-affiliated tertiary care centre in St John's, Newfoundland, were identified and grouped according to whether they were referred to the TTP or managed through a traditional referral process. Wait times (in days) from first abnormal imaging to biopsy and treatment initiation were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A total of 133 patients who met inclusion criteria were identified. Seventy-nine patients were referred to the TTP and 54 were managed by traditional means. There was a statistically significant reduction in median wait times for patients referred to the TTP. Wait time from first abnormal imaging to biopsy decreased from 61.5 to 36.0 days (P < .0001). Wait time from first abnormal imaging to treatment initiation decreased from 118.0 to 80.0 days (P < .001). The percentage of specialist consultations that led to treatment was also greater for patients referred to the TTP. A collaborative, centralized intake and referral program helps to reduce wait time for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What Are We Waiting For Customer Wait Time, Fill Rate, And Marine Corps Equipment Operational Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    managed by an RIP. SECREPs are typically critical repair assemblies that require consistently high fill- rates to satisfy maintenance customers ...fill-rate is potentially misreporting performance and areas where short customer wait times could potentially suffice for inventory management . A...supply. Inventory forecasting and management should focus on parts with CWTs that do not satisfy the maintenance customer and 100% fill-rates should

  15. Wait watchers: the application of a waiting list active management program in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Marino, Marta; Avolio, Maria; Pelone, Ferruccio; Basso, Danila; Dei Tos, Gian Antonio; Cinquetti, Sandro; Ricciardi, Walter

    2013-04-01

    This study describes and evaluates the application of a waiting list management program in ambulatory care. Waiting list active management survey (telephone call and further contact); before and after controlled trial. Local Health Trust in Veneto Region (North-East of Italy) in 2008-09. Five hundred and one people on a 554 waiting list for C Class ambulatory care diagnostic and/or clinical investigations (electrocardiography plus cardiology ambulatory consultation, eye ambulatory consultation, carotid vessels Eco-color-Doppler, legs Eco-color-Doppler or colonoscopy, respectively). Active list management program consisting of a telephonic interview on 21 items to evaluate socioeconomic features, self-perceived health status, social support, referral physician, accessibility and patients' satisfaction. A controlled before-and-after study was performed to evaluate anonymously the overall impact on patients' self-perceived quality of care. The rate of patients with deteriorating healthcare conditions; rate of dropout; interviewed degree of satisfaction about the initiative; overall impact on citizens' perceived quality of care. 95.4% patients evaluated the initiative as useful. After the intervention, patients more likely to have been targeted with the program showed a statistically significant increase in self-reported quality of care. Positive impact of the program on some dimensions of ambulatory care quality (health status, satisfaction, willingness to remain in the queue), thus confirming the outstanding value of 'not to leave people alone' and 'not to leave them feeling themselves alone' in healthcare delivery.

  16. Has the increase in private health insurance uptake affected the Victorian public hospital surgical waiting list?

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian

    2002-01-01

    It was anticipated that increase uptake of Private Health Insurance (PHI) would reduce demand on public sector surgical waiting lists. The best measure of changed demand is the comparison of the actual cases added to that projected given previous trends in PHI uptake. Detailed Victorian data is available up to 2000-1. The total waiting list has varied little, reflecting significant decreases in both in patients added to and removed. There was a marked increase in private sector elective surgery cases coinciding with the fall in additions to the public sector waiting list and in public sector elective surgical cases. The June 2001 Victorian surgical waiting list would have been 69,599 not 41,838 if the PHI uptake rate had continued to fall in line with pre-1999 trends, and that of June 2002 about 100,000 compared to 40,458 in March 2002. Limited data from other states suggests the Victorian trends are representative of all Australia.

  17. Practical solutions for reducing container ships' waiting times at ports using simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Abdorreza; Ilati, Gholamreza; Yeganeh, Yones Eftekhari

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal's productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.

  18. Long-term results using old liver grafts for transplantation: sexagenerian versus liver donors older than 70 years.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Clemares-Lama, Marta; Manrique-Municio, Alejandro; García-Sesma, Alvaro; Calvo-Pulido, Jorge; Moreno-González, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The most practical measure to augment the available number of liver grafts and thus reduce waiting list mortality is to increase the donor age limit. We hypothesized that with careful selection of old liver donors without age limit it should be possible to obtain good patient and graft survival. The present study comprises 351 adults who underwent liver transplantation. They were divided into three groups according to the age of the liver donors: group 1: 226 recipients of donors <60 years; group 2: 75 recipients of donors between 60 and 70 years; and group 3: 50 recipients of donors >70 years. A comparative study among the groups was performed. Patient survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were, respectively, 81.0, 76.1, and 71.1 % in group 1; 83.8, 74, and 72.2 % in group 2; and 76, 70.0, and 62.9 % in group 3 (P = NS). Graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was, respectively, 74.8, 69.0, and 64.1 % in group 1; 82.7, 71.4, and 69.6 % in group 2; and 71.4, 64.8, and 58.3 % in group 3 (P = NS). We analyzed the use of older grafts in recipients with HCV cirrhosis and did not find significant differences in patient and graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years. In multivariate analysis increased donor body mass index and decreased recipient albumin were associated with lower patient and graft survival. Because patient and graft survival rates are not affected by donor age, well-selected older donor livers can be safely used if they show good function and preharvesting conditions.

  19. Wait-Time and Multiple Representation Levels in Chemistry Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof

    2014-01-01

    Wait-time is an important aspect in a teaching and learning process, especially after the teacher has posed questions to students, as it is one of the factors in determining quality of students' responses. This article describes the practices of wait-time one after teacher's questions at multiple representation levels among twenty three chemistry…

  20. 8 CFR 207.5 - Waiting lists and priority handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REFUGEES § 207.5 Waiting lists and priority handling. Waiting lists are maintained for each designated refugee group of special humanitarian concern. Each applicant whose application is accepted for filing by... filing is the priority date for purposes of case control. Refugees or groups of refugees may be selected...

  1. Waiting for hip arthroplasty: economic costs and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Jann M; Cumming, J M; Horne, J G; Devane, P A; Slack, A; Gallagher, L M

    2005-12-01

    This prospective cohort study of 153 patients aimed to determine the economic and health costs of waiting for total hip arthroplasty (THA). Health-related quality of life, using self-completed WOMAC and EQ-5D questionnaires, was assessed monthly from enrolment preoperatively to 6 months postsurgery. Monthly cost diaries were used to record costs. The mean waiting time was 5.1 months and mean total cost of waiting for surgery was NZ 4305 dollars(US 2876 dollars) per person (pp) (NZ 1 dollar = US 0.668 dollar). Waiting more than 6 months was associated with a higher total mean cost (NZ 4278 dollars/US 2858 dollars pp) than waiting less than 6 months (NZ 2828 dollars/US 1889 dollars pp; P < .01). Improvements from preoperative to postoperative WOMAC and EQ-5D scores were identified (P < or = .01). Waiting longer led to poorer physical function preoperatively (P < or = .01). Those with poor initial health status showed greater improvement in WOMAC (P = .0001) and EQ-5D (P = .003) measures by 6 months after surgery. Longer waits for total hip arthroplasty incur greater economic costs and deterioration in physical function while waiting.

  2. Decrease of blood lipids induced by Shan-Zha (fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida) is mainly related to an increase of PPARα in liver of mice fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Niu, C- S; Chen, C- T; Chen, L- J; Cheng, K- C; Yeh, C- H; Cheng, J- T

    2011-08-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia are well-developed in the clinic while PPARα is a target for lipid-lowering agents. Shan-Zha (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to increase digestion. Also, Shan-Zha fruit extract showed merit to improve obesity and hyperlipidemia in hamsters; however, the mechanism remained obscure. In the present study, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced by high fat diet in C57BL/6 J male mice. Then, they were orally administered with Shan-Zha fruit extract at an effective dose of 250 mg/kg for 7 days. The liver was removed to estimate the expressions of PPARα and β-oxidation-related enzyme. Oral intake of Shan-Zha extract significantly improved hyperlipidemia in high fat diet-fed mice with an increase of PPARα expression in liver. Also, expression of PPARα-regulated β-oxidation-related enzymes was raised in liver by Shan-Zha extract. However, adipose tissue and others were not modified by this treatment of Shan-Zha fruit extract. Thus, Shan-Zha can increase the expression of PPARα to facilitate β-oxidation-related enzymes in liver for lipid degradation and blood lipid decrement. Also, this is the first report showing Shan-Zha fruit extract can influence liver to lower hyperlipidemia prior to the action in adipose tissue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Clinical translation of bioartificial liver support systems with human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Ryoichi; Blau, Brandon J; Miki, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a pressing need for alternative therapies to liver transplantation. The number of patients waiting for a liver transplant is substantially higher than the number of transplantable donor livers, resulting in a long waiting time and a high waiting list mortality. An extracorporeal liver support system is one possible approach to overcome this problem. However, the ideal cell source for developing bioartificial liver (BAL) support systems has yet to be determined. Recent advancements in stem cell technology allow researchers to generate highly functional hepatocyte-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In this mini-review, we summarize previous clinical trials with different BAL systems, and discuss advantages of and potential obstacles to utilizing hPSC-derived hepatic cells in clinical-scale BAL systems. PMID:28373763

  4. Predicting Liver Transplant Capacity Using Discrete Event Simulation.

    PubMed

    Toro-Díaz, Hector; Mayorga, Maria E; Barritt, A Sidney; Orman, Eric S; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-08-01

    The number of liver transplants (LTs) performed in the US increased until 2006 but has since declined despite an ongoing increase in demand. This decline may be due in part to decreased donor liver quality and increasing discard of poor-quality livers. We constructed a discrete event simulation (DES) model informed by current donor characteristics to predict future LT trends through the year 2030. The data source for our model is the United Network for Organ Sharing database, which contains patient-level information on all organ transplants performed in the US. Previous analysis showed that liver discard is increasing and that discarded organs are more often from donors who are older, are obese, have diabetes, and donated after cardiac death. Given that the prevalence of these factors is increasing, the DES model quantifies the reduction in the number of LTs performed through 2030. In addition, the model estimatesthe total number of future donors needed to maintain the current volume of LTs and the effect of a hypothetical scenario of improved reperfusion technology.We also forecast the number of patients on the waiting list and compare this with the estimated number of LTs to illustrate the impact that decreased LTs will have on patients needing transplants. By altering assumptions about the future donor pool, this model can be used to develop policy interventions to prevent a further decline in this lifesaving therapy. To our knowledge, there are no similar predictive models of future LT use based on epidemiological trends. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Identifying demand for health resources using waiting times information.

    PubMed

    Blundell, R; Windmeijer, F

    2000-09-01

    In this paper the differences in average waiting times are utilized to identify the determinants of demand for health services. The equilibrium waiting time framework is used, but the full equilibrium assumption is relaxed by selecting areas with low waiting times and by estimating a (semi-)parametric selection model. Determinants of supply are used as instruments for the endogeneity of waiting times. A model for the demand for acute services at the ward level in the UK is estimated. The model estimates, and their implications for health service allocations in the UK, are contrasted against more standard allocation models. The present results show that it is critically important to account for rationing by waiting times when identifying needs from care utilization data. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Waiting times for hospital admissions: the impact of GP fundholding.

    PubMed

    Propper, Carol; Croxson, Bronwyn; Shearer, Arran

    2002-03-01

    Waiting times for hospital care are a significant issue in the UK National Health Service (NHS). The reforms of the health service in 1990 gave a subset of family doctors (GP fundholders) both the ability to choose the hospital where their patients were treated and the means to pay for some services. One of the key factors influencing family doctors' choice of hospital was patient waiting time. However, without cash inducements, hospitals would get no direct reward from giving shorter waiting times to a subset of patients. Using a unique dataset, we investigate whether GP fundholders were able to secure shorter waiting times for their patients, whether they were able to do so in cases where they had no financial rewards to offer hospitals, and whether the impact of fundholding spilled over into shorter waiting times for all patients.

  7. Waiting Points in Nova and X-ray Burst Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Smith, Michael Scott; Lingerfelt, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    In nova and X-ray burst nucleosynthesis, waiting points are nuclei in the reaction path which interrupt the nuclear flow towards heavier nuclei, typically because of a weak proton capture reaction and a long beta+ lifetime. Waiting points can influence the energy generation and final abundances synthesized in these explosions. We have constructed a systematic, quantitative set of criteria to identify rp-process waiting points, and use them to search for waiting points in post-processing simulations of novae and X-ray bursts. These criteria have been incorporated into the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to enable anyone to run customizedmore » searches for waiting points.« less

  8. Waiting Points in Nova and X-ray burst Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117; Smith, Michael S.

    2008-05-21

    In nova and X-ray burst nucleosynthesis, waiting points are nuclei in the reaction path which delay the nuclear flow towards heavier nuclei, typically because of a weak proton capture reaction and a long {beta}{sup +} lifetime. Waiting points can influence the energy generation and final abundances synthesized in these explosions. We have constructed a systematic, quantitative set of criteria to identify rp-process waiting points, and use them to search for waiting points in post-processing simulations of novae and X-ray bursts. These criteria have been incorporated into the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to enable anyone to runmore » customized searches for waiting points.« less

  9. Numbers or apologies? Customer reactions to telephone waiting time fillers.

    PubMed

    Munichor, Nira; Rafaeli, Anat

    2007-03-01

    The authors examined the effect of time perception and sense of progress in telephone queues on caller reactions to 3 telephone waiting time fillers: music, apologies, and information about location in the queue. In Study 1, conducted on 123 real calls, call abandonment was lowest, and call evaluations were most positive with information about location in the queue as the time filler. In Study 2, conducted with 83 participants who experienced a simulated telephone wait experience, sense of progress in the queue rather than perceived waiting time mediated the relationship between telephone waiting time filler and caller reactions. The findings provide insight for the management and design of telephone queues, as well as theoretical insight into critical cognitive processes that underlie telephone waiting, opening up an important new research agenda. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Electron Waiting Times of a Cooper Pair Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Padurariu, Ciprian; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding. Our work is important for understanding the fundamental transport processes in Cooper pair splitters and the predictions may be verified using current technology.

  11. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Sexual dysfunction after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    1. The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure the survival of patients but also to offer patients the opportunity to achieve a good balance between the functional efficacy of the graft and their psychological and physical integrity. The quality of life after transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual activity and reproductive performance. 2. Sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are widely reported in men and women with chronic liver disease before liver transplantation. 3. Successful liver transplantation should lead to improvements in sexual function and sex hormone disturbances in both men and women, therefore improving reproductive performance, but immunosuppressive drugs may interfere with hormone metabolism. 4. Pregnancy is often successful after liver transplantation, despite the potentially toxic effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, but fetal and maternal outcomes should be regularly assessed. 5. More detailed and comprehensive data are needed in the field of sexual function after transplantation, and new strategies are needed to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after liver transplantation. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  13. Headache Education Active-Waiting Directive: A Program to Enhance Well-Being During Long Referral Wait Times.

    PubMed

    Lagman-Bartolome, Ana Marissa; Lawler, Valerie; Lay, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this initiative was to evaluate the clinical impact, patient acceptability, and sustainability of implementing a newly developed evidence-guided migraine education program in an academic headache center. Headache is the fifth most common reason for emergency department (ED) visits and accounts for more than 10 million physician visits annually. Successful management of headaches presents a challenge to both primary care providers and neurologists. The catchment area for an academic headache specialty center in a large metropolitan area is over 6 million with an average wait time of over 15 months. This delays diagnosis and impacts patients, thus a Headache Education Active-Waiting Directive (HEAD) was developed to improve patient knowledge and self-care skills among migraine patients awaiting an initial appointment. This was a prospective pre- and post-intervention study. English-speaking adults, aged 18-65 years, referred to the Center for Headache at the University of Toronto for headache consultation between May and December 2012, who had not previously been assessed by a headache specialist, were consented and enrolled. Data on Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) with additional questions on emergency visits, lifestyle, and self-efficacy were collected premigraine and postmigraine education program session. Two hundred and forty-eight patients attended the HEAD program and 177 (71%) consented to the study. Detailed predata and postdata were available for 152 participants (mean age 42.5 ± 11.9 years, 86% females); 117/150 (78%) presented with depressive symptoms and 90/146 (62%) presented with anxiety symptoms. One hundred and thirty-seven of 143 (96%) were using headache treatment. Eighty of 137 (58%) were overusing over-the-counter medications and only 21/137 (15%) were on preventative treatment.  There was a decrease in the MIDAS scores of participants at postsession testing prior to neurological consultation (pre-MIDAS mean 50.0

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Customer Wait Time and Operational Availability through Simulation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Customer Wait Time ( CWT ...inventory level, thereby increasing the material readiness of the operating forces. Intuitively, decreasing CWT increases operational availability (Ao...and CWT has led to arbitrary stock policies that do not account for the cost and benefit they provide. This project centers on monetizing the

  15. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  16. Ethics in radiology: wait lists queue jumping.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Natalie; Reid, Lynette; MacSwain, Sarah; Clarke, James R

    2013-08-01

    Education in ethics is a requirement for all Royal College residency training programs as laid out in the General Standards of Accreditation for residency programs in Canada. The ethical challenges that face radiologists in clinical practice are often different from those that face other physicians, because the nature of the physician-patient interaction is unlike that of many other specialties. Ethics education for radiologists and radiology residents will benefit from the development of teaching materials and resources that focus on the issues that are specific to the specialty. This article is intended to serve as an educational resource for radiology training programs to facilitate teaching ethics to residents and also as a continuing medical education resource for practicing radiologists. In an environment of limited health care resources, radiologists are frequently asked to expedite imaging studies for patients and, in some respects, act as gatekeepers for specialty care. The issues of wait lists, queue jumping, and balancing the needs of individuals and society are explored from the perspective of a radiologist. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What factors influence cataract waiting list time?

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, A.; Vize, C.; Stewart, O.; Backhouse, O.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether there were any specific factors that influenced waiting list time (WLT) for patients undergoing cataract surgery.
METHODS—70 preoperative cataract patients were interviewed by one of the authors using a questionnaire to score visual acuity, coexisting ocular pathology and disabilities, threat to independent living/employment, and perceived visual handicap for detailed, gross, and driving vision. Individuals were analysed separately according to whether it was their first or second cataract operation.
RESULTS—The median WLT for first eye surgery was 9 months (n = 31) and 13 months for second eye surgery (n = 36). The WLT ranged from 2 to 25 months for first eyes and 0.25-18 months for second eyes. Where there was a perceived threat to independent living or employment the WLT was found to be significantly shorter than the median. A high overall score correlated with a shorter WLT. Surgical priority was also given to individuals with anisometropia >3 dioptres.
CONCLUSION—This study has demonstrated that there are specific factors that influence clinicians when prioritising patients for cataract surgery.

 PMID:10729304

  18. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation: adapting donor quality and recipient.

    PubMed

    Gastaca, M

    2009-04-01

    Despite the progressive increase in the number of liver transplantations, the mortality on the waiting list remains between 5% and 10%, and patients have to deal with longer waiting periods. Facing this situation, transplant centers have developed alternatives to increase the number of grafts by accepting donors who were previously considered to be inadequate, because they are at higher risk of initial poor function and graft failure or may cause disease transmission. Currently, some marginal donors are being routinely used: elderly donors, steatotic grafts, non-heart-beating donors, hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) or hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors. These so-called marginal or extended-criteria donors were initially used in high-risk or urgent recipients; however, the number of marginal grafts has significantly increased, forcing the transplant community toward their more rationale use to maintain excellent results of liver transplantation. In this new scenario, the adequacy between donor and recipient may be paramount. Advanced donor age seems to be related to a greater graft failure rate in HCV+ recipients. Early survival seems to be significantly reduced when steatotic grafts are used in recipients with high Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores. Moreover, a decreased survival has been observed among high-risk patients receiving organs from marginal donors. No benefit seems to exist when high-donor risk index grafts are transplanted into recipients with low MELD Scores. The recognition of various donor groups according to their quality and the need for good donor and recipient selection must lead us to define new policies for organ allocation of marginal grafts that may come into conflict with current policies of organ allocation according to the risk of death among patients awaiting a liver transplantation.

  19. Emergency Department Waiting Times (EDWaT): A Patient Flow Management and Quality of Care Rating mHealth Application.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Yunus, Faisel

    2014-01-01

    Saudi hospital emergency departments (ED) have suffered from long waiting times, which have led to a delay in emergency patient care. The increase in the population of Saudi Arabia is likely to further stretch the healthcare services due to overcrowding leading to decreased healthcare quality, long patient waits, patient dissatisfaction, ambulance diversions, decreased physician productivity, and increased frustration among medical staff. This will ultimately put patients at risk for poor health outcomes. Time is of the essence in emergencies and to get to an ED that has the shortest waiting time can mean life or death for a patient, especially in cases of stroke and myocardial infarction. In this paper, we present our work on the development of a mHealth Application - EDWaT - that will: provide patient flow information to the emergency medical services staff, help in quick routing of patients to the nearest hospital, and provide an opportunity for patients to review and rate the quality of care received at an ED, which will then be forwarded to ED services administrators. The quality ratings will help patients to choose between two EDs with the same waiting time and distance from their location. We anticipate that the use of EDWaT will help improve ED wait times and the quality of care provision in Saudi hospitals EDs.

  20. Interest of waiting time for spontaneous early reconnection after cavotricuspid isthmus ablation: A monocentric randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Sébastien; Scavée, Christophe; Barbraud, Cynthia; de Meester de Ravenstein, Christophe; Balola Bagalwa, Mittérand; Goesaert, Cédric; Reis-Pinheiro, Ivone; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of recurrent atrial flutter (AFl) after isolated cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation and to evaluate the impact of a waiting period with the search for early resumption of the CTI block on the long-term outcome. Three hundred and nineteen consecutive patients referred for typical AFl ablation were randomly assigned to CTI ablation with continuous reevaluation of the CTI block during 30 minutes and early reablation if needed (waiting time [WT] + group, n  =  155) or to CTI ablation with no waiting period after proven bidirectional CTI block (WT - group, n  =  164). All patients were regularly followed-up. In the WT+ group, 10 patients (6%) presented a recovery across the CTI (time to recovery: 17 ± 7') and were reablated at the end of the waiting period. After a median follow-up of 21 months, the rate of recurrent AFl was significantly higher in the WT - group as compared to the WT+ group (11.6% [19/164] vs 2.5% [4/155], respectively; P  =  0.007). However, no significant differences in the subsequent rate of AF were observed between the two groups (29% [WT -] vs 32% [WT+], P  =  0.66). During the follow-up, 28 patients from the WT - group underwent a second ablation procedure (16 AFl redo and 12 AF ablation) versus 10 patients form the WT+ group (three AFl redo and seven AF ablation). Waiting 30 minutes after CTI ablation to check for early resumption and early reablation allows for decreasing significantly the rate of recurrent atrial flutter. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The impact of diagnostic imaging wait times on the prognosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Suzanne C; Barrett, Brendan; Bhatia, Rick

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed to determine whether gaps in patient flow from initial lung imaging to computed tomography (CT) guided lung biopsy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was associated with a change in tumour size, stage, and thus prognosis. All patients who had a CT-guided lung biopsy in 2009 (phase I) and in 2011 (phase II) with a pathologic diagnosis of primary lung cancer (NSCLC) at Eastern Health, Newfoundland, were identified. Dates of initial abnormal imaging, confirmatory CT (if performed), and CT-guided biopsy were recorded, along with tumour size and resulting T stage at each time point. In 2010, wait times for diagnostic imaging at Eastern Health were reduced. The stage and prognosis of NSCLC in 2009 was compared with 2011. In phase 1, there was a statistically significant increase in tumour size (mean difference, 0.67 cm; P < .0001) and stage (P < .0001) from initial image to biopsy. There was a moderate correlation between the time (in days) between the images and change in size (r = 0.33, P = .008) or stage (r = 0.26, P = .036). In phase II, the median wait time from initial imaging to confirmatory CT was reduced to 7.5 days (from 19 days). At this reduced wait time, there was no statistically significant increase in tumour size (mean difference, 0.02; P > .05) or stage (P > .05) from initial imaging to confirmatory CT. Delays in patient flow through diagnostic imaging resulted in an increase in tumour size and stage, with a negative impact on prognosis of NSCLC. This information contributed to the hiring of additional CT technologists and extended CT hours to decrease the wait time for diagnostic imaging. With reduced wait times, the prognosis of NSCLC was not adversely impacted as patients navigated through diagnostic imaging. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  3. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  4. Liver transplantation using elderly donors: a risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Y; Moon, Jang; Island, Eddie R; Tekin, Akin; Ganz, Susan; Levi, David; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Nishida, Seigo; Tzakis, Andreas G

    2011-01-01

    Survival after liver transplantation is negatively impacted by use of elderly deceased donors, but excluding them would increase waiting times and waiting list mortality. We reviewed our experience with liver transplantation (LT) utilizing livers from deceased donors 65 yr of age and older to identify those factors that impact graft survival. All adult patients (≥ 18 yr old) who underwent primary LT using deceased donor livers from donors aged ≥ 65 yr between February 1995 and November 2003 were included. With multivariate analysis we found four unfavorable characteristics significantly associated with higher post-transplant graft failure rate. These characteristics are hepatitis C as an etiology of liver disease, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >20, serum glucose level of donor > 200 mg/dL at the time of liver recovery, and skin incision to aortic cross-clamp time > 40 minutes in the donor surgery. The five-yr estimated graft survival rates having 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 unfavorable characteristics were 100%, 82.0%, 81.7%, 39.3%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Our data demonstrated good graft survival can be achieved in LT using elderly donor liver allografts with appropriate patient selection, donor blood glucose management and efficient liver recovery with minimal manipulation of the liver during donor surgery. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. [Influence of waiting time on patient and companion satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Fontova-Almató, A; Juvinyà-Canal, D; Suñer-Soler, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate patient and companion satisfaction of a hospital Emergency Department and its relationship with waiting time. Prospective, observational study. Hospital de Figueres Emergency Department (Girona, Spain). sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction level, real and perceived waiting time for triage and being seen by a physician. A total of 285 responses were received from patients and companions. The mean age of the patients and companions (n=257) was 54.6years (SD=18.3). The mean overall satisfaction (n=273) was 7.6 (SD=2.2). Lower perceived waiting time until nurse triage was related to higher overall satisfaction (Spearman rho (ρ)=-0.242, P<.001), and lower perceived waiting time until being seen by physician, with a higher overall satisfaction (ρ=-0.304; P<.001). Users who were informed about estimated waiting time showed higher satisfaction than those who were not informed (P=.001). Perceived waiting time and the information about estimated waiting time determined overall satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Do waiting times affect health outcomes? Evidence from coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Moscelli, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Luigi; Tonei, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Long waiting times for non-emergency services are a feature of several publicly-funded health systems. A key policy concern is that long waiting times may worsen health outcomes: when patients receive treatment, their health condition may have deteriorated and health gains reduced. This study investigates whether patients in need of coronary bypass with longer waiting times are associated with poorer health outcomes in the English National Health Service over 2000-2010. Exploiting information from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), we measure health outcomes with in-hospital mortality and 28-day emergency readmission following discharge. Our results, obtained combining hospital fixed effects and instrumental variable methods, find no evidence of waiting times being associated with higher in-hospital mortality and weak association between waiting times and emergency readmission following a surgery. The results inform the debate on the relative merits of different types of rationing in healthcare systems. They are to some extent supportive of waiting times as an acceptable rationing mechanism, although further research is required to explore whether long waiting times affect other aspects of individuals' life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing outpatient clinics management software by reducing patients' waiting time.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Iman; AlSarheed, Ahlam

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) gives great attention to improving the quality of services provided by health care sectors including outpatient clinics. One of the main drawbacks in outpatient clinics is long waiting time for patients-which affects the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of services. This article addresses this problem by studying the Outpatient Management Software (OMS) and proposing solutions to reduce waiting times. Many hospitals around the world apply solutions to overcome the problem of long waiting times in outpatient clinics such as hospitals in the USA, China, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan. These clinics have succeeded in reducing wait times by 15%, 78%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Such solutions depend mainly on adding more human resources or changing some business or management policies. The solutions presented in this article reduce waiting times by enhancing the software used to manage outpatient clinics services. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to understand current OMS and examine level of patient's satisfaction. Five main problems that may cause high or unmeasured waiting time have been identified: appointment type, ticket numbering, doctor late arrival, early arriving patient and patients' distribution list. These problems have been mapped to the corresponding OMS components. Solutions to the above problems have been introduced and evaluated analytically or by simulation experiments. Evaluation of the results shows a reduction in patient waiting time. When late doctor arrival issues are solved, this can reduce the clinic service time by up to 20%. However, solutions for early arriving patients reduces 53.3% of vital time, 20% of the clinic time and overall 30.3% of the total waiting time. Finally, well patient-distribution lists make improvements by 54.2%. Improvements introduced to the patients' waiting time will consequently affect patients' satisfaction and improve the quality of health care services

  9. Wait times for gastroenterology consultation in Canada: The patients’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, WG; Barkun, AN; Hopman, WM; Leddin, DJ; Paré, P; Petrunia, DM; Sewitch, MJ; Switzer, C; van Zanten, S Veldhuyzen

    2010-01-01

    Long wait times for health care have become a significant issue in Canada. As part of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology’s Human Resource initiative, a questionnaire was developed to survey patients regarding wait times for initial gastroenterology consultation and its impact. A total of 916 patients in six cities from across Canada completed the questionnaire at the time of initial consultation. Self-reported wait times varied widely, with 26.8% of respondents reporting waiting less than two weeks, 52.4% less than one month, 77.1% less than three months, 12.5% reported waiting longer than six months and 3.6% longer than one year. One-third of patients believed their wait time was too long, with 9% rating their wait time as ‘far too long’; 96.4% believed that maximal wait time should be less than three months, 78.9% believed it should be less than one month and 40.3% believed it should be less than two weeks. Of those working or attending school, 22.6% reported missing at least one day of work or school because of their symptoms in the month before their appointment, and 9.0% reported missing five or more days in the preceding month. A total of 20.2% of respondents reported being very worried about having a serious disease (ie, scored 6 or higher on 7-point Likert scale), and 17.6% and 14.8%, respectively, reported that their symptoms caused major impairment of social functioning and with the activities of daily living. These data suggest that a significant proportion of Canadians with digestive problems are not satisfied with their wait time for gastroenterology consultation. Furthermore, while awaiting consultation, many patients experience an impaired quality of life because of their gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:20186353

  10. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  11. Optimal Server Scheduling to Maintain Constant Customer Waiting Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    I I• I I I I I LCn CN OPTIMAL SERVER SCHEDUUNG TO MAINTAIN CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Thomas J. Frey Captain UISAF AFIT/GOR/ENS/88D-7...hw bees appsewlf in ple rtan. cd = , ’ S 087 AFIT/GORMENS/8D-7 OPTIMAL SERVER SCHEDUUNG TO MAINTAIN~ CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Thomas j...CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In

  12. Theseus Waits on Lakebed for First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft waits on the lakebed before its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change

  13. Theseus Waits on Lakebed for First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA) waits on the lakebed before its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  14. Waiting time distribution for continuous stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernert, Robert; Emary, Clive; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2014-12-01

    The waiting time distribution (WTD) is a common tool for analyzing discrete stochastic processes in classical and quantum systems. However, there are many physical examples where the dynamics is continuous and only approximately discrete, or where it is favourable to discuss the dynamics on a discretized and a continuous level in parallel. An example is the hindered motion of particles through potential landscapes with barriers. In the present paper we propose a consistent generalization of the WTD from the discrete case to situations where the particles perform continuous barrier crossing characterized by a finite duration. To this end, we introduce a recipe to calculate the WTD from the Fokker-Planck (Smoluchowski) equation. In contrast to the closely related first passage time distribution (FPTD), which is frequently used to describe continuous processes, the WTD contains information about the direction of motion. As an application, we consider the paradigmatic example of an overdamped particle diffusing through a washboard potential. To verify the approach and to elucidate its numerical implications, we compare the WTD defined via the Smoluchowski equation with data from direct simulation of the underlying Langevin equation and find full consistency provided that the jumps in the Langevin approach are defined properly. Moreover, for sufficiently large energy barriers, the WTD defined via the Smoluchowski equation becomes consistent with that resulting from the analytical solution of a (two-state) master equation model for the short-time dynamics developed previously by us [Phys. Rev. E 86, 061135 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.061135]. Thus, our approach "interpolates" between these two types of stochastic motion. We illustrate our approach for both symmetric systems and systems under constant force.

  15. Reducing waiting time and raising outpatient satisfaction in a Chinese public tertiary general hospital-an interrupted time series study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Qian; Zhao, Pengyu; Zhang, Qiongyao; Xu, Kai; Chen, Huiying; Hu, Cecile Jia; Stuntz, Mark; Li, Hong; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-08-22

    It is globally agreed that a well-designed health system deliver timely and convenient access to health services for all patients. Many interventions aiming to reduce waiting times have been implemented in Chinese public tertiary hospitals to improve patients' satisfaction. However, few were well-documented, and the effects were rarely measured with robust methods. We conducted a longitudinal study of the length of waiting times in a public tertiary hospital in Southern China which developed comprehensive data collection systems. Around an average of 60,000 outpatients and 70,000 prescribed outpatients per month were targeted for the study during Oct 2014-February 2017. We analyzed longitudinal time series data using a segmented linear regression model to assess changes in levels and trends of waiting times before and after the introduction of waiting time reduction interventions. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to indicate the strength of association between waiting times and patient satisfactions. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. The monthly average length of waiting time decreased 3.49 min (P = 0.003) for consultations and 8.70 min (P = 0.02) for filling prescriptions in the corresponding month when respective interventions were introduced. The trend shifted from baseline slight increasing to afterwards significant decreasing for filling prescriptions (P =0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between waiting time of filling prescriptions and outpatient satisfaction towards pharmacy services (r = -0.71, P = 0.004). The interventions aimed at reducing waiting time and raising patient satisfaction in Fujian Provincial Hospital are effective. A long-lasting reduction effect on waiting time for filling prescriptions was observed because of carefully designed continuous efforts, rather than a one-time campaign, and with appropriate incentives implemented by a taskforce authorized by the hospital managers. This

  16. Acetyl-L-carnitine activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-1β-dependent signaling cascade of mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the oxidized peroxiredoxins content in old rat liver.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Vito; Nicassio, Luigi; Fracasso, Flavio; Musicco, Clara; Cantatore, Palmiro; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The behavior of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-β-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway, as well as the level of some antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics in the liver of old rats before and after 2 months of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation, was tested. The results reveal that ALCAR treatment is able to reverse the age-associated decline of PGC-1α, PGC-1β, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) protein levels, of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and of citrate synthase activity. Moreover, it partially reverses the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) decline and reduces the cellular content of oxidized peroxiredoxins. These data demonstrate that ALCAR treatment is able to promote in the old rat liver a new mitochondrial population that can contribute to the cellular oxidative stress reduction. Furthermore, a remarkable decline of Drp1 and of Mfn2 proteins is reported here for the first time, suggesting a reduced mitochondrial dynamics in aging liver with no effect of ALCAR treatment.

  17. Ultrasound waiting lists: rational queue or extended capacity?

    PubMed

    Brasted, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    The features and issues regarding clinical waiting lists in general and general ultrasound waiting lists in particular are reviewed, and operational aspects of providing a general ultrasound service are also discussed. A case study is presented describing a service improvement intervention in a UK NHS hospital's ultrasound department, from which arises requirements for a predictive planning model for an ultrasound waiting list. In the course of this, it becomes apparent that a booking system is a more appropriate way of describing the waiting list than a conventional queue. Distinctive features are identified from the literature and the case study as the basis for a predictive model, and a discrete event simulation model is presented which incorporates the distinctive features.

  18. 36. Waiting area at main entry to building 500, Awing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Waiting area at main entry to building 500, A-wing, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 7. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  2. 17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of masonry gatehouse, safety gates and pedestrian waiting shelter with ripped copper roofing and missing columns. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  3. 19. WILEY CITY LINE STONE TROLLEY WAITING STATION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WILEY CITY LINE - STONE TROLLEY WAITING STATION ON CONGDON ORCHARD PROPERTY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. 40. STEEL, INGOTS, ON INGOT BUGGIES, WAIT TO BE STRIPPED. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. STEEL, INGOTS, ON INGOT BUGGIES, WAIT TO BE STRIPPED. STRIPPER CRANE CAN BE SEEN AT THE END OF THE RAILROAD TRACKS, AT CENTER. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. Wait Time for Treatment in Hospital Emergency Departments: 2009

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Vital and Health Statistics Annual Reports Health Survey Research Methods Conference Reports from the National Medical Care ... SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care ... with previous research, longer wait time for treatment was associated with ...

  7. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.

  8. 13. 'WAITING AT THE DRAWBRIDGE.' THE COAL SCHOONER LUCY MAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 'WAITING AT THE DRAWBRIDGE.' THE COAL SCHOONER LUCY MAY WAITING AT THE DRAW, JUNE 19, 1896. Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T89 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). (The handwritten legend along the top edge of the photograph is scratched in the emulsion of the original glass plate negative. Consequently it reads in reverse when printed.) - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  9. A Model to Study: Cannibalization, FMC, and Customer Waiting Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    4825 Mark Center Drive • Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1850 CRM D0005957.A2/Final February 2002 A Model to Study: Cannibalization, FMC, and Customer ...numerical example In this section, we will derive the relationship between cannibaliza- tion rates, customer waiting time (CWT) for needed spare parts... relationships between the FMC given by equation 1, the mean customer wait time for spare parts, denoted µ, and the 5. According to [19], not every part can be

  10. Longer wait times affect future use of VHA primary care.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hernandez, Susan E; Augustine, Matthew R; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D; Hebert, Paul L

    2017-07-29

    Improving access to the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a high priority, particularly given statutory mandates of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. This study examined whether patient-reported wait times for VHA appointments were associated with future reliance on VHA primary care services. This observational study examined 13,595 VHA patients dually enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare. Data sources included VHA administrative data, Medicare claims and the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP). Primary care use was defined as the number of face-to-face visits from VHA and Medicare in the 12 months following SHEP completion. VHA reliance was defined as the number of VHA visits divided by total visits (VHA+Medicare). Wait times were derived from SHEP responses measuring the usual number of days to a VHA appointment with patients' primary care provider for those seeking immediate care. We defined appointment wait times categorically: 0 days, 1day, 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days. We used fractional logistic regression to examine the relationship between wait times and reliance. Mean VHA reliance was 88.1% (95% CI = 86.7% to 89.5%) for patients reporting 0day waits. Compared with these patients, reliance over the subsequent year was 1.4 (p = 0.041), 2.8 (p = 0.001) and 1.6 (p = 0.014) percentage points lower for patients waiting 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days, respectively. Patients reporting longer usual wait times for immediate VHA care exhibited lower future reliance on VHA primary care. Longer wait times may reduce care continuity and impact cost shifting across two federal health programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  13. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, J; Podesta, L; LePage, E; Morsiani, E; Moscioni, A D; Hoffman, A; Sher, L; Villamil, F; Woolf, G; McGrath, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and efficacy of a bioartificial liver support system in patients with severe acute liver failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors developed a bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes. The system was tested in vitro and shown to have differentiated liver functions (cytochrome P450 activity, synthesis of liver-specific proteins, bilirubin synthesis, and conjugation). When tested in vivo in experimental animals with liver failure, it gave substantial metabolic and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Seven patients with severe acute liver failure received a double lumen catheter in the saphenous vein; blood was removed, plasma was separated and perfused through a cartridge containing 4 to 6 x 10(9) porcine hepatocytes, and plasma and blood cells were reconstituted and reinfused. Each treatment lasted 6 to 7 hours. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the procedure(s) well, with neurologic improvement, decreased intracranial pressure (23.0 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg; p < 0.005) associated with an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, decreased plasma ammonia (163.3 +/- 21.3 to 112.2 +/- 9.8 microMoles/L; p < 0.01), and increased encephalopathy index (0.60 +/- 0.17 to 1.24 +/- 0.22; p < 0.03). All patients survived, had a liver transplant, and were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This bioartificial liver is safe and serves as an effective "bridge" to liver transplant in some patients. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8185403

  14. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    PubMed

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  15. Fault-tolerant wait-free shared objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayanti, Prasad; Chandra, Tushar D.; Toueg, Sam

    1992-01-01

    A concurrent system consists of processes communicating via shared objects, such as shared variables, queues, etc. The concept of wait-freedom was introduced to cope with process failures: each process that accesses a wait-free object is guaranteed to get a response even if all the other processes crash. However, if a wait-free object 'crashes,' all the processes that access that object are prevented from making progress. In this paper, we introduce the concept of fault-tolerant wait-free objects, and study the problem of implementing them. We give a universal method to construct fault-tolerant wait-free objects, for all types of 'responsive' failures (including one in which faulty objects may 'lie'). In sharp contrast, we prove that many common and interesting types (such as queues, sets, and test&set) have no fault-tolerant wait-free implementations even under the most benign of the 'non-responsive' types of failure. We also introduce several concepts and techniques that are central to the design of fault-tolerant concurrent systems: the concepts of self-implementation and graceful degradation, and techniques to automatically increase the fault-tolerance of implementations. We prove matching lower bounds on the resource complexity of most of our algorithms.

  16. Towards decision support for waiting lists: an operations management view.

    PubMed

    Vissers, J M; Van Der Bij, J D; Kusters, R J

    2001-06-01

    This paper considers the phenomenon of waiting lists in a healthcare setting, which is characterised by limitations on the national expenditure, to explore the potentials of an operations management perspective. A reference framework for waiting list management is described, distinguishing different levels of planning in healthcare--national, regional, hospital and process--that each contributes to the existence of waiting lists through managerial decision making. In addition, different underlying mechanisms in demand and supply are distinguished, which together explain the development of waiting lists. It is our contention that within this framework a series of situation specific models should be designed to support communication and decision making. This is illustrated by the modelling of the demand for cataract treatment in a regional setting in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands. An input-output model was developed to support decisions regarding waiting lists. The model projects the demand for treatment at a regional level and makes it possible to evaluate waiting list impacts for different scenarios to meet this demand.

  17. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  18. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries - An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982-2013.

    PubMed

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-06-01

    The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004-2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR).

  19. Effect of self-triage on waiting times at a walk-in sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Hitchings, Samantha; Barter, Janet

    2009-10-01

    Lengthy waiting times can be a major problem in walk-in sexual health clinics. They are stressful for both patients and staff and may lead to clients with significant health issues leaving the department before being seen by a clinician. A self-triage system may help reduce waiting times and duplication of work, improve patient pathways and decrease wasted visits. This paper describes implementation of a self-triage system in two busy sexual and reproductive health clinics. Patients were asked to complete a self-assessment form on registration to determine the reason for attendance. This then enabled patients to be directed to the most appropriate specialist or clinical service. The benefits of this approach were determined by measuring patient waiting times, reduction in unnecessary specialist review together with patient acceptability as tested by a patient satisfaction survey. The ease of comprehension of the triage form was also assessed by an independent readers' panel. A total of 193 patients were recruited over a 4-month period from November 2004 to February 2005. Patients from the November and December clinics were assigned to the 'traditional treatment' arm, with patients at subsequent clinics being assigned to the 'self-triage' system. Waiting times were collected by the receptionist and clinic staff. Ninety six patients followed the traditional route, 97 the new self-triage system. Sixty-nine (35.8%) patients completed the satisfaction survey. The self-triage system significantly reduced waiting time from 40 (22, 60) to 23 (10, 40) minutes [results expressed as median (interquartile range)]. There was a non-significant reduction in the proportion of patients seeing two clinicians from 21% to 13% (p = 0.17). Satisfaction levels were not significantly altered (95% compared to 97% satisfied, p = 0.64). The readers' panel found the triage form both easy to understand and to complete. Self-triage can effectively reduce clinic waiting times and allow better

  20. Maternity waiting homes in Ethiopia--three decades experience.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber; Pearson, Luwei; Soe, Khynn Win Win

    2012-07-01

    Access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care is limited in Ethiopia. Maternity waiting homes are part of the strategies utilized to improve access to hard to reach rural populations. Despite long years of existence of this service in Ethiopia, the practice has not been adequately assessed so far. Describe the current status of maternity waiting home services in Ethiopia All facilities in Ethiopia that have a maternity waiting home were identified from FMOH data as well as personal contacts with focal persons at Regional Health Bureaus in the nine regions and UNICEF regional offices. A standardized data collection tool for facility assessment was developed by the quality referral team, Health Section, UNICEF. Data collection included site visits and documentation of infrastructural related issues through a facility checklist. Service related issues were also collected from log books and other documents as well as through interview with relevant staff Focus group discussions were held with all MWHs attendants who were found admitted at the time of the review at Attat, Wolisso and Gidole hospital maternity waiting homes on major thematic areas identified by the review team regarding MWH care The practice of maternity waiting homes in Ethiopia spans more than three decades. Nine facilities located in five Regional States had maternity waiting home services. All except one were located in hospitals. Admission capacity ranged from 4 up to 44 mothers at a time. Seven of the maternity waiting homes required the clients to cater for their own food, firewood and clothing supply providing only kitchen space and few kitchen utensils. Clients came from as far as 400 kms away to obtain services. Medical care and documentation of services were not standardized Duration of stay varied from 3-90 days. Monthly admission rates varied from 0-84 mothers at different institutions. Major indications for admission were previous caesarean section 34%; previous fistula repair 12

  1. [Waiting list in general and digestive surgery: patient expectations, quality of life during waiting time and overall satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Parés, D; Duran, E; Hermoso, J; Comajuncosas, J; Gris, P; Lopez-Negre, J L; Urgellés, J; Orbeal, R; Vallverdú, H; Jimeno, J

    2013-01-01

    The structural resources of the National Health system are limited, and therefore early surgery cannot be performed on all patients. The objective was to analyse the satisfaction perceived by the patient as regards the delay of treatment by waiting list of three types of surgery. The influence of expectations on waiting times, and impaired quality of life due to the clinical symptoms during the delay, were studied. A prospective study was conducted using a postal questionnaire. We compared the expectations (scale of 1 to 5), the impact on quality of life for symptoms (scale of 1 to 5) and the level of patient satisfaction (scale of 1 to 5) with respect to time on the waitng list for cholelithiasis, inguinal hernia and haemorrhoids. The predictors of patient dissatisfaction were analysed. A total of 57 patients were included. When comparing the characteristics of patients with and without satisfaction over time on the waiting list, days on the waiting list (P=.044), the change in the quality of life due to the symptoms (P=.028), and expectations (P<.001) were significantly different between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, the expectation was associated with patient dissatisfaction as regards the time on waiting list (OR: 3.14 95% CI: 5.91 to 220.73, P<.001). The level of patient dissatisfaction is associated with expectations about time in waiting list. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of One-Dose Package of Medicines on Patient Waiting Time in Dispensing Pharmacy: Application of a Discrete Event Simulation Model.

    PubMed

    Furushima, Daisuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kido, Michiko; Ohno, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    Improvement in patient waiting time in dispensing pharmacies is an important element for patient and pharmacists. The One-Dose Package (ODP) of medicines was implemented in Japan to support medicine adherence among elderly patients; however, it also contributed to increase in patient waiting times. Given the projected increase in ODP patients in the near future owing to rapid population aging, development of improved strategies is a key imperative. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at a single dispensing pharmacy to clarify the impact of ODP on patient waiting time. Further, we propose an improvement strategy developed with use of a discrete event simulation (DES) model. A total of 673 patients received pharmacy services during the study period. A two-fold difference in mean waiting time was observed between ODP and non-ODP patients (22.6 and 11.2 min, respectively). The DES model was constructed with input parameters estimated from observed data. Introduction of fully automated ODP (A-ODP) system was projected to reduce the waiting time for ODP patient by 0.5 times (from 23.1 to 11.5 min). Furthermore, assuming that 40% of non-ODP patients would transfer to ODP, the waiting time was predicted to increase to 56.8 min; however, introduction of the A-ODP system decreased the waiting time to 20.4 min. Our findings indicate that ODP is one of the elements that increases the waiting time and that it might become longer in the future. Introduction of the A-ODP system may be an effective strategy to improve waiting time.

  5. Respiratory viral RNA on toys in pediatric office waiting rooms.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Diane E; Hendley, J Owen; Schwartz, Richard H

    2010-02-01

    Toys in pediatric office waiting rooms may be fomites for transmission of viruses. Eighteen samples were taken from office objects on 3 occasions. Samples were tested for presence of picornavirus (either rhinovirus or enterovirus) on all 3 sample days; in addition, January samples were tested for respiratory syncytial virus and March samples were tested for influenza A and B. In addition, 15 samples were obtained from the sick waiting room before and after cleaning. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect picornavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A or B virus. Finally, 20 samples were obtained from the fingers of a researcher after handling different toys in the sick waiting room, and samples were then obtained from all the same toys; all samples were tested for picornavirus by polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected on 11 of 52 (21%) of toys sampled. Ten of the positives were picornavirus; 1 was influenza B virus. Three (30%) of 10 toys from the new toy bag, 6 of 30 (20%) in the sick child waiting room, and 2 of 12 (17%) in the well child waiting room were positive. Six (40%) of 15 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA before cleaning; after cleaning, 4 (27%) of 15 were positive in spite of the fact that RNA was removed from 4 of 6 of the original positives. Three (15%) of 20 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA, but RNA was not transferred to the fingers of the investigator who handled these toys. About 20% of the objects in a pediatric office may be contaminated with respiratory viral RNA, most commonly picornavirus RNA. Cleaning with a disinfectant cloth was only modestly effective in removing the viral RNA from the surfaces of toys, but transfer of picornaviral RNA from toys to fingers was inefficient.

  6. Heart Surgery Waiting Time: Assessing the Effectiveness of an Action.

    PubMed

    Badakhshan, Abbas; Arab, Mohammad; Gholipour, Mahin; Behnampour, Naser; Saleki, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Waiting time is an index assessing patient satisfaction, managerial effectiveness and horizontal equity in providing health care. Although heart surgery centers establishment is attractive for politicians. They are always faced with the question of to what extent they solve patient's problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing waiting time in patients of heart surgery centers, and to make recommendations for health-care policy-makers for reducing waiting time and increasing the quality of services from this perspective. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2013. After searching articles on PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Ovid, Magiran, IranMedex, and SID, a list of several criteria, which relate to waiting time, was provided. Afterwards, the data on waiting time were collected by a researcher-structured checklist from 156 hospitalized patients. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16. The Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro tests were used for determination of normality. Due to the non-normal distribution, non-parametric tests, such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were chosen for reporting significance. Parametric tests also used reporting medians. Among the studied variables, just economic status had a significant relation with waiting time (P = 0.37). Fifty percent of participants had diabetes, whereas this estimate was 43.58% for high blood pressure. As the cause of delay, 28.2% of patients reported financial problems, 18.6% personal problem and 13.5% a delay in providing equipment by the hospital. It seems the studied hospital should review its waiting time arrangements and detach them, as far as possible, from subjective and personal (specialists) decisions. On the other hand, ministries of health and insurance companies should consider more financial support. It is also recommend that hospitals should arrange preoperational psychiatric consultation for increasing patients' emotionally readiness.

  7. Effect of emergency physician burnout on patient waiting times.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Carla; Philippon, Anne-Laure; Krastinova, Evguenia; Hausfater, Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Adnet, Frederic; Freund, Yonathan

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is common in emergency physicians. This syndrome may negatively affect patient care and alter work productivity. We seek to assess whether burnout of emergency physicians impacts waiting times in the emergency department. Prospective study in an academic ED. All patients who visited the main ED for a 4-month period in 2016 were included. Target waiting times are assigned by triage nurse to patients on arrival depending on their severity. The primary endpoint was an exceeded target waiting time for ED patients. All emergency physicians were surveyed by a psychologist to assess their level of burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We defined the level of burnout of the day in the ED as the mean burnout level of the physicians working that day (8:30 to the 8:30 the next day). A logistic regression model was performed to assess whether burnout level of the day was independently associated with prolonged waiting times, along with previously reported predictors. Target waiting time was exceeded in 7524 patients (59%). Twenty-six emergency physicians were surveyed. Median burnout score was 35 [Interquartile (24-49)]. A burnout level of the day higher than 35 was independently associated with an exceeded target waiting time (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.39-1.70), together with previously reported predictors (i.e., day of the week, time of the day, trauma, age and daily census). Burnout of emergency physicians was independently associated with a prolonged waiting time for patients visiting the ED.

  8. Wait Time and Effective Social Studies Instruction: What Can Research in Science Education Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Virgina A.; Wilen, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Defines wait time as the length of time teachers wait for answers from students after asking a question. Maintains that increasing wait time can stimulate reflective thinking and student involvement. Reviews the research literature on wait time studies in science education. Finds that student responses improve and participation expands with…

  9. Wait Time for Counseling Affecting Perceived Stigma and Attitude toward the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Stein, Alexander; Casper, Steven; Chessler, Marcy; Beverly, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 99 undergraduates in counseling was divided into two groups based on wait time from triage to intake, "less wait time" (up to two weeks) versus "more wait time" (at least two weeks). The less wait time group showed "higher willingness to recommend the university," "higher institutional…

  10. The UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A Polymorphism c.2042C>G (rs8330) Is Associated with Increased Human Liver Acetaminophen Glucuronidation, Increased UGT1A Exon 5a/5b Splice Variant mRNA Ratio, and Decreased Risk of Unintentional Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver FailureS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Freytsis, Marina; Wang, Xueding; Peter, Inga; Guillemette, Chantal; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Duan, Su X.; Greenblatt, David J.; Lee, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophen-glucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-3′UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A-3′UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P = 0.027, χ2 test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicity-matched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual’s risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. PMID:23408116

  11. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  12. Outcomes of videotape instruction in clinic waiting area.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Webb, Sue A; Ashare, Jo Ann

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effectiveness of general health-promotion teaching for patients in the waiting room of a clinic, using focused videotape instruction. An experimental design was used. Subjects were patients (N = 215) in the waiting rooms of clinics in a university medical center in the Midwest. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: focused videotape instruction in the clinic (n = 106) and control (no instruction in the clinic waiting area) (n = 109). The outcome measures included patient learning about a health education topic and patient satisfaction with overall care, explanations by the provider, and education received during the clinic visit. There was a significant gain in knowledge for patients who viewed the videotape in the waiting room (t = 5.43, df = 213, p < .0001), and they were more satisfied with their education compared with the control group (t = 4.73, df = 213, p < .0001). This study supports focused video instruction as an effective and efficient teaching intervention for disseminating health information in the waiting area.

  13. Waiting Lists for Radiation Therapy: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Background Why waiting lists arise and how to address them remains unclear, and an improved understanding of these waiting list "dynamics" could lead to better management. The purpose of this study is to understand how the current shortage in radiation therapy in Ontario developed; the implications of prolonged waits; who is held accountable for managing such delays; and short, intermediate, and long-term solutions. Methods A case study of the radiation therapy shortage in 1998-99 at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Relevant documents were collected; semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with ten administrators, health care workers, and patients were conducted, audio-taped and transcribed; and relevant meetings were observed. Results The radiation therapy shortage arose from a complex interplay of factors including: rising cancer incidence rates; broadening indications for radiation therapy; human resources management issues; government funding decisions; and responsiveness to previous planning recommendations. Implications of delays include poorer cancer control rates; patient suffering; and strained doctor-patient relationships. An incompatible relationship exists between moral responsibility, borne by government, and legal liability, borne by physicians. Short-term solutions include re-referral to centers with available resources; long-term solutions include training and recruiting health care workers, improving workload standards, increasing compensation, and making changes to the funding formula. Conclusion Human resource planning plays a critical role in the causes and solutions of waiting lists. Waiting lists have harsh implications for patients. Accountability relationships require realignment. PMID:11319944

  14. Waiting time distribution in public health care: empirics and theory.

    PubMed

    Dimakou, Sofia; Dimakou, Ourania; Basso, Henrique S

    2015-12-01

    Excessive waiting times for elective surgery have been a long-standing concern in many national healthcare systems in the OECD. How do the hospital admission patterns that generate waiting lists affect different patients? What are the hospitals characteristics that determine waiting times? By developing a model of healthcare provision and analysing empirically the entire waiting time distribution we attempt to shed some light on those issues. We first build a theoretical model that describes the optimal waiting time distribution for capacity constraint hospitals. Secondly, employing duration analysis, we obtain empirical representations of that distribution across hospitals in the UK from 1997-2005. We observe important differences on the 'scale' and on the 'shape' of admission rates. Scale refers to how quickly patients are treated and shape represents trade-offs across duration-treatment profiles. By fitting the theoretical to the empirical distributions we estimate the main structural parameters of the model and are able to closely identify the main drivers of these empirical differences. We find that the level of resources allocated to elective surgery (budget and physical capacity), which determines how constrained the hospital is, explains differences in scale. Changes in benefits and costs structures of healthcare provision, which relate, respectively, to the desire to prioritise patients by duration and the reduction in costs due to delayed treatment, determine the shape, affecting short and long duration patients differently. JEL Classification I11; I18; H51.

  15. Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes which lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells, and thus, to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been experiencing increasing interest in recent years. Many efforts have been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones, decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially-sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer, and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters. PMID:22707911

  16. Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2011-11-01

    Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells and thus to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been attracting increasing interest in recent years. A great deal of effort has been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones and decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help us to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters.

  17. Lung cancer care trajectory at a Canadian centre: an evaluation of how wait times affect clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kasymjanova, G; Small, D; Cohen, V; Jagoe, R T; Batist, G; Sateren, W; Ernst, P; Pepe, C; Sakr, L; Agulnik, J

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers in Canada, with approximately 28,400 new cases diagnosed each year. Although timely care can contribute substantially to quality of life for patients, it remains unclear whether it also improves patient outcomes. In this work, we used a set of quality indicators that aim to describe the quality of care in lung cancer patients. We assessed adherence with existing guidelines for timeliness of lung cancer care and concordance with existing standards of treatment, and we examined the association between timeliness of care and lung cancer survival. Patients with lung cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 were identified from the Pulmonary Division Lung Cancer Registry at our centre. We demonstrated that the interdisciplinary pulmonary oncology service successfully treated most of its patients within the recommended wait times. However, there is still work to be done to decrease variation in wait time. Our results demonstrate a significant association between wait time and survival, supporting the need for clinicians to optimize the patient care trajectory. It would be helpful for Canadian clinicians treating patients with lung cancer to have wait time guidelines for all treatment modalities, together with standard definitions for all time intervals. Any reductions in wait times should be balanced against the need for thorough investigation before initiating treatment. We believe that our unique model of care leads to an acceleration of diagnostic steps. Avoiding any delay associated with referral to a medical oncologist for treatment could be an acceptable strategy with respect to reducing wait time.

  18. Folate, Alcohol, and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of alcoholic liver disease based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133

  19. Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Xuehao; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of patients are affected by liver disease worldwide. Many of these patients can benefit from therapy involving hepatocyte transplantation. Liver transplantation is presently the only proven treatment for many medically refractory liver diseases including end-stage liver failure and inherited metabolic liver disease. However, the shortage in transplantable livers prevents over 40% of listed patients per year from receiving a liver transplant; many of these patients die before receiving an organ offer or become too sick to transplant. Therefore, new therapies are needed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation and reduce mortality on waiting lists worldwide. Furthermore, the remarkable regenerative capacity of hepatocytes in vivo is exemplified by the increasing number of innovative cell-based therapies and animal models of human liver disorders. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have similar properties to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but bypass the ethical concerns of embryo destruction. Therefore, generation of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) using iPSC technology may be beneficial for the treatment of severe liver diseases, screening of drug toxicities, basic research of several hepatocytic disorders, and liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize the growing number of potential applications of iPSCs for treatment of liver disease. PMID:26858888

  20. Waiting lists and elective surgery: ordering the queue.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrea J; Russell, Colin O H; Stoelwinder, Johannes U; McNeil, John J

    2010-02-15

    In the Australian public health system, access to elective surgery is rationed through the use of waiting lists in which patients are assigned to broad urgency categories. Surgeons are principally responsible for referring patients to waiting lists, deciding on the appropriate urgency category, and selecting patients from the waiting list to receive surgery. There are few agreed-upon criteria to help surgeons make these decisions, leading to striking differences between institutions in proportions of patients allocated to urgency categories. In other countries with publicly funded health systems, programs have been developed that aim to make prioritisation more consistent and access to surgery more equitable. As demand for health care increases, similar programs should be established in Australia using relevant clinical and psychosocial factors. Prioritisation methodology adapted for elective surgery may have a role in prioritising high-demand procedures in other areas of health care.

  1. Children's preferences concerning ambiance of dental waiting rooms.

    PubMed

    Panda, A; Garg, I; Shah, M

    2015-02-01

    Despite many advances in paediatric dentistry, the greatest challenge for any paediatric dentist is to remove the anxiety related to a dental visit and have a child patient to accept dental treatment readily. Minor changes made in the waiting room design can have a major effect on the way any child perceives the upcoming dental experience. This study was carried out to determine children's preferences regarding the dental waiting area so as to improve their waiting experience and reduce their preoperative anxiety before a dental appointment. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using survey methodology. A questionnaire designed to evaluate children's preferences regarding the waiting room was distributed to new paediatric patients, aged between 6 and 11 years of age, attending an outpatient dental facility and was completed by 212 children (127 males, 85 females). The analyses were carried out on cross-tables using Phi (for 2×2 tables) or Cramer's V (for larger than 2×2 tables) to assess responses to the questionnaire items across age groups and gender. A majority of children preferred music and the ability to play in a waiting room. They also preferred natural light and walls with pictures. They preferred looking at an aquarium or a television and sitting on beanbags and chairs and also preferred plants and oral hygiene posters Repetious. The results obtained from this study may help the dental team decide on an appropriate design of their paediatric waiting room so as to make children comfortable in the dental environment and improve delivery of health care.

  2. Development of an Information Model for Kidney Transplant Wait List.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Özçelik, Ümit; Uysal, Nida; Demirağ, Alp; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Deceased-donor kidney transplant is unique among surgical procedures that are an urgent procedure performed in an elective population. It has not been possible to accurately determine when a given patient will be called for transplant. Patients on the active transplant list can be called for a transplant at any time. As a result, every effort must be made to optimize their health according to best practices and published clinical practice guidelines. Once the patient is placed on the transplant wait list after undergoing an initial extensive evaluation, continued surveillance is required. Therefore, we developed a kidney transplant wait list surveillance software program that alerts organ transplant coordinator on time regarding which patients need a work-up. The new designed software has a database of our waiting patients with their completed and pending controls. The software also has built-in functions to warn the responsible staff with an E-mail. If one of the controls of a recipient delayed, the software sends an automated E-mail to the staff regarding the patients delayed controls. The software is a Web application that works on any platform with a Web browser and Internet connection and allows access by multiple users. The software has been developed with NET platform. The database is SQL server. The software has the following functions: patient communication info, search, alert list, alert E-mail, control entry, and system management. As of January 2014, a total of 21 000 patients were registered on the National Kidney Transplant wait list in Turkey and the kidney transplant wait list had been expanding by 2000 to 3000 patients each year. Therefore computerized wait list programs are crucial to help to transplant centers to keep their patients up-to-date on time.

  3. The ethics of waiting and anticipating life beyond.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2014-01-01

    Waiting is a common everyday experience. It is particularly important to person(s) and families living with changing complex health patterns and may be especially vital to those who are anticipating the end-of-life and beyond. The author in this column offers a discussion of potential definitions, meanings, and straight thinking responsibilities for healthcare professionals, as they provide professional services with persons and families who may be arduously experiencing the phenomenon of waiting with ever-changing health situations. Implications for professional nurse practice are offered from a humanbecoming perspective.

  4. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  5. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  6. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  7. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  8. Association between liver transplant center performance evaluations and transplant volume.

    PubMed

    Buccini, L D; Segev, D L; Fung, J; Miller, C; Kelly, D; Quintini, C; Schold, J D

    2014-09-01

    There has been increased oversight of transplant centers and stagnation in liver transplantation nationally in recent years. We hypothesized that centers that received low performance (LP) evaluations were more likely to alter protocols, resulting in reduced rates of transplants and patients placed on the waiting list. We evaluated the association of LP evaluations and transplant activity among liver transplant centers in the United States using national Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data (January 2007 to July 2012). We compared the average change in recipient and candidate volume and donor and patient characteristics based on whether the centers received LP evaluations. Of 92 eligible centers, 27 (29%) received at least one LP evaluation. Centers without an LP evaluation (n = 65) had an average increase of 9.3 transplants and 14.9 candidates while LP centers had an average decrease of 39.9 transplants (p < 0.01) and 67.3 candidates (p < 0.01). LP centers reduced the use of older donors, donations with longer cold ischemia, and donations after cardiac death (p-values < 0.01). There was no association between the change in transplant volume and measured performance (R(2)  = 0.002, p = 0.91). Findings indicate a strong association between performance evaluations and changes in candidate listings and transplants among liver transplant centers, with no measurable improvement in outcomes associated with reduction in transplant volume. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Unresectable Liver Adenomatosis Associated with Congenital Absence of Portal Vein: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Grigorie, Razvan; Mihaila, Mariana; Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dumitru, Radu; Herlea, Vlad; Iorgescu, Andreea; Tomescu, Dana; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-09-19

    Abernethy malformation (AM), or congenital absence of portal vein (CAPV), is a very rare disease which tends to be associated with the development of benign or malignant tumors, usually in children or young adults. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman diagnosed with type Ib AM (portal vein draining directly into the inferior vena cava) and unresectable liver adenomatosis. The patient presented mild liver dysfunction and was largely asymptomatic. Living donor liver transplantation was performed using a left hemiliver graft from her mother. Postoperatively, the patient attained optimal liver function and at 9-month follow-up has returned to normal life. We consider that living donor liver transplantation is the best therapeutic solution for AM associated with unresectable liver adenomatosis, especially because compared to receiving a whole liver graft, the waiting time on the liver transplantation list is much shorter.

  10. Crystalloid flush with backward unclamping may decrease post-reperfusion cardiac arrest and improve short-term graft function when compared to portal blood flush with forward unclamping during liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Hibi, Taizo; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    During liver transplant (LT), the release of vasoactive substances into the systemic circulation is associated with severe hemodynamic instability that is injurious to the recipient and/or the post-ischemic graft. Crystalloid flush with backward unclamping (CB) and portal blood flush with forward unclamping (PF) are two reperfusion methods to reduce reperfusion-related cardiovascular perturbations in our center. The primary aim of this study was to compare these two methods. After institutional review board (IRB) approval, cadaveric whole LT cases performed between 2003 and 2008 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on reperfusion methods: CB or PF. After background matching with propensity score, the effect of each method on post-operative graft function was assessed in detail. In our cohort of 478 patients, CB was used in 313 grafts and PF in 165. Thirty-day graft survival was lower, and risk of retransplantation was higher in PF. Multivariable model showed that CB is an independent factor to reduce primary non-function, cardiac arrest and improve 30-d graft survival. Also, the incidence of ischemic-type biliary lesions was significantly higher in the PF group. Reperfusion methods affect intraoperative hemodynamics and post-transplant outcome. CB allows for control over temperature and composition of the perfusate, perfusion pressure, and the rate of infusion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-08-07

    Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow-up 9 out of 17 (53%) patients

  12. Rendering hospital budgets volume based and open ended to reduce waiting lists: does it work?

    PubMed

    van de Vijsel, Aart R; Engelfriet, Peter M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-04-01

    In the past decades fixed budgets for hospitals were replaced by reimbursement based on outputs in several countries in order to bring down waiting lists. This was also the case in the Netherlands where fixed global budgets were replaced by budgets that are to a large extent volume based and in practice open-ended. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of this Dutch policy measure, which was implemented in 2001. We carried out a statistical analysis and interpretation of trends in Dutch hospital admission rates. We observed a significant turn in the development of in-patient admission rates after the abolition of budget caps in 2001: decreasing admission rates turned into an internationally exceptional increase of more than 3% per year. Day care admissions had already been rising explosively for two decades, but the pace increased after 2001. The increase in the number of admissions includes a broad range of patient categories that were not in the first place associated with long waiting times. The growth was attributable for a large part to admissions for observation of the patient and the evaluation of symptoms, not resulting in a definite medical diagnosis. We considered several factors, other than the availability of more resources, to explain the growth: the ageing of the population, making up for waiting list arrears, ditto for "under consumption" of unplanned care and, as to the growth of day care, substitution for inpatient care. However, these factors were all found to fall short as an explanation. Although waiting times have dropped since the change in the budget system, they continue to be long for several procedures. Our study indicates that making available more resources to admit patients, or otherwise an increase in hospital activity, do not in itself lead to equilibrium between demand and supply because the volume and composition of demand are partly induced by supply. We conclude that abolishing budget caps to solve waiting

  13. Influence of positive distractions on children in two clinic waiting areas.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Nanda, Upali

    2011-01-01

    To examine the influence of positive distraction on the behavior and activity of children in two clinic waiting areas. People spend a considerable proportion of time waiting in hospitals. Studies show that the quality of waiting environments influences the perception of quality of care and caregivers, that perception of waiting time is a better indicator of patient satisfaction than actual waiting time, and that the waiting environment contributes to the perception of wait time. In fact, the attractiveness of the physical environment in waiting areas has been shown to be significantly associated with higher perceived quality of care, less anxiety, and higher reported positive interaction with staff. Can positive distractions in waiting areas improve the waiting experience, as indicated by the behavior and activities of children waiting for treatment? Five distraction conditions were randomly introduced in the waiting area of the dental and cardiac clinics of a major pediatric tertiary care center through a single plasma screen intervention. The attention, behavior, and activities of waiting children were recorded. Data on 158 pediatric patients were collected over 12 days during December 2008 and January 2009. Data analysis shows that the introduction of distraction conditions was associated with more calm behavior and less fine and gross movement, suggesting significant calming effects associated with the distraction conditions. Data also suggest that positive distraction conditions are significant attention grabbers and could be an important contributor to improving the waiting experience for children in hospitals by improving environmental attractiveness.

  14. Fatty Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, ... fat to accumulate in liver cells by causing the body to synthesize more fat or by processing (metabolizing) and excreting fat more slowly. As a ...

  15. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cholangitis Pyogenic liver abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Risks Risks may include: Collapsed lung Complications from the sedation Injury to the gallbladder ...

  16. Where does the waiting list begin? A short review of the dynamics and organization of modern waiting lists.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Dalia L; Alter, David A

    2006-06-01

    Waiting for medical care is the by-product of system rationing, where demand exceeds supply. In this short report we expand on the conventional concept of the queue, by focusing on the regulation of demand and by incorporating a funnel and spout analogy. Real-world examples are used to illustrate the infancy of funnel or demand-side reform initiatives targeting the queue, and the suggestion is made that policy needs to address the concept of 'waiting' much earlier in the treatment cycle.

  17. Umbilical hernias: the cost of waiting.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, David S; Pittman, Matthew; Mikami, Dean

    2017-02-01

    Umbilical hernias are well described in the literature, but its impact on health care is less understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-operative management of umbilical hernias on cost, work absenteeism, and resource utilization. The Truven Health Database, consisting of 279 employers and over 3000 hospitals, was reviewed for all umbilical hernia patients, aged 18-64 who were enrolled in health plans for 12 months prior to surgery and 12 months after surgery. Patients were excluded if they had a recurrence or had been offered a "no surgery" approach within 1 year of the index date. The remaining patients were separated into surgery (open or laparoscopic repair) or no surgery (NS). Post-cost analysis at 90 and 365 days and estimated days off from work were reviewed for each group. The non-surgery cohort had a higher proportion of females and comorbidity index. Adjusted analysis showed significantly higher 90 and 365 costs for the surgery group (p < 0.0001), though the cost difference did decrease over time. NS group had significantly higher estimated days of health-care utilization at both the 90 (1.99 vs. 3.58 p < 0.0001) and 365 (8.69 vs. 11.04 p < 0.0001) day post-index mark. A subgroup analysis demonstrated laparoscopic repair had higher costs compared to open primarily due to higher index procedure costs (p < 0.05). Though the financial costs were found to be higher in the surgery group, the majority of these were due to the surgery itself. Significantly higher days of health-care utilization and estimated days off work were experienced in the NS group. It is our belief that early operative intervention will lead to decreased costs and resource utilization.

  18. Hot topics in liver transplantation: organ allocation--extended criteria donor--living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gerlach, J Tilman; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become the mainstay for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and some metabolic disorders. Its main drawback, though, is the disparity between the number of donors and the patients needing a liver graft. In this review we will discuss the recent changes regarding organ allocation, extended donor criteria, living donor liver transplantation and potential room for improvement. The gap between the number of donors and patients needing a liver graft forced the transplant community to introduce an objective model such as the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in order to obtain a transparent and fair organ allocation system. The use of extended criteria donor livers such as organs from older donors or steatotic grafts is one possibility to reduce the gap between patients on the waiting list and available donors. Finally, living donor liver transplantation has become a standard procedure in specialized centers as another possibility to reduce the donor shortage. Recent data clearly indicate that center experience is of major importance in achieving good results. Great progress has been made in recent years. However, further research is needed to improve results in the future.

  19. Radiotherapy wait times for patients with a diagnosis of invasive cancer, 1992-2000.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Grace M; MacGarvie, Vicki L; Elliott, David; Dewar, Ron A D; MacIntyre, Maureen M; Nolan, Maureen C

    2004-06-01

    To study the wait times for cancer patients from the time of diagnosis to consultation with a radiation oncologist (T1), from consultation to radiotherapy (T2) and from diagnosis to radiotherapy (T3) in the context of treatment practices and measurement issues. From 1992 to 2000, we studied 6585 Nova Scotian patients over the age of 24 years with a diagnosis of breast, lung, colorectal or prostate cancer who received radiotherapy within 1 year of diagnosis. Multivariate analyses examined associations between wait time and diagnosis year, age, sex, median household income (MHI), distance to the cancer centre and extent of disease. Univariate findings reported are median times and interquartile ranges. The T3 was 16 weeks for breast and colorectal cancer, 6 weeks for lung cancer and 18 weeks for prostate cancer. The greatest T1 decrease over time was for prostate cancer: 13-8 weeks (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.10). The T2 increased for all cancers, and the T3 increased from 5 to 7 weeks for lung cancer, from 17 to 22 weeks for prostate cancer and from 10 to 18 weeks for breast cancer, with no change for colorectal cancer. The T3 decreased by age for breast cancer (HR = 1.12, CI = 1.10-1.14) and prostate cancer (HR = 1.07, CI = 1.02-1.11), showed no consistent association with distance to a cancer centre and varied by extent of disease. Patients with localized lung disease had a longer T3 than those with distant disease, but the opposite results were noted for patients with breast cancer. The T3 was greater for regional than distant disease in lung and breast cancers. Sex and MHI had no effect. Wait times reflected clinical practice, and there were no adverse patterns related to age, sex, income or distance from a cancer centre.

  20. Factors Affecting the Selection of Patients on Waiting List: A Single Center Study.

    PubMed

    Can, Ö; Kasapoğlu, U; Boynueğri, B; Tuğcu, M; Çağlar Ruhi, B; Canbakan, M; Murat Gökçe, A; Ata, P; İzzet Titiz, M; Apaydın, S

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing gap between organ supply and demand for cadaveric transplantation in our country. Our aim was to evaluate factors affecting selection of patients on waiting list at our hospital. Patients who have been waiting on list and who were transplanted were compared in order to find factors, which affected the selection of patients. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison and cox regression analysis was used to find the risk factors that decrease the probability of transplantation in this retrospective case-control study. Patients in the transplanted group were significantly younger, had relatively lower body mass index than the awaiting group. Cardiovascular diseases were more in the awaiting group than the transplanted group. There was no patient with diabetes in transplanted group, despite fifteen diabetic patients were in the awaiting group. Selected patients had lower immunologic risk with regard to peak panel reactive antibody levels. No significant difference was found for gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, viral serology, time spent on dialysis and on waiting list between two groups. With cox regression analysis female gender, older age, diabetes mellitus, high body mass index, positive hepatitis B serology and high levels of peak class 1-2 peak panel reactive antibody positivity were found as risk factors that decrease the probability of transplantation. A tendency for selection of low risk patients was found with this study. Time and energy consuming complications and short allograft survival after transplantation in high risk patients and the scarcity of cadaveric pool in our country may contribute to this tendency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Waite Campus: Industry, Research and Educational Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The Waite Campus at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, houses industrial, research, and educational organizations. One advantage of this co-location is sharing the cost of facilities and equipment. The facilities described include Plant Research Center, Wine Science Laboratory, refectory, library, conference facilities, teleteaching,…

  2. Info card for surgery waiting room improves satisfaction.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    A hospital is reporting improved patient satisfaction from providing an information card in the surgery department. The card includes expected wait times. The card is provided by the patient transport team. Telephone numbers are included for more information. Staff update family members hourly during surgery.

  3. The Ultimate $uperpower: Supersized Dollars Drive "Waiting for "Superman"" Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, according to this author, "follow the money" has been an axiom in both journalism and politics--although, as Shakespeare might complain, one "more honour'd in the breach than the observance." It is useful to resurrect the axiom in analyzing the multimedia buzz and policy debates swirling around the movie "Waiting for…

  4. 4. PACK TRAIN WAITING TO BE UNLOADED AT FOOT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PACK TRAIN WAITING TO BE UNLOADED AT FOOT OF YAKI TRAIL. APPROXIMATELY TWO-AND-ONE-HALF TONS OF STEEL ON ANIMALS SHOWN. NOTE COIL OF 1-1/2' WIND CABLE IN FOREGROUND. - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  5. 27. Interior of former waiting room, now used as restaurant; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Interior of former waiting room, now used as restaurant; only remaining original fixtures are windows and Romanesque-arched fireplace, the latter uncovered during removal of railroad-placed drywall by restaurant owner; view to south, 65mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  6. 13. Detail, northeast facade, original door from platform to waiting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, northeast facade, original door from platform to waiting room, now non-functional; note holes in mortar joints used to hold masonry anchors for mounting advertising signs for previous building tenants; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  7. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  8. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  9. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  10. 14. Detail, northeast facade, arched main window of waiting room; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, northeast facade, arched main window of waiting room; note quality of stonework and mortar joint tooling beneath window, representing a ca. 1937 alteration; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  11. The Romanian National Program for Liver Transplantation - 852 Procedures in 815 Patients over 17 Years (2000-2017): A Continuous Evolution to Success.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Irinel; Ionescu, Mihnea; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Hrehoreţ, Doina; Copca, Narcis; Lupaşcu, Cristian; Botea, Florin; Dorobanţu, Bogdan; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Grigorie, Mihai; Matei, Emil; Zamfir, Radu; Lungu, Vasile; Tomescu, Dana; Droc, Gabriela; Ungureanu, Daniela; Fota, Ruxandra; Manga, Graţiela; Popescu, Mihai; Popa, Laura; Gheorghe, Liana; Iacob, Speranţa; Pietrăreanu, Corina; Mihailă, Mariana; Mic, Laurenţiu; Constantinescu, Sanda; Gheorghe, Cristian; Cotruta, Bogdan; Lupescu, Ioana; Grasu, Mugur; Boroş, Mirela; Dumitru, Radu; Toma, Mihai; Paslaru, Liliana; Vlad, Laura; Constantinescu, Ileana; Dima, Ileana; Herlea, Vlad; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pecheanu, Cătălin; Sasalovici, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver transplantation (LT) has become an established treatment for end-stage liver disease, with more than 20.000 procedures yearly worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of Romanian National Program of LT. Methods: Between April 2000 and April 2017, 817 pts received 852 LTs in Romania. Male/female ratio was 487/330, while adult/pediatric ratio was 753/64, with a mean age of 46 years (median 50 yrs; range 7 months - 68 yrs). Main LT indications were HBV cirrhosis (230 pts; 28.2%), HCC (173 pts; 21.2%), and HCV cirrhosis (137 pts; 16.8%). Waiting time and indications for LT, patient and donor demographics, graft features, surgical procedures, and short and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Results: DDLT was performed in 682 pts (83.9%): whole LT in 662 pts (81%), split LT in 16 pts (2.3%), reduced LT in 2 pts (0.2%), and domino LT in 1 pts (0.1%). LDLT was performed in 135 pts (16.5%): right hemiliver in 93 pts (11.4%), left lateral section in 28 pts (3.4%), left hemiliver in 8 pts (1%), left hemiliver with segment 1 in 4 pts (0.5%), and dual graft LDLT in 2 pts (0.2%). Overall major morbidity rate was 31.4% (268 pts), while perioperative mortality was 7.9% (65 pts). Retransplantation rate was 4.3% (35 pts): 27 whole LTs, 3 reduced LTs, 3 split LTs, and 2 LDLT. Long-term overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year estimated survival rates for patients were 87.9%, 81.5%, and 79.1%, respectively. One-, 3-, and 5-year overall mortality on waiting list also decreased significantly over time from 31.4%, 54.1% and 63.5%, to 4.4%, 13.9% and 23.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The Romanian National program for liver transplantation addresses all causes of acute and chronic liver failure or liver tumors in adults and children, using all surgical techniques, with good long-term outcome. The program constantly evolved over time, leading to decreased mortality rate on the waiting list. Celsius.

  12. Microbial Contamination on Touch Surfaces in Sick- and Well-Child Waiting Rooms in Pediatric Outpatient Facilities.

    PubMed

    Gudakova, Irina; Kim, JinYoung; Meredith, Jennifer F; Webb, Ginny

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are a significant public health burden resulting in approximately 1.7 million infections each year. Much work is done to study the contributing factors in inpatient settings; however, little has been done to study outpatient facilities and their roles in healthcare-associated infections. While many pediatric outpatient offices utilize separated waiting areas for sick and well children to decrease the spread of disease, research has not been done to determine whether this practice is of benefit. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is a difference in microbial burden between sick- and well-child waiting areas and to identify surfaces with the highest levels of contamination. Touch surfaces in waiting rooms were swabbed and surveyed for total microbial growth, staphylococcal growth and Gram-negative enteric bacterial growth. Selected bacteria were identified to screen for pathogenic organisms. Surfaces sampled included seats, tables, children's tables, children's seats, magazines and books. We found seats, children's seats and children's books to have the highest microbial burden. No conclusions can be made on the differences in microbial contamination in sick- and well-child waiting areas because of high variation. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated as were several opportunistic pathogens. This study suggests the need for better cleaning practices by pediatric outpatient facilities, to include the disinfection of additional surfaces as well as more frequent and thorough cleaning.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of liver transplant strategies for end-stage liver disease patients on renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaojen; Gallon, Lorenzo; Jay, Colleen; Shetty, Kirti; Ho, Bing; Levitsky, Josh; Baker, Talia; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John; Abecassis, Michael; Hazen, Gordon; Skaro, Anton I

    2014-09-01

    There are complex risk-benefit tradeoffs with different transplantation strategies for end-stage liver disease patients on renal support. Using a Markov discrete-time state transition model, we compared survival for this group with 3 strategies: simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation, liver transplantation alone (LTA) followed by immediate kidney transplantation if renal function did not recover, and LTA followed by placement on the kidney transplant wait list. Patients were followed for 30 years from the age of 50 years. The probabilities of events were synthesized from population data and clinical trials according to Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores (21-30 and >30) to estimate input parameters. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of uncertainty on survival. Overall, the highest survival rates were seen with SLK transplantation for both MELD score groups (82.8% for MELD scores of 21-30 and 82.5% for MELD scores > 30 at 1 year), albeit at the cost of using kidneys that might not be needed. Liver transplantation followed by kidney transplantation led to higher survival rates (77.3% and 76.4%, respectively, at 1 year) than placement on the kidney transplant wait list (75.1% and 74.3%, respectively, at 1 year). When uncertainty was considered, the results indicated that the waiting time and renal recovery affected conclusions about survival after SLK transplantation and liver transplantation, respectively. The subgroups with the longest durations of pretransplant renal replacement therapy and highest MELD scores had the largest absolute increases in survival with SLK transplantation versus sequential transplantation. In conclusion, the findings demonstrate the inherent tension in choices about the use of available kidneys and suggest that performing liver transplantation and using renal transplantation only for those who fail to recover their native renal function could free up available donor kidneys. These results could inform

  14. Liver transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) services in the United Kingdom are provided by 7 designated transplant centers for a population of approximately 64 million. The number of deceased organ donors has grown, and in 2014-2015 it was 1282 (570 donation after circulatory death and 772 donation after brain death). Donor risk is increasing. In 2014-2015, there were 829 LTs from deceased and 38 from living donors. The common causes for transplantation are liver cell cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-related liver disease. Livers are allocated first nationally to super-urgent listed patients and then on a zonal basis. The United Kingdom will be moving toward a national allocation scheme. The median interval between listing and transplantation is 152 days for adults awaiting their first elective transplant. Of the adults listed for the first elective transplant, 68% underwent transplantation at < 1 year; 17% are waiting; and 4% and 11% were removed or died, respectively. The 1- and 5-year adult patient survival rate from listing is 81% and 68%, respectively, and from transplantation is 92% and 80%, respectively. The transplant program is funded through general taxation and is free at the point of care to those who are eligible for National Health Service (NHS) treatment; some have to pay for medication (up to a maximum payment of US $151/year). The competent authority is the Human Tissue Authority which licenses donor characterization, retrieval, and implantation; transplant units are commissioned by NHS England and NHS Scotland. National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) promotes organ donation, maintains the organ donor register, obtains consent, and undertakes donor characterization and offering. NHSBT also maintains the national waiting list, develops and applies selection and allocation policies, monitors outcomes, and maintains the UK National Transplant Registry and commissions a national organ retrieval service. Liver Transplantation 22 1129-1135 2016 AASLD

  15. Waiting time for radiotherapy in women with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maria Isabel; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the waiting time for radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer. METHODS This descriptive study was conducted with 342 cervical cancer cases that were referred to primary radiotherapy, in the Baixada Fluminense region, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, from October 1995 to August 2010. The waiting time was calculated using the recommended 60-day deadline as a parameter to obtaining the first cancer treatment and considering the date at which the diagnosis was confirmed, the date of first oncological consultation and date when the radiotherapy began. Median and proportional comparisons were made using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. RESULTS Most of the women (72.2%) began their radiotherapy within 60 days from the diagnostic confirmation date. The median of this total waiting time was 41 days. This median worsened over the time period, going from 11 days (1995-1996) to 64 days (2009-2010). The median interval between the diagnostic confirmation and the first oncological consultation was 33 days, and between the first oncological consultation and the first radiotherapy session was four days. The median waiting time differed significantly (p = 0.003) according to different stages of the tumor, reaching 56 days, 35 days and 30 days for women whose cancers were classified up to IIA; from IIB to IIIB, and IVA-IVB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Despite most of the women having had access to radiotherapy within the recommended 60 days, the implementation of procedures to define the stage of the tumor and to reestablish clinical conditions took a large part of this time, showing that at least one of these intervals needs to be improved. Even though the waiting times were ideal for all patients, the most advanced cases were quickly treated, which suggests that access to radiotherapy by women with cervical cancer has been reached with equity. PMID:26786473

  16. Worth the Wait? Using Past Patterns to Determine Wait Periods for E-Books Released after Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This paper asks if there is an optimal wait period for e-books that balances libraries' desire to acquire books soon after their publication with the frequent desire to purchase books electronically whenever feasible. Analyzing 13,043 titles that Temple University Libraries received on its e-preferred approval plan in 2014-15, the author looks at…

  17. How to report and monitor the performance of waiting list management.

    PubMed

    Torkki, Markus; Linna, Miika; Seitsalo, Seppo; Paavolainen, Pekka

    2002-01-01

    Potential problems concerning waiting list management are often monitored using mean waiting times based on empirical samples. However, the appropriateness of mean waiting time as an indicator of access can be questioned if a waiting list is not managed well, e.g., if the queue discipline is violated. This study was performed to find out about the queue discipline in waiting lists for elective surgery to reveal potential discrepancies in waiting list management. There were 1,774 waiting list patients for hallux valgus or varicose vein surgery or sterilization. The waiting time distributions of patients receiving surgery and of patients still waiting for an operation are presented in column charts. The charts are compared with two model charts. One model chart presents a high queue discipline (first in-first out) and another a poor queue discipline (random) queue. There were significant differences in waiting list management across hospitals and patient categories. Examples of a poor queue discipline were found in queues for hallux valgus and varicose vein operations. A routine waiting list reporting should be used to guarantee the quality of waiting list management and to pinpoint potential problems in access. It is important to monitor not only the number of patients in the waiting list but also the queue discipline and the balance between demand and supply of surgical services. The purpose for this type of reporting is to ensure that the priority setting made at health policy level also works in practise.

  18. [Surgery for colorectal cancer since the introduction of the Netherlands national screening programmeInvestigations into changes in number of resections and waiting times for surgery].

    PubMed

    de Neree Tot Babberich, M P M; van der Willik, E M; van Groningen, J T; Ledeboer, M; Wiggers, T; Wouters, M W J M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the Netherlands national colorectal cancer screening programme on the number of surgical resections for colorectal carcinoma and on waiting times for surgery. Descriptive study. Data were extracted from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients with primary colorectal cancer surgery between 2011-2015 were included. The volume and median waiting times for the years 2011-2015 are described. Waiting times from first tumor positive biopsy until the operation (biopsy-operation) and first preoperative visit to the surgeon until the operation (visit-operation) are analyzed with a univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Separate analysis was done for visit-operation for academic and non-academic hospitals and for screening compared to non-screening patients. In 2014 there was an increase of 1469 (15%) patients compared to 2013. In 2015 this increase consisted of 1168 (11%) patients compared to 2014. In 2014 and 2015, 1359 (12%) and 3111 (26%) patients were referred to the surgeon through screening, respectively. The median waiting time of biopsy-operation significantly decreased (ß: 0.94, 95%BI) over the years 2014-2015 compared to 2011-2013. In non-academic hospitals, the waiting time visit-operation also decreased significantly (ß: 0.89, 95%BI 0.87-0.90) over the years 2014-2015 compared to 2011-2013. No difference was found in waiting times between patients referred to the surgeon through screening compared to non-screening. There is a clear increase in volume since the introduction of the colorectal cancer screening programme without an increase in waiting time until surgery.

  19. Emergency department waiting room stress: can music or aromatherapy improve anxiety scores?

    PubMed

    Holm, Lydia; Fitzmaurice, Laura

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music alone, aromatherapy alone, and music in addition to aromatherapy on anxiety levels of adults accompanying children to a pediatricemergency department waiting area. The study was conducted over 28 consecutive days, assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no intervention, music, aromatherapy, and both music and aromatherapy. Adults accompanying children to the emergency department of an urban pediatric tertiary care referral center were given a survey including a Spielberger state anxiety inventory with additional questions about whether they noticed an aroma or music and if so their response to it. The music was classic ingenre with a tempo of 60 to 70 beats per minute. The aromatherapyused the essential oil Neroli dispersed using 2 aromatherapydiffusers placed in strategic airflow ends of the emergency department. The 1104 surveys were completed. There was a statistically significant decrease in anxietylevel on those days when music was playing (36.3 vs. 39.2; P = 0.017). There was no difference in anxiety levels on those days when aromatherapy was present compared with the nonaromatherapy days (37.3 vs. 38.0; P = 0.347). Music is an easy and useful way to decrease the anxiety of visitors in an emergency department waiting area. Although no difference was detected for the aromatherapy group, this could be because of environmental conditions or imprecise application of the aromatherapy; further study is needed to either prove or disprove its effectiveness in this setting.

  20. Liver transplant outcomes using ideal donation after circulatory death livers are superior to using older donation after brain death donor livers.

    PubMed

    Scalea, Joseph R; Redfield, Robert R; Foley, David P

    2016-09-01

    Multiple reports have demonstrated that liver transplantation following donation after circulatory death (DCD) is associated with poorer outcomes when compared with liver transplantation from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. We hypothesized that carefully selected, underutilized DCD livers recovered from younger donors have excellent outcomes. We performed a retrospective study of the United Network for Organ Sharing database to determine graft survivals for patients who received liver transplants from DBD donors of age ≥ 60 years, DBD donors < 60 years, and DCD donors < 50 years of age. Between January 2002 and December 2014, 52,271 liver transplants were performed in the United States. Of these, 41,181 (78.8%) underwent transplantation with livers from DBD donors of age < 60 years, 8905 (17.0%) from DBD donors ≥ 60 years old, and 2195 (4.2%) livers from DCD donors < 50 years of age. DCD livers of age < 50 years with < 6 hours of cold ischemia time (CIT) had superior graft survival when compared with DBD livers ≥ age 60 years (P < 0.001). In 2014, there were 133 discarded DCD livers; of these, 111 (83.4%) were from donors < age 50 years old. Young DCD donor livers (age < 50 years old) with short CITs yield results better than that seen with DBD livers > 60 years old. Careful donor organ and recipient selection can lead to excellent results, despite previous reports suggesting otherwise. Increased acceptance of these DCD livers would lead to shorter wait list times and increased national liver transplant rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1197-1204 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Liver transplantation: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jadlowiec, Caroline C; Taner, Timucin

    2016-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of liver transplantation over the past two decades. This progress, however, also brings up the next set of challenges: First, organ shortage remains a major limitation, and accounts for a large proportion of wait list mortality. While living donation has successfully increased the total number of liver transplants done in Asian countries, the total number of such transplants has been stagnant in the western hemisphere. As such, there has been a significant effort over the past decade to increase the existing deceased donor pool. This effort has resulted in a greater use of liver allografts following donation after cardiac death (DCD) along with marginal and extended criteria donors. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of liver allografts procured after circulatory arrest has not only resulted in better selection and management of DCD donors, but has also helped in the development of mechanical perfusion strategies. Early outcomes demonstrating the clinical applicability of both hypothermic and normothermic perfusion and its potential to impact patient survival and allograft function have generated much interest. Second, long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients have not improved significantly, as recipients continue to succumb to complications of long-term immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that chronic immune-mediated injury to the liver may also impact graft function. PMID:27182155

  2. Radiolabeled lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients awaiting liver transplantation: pathology of the explant livers and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Bieke; Praet, Marleen; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Troisi, Roberto; de Hemptinne, Bernard; Gemmel, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2005-04-01

    Liver transplantation has become an important curative treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Criteria for transplantation are strict and, therefore, it is crucial that patients awaiting transplantation do not suffer disease progression. One of the therapeutic options to achieve disease stabilization is neoadjuvant radiolabeled lipiodol treatment. This study aimed to document the dropout rate on the waiting list, the pathological findings on the explant livers, and the long-term outcome of patients treated with radionuclide therapy while awaiting transplantation. Patients eligible for transplantation were treated with 2.1 GBq (131)I-lipiodol or 4.1 GBq (188)Re-HDD/lipiodol by transfemoral catheterization of the hepatic arteries. Tumor necrosis was assessed in the explant livers and follow-up data, such as dropout from the waiting list, recurrence, and survival following transplantation were retrospectively documented. In 5 of 22 explants, necrosis exceeded 90%. Two patients died while on the waiting list (10%) and 4 of 20 transplanted patients (20%) suffered recurrent disease. The overall recurrence-free survival was 19.7 months (range, 1.75-56), with a mean follow-up of 20.1 months. Our data support the evaluation on larger patient numbers to confirm the benefit of radiolabeled lipiodol in candidates for liver transplantation who are suffering from HCC.

  3. The waiting time problem in a model hominin population.

    PubMed

    Sanford, John; Brewer, Wesley; Smith, Franzine; Baumgardner, John

    2015-09-17

    Functional information is normally communicated using specific, context-dependent strings of symbolic characters. This is true within the human realm (texts and computer programs), and also within the biological realm (nucleic acids and proteins). In biology, strings of nucleotides encode much of the information within living cells. How do such information-bearing nucleotide strings arise and become established? This paper uses comprehensive numerical simulation to understand what types of nucleotide strings can realistically be established via the mutation/selection process, given a reasonable timeframe. The program Mendel's Accountant realistically simulates the mutation/selection process, and was modified so that a starting string of nucleotides could be specified, and a corresponding target string of nucleotides could be specified. We simulated a classic pre-human hominin population of at least 10,000 individuals, with a generation time of 20 years, and with very strong selection (50% selective elimination). Random point mutations were generated within the starting string. Whenever an instance of the target string arose, all individuals carrying the target string were assigned a specified reproductive advantage. When natural selection had successfully amplified an instance of the target string to the point of fixation, the experiment was halted, and the waiting time statistics were tabulated. Using this methodology we tested the effect of mutation rate, string length, fitness benefit, and population size on waiting time to fixation. Biologically realistic numerical simulations revealed that a population of this type required inordinately long waiting times to establish even the shortest nucleotide strings. To establish a string of two nucleotides required on average 84 million years. To establish a string of five nucleotides required on average 2 billion years. We found that waiting times were reduced by higher mutation rates, stronger fitness benefits, and

  4. Non-Poissonian Distribution of Tsunami Waiting Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of the global tsunami catalog indicates that tsunami waiting times deviate from an exponential distribution one would expect from a Poisson process. Empirical density distributions of tsunami waiting times were determined using both global tsunami origin times and tsunami arrival times at a particular site with a sufficient catalog: Hilo, Hawai'i. Most sources for the tsunamis in the catalog are earthquakes; other sources include landslides and volcanogenic processes. Both datasets indicate an over-abundance of short waiting times in comparison to an exponential distribution. Two types of probability models are investigated to explain this observation. Model (1) is a universal scaling law that describes long-term clustering of sources with a gamma distribution. The shape parameter (γ) for the global tsunami distribution is similar to that of the global earthquake catalog γ=0.63-0.67 [Corral, 2004]. For the Hilo catalog, γ is slightly greater (0.75-0.82) and closer to an exponential distribution. This is explained by the fact that tsunamis from smaller triggered earthquakes or landslides are less likely to be recorded at a far-field station such as Hilo in comparison to the global catalog, which includes a greater proportion of local tsunamis. Model (2) is based on two distributions derived from Omori's law for the temporal decay of triggered sources (aftershocks). The first is the ETAS distribution derived by Saichev and Sornette [2007], which is shown to fit the distribution of observed tsunami waiting times. The second is a simpler two-parameter distribution that is the exponential distribution augmented by a linear decay in aftershocks multiplied by a time constant Ta. Examination of the sources associated with short tsunami waiting times indicate that triggered events include both earthquake and landslide tsunamis that begin in the vicinity of the primary source. Triggered seismogenic tsunamis do not necessarily originate from the same fault zone

  5. SouthWest view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-West view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. NorthEast view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. The evaluation of a formalized queue management system for coronary angiography waiting lists.

    PubMed

    Alter, D A; Newman, Alice M; Cohen, Eric A; Sykora, Kathy; Tu, Jack V

    2005-11-01

    Lengthy waiting lists for coronary angiography have been described in many health care systems worldwide. The extent to which formal queue management systems may improve the prioritization and survival of patients in the angiography queue is unknown. To prospectively evaluate the performance of a formal queue management system for patients awaiting coronary angiography in Ontario. The coronary angiography urgency scale, a formal queue management system developed in 1993 using a modified Delphi panel, allocates recommended maximum waiting times (RMWTs) in accordance with clinical necessity. By using a provincial clinical registry, 35,617 consecutive patients referred into the coronary angiography queue between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2002, were prospectively tracked. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examined mortality risk across urgency after adjusting for additional clinical and comorbid factors. Good agreement was determined in urgency ratings between scores from the coronary angiography urgency scale and implicit physician judgement, which was obtained independently at the time of the index referral (weighted kappa = 0.49). The overall mortality in the queue was 0.3% (0.47%, 0.26% and 0.13% for urgent, semiurgent and elective patients, respectively). Urgency, as specified by the coronary angiography urgency scale, was the strongest predictor of death in the queue (P<0.001). However, when patients were censored according to their RMWTs, mortality was similar across different levels of urgency. Consequently, up to 18.5 deaths per 10,000 patients could have potentially been averted had patients been triaged and undergone coronary angiography within the RMWT as specified by the coronary angiography urgency scale. The incorporation of the coronary angiography urgency scale as a formal queue management system may decrease mortality in the coronary angiography queue. The authors recommend its implementation in health care systems where patients

  8. [Are non-invasive tests going to replace liver biopsy for diagnosis of liver fibrosis?].

    PubMed

    Restellini, Sophie; Spahr, Laurent

    2012-06-27

    Liver fibrosis is associated with chronic liver diseases, and may evolve into cirrhosis that may be complicated by liver failure and portal hypertension. Detection and quantification of liver fibrosis is a key point in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard method to assess and quantify fibrosis, but its invasiveness is a limiting factor in everyday clinical practice. Non invasive markers using either biological or radiological parameters have been developed and may decrease the need for liver biopsy in some cases. However, information is limited to fibrosis, and cut-offs values and diagnostic accuracies for significant fibrosis may vary according to the etiology of liver disease. Liver biopsy allows the assessment of intermediate stages of fibrosis and describes accompanying lesions.

  9. Effect of Lean Processes on Surgical Wait Times and Efficiency in a Tertiary Care Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Nakul P; Eppstein, Andrew C; Lawson, Rick A; Taylor, Amber N

    2017-01-01

    (SD) patient wait times for elective general surgical procedures decreased from 33.4 (8.3) days in FY 2012 to 26.0 (9.5) days in FY 2013 (P = .02). In FY 2014, mean (SD) wait times were half the value of the previous FY at 12.0 (2.1) days (P = .07). This was a 3-fold decrease from wait times in FY 2012 (P = .02). Operative volume increased from 931 patients in FY 2012 to 1090 in FY 2013 and 1072 in FY 2014. Combined clinic, telehealth, and e-consultation encounters increased from 3131 in FY 2012 to 3460 in FY 2013 and 3517 in FY 2014, while the number of no-shows decreased from 366 in FY 2012 to 227 in FY 2014 (P = .02). Improvement in the overall surgical patient experience can stem from multidisciplinary collaboration among systems redesign personnel, clinicians, and surgical staff to reduce systemic inefficiencies. Monitoring and follow-up of system efficiency measures and the employment of lean practices and process improvements can have positive short- and long-term effects on wait times, clinical throughput, and patient care and satisfaction.

  10. Improving Patients Experience in Peadiatric Emergency Waiting Room.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Siebert, Johan; Wipfli, Rolf; Duret, Cyrille; Gervaix, Alain; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    When visiting the emergency department, the perception of the time spent in the waiting room before the beginning of the care, may influence patients' experience. Based on models of service evaluation, highlighting the importance of informing people about their waiting process and their place in the queue, we have developed an innovative information screen aiming at improving perception of time by patients. Following an iterative process, a group of experts including computer scientists, ergonomists and caregivers designed a solution adapted to the pediatric context. The solution includes a screen displaying five lanes representing triage levels. Patients are represented by individual avatars, drawn sequentially in the appropriate line. The interface has been designed using gamification principle, aiming at increasing acceptance, lowering learning curve and improving satisfaction. Questionnaire based evaluation results revealed high satisfaction from the 278 respondents even if the informative content was not always completely clear.

  11. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Renewal processes based on generalized Mittag-Leffler waiting times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2013-03-01

    The fractional Poisson process has recently attracted experts from several fields of study. Its natural generalization of the ordinary Poisson process made the model more appealing for real-world applications. In this paper, we generalized the standard and fractional Poisson processes through the waiting time distribution, and showed their relations to an integral operator with a generalized Mittag-Leffler function in the kernel. The waiting times of the proposed renewal processes have the generalized Mittag-Leffler and stretched-squashed Mittag-Leffler distributions. Note that the generalizations naturally provide greater flexibility in modeling real-life renewal processes. Algorithms to simulate sample paths and to estimate the model parameters are derived. Note also that these procedures are necessary to make these models more usable in practice. State probabilities and other qualitative or quantitative features of the models are also discussed.

  13. Nursing interventions for family members waiting during cardiac procedures.

    PubMed

    Trecartin, Kelly; Carroll, Diane L

    2011-08-01

    Anxiety is shared by patients and family members (FMs) and can increase throughout the FMs waiting during invasive cardiac procedures (ICP). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of an informational report (IR) and a postprocedure visit (PPV), on the anxiety of waiting FMs. There were 151 FMs assigned to 3 groups; Group 1 (50 FMs: standard of care [SOC]), Group 2 (50 FMs: SOC + IR), and Group 3 (51 FMs: SOC + IR + PPV). Pre/ postvariables measured were: blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), skin temperature (ST), and anxiety. When comparing the BP, HR, ST, and anxiety there were no differences between groups with either SOC or IR. There was a significant reduction in anxiety, from baseline to the PPV in Group 3 (F = 10.1; p < .000). A PPV had an impact on FMs and a PPV should be incorporated as a nursing intervention during ICP.

  14. Reduction of admit wait times: the effect of a leadership-based program.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pankaj B; Combs, Mary A; Vinson, David R

    2014-03-01

    Prolonged admit wait times in the emergency department (ED) for patients who require hospitalization lead to increased boarding time in the ED, a significant cause of ED congestion. This is associated with decreased quality of care, higher morbidity and mortality, decreased patient satisfaction, increased costs for care, ambulance diversion, higher numbers of patients who leave without being seen (LWBS), and delayed care with longer lengths of stay (LOS) for other ED patients. The objective was to assess the effect of a leadership-based program to expedite hospital admissions from the ED. This before-and-after observational study was undertaken from 2006 through 2011 at one community hospital ED. A team of ED and hospital leaders implemented a program to reduce admit wait times, using a computerized hospital-wide tracking system to monitor inpatient and ED bed status. The team collaboratively and consistently moved ED patients to their inpatient beds within an established goal of 60 minutes after an admission decision was reached. Top leadership actively intervened in real time by contacting staff whenever delays occurred to expedite immediate solutions to achieve the 60-minute goal. The primary outcome measures were the percentage of ED patients who were admitted to inpatient beds within 60 minutes from the time the beds were requested and ED boarding time. LOS, patient satisfaction, LWBS rate, and ambulance diversion hours were also measured. After ED census, hospital admission rates, and ED bed capacity were controlled for using a multivariable linear regression analysis, the admit wait time reduction program contributed to an increase in patients being admitted to the hospital within 60 minutes by 16 percentage points (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 10 to 22 points; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in boarding time per admission of 46 minutes (95% CI = 63 to 82 minutes; p < 0.0001). LOS decreased for admitted patients by 79 minutes (95% CI = 55 to 104 minutes; p < 0

  15. The effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing anxiety in health care waiting spaces: a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials.

    PubMed

    Biddiss, Elaine; Knibbe, Tara Joy; McPherson, Amy

    2014-08-01

    lowered-state anxiety (-5.1 ± 0.53 points on the State Trait Anxiety Scale) than those who received standard care. The efficacy of aromatherapy was inconclusive. Studies reporting on the impact of improved interior design of waiting areas, while positive, are minimal and heterogeneous. For children, insufficient evidence is available to corroborate the effectiveness of play opportunities, media distractions, and music for mitigating anxiety in children awaiting medical procedures. Music is a well-established means of decreasing anxiety in adult patients awaiting medical interventions. The effect of music on children's anxiety is not known. Limited studies and heterogeneity of interventions and methods in the areas of aromatherapy, interior design, digital media, and play opportunities (for children) suggest the need for future research.

  16. 29. Attic interior showing roof truss system over waiting room; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Attic interior showing roof truss system over waiting room; note knob-and-tube wiring system; brick section at far left is rear of tower, which of brick masonry construction above the first story level, joined to the exterior walls of stone masonry; view to southeast along axis of building, 90mm lens and electronic flash illumination. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  17. DIME Students Waiting for Their Turn to Drop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students pause while waiting their turn at the 2.2-second Drop Tower during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  18. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  19. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  20. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  1. Higher Mortality in registrants with sudden model for end-stage liver disease increase: Disadvantaged by the current allocation policy.

    PubMed

    Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Alejo, Jennifer L; Poon, Anna K; Cameron, Andrew M; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-05-01

    Liver allocation is based on current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, with priority in the case of a tie being given to those waiting the longest with a given MELD score. We hypothesized that this priority might not reflect risk: registrants whose MELD score has recently increased receive lower priority but might have higher wait-list mortality. We studied wait-list and posttransplant mortality in 69,643 adult registrants from 2002 to 2013. By likelihood maximization, we empirically defined a MELD spike as a MELD increase ≥ 30% over the previous 7 days. At any given time, only 0.6% of wait-list patients experienced a spike; however, these patients accounted for 25% of all wait-list deaths. Registrants who reached a given MELD score after a spike had higher wait-list mortality in the ensuing 7 days than those with the same resulting MELD score who did not spike, but they had no difference in posttransplant mortality. The spike-associated wait-list mortality increase was highest for registrants with medium MELD scores: specifically, 2.3-fold higher (spike versus no spike) for a MELD score of 10, 4.0-fold higher for a MELD score of 20, and 2.5-fold higher for a MELD score of 30. A model incorporating the MELD score and spikes predicted wait-list mortality risk much better than a model incorporating only the MELD score. Registrants with a sudden MELD increase have a higher risk of short-term wait-list mortality than is indicated by their current MELD score but have no increased risk of posttransplant mortality; allocation policy should be adjusted accordingly. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Predictors of renal recovery in patients with pre-orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Jose; Frank, Elliot; Mehandru, Sushil; Davis, John M; Levine, Jerrold S

    2013-07-13

    Renal dysfunction occurs commonly in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease. The use of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation has increased in the MELD scoring era. As patients may recover renal function after OLT, identifying factors predictive of renal recovery is a critical issue, especially given the scarcity of available organs. Employing the UNOS database, we sought to identify donor- and patient-related predictors of renal recovery among 1720 patients with pre-OLT renal dysfunction and transplanted from 1989 to 2005. Recovery of renal function post-OLT was defined as a composite endpoint of serum creatinine (SCr) ≤1.5 mg/dL at discharge and survival ≥29 days. Pre-OLT renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following: SCr ≥2 mg/dL at any time while awaiting OLT or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) at the time of registration and/or OLT. Independent predictors of recovery of renal function post-OLT were absence of hepatic allograft dysfunction, transplantation during MELD era, recipient female sex, decreased donor age, decreased recipient ALT at time of OLT, decreased recipient body mass index at registration, use of anti-thymocyte globulin as induction therapy, and longer wait time from registration. Contrary to popular belief, a requirement for RRT, even for prolonged periods in excess of 8 weeks, was not an independent predictor of failure to recover renal function post-OLT. These data indicate that the duration of renal dysfunction, even among those requiring RRT, is a poor way to discriminate reversible from irreversible renal dysfunction.

  3. Predictors of renal recovery in patients with pre-orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) renal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal dysfunction occurs commonly in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease. The use of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation has increased in the MELD scoring era. As patients may recover renal function after OLT, identifying factors predictive of renal recovery is a critical issue, especially given the scarcity of available organs. Methods Employing the UNOS database, we sought to identify donor- and patient-related predictors of renal recovery among 1720 patients with pre-OLT renal dysfunction and transplanted from 1989 to 2005. Recovery of renal function post-OLT was defined as a composite endpoint of serum creatinine (SCr) ≤1.5 mg/dL at discharge and survival ≥29 days. Pre-OLT renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following: SCr ≥2 mg/dL at any time while awaiting OLT or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) at the time of registration and/or OLT. Results Independent predictors of recovery of renal function post-OLT were absence of hepatic allograft dysfunction, transplantation during MELD era, recipient female sex, decreased donor age, decreased recipient ALT at time of OLT, decreased recipient body mass index at registration, use of anti-thymocyte globulin as induction therapy, and longer wait time from registration. Contrary to popular belief, a requirement for RRT, even for prolonged periods in excess of 8 weeks, was not an independent predictor of failure to recover renal function post-OLT. Conclusion These data indicate that the duration of renal dysfunction, even among those requiring RRT, is a poor way to discriminate reversible from irreversible renal dysfunction. PMID:23849513

  4. Reducing wait time in a hospital pharmacy to promote customer service.

    PubMed

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different interventions on wait times at a hospital outpatient pharmacy: (1) giving feedback to employees about customer satisfaction with wait times and (2) giving a combined intervention package that included giving more specific feedback about actual wait times and goal setting for wait time reduction in addition to the customer satisfaction feedback. The relationship between customer satisfaction ratings and wait times was examined to determine whether wait times affected customer service satisfaction. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCBA' within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction; and A' was a follow-up condition that was similar to the original baseline condition. Wait times were reduced by approximately 20%, and there was concomitant increased shift in levels of customer satisfaction, as indicated by the correlation between these variables (r = -0.57 and P < .05). Given the current prescription-filling process, we do not expect that major, additional reductions in wait times could be produced. Many variables may account for the variability in any individual customer's wait time. Data from this study may provide useful preliminary benchmarking data for standard pharmacy wait times.

  5. Imatinib-induced fulminant liver failure in chronic myeloid leukemia: role of liver transplant and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nacif, Lucas Souto; Waisberg, Daniel R; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; Lima, Fabiana Roberto; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Andraus, Wellington; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2018-03-10

    There is a worldwide problem of acute liver failure and mortality associated with remaining on the waiting for a liver transplant. In this study, we highlight results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating imatinib-induced acute liver failure in chronic myeloid leukemia and follow-up in liver transplantation. A 36-year-old brown-skinned woman (mixed Brazilian race) diagnosed 1 year earlier with chronic myeloid leukemia was started after delivery of a baby and continued for 6 months with imatinib mesylate (selective inhibitor of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase), which induced liver failure. We conducted a literature review using the PubMed database for articles published through September 2017, and we demonstrate a role of liver transplant in this situation for imatinib-induced liver failure. We report previously published results and a successful liver transplant after acute liver failure due to imatinib-induced in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. We report a case of a successful liver transplant after acute liver failure resulting from imatinib-induced chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. The literature reveals the importance of prompt acute liver failure diagnosis and treatment with liver transplant in selected cases.

  6. Pre- Versus Posttransplant Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus With Direct-Acting Antivirals in Liver Transplant Recipients: More Issues to be Solved.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, Abdelhai; Kabacam, Gokhan; Woreta, Tinsay A; Hamilton, James P; Luu, Harry; Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Saberi, Behnam; Philosophe, Benjamin; Cameron, Andrew M; Gurakar, Ahmet

    2017-02-01

    Our goal was to investigate wait times related to hepatitis C virus treatment with direct acting antivirals before versus after liver transplant at a single center as well as wait times for insurance approval for preemptive treatment with these agents after liver transplant. We retrospectively evaluated hepatitis C virus infections in transplant recipients of deceased liver donations in 2014 and 2015. Demographics, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and transplant wait times were compared between patients treated before or after liver transplant. Wait times to approval of direct-acting antiviral treatment were evaluated in those untreated before transplant. During our study period, of 67 deceased-donor liver transplants, 21 patients received hepatitis C virus treatment pretransplant (treated group) and 46 patients were not treated pretransplant (untreated group). Twenty-five patients in the untreated group received hepatitis C virus-positive donations, with all in this group treated with direct-acting antivirals. We found no statistically significant differences regarding age, sex, race, donation after cardiac death, or incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma between groups. The treated group had a longer median wait time (287 vs 172 days; P = .02). Twelve of the 46 untreated patients (26.1%) developed biopsy-proven hepatitis C virus-related relapse (median 87 days; range, 55-383 days). Preemptive direct-acting antiviral therapy was initiated at a median of 81 days in the untreated group. Although treatment of hepatitis C virus before liver transplant is an attractive option to eliminate the risk of complications, it can limit the donor pool for recipients to uninfected donors, significantly increasing wait times in regions with large hepatitis C virus-positive donor pools. Allocation of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was not different between the treated and untreated groups. Insurance companies should revise their

  7. Appropriate donor size for porcine liver xenotransplant.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mehrdad; Fonouni, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Kashfi, Arash; Fani Yazdi, Seyed Hashem; Golriz, Mohammad; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Rahbari, Nuh N; Schmidt, Jan; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2012-04-01

    Owing to an imbalance between demand and supply, which is more prominent in pediatric transplant, every year more patients lose their lives on waiting lists. In addition to the use of deceased-donor split and living-donor organs, xenotransplant could provide a solution if associated problems, such as immunologic and physiologic ones, are solved. This study sought to analyze the surgical aspects for liver xenotransplant in a porcine model. Landrace pigs (n=22, 23 to 37 kg) underwent a laparotomy under general anesthesia. The hepatic hilum was prepared and the common bile ducts, common hepatic artery, portal vein, supra- and infrahepatic inferior vena cava were identified. The length and diameter of each vessel and bile duct and the weight of the liver were measured. Pearson tests showed a clear correlation between the increase of the pigs' weight and the livers' weight, and the length of the vessels and the bile ducts. We did not find a clear correlation between the increase of the pigs' liver weight and the diameters of the vessels and the bile duct. As the first reporting, this study on xenotransplants from the surgical point of view, we postulate that it could be possible to estimate the size of the liver and the proper length of its vessels and bile duct by weighing only the pigs. It was not feasible to match the diameter of mentioned structures by the livers' weight. However, the weight of pig's liver as well as vascular anatomy of pigs appeared to be suitable alternative for the human liver.

  8. What happened to the no-wait hospital? A case study of implementation of operational plans for reduced waits.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan; Tolf, Sara; Øvretveit, John; Carlsson, Jan; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Both research and practice show that waiting lists are hard to reduce. Implementing complex interventions for reduced waits is an intricate and challenging process that requires special attention for surrounding factors helping and hindering the implementation. This article reports a case study of a hospital implementation of operational plans for reduced waits, with an emphasis on the process of change. A case study research design, theoretically informed by the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change, was applied. Data were gathered from individual and focus group interviews with informants from different organizational levels at different times and from documents and plans. The findings revealed arrangements both helping and hindering the implementation work. Helping factors were the hospital's contemporary savings requirements and experiences from similar change initiatives. Those hindering the actions to plan and agree the changes were unclear support functions and unclear task prioritization. One contribution of this study is to demonstrate the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of a contextualized case study for increased understanding of factors influencing organizational change implementation. One lesson for current policy is to regard context factors that are critical for successful implementation.

  9. Major Challenges Limiting Liver Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Jason A.; Petrowsky, Henrik; Saab, Sammy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the gold standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. From 1988 to 2009, liver transplantation in the United States grew 3.7-fold from 1713 to 6320 transplants annually. The expansion of liver transplantation is chiefly driven by scientific breakthroughs that have extended patient and graft survival well beyond those expected 50 years ago. The success of liver transplantation is now its primary obstacle, as the pool of donor livers fails to keep pace with the growing number of patients added to the national liver transplant waiting list. This review focuses on three major challenges facing liver transplantation in the United States and discusses new areas of investigation that address each issue: 1) the need for an expanded number of useable donor organs, 2) the need for improved therapies to treat recurrent hepatitis C after transplantation and 3) the need for improved detection, risk stratification based upon tumor biology and molecular inhibitors to combat hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:21672146

  10. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  11. Results of liver transplants from donors aged 70 plus: analysis of Andalusian transplant register.

    PubMed

    Franco, C C; Martínez, J M A; Bellido, C B; Artacho, G S; Gómez, L M M; Diez-Canedo, J S; Aunión, C D; Ruiz, F J P; Bravo, M A G

    2013-01-01

    The progressive increase in the number of liver transplantation candidates has brought with it a consequent increase in waiting list mortality, making it necessary to revise donor selection criteria and to analyze the factors that optimize outcomes. This retrospective observational study of 1802 liver transplantations performed in Andalusia between 2000 and 2010 analyzes the outcomes from donors aged 70 years or older (n = 211) in terms of survival rates of the graft and the recipient, the type of transplant, donor age, and DMELD (Donor-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score. The most frequent reasons for transplantation were alcoholic cirrhosis (45.5%), hepatitis C cirrhosis (20.4%), and liver cancer (11.8%). The overall survival rate at 5 years was 67%; with a significant decrease in survival rates for recipients with a DMELD greater than 1400 (44%). In the 70-year-old-plus donor group, the overall patient and graft survival rates were 57% and 52%, respectively. The re-transplantation rate increased proportionately with donor age: 5.9% between 70 and 74 years, 9.5% from 75 to 79 years, and 17.6% from 80 to 84 years. In the alcoholic cirrhosis recipient sub-group, the overall survival rate at 5 years was 69% (P < .05) compared to 34% in hepatitis C patients (P < .05). The widening of the donor age selection criteria is therefore a safe option, provided that a DMELD score less than 1400 is obtained. Although re-transplantation rates increase progressively with donor age, they remain less than 10%. It is necessary to carefully screen recipients of older organs, taking into account that the best results are obtained for patients who have alcoholic cirrhosis, are hepatitis C negative, and have a DMELD score that is less than 1,400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Donation after cardio-circulatory death liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Le Dinh, Hieu; de Roover, Arnaud; Kaba, Abdour; Lauwick, Séverine; Joris, Jean; Delwaide, Jean; Honoré, Pierre; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in donation after cardio-circulatory death (DCD) started in the 1990s following the limited success of the transplant community to expand the donation after brain-death (DBD) organ supply and following the request of potential DCD families. Since then, DCD organ procurement and transplantation activities have rapidly expanded, particularly for non-vital organs, like kidneys. In liver transplantation (LT), DCD donors are a valuable organ source that helps to decrease the mortality rate on the waiting lists and to increase the availability of organs for transplantation despite a higher risk of early graft dysfunction, more frequent vascular and ischemia-type biliary lesions, higher rates of re-listing and re-transplantation and lower graft survival, which are obviously due to the inevitable warm ischemia occurring during the declaration of death and organ retrieval process. Experimental strategies intervening in both donors and recipients at different phases of the transplantation process have focused on the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury and already gained encouraging results, and some of them have found their way from pre-clinical success into clinical reality. The future of DCD-LT is promising. Concerted efforts should concentrate on the identification of suitable donors (probably Maastricht category III DCD donors), better donor and recipient matching (high risk donors to low risk recipients), use of advanced organ preservation techniques (oxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, venous systemic oxygen persufflation), and pharmacological modulation (probably a multi-factorial biologic modulation strategy) so that DCD liver allografts could be safely utilized and attain equivalent results as DBD-LT. PMID:22969222

  13. Surgical anatomy of segmental liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R R; Heaton, N D; Rela, M

    2002-09-01

    The emergence of split and living donor liver transplantation has necessitated re-evaluation of liver anatomy in greater depth and from a different perspective than before. Early attempts at split liver transplantation were met with significant numbers of vascular and biliary complications. Technical innovations in this field have evolved largely by recognizing anatomical anomalies and variations at operation, and devising novel ways of dealing with them. This has led to increasing acceptance of these procedures and decreased morbidity and mortality rates, similar to those observed with whole liver transplantation. The following review is based on clinical experience of more than 180 split and living related liver transplantations in adults and children, performed over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2001. A comprehensive understanding and application of surgical anatomy of the liver is essential to improve and maintain the excellent results of segmental liver transplantation.

  14. SU-F-P-20: Predicting Waiting Times in Radiation Oncology Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, A; Herrera, D; Hijal, T

    Purpose: Waiting times remain one of the most vexing patient satisfaction challenges facing healthcare. Waiting time uncertainty can cause patients, who are already sick or in pain, to worry about when they will receive the care they need. These waiting periods are often difficult for staff to predict and only rough estimates are typically provided based on personal experience. This level of uncertainty leaves most patients unable to plan their calendar, making the waiting experience uncomfortable, even painful. In the present era of electronic health records (EHRs), waiting times need not be so uncertain. Extensive EHRs provide unprecedented amounts ofmore » data that can statistically cluster towards representative values when appropriate patient cohorts are selected. Predictive modelling, such as machine learning, is a powerful approach that benefits from large, potentially complex, datasets. The essence of machine learning is to predict future outcomes by learning from previous experience. The application of a machine learning algorithm to waiting time data has the potential to produce personalized waiting time predictions such that the uncertainty may be removed from the patient’s waiting experience. Methods: In radiation oncology, patients typically experience several types of waiting (eg waiting at home for treatment planning, waiting in the waiting room for oncologist appointments and daily waiting in the waiting room for radiotherapy treatments). A daily treatment wait time model is discussed in this report. To develop a prediction model using our large dataset (with more than 100k sample points) a variety of machine learning algorithms from the Python package sklearn were tested. Results: We found that the Random Forest Regressor model provides the best predictions for daily radiotherapy treatment waiting times. Using this model, we achieved a median residual (actual value minus predicted value) of 0.25 minutes and a standard deviation residual of 6

  15. Treatment of liver hydatidosis: How to treat an asymptomatic carrier?

    PubMed Central

    Frider, Bernardo; Larrieu, Edmundo

    2010-01-01

    Liver hydatidosis is the most common clinical presentation of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Ultrasonographic mass surveys have demonstrated the true prevalence, including the asymptomatic characteristic of the majority of cases, providing new insight into the natural history of the disease. This raises the question of whether to treat or not to treat these patients, due to the high and unsuspected prevalence of CE. The high rate of liver/lung frequencies of cyst localization, the autopsy findings, and the involution of cysts demonstrated in long time follow-up of asymptomatic carriers contribute to this discussion. The decision to treat an asymptomatic patient by surgery, albendazole, or puncture aspiration injection and reaspiration or to wait and watch, is based on conflicting reports in the literature, the lack of complications in untreated patients over time, and the spontaneous disappearance and involution of cysts. All these points contribute to difficulties of individual clinical decisions. The patients should be informed of the reasons and the risks of watchful/waiting without treatment, the possibility of complications, and the risks of the other options. As more information on the natural history of liver hydatidosis is acquired, selection of the best treatment will be come easier. Without this knowledge it would be very difficult to establish definitive rules of treatment. At present, it is possible to manage these patients over time and to wait for the best moment for treatment. Follow-up studies must be conducted to achieve this objective. PMID:20806427

  16. Sexual dysfunction in chronic liver disease: is liver transplantation an effective cure?

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Germani, Giacomo; Masier, Annalisa; De Martin, Eleonora; Gambato, Martina; Salonia, Andrea; Bo, Patrizio; Vitale, Alessandro; Cillo, Umberto; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Senzolo, Marco

    2010-06-27

    The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure patient long-term survival but also to offer the opportunity to achieve psychologic and physical integrity. Quality of life after liver transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual function. Before liver transplantation, sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are reported in men and women mainly due to abnormality of physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in some cases, origin of liver disease. Successful liver transplantation should theoretically restore hormonal balance and improve sexual function both in men and women, thus improving the reproductive performance. However, after transplantation, up to 25% of patients report persistent sexual dysfunction, and approximately one third of patients describe the appearance of de novo sexual dysfunction. Despite the described high prevalence of this condition, epidemiologic data are relatively scant. Further studies on pathophysiology and risk factors in the field of sexual function after liver transplantation along with new strategies to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after surgery are needed.

  17. Operative outcomes of adult living donor liver transplantation and deceased donor liver transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ping; Yu, Xin; Xia, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged as an alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) because of the increasing number of patients waiting for liver transplantation (LT). However, whether it can achieve operative outcomes similar to those achieved with DDLT for adult patients remains controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to compare the operative outcomes of LDLT and DDLT recipients. A literature search was performed to identify clinical controlled studies comparing LDLT and DDLT that were published before October 2013. Four perioperative outcomes [duration of the recipient operation (DRO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirement, length of the hospital stay, and cold ischemia time (CIT)] and 5 postoperative complication outcomes (biliary complications, vascular complications, intra-abdominal bleeding, perioperative death, and retransplantation) were the main outcomes assessed. Nineteen studies with a total of 5450 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In comparison with DDLT, LDLT was associated with a significantly longer DRO and a shorter CIT. We found that biliary complications [odds ratio (OR) = 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.97-4.81, P < 0.001], vascular complications (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.32-3.54, P = 0.002), and retransplantation (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.83, P = 0.02) occurred more frequently for LDLT recipients, and the subgroup analysis indicated that the biliary complication rate decreased dramatically with greater LDLT experience. No significant difference was observed in RBC transfusion requirements, the lengths of hospital stays, intra-abdominal bleeding rates, or perioperative mortality between LDLT and DDLT recipients. In conclusion, LDLT is associated with a higher rate of surgical complications after transplantation. A reduction of postoperative complication rates can be achieved as centers gain greater experience with LDLT. However, LDLT is still

  18. Monitoring of Total and Regional Liver Function after SIRT.

    PubMed

    Bennink, Roelof J; Cieslak, Kasia P; van Delden, Otto M; van Lienden, Krijn P; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Jansen, Peter L; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a promising treatment modality for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver cancer. SIRT is usually well tolerated. However, in most patients, SIRT will result in a (temporary) decreased liver function. Occasionally patients develop radioembolization-induced liver disease (REILD). In case of a high tumor burden of the liver, it could be beneficial to perform SIRT in two sessions enabling the primary untreated liver segments to guarantee liver function until function in the treated segments has recovered or functional hypertrophy has occurred. Clinically used liver function tests provide evidence of only one of the many liver functions, though all of them lack the possibility of assessment of segmental (regional) liver function. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) has been validated as a tool to assess total and regional liver function in liver surgery. It is also used to assess segmental liver function before and after portal vein embolization. HBS is considered as a valuable quantitative liver function test enabling assessment of segmental liver function recovery after regional intervention and determination of future remnant liver function. We present two cases in which HBS was used to monitor total and regional liver function in a patient after repeated whole liver SIRT complicated with REILD and a patient treated unilaterally without complications.

  19. Graph transformation method for calculating waiting times in Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Trygubenko, Semen A; Wales, David J

    2006-06-21

    We describe an exact approach for calculating transition probabilities and waiting times in finite-state discrete-time Markov processes. All the states and the rules for transitions between them must be known in advance. We can then calculate averages over a given ensemble of paths for both additive and multiplicative properties in a nonstochastic and noniterative fashion. In particular, we can calculate the mean first-passage time between arbitrary groups of stationary points for discrete path sampling databases, and hence extract phenomenological rate constants. We present a number of examples to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of this approach.

  20. Average waiting time in FDDI networks with local priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gercek, Gokhan

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to compute the average queuing delay experienced by different priority group messages in an FDDI node. It is assumed that no FDDI MAC layer priorities are used. Instead, a priority structure is introduced to the messages at a higher protocol layer (e.g. network layer) locally. Such a method was planned to be used in Space Station Freedom FDDI network. Conservation of the average waiting time is used as the key concept in computing average queuing delays. It is shown that local priority assignments are feasable specially when the traffic distribution is asymmetric in the FDDI network.

  1. The effect of early education on patient anxiety while waiting for elective cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Karen; Morrow, Lydia; Smith, Kelly; Kiczula, Michele; Arthur, Heather M

    2003-07-01

    A supply-demand mismatch with respect to cardiac catheterization (CATH) often results in patients experiencing waiting times that vary from a few weeks to several months. Long delays can impose both physical and psychological distress for patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a psychoeducational nursing intervention at the beginning of the waiting period on patient anxiety during the waiting time for elective CATH. This was a 2-group randomized controlled trial. Intervention patients received a nurse-delivered, detailed information/education session within 2 weeks of being placed on the waiting list for elective CATH. Control group patients received usual care. The mean waiting time for CATH was 13.4+/-7.2 weeks, which did not differ between groups (P=0.509). Anxiety increased in both groups over the waiting time (P=0.028). Health-related quality of life deteriorated over the waiting time in both groups (P<0.05). On a visual analogue scale, there was a significant difference (P=0.002) between the intervention (4.0+/-2.7) and control (5.2+/-3.0) groups in self-reported anxiety 2 weeks prior to CATH. The waiting period prior to elective CATH has a negative impact on patients' perceived anxiety and quality of life and a simple intervention, provided at the beginning of the waiting period, may positively affect the experience of waiting.

  2. Activity in children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antrop, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-03-01

    According to the optimal stimulation theory and the delay aversion hypothesis, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties when they are confronted with low levels of stimulation and delay, respectively. This study investigated the activity level of children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom. Three series of hypothesis were made: (1) with respect to the comparison between waiting and non-waiting intervals, (2) with respect to the effects of non-temporal stimulation, and (3) with respect to the effects of temporal stimulation on behaviour during waiting. The activity level of 14 children with ADHD and 14 control children between the ages of 6 and 11 years was observed during two non-waiting class situations and three waiting situations: without any stimulation, in the presence of nontemporal stimulation and in the presence of temporal stimulation. Both groups of children obtained higher activity scores for all behavioural dimensions during waiting compared with non-waiting situations. The results further revealed additive effects of waiting and diagnostic group on behaviour. Additional nontemporal stimulation during waiting affected the behaviour of all children for most behavioural characteristics. For noisiness, additive effects were also found for diagnostic group and either non-temporal stimulation or temporal stimulation. For restlessness, a trend for an interaction effect between diagnostic group and nontemporal stimulation was found. The findings have clear implications for school observations within an assessment protocol.

  3. Waiting time of inpatients before elective surgical procedures at a State Government Teaching Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shreyasi; Kirtania, Jyotirmay

    2017-01-01

    Abundant published literature exists addressing the issues of outpatient waiting lists before surgery. However, there is no published literature on inpatient waiting time before elective surgical procedures. This study aims to measure the inpatient waiting time, identify the factors that affect the inpatient waiting time, and recommend the ways of reducing the waiting time of inpatients before elective surgical procedures, at a state government teaching hospital in India. Descriptive research methods and quality control tools were used for this prospective observational study. Descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Pareto charts were used to highlight the most important modifiable factors among the set of factors causing increased waiting time. We also applied the M/M/c model (Erlang - A model) of queue theory to analyze the traffic intensity and system congestion. The median waiting time of inpatients before elective surgery was 12 days (interquartile range = 11.5 days). The waiting time was influenced significantly (P < 0.05) by the patient's age, physical status, and the financial status. The surgical specialty, blood product booking and procurement, cross-specialty consultation before surgery, and Intensive Care Unit booking were the other important factors. Modifiable and nonmodifiable factors affecting the inpatient waiting time of surgical patients were identified. Control measures that can reduce the waiting time of inpatients before elective surgery were identified.

  4. Liver Transplantation Results by Donor Age.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Bastante, M D; Raya, A M; Méndez, C S M; Ramirez, A R G; Suarez, Y F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare liver transplantation outcomes as a function of donor age. We performed 212 liver transplantations between 2008 and 2014. We described a prospective cohort study and grouped the patients by liver donor age. We compared quantitative and categorical variables using statistical analysis. No statistically significant differences were found among any graft age groups in gender (always more males), time on waiting list, age, height, Child Pugh Turcotte (CHILD) score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, need for intraoperative blood products, or intensive care unit stay. The most frequent etiology of liver failure was alcohol. A brain-dead donor was the most frequent type in all groups. The whole graft was used except in 4 cases. No statistically significant differences were found among groups in the surgical technique, postreperfusion syndrome, arterial complications, biliary complications, venous complications, acute rejection, and retransplantation. The 3-year patient survival rate was 64% in the <60-year graft age group, 48% in the 60- to 69-year group, 64% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .264). The 3-year graft survival rate was 62% in the <60-year graft age group, 47% in the 60- to 69-year group, 65% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .295). Given the need to increase the pool of liver donors, older donors should be considered as a source for liver transplantation, although careful selection is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tonsillectomy Versus Watchful Waiting for Recurrent Throat Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Morad, Anna; Sathe, Nila A.; Francis, David O.; McPheeters, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: The effectiveness of tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy (“tonsillectomy”) for recurrent throat infection compared with watchful waiting is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare sleep, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes of tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting in children with recurrent throat infections. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: One investigator extracted data with review by a second. Investigators independently assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence (SOE) and confidence in the estimate of effects. RESULTS: Seven studies including children with ≥3 infections in the previous 1 to 3 years addressed this question. In studies reporting baseline data, number of infections/sore throats decreased from baseline in both groups, with greater decreases in sore throat days, clinician contacts, diagnosed group A streptococcal infections, and school absences in tonsillectomized children in the short term (<12 months). Quality of life was not markedly different between groups at any time point. LIMITATIONS: Few studies fully categorized infection/sore throat severity; attrition was high. CONCLUSIONS: Throat infections, utilization, and school absences improved in the first postsurgical year in tonsillectomized children versus children not receiving surgery. Benefits did not persist over time; longer-term outcomes are limited. SOE is moderate for reduction in short-term throat infections and insufficient for longer-term reduction. SOE is low for no difference in longer-term streptococcal infection reduction. SOE is low for utilization and missed school reduction in the short term, low for no difference in longer-term missed school, and low for no differences in quality of life. PMID:28096515

  6. Tonsillectomy Versus Watchful Waiting for Recurrent Throat Infection: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Morad, Anna; Sathe, Nila A; Francis, David O; McPheeters, Melissa L; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy ("tonsillectomy") for recurrent throat infection compared with watchful waiting is uncertain. To compare sleep, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes of tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting in children with recurrent throat infections. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. One investigator extracted data with review by a second. Investigators independently assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence (SOE) and confidence in the estimate of effects. Seven studies including children with ≥3 infections in the previous 1 to 3 years addressed this question. In studies reporting baseline data, number of infections/sore throats decreased from baseline in both groups, with greater decreases in sore throat days, clinician contacts, diagnosed group A streptococcal infections, and school absences in tonsillectomized children in the short term (<12 months). Quality of life was not markedly different between groups at any time point. Few studies fully categorized infection/sore throat severity; attrition was high. Throat infections, utilization, and school absences improved in the first postsurgical year in tonsillectomized children versus children not receiving surgery. Benefits did not persist over time; longer-term outcomes are limited. SOE is moderate for reduction in short-term throat infections and insufficient for longer-term reduction. SOE is low for no difference in longer-term streptococcal infection reduction. SOE is low for utilization and missed school reduction in the short term, low for no difference in longer-term missed school, and low for no differences in quality of life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  8. Intention-based therapy for autism spectrum disorder: promising results of a wait-list control study in children.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Robert H; Greene, Roger L

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disability that usually manifests during the first three years of life and typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of NeuroModulation Technique (NMT), a form of intention-based therapy, in improving functioning in children diagnosed with autism. A total of 18 children who met the study criteria were selected to participate. All children completed baseline measures. The children in the experimental group (n = 9) received two sessions a week of NMT for six weeks. Then, children in the wait-list control group (n = 9) received two sessions a week of NMT for six weeks. Primary efficacy outcome measures included the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory Autism Composite Index, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Total Score, and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist Total Score. Our hypotheses were that children in both groups would show significant improvement over their respective baseline scores following NMT treatment, which would reflect an improvement in adaptive behaviors as well as a decrease in maladaptive behaviors. Statistical analysis indicates a significant improvement in both the experimental and wait-list control group on all primary outcome measures following NMT treatment. The wait-list control group demonstrated no significant improvement on test measures over baseline scores during the wait period. No adverse reactions were reported. These findings suggest that NMT is a promising intervention for autism that has the potential to produce a significant reduction in maladaptive behaviors and a significant increase in adaptive behaviors within a relatively short period of time. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nine centuries waiting: The experiences of Iranians surrogacy commissioning mothers.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-05-01

    There are a few studies about commissioning mothers' understanding from the surrogacy during 9 months of waiting for delivery in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted with an aim to explore and explain the nature of concerns (experiences) of commissioning mothers. A qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach was used to gather and analyze the experiences of commissioning mothers. They were selected from Royan Research Centre and other infertility centers in Iran. After purposive sampling for the selection of the participants, unstructured interviews were held for data collection. Twenty-four unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 commissioning mothers, 2 surrogate mothers, and 2 infertility center social workers who directly and continuously dealt with these mothers. TWO MAIN THEMES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: 1. cultural dilemma (consisting of three subthemes: Social taboo, concerns about disclosure to others and the child, concerns about altering maternal and child's identity, and 2. uncertain waiting (consisting of three subthemes: Concerns about health of fetus and surrogate, concerns about an unfamiliar surrogate, and concerns about lack of preparation for maternal role). The study reveals the importance of maternal emotional care in this group and introduces a new arena for nurses' activity. These findings help the mothers by nurses' activities in health care clinics and anywhere they deliver nursing care.

  10. Magazines in waiting areas of hospital: a forgotten microbial reservoir?

    PubMed

    Adé, Mathias; Burger, Sandrine; Cuntzmann, Anaelle; Exinger, Julien; Meunier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    The hospital environment is a potential source of microbial contamination. Thus, the magazines in hospital's waiting rooms are handled by patients and visitors whose health and hygiene conditions can vary widely. In this context, we had measured the microbial load on the surface of magazines. Fifteen magazines from 5 waiting rooms of hospital are sampled by agar prints at the areas taken in hand. The agar plates are incubated at 30̊C for 72h. The colonies are counted and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (Vitek ® -MS). The extraction efficiency of bacteria by the agar print method on the magazines is calculated. All the samples highlight a varied bacterial flora: 32CFU/agar in mean. Isolated bacteria come principally from the skin flora (>60%), but we also isolate potentially pathogenic micro-organisme like S. aureus, E. faecalis, A. viridans and Aspergillus sp. as well as oropharyngeal flora bacteria like A. iwolfii and M. osloensis and fecal like B. stercoris. Some species rarely described in hospital are also isolated such as P. yeei or K. sedentarius. The extraction efficiency of the sampling method on a magazine is 36%. Our study, which is the first to be interested in the bacterial contamination of magazines in hospital, could make them consider as microbial reservoir to be controlled, especially for the most fragile patients. New bacterial identification techniques as the MALDI-TOF allow to reveal the presence of rarely described and often underestimated species.

  11. Nine centuries waiting: The experiences of Iranians surrogacy commissioning mothers

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are a few studies about commissioning mothers’ understanding from the surrogacy during 9 months of waiting for delivery in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted with an aim to explore and explain the nature of concerns (experiences) of commissioning mothers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach was used to gather and analyze the experiences of commissioning mothers. They were selected from Royan Research Centre and other infertility centers in Iran. After purposive sampling for the selection of the participants, unstructured interviews were held for data collection. Twenty-four unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 commissioning mothers, 2 surrogate mothers, and 2 infertility center social workers who directly and continuously dealt with these mothers. Results: Two main themes emerged from the data analysis: 1. cultural dilemma (consisting of three subthemes: Social taboo, concerns about disclosure to others and the child, concerns about altering maternal and child's identity, and 2. uncertain waiting (consisting of three subthemes: Concerns about health of fetus and surrogate, concerns about an unfamiliar surrogate, and concerns about lack of preparation for maternal role). Conclusions: The study reveals the importance of maternal emotional care in this group and introduces a new arena for nurses’ activity. These findings help the mothers by nurses’ activities in health care clinics and anywhere they deliver nursing care. PMID:24949058

  12. Surviving the wait: defining support while awaiting breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Suzanne S; Alqaissi, Nesreen; Underhill, Meghan; Lally, Robin M

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a report of a descriptive study of the common meanings, shared experiences and practices of social support of women within the days between breast cancer diagnosis and treatment initiation. Support needs, types of social support and support outcomes during and after breast cancer treatment have been explored worldwide. However, to promote women's psychological wellbeing it is essential to understand how women define support in the highly stressful period initially following diagnosis. Secondary analysis of narrative texts using interpretive phenomenology from 18 women in the Midwestern United States newly diagnosed with breast cancer who were interviewed in 2005 for a study of women's pretreatment thought processes. 'Surviving the wait for surgery by balancing support needs to maintain a hopeful outlook' was the overarching pattern linking six other related themes: (1) controlling access to information for self and to others, (2) knowing which supportive network members to access, (3) controlling anxiety through distraction to maintain hope while waiting, (4) being in good hands and comfortable with decision (provider support), (5) protecting others through concealment and being strong to maintain hope and (6) accepting care from others vs. maintaining a nurturing role. Implications for nurses working with women in the days following breast cancer diagnosis include assessing women's definitions and availability of support; respecting varied needs for informational support; providing a supportive clinical environment; educating clinicians, family and friends regarding unsupportive responses within the cultural context and validating women's control and balancing of support needs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The surgical waiting time initiative: A review of the Nigerian situation

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkareem, Imran Haruna

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of surgical waiting time initiative (SWAT) was introduced in developed countries to reduce elective surgery waiting lists and increase efficiency of care. It was supplemented by increasing popularity of day surgery, which shortens elective waiting lists and minimises cancellations. It is established in Western countries, but not in developing countries like Nigeria where it is still evolving. A search was carried out in Pub Med, Google, African journals online (AJOL), Athens and Ovid for relevant publications on elective surgery waiting list in Nigeria, published in English language. Words include waiting/wait time, waiting time initiative, time to surgery, waiting for operations, waiting for intervention, waiting for procedures and time before surgery in Nigeria. A total of 37 articles published from Nigeria in relation to various waiting times were found from the search and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 11 publications (29.7%) were related to emergency surgery waiting times, 10 (27%) were related to clinic waiting times, 9 (24.3%) were related to day case surgery, 2 (5.5%) were related to investigation waiting times and only 5 (13.5%) articles were specifically published on elective surgery waiting times. A total of 9 articles (24.5%) were published from obstetrics and gynaecology (OG), 7 (19%) from general surgery, 5 (13.5%) from public health, 3 (8%) from orthopaedics, 3 (8%) from general practice (GP), 3 (8%) from paediatrics/paediatric surgery, 2 (5.5%) from ophthalmology, 1 (2.7%) from ear, nose and throat (ENT), 1 (2.7%) from plastic surgery, 1 (2.7%) from urology and only 1 (2.7%) article was published from dental/maxillofacial surgery. Waiting times mean different things to different health practitioners in Nigeria. There were only 5/37 articles (13.5%) specifically related to elective surgery waiting times in Nigerian hospitals, which show that the concept of the SWAT is still evolving in Nigeria. Of the 37, 11 (24

  14. The surgical waiting time initiative: A review of the Nigerian situation.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, Imran Haruna

    2014-11-01

    The concept of surgical waiting time initiative (SWAT) was introduced in developed countries to reduce elective surgery waiting lists and increase efficiency of care. It was supplemented by increasing popularity of day surgery, which shortens elective waiting lists and minimises cancellations. It is established in Western countries, but not in developing countries like Nigeria where it is still evolving. A search was carried out in Pub Med, Google, African journals online (AJOL), Athens and Ovid for relevant publications on elective surgery waiting list in Nigeria, published in English language. Words include waiting/wait time, waiting time initiative, time to surgery, waiting for operations, waiting for intervention, waiting for procedures and time before surgery in Nigeria. A total of 37 articles published from Nigeria in relation to various waiting times were found from the search and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 11 publications (29.7%) were related to emergency surgery waiting times, 10 (27%) were related to clinic waiting times, 9 (24.3%) were related to day case surgery, 2 (5.5%) were related to investigation waiting times and only 5 (13.5%) articles were specifically published on elective surgery waiting times. A total of 9 articles (24.5%) were published from obstetrics and gynaecology (OG), 7 (19%) from general surgery, 5 (13.5%) from public health, 3 (8%) from orthopaedics, 3 (8%) from general practice (GP), 3 (8%) from paediatrics/paediatric surgery, 2 (5.5%) from ophthalmology, 1 (2.7%) from ear, nose and throat (ENT), 1 (2.7%) from plastic surgery, 1 (2.7%) from urology and only 1 (2.7%) article was published from dental/maxillofacial surgery. Waiting times mean different things to different health practitioners in Nigeria. There were only 5/37 articles (13.5%) specifically related to elective surgery waiting times in Nigerian hospitals, which show that the concept of the SWAT is still evolving in Nigeria. Of the 37, 11 (24

  15. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of travel distance, travel time and waiting time on health-related quality of life of diabetes patients: An investigation in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Konerding, Uwe; Bowen, Tom; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Karampli, Eleftheria; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Malmström, Tomi; Pavi, Elpida; Torkki, Paulus

    2017-04-01

    The effects of travel distance and travel time to the primary diabetes care provider and waiting time in the practice on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with type 2 diabetes are investigated. Survey data of 1313 persons with type 2 diabetes from six regions in England (274), Finland (163), Germany (254), Greece (165), the Netherlands (354), and Spain (103) were analyzed. Various multiple linear regression analyses with four different EQ-5D-3L indices (English, German, Dutch and Spanish index) as target variables, with travel distance, travel time, and waiting time in the practice as focal predictors and with control for study region, patient's gender, patient's age, patient's education, time since diagnosis, thoroughness of provider-patient communication were computed. Interactions of regions with the remaining five control variables and the three focal predictors were also tested. There are no interactions of regions with control variables or focal predictors. The indices decrease with increasing travel time to the provider and increasing waiting time in the provider's practice. HRQoL of patients with type 2 diabetes might be improved by decreasing travel time to the provider and waiting time in the provider's practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  18. Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ng, David; Vail, Gord; Thomas, Sophia; Schmidt, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of patient wait times, and deteriorating patient and staff satisfaction, we set out to improve these measures in our emergency department (ED) without adding any new funding or beds. In 2005 all staff in the ED at Hôtel-Dieu Grace Hospital began a transformation, employing Toyota Lean manufacturing principles to improve ED wait times and quality of care. Lean techniques such as value-stream mapping, just-in-time delivery techniques, workplace organization, reduction of systemic wastes, use of the worker as the source of quality improvement and ongoing refinement of our process steps formed the basis of our project. Our ED has achieved major improvements in departmental flow without adding any additional ED or inpatient beds. The mean registration to physician time has decreased from 111 minutes to 78 minutes. The number of patients who left without being seen has decreased from 7.1% to 4.3%. The length of stay (LOS) for discharged patients has decreased from a mean of 3.6 to 2.8 hours, with the largest decrease seen in our patients triaged at levels 4 or 5 using the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale. We noted an improvement in ED patient satisfaction scores following the implementation of Lean principles. Lean manufacturing principles can improve the flow of patients through the ED, resulting in greater patient satisfaction along with reduced time spent by the patient in the ED.

  19. Waiting time disparities in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment: a population-based study in France.

    PubMed

    Molinié, F; Leux, C; Delafosse, P; Ayrault-Piault, S; Arveux, P; Woronoff, A S; Guizard, A V; Velten, M; Ganry, O; Bara, S; Daubisse-Marliac, L; Tretarre, B

    2013-10-01

    Waiting times are key indicators of a health's system performance, but are not routinely available in France. We studied waiting times for diagnosis and treatment according to patients' characteristics, tumours' characteristics and medical management options in a sample of 1494 breast cancers recorded in population-based registries. The median waiting time from the first imaging detection to the treatment initiation was 34 days. Older age, co-morbidity, smaller size of tumour, detection by organised screening, biopsy, increasing number of specimens removed, multidisciplinary consulting meetings and surgery as initial treatment were related to increased waiting times in multivariate models. Many of these factors were related to good practices guidelines. However, the strong influence of organised screening programme and the disparity of waiting times according to geographical areas were of concern. Better scheduling of diagnostic tests and treatment propositions should improve waiting times in the management of breast cancer in France. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The uncertainty room: strategies for managing uncertainty in a surgical waiting room.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anne M; Lammers, John C

    2012-01-01

    To describe experiences of uncertainty and management strategies for staff working with families in a hospital waiting room. A 288-bed, nonprofit community hospital in a Midwestern city. Data were collected during individual, semistructured interviews with 3 volunteers, 3 technical staff members, and 1 circulating nurse (n = 7), and during 40 hours of observation in a surgical waiting room. Interview transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative techniques. The surgical waiting room represents the intersection of several sources of uncertainty that families experience. Findings also illustrate the ways in which staff manage the uncertainty of families in the waiting room by communicating support. Staff in surgical waiting rooms are responsible for managing family members' uncertainty related to insufficient information. Practically, this study provided some evidence that staff are expected to help manage the uncertainty that is typical in a surgical waiting room, further highlighting the important role of communication in improving family members' experiences.

  1. Equity in specialist waiting times by socioeconomic groups: evidence from Spain.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, Ignacio; Negrín-Hernández, Miguel A; Pinilla, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    In countries with publicly financed health care systems, waiting time--rather than price--is the rationing mechanism for access to health care services. The normative statement underlying such a rationing device is that patients should wait according to need and irrespective of socioeconomic status or other non-need characteristics. The aim of this paper is to test empirically that waiting times for publicly funded specialist care do not depend on patients' socioeconomic status. Waiting times for specialist care can vary according to the type of medical specialty, type of consultation (review or diagnosis) and the region where patients' reside. In order to take into account such variability, we use Bayesian random parameter models to explain waiting times for specialist care in terms of need and non-need variables. We find that individuals with lower education and income levels wait significantly more time than their counterparts.

  2. The effect of waiting times on demand and supply for elective surgery: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Riganti, Andrea; Siciliani, Luigi; Fiorio, Carlo V

    2017-09-01

    Waiting times are a major policy concern in publicly funded health systems across OECD countries. Economists have argued that, in the presence of excess demand, waiting times act as nonmonetary prices to bring demand for and supply of health care in equilibrium. Using administrative data disaggregated by region and surgical procedure over 2010-2014 in Italy, we estimate demand and supply elasticities with respect to waiting times. We employ linear regression models with first differences and instrumental variables to deal with endogeneity of waiting times. We find that demand is inelastic to waiting times while supply is more elastic. Estimates of demand elasticity are between -0.15 to -0.24. Our results have implications on the effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing supply and their ability to reduce waiting times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Should I stay or should I go? Hospital emergency department waiting times and demand.

    PubMed

    Sivey, Peter

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of the price mechanism, hospital emergency departments rely on waiting times, alongside prioritisation mechanisms, to restrain demand and clear the market. This paper estimates by how much the number of treatments demanded is reduced by a higher waiting time. I use variation in waiting times for low-urgency patients caused by rare and resource-intensive high-urgency patients to estimate the relationship. I find that when waiting times are higher, more low-urgency patients are deterred from treatment and leave the hospital during the waiting period without being treated. The waiting time elasticity of demand for low-urgency patients is approximately -0.25 and is highest for the lowest-urgency patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  5. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  6. Abortion Patients' Experience and Perceptions of Waiting Periods: Survey Evidence before Arizona's Two-visit 24-hour Mandatory Waiting Period Law.

    PubMed

    Karasek, Deborah; Roberts, Sarah C M; Weitz, Tracy A

    2016-01-01

    More than one-half of U.S. states now have laws requiring women to wait at least 24 hours between receiving information about abortion and the actual abortion procedure, with a few requiring longer waits, and one-fourth requiring that women receive this information in person. Although public discussions of waiting periods focus on how they affect women, we know little about abortion patients' perceptions of these requirements. We collected data from 379 women seeking abortion care at an abortion facility in Arizona before Arizona's 24-hour waiting period two-visit requirement went into effect. Surveys focused on patients' experiences receiving abortion care before the waiting period and perceptions about how the additional clinic visit would affect them. Most women reported one or more financial or logistical challenges in obtaining abortion care. More than two-thirds reported difficulty paying abortion appointment-related expenses. These expenses prevented or delayed almost one-half from paying other expenses, such as rent, bills, and food, with lower income women more affected. The majority expected that the additional visit would result in additional financial and logistical hardships and delay them in having an abortion, with 90% reporting that the waiting period would lead to at least one hardship. Eight percent reported that the waiting period would have a positive effect on emotional well-being, and more than one-half reported that it would have a negative effect on emotional well-being. Only a small minority of women seeking abortion care view a two-visit waiting period law as benefiting them; the overwhelming majority expect a waiting period to have adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  8. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... E, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  9. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  10. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  11. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Helpful Links Liver Cancer Information Available in Chinese Learn more about liver cancer HERE . Thanks to ... in Northern California, you can speak to a Chinese speaking agent with your liver cancer questions. Call ...

  12. Poster - 26: Electronic Waiting Room Management for a busy Cancer Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, John; Hijal, Tarek

    We describe an electronic waiting room management system that we have developed and deployed in our cancer centre. Our system connects with our electronic medical records systems, gathers data for a machine learning algorithm to predict future patient waiting times, and is integrated with a mobile phone app. The system has been in operation for over nine months and has led to reduced lines, calmer waiting rooms and overwhelming patient and staff satisfaction.

  13. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver transplantation - Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Mijic, Maja; Jakopcic, Ivan; Milic, Sandra; Hrstic, Irena; Sobocan, Nikola; Stimac, Davor; Burra, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is a challenging and multisystem disease that has a high socioeconomic impact. NAFLD/NASH is a main cause of macrovesicular steatosis and has multiple impacts on liver transplantation (LT), on patients on the waiting list for transplant, on post-transplant setting as well as on organ donors. Current data indicate new trends in the area of chronic liver disease. Due to the increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, NASH cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma caused by NASH will soon become a major indication for LT. Furthermore, due to an increasing incidence of MetS and, consequently, NAFLD, there will be more steatotic donor livers and less high quality organs available for LT, in addition to a lack of available liver allografts. Patients who have NASH and are candidates for LT have multiple comorbidities and are unique LT candidates. Finally, we discuss long-term grafts and patient survival after LT, the recurrence of NASH and NASH appearing de novo after transplantation. In addition, we suggest topics and areas that require more research for improving the health care of this increasing patient population. PMID:29662288

  15. Individual and system influences on waiting time for substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Carr, Carey J A; Xu, Jiangmin; Redko, Cristina; Lane, D Timothy; Rapp, Richard C; Goris, John; Carlson, Robert G

    2008-03-01

    Waiting time is a contemporary reality of many drug abuse treatment programs, resulting in substantial problems for substance users and society. Individual and system factors that influence waiting time are diverse and may vary at different points in the treatment continuum. This study assessed waiting time preceding clinical assessment at a centralized intake unit and during the period after the assessment but before treatment entry. The present study included 577 substance abusers who were enrolled in a large clinical trial of two brief treatment interventions in a midsize metropolitan area in Ohio. Bivariate analyses identified individual and system factors that influenced preassessment and postassessment waiting time, as well as total wait to treatment services. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that longer wait time for an assessment is influenced by being court referred, less belief in having a substance abuse problem, and less desire for change. A shorter wait to actually enter treatment is predicted by having a case manager, being more ready for treatment, and having less severe employment and alcohol problems. The different influences present during the two waiting periods suggest that assessment and treatment programs need to implement system changes and entry enhancement interventions that are specific to the needs of substance abusers at each waiting period.

  16. Effects of hypergravity on rat liver regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation on liver regrowth were examined by measuring mitotic activity. The results indicate that the increased gravity caused a delay in the onset of mitotic activity and a significant decrease in overall mitotic activity.

  17. [Kidney function and liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gámán, György; Gelley, Fanni; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Dabasi, Eszter; Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Kóbori, László; Lengyel, Gabriella; Zádori, Gergely; Fazakas, János; Doros, Attila; Sárváry, Enikő; Nemes, Balázs

    2013-06-30

    In liver cirrhosis renal function decreases as well. Hepatorenal syndrome is the most frequent cause of the decrease, but primary kidney failure, diabetes mellitus and some diseases underlying endstage liver failure (such as hepatitis C virus infection) can also play an important role. In liver transplantation several further factors (total cross-clamping of vena cava inferior, polytransfusion, immunosuppression) impair the renal function, too. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in kidney function during the first postoperative year after liver transplantation. Retrospective data analysis was performed after primary liver transplantations (n = 319). impaired preoperative renal function increased the devepolment of postoperative complications and the first year cumulative patient survival was significantly worse (91,7% vs 69,9%; p<0,001) in this group. If renal function of the patients increased above 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 after the first year, patient survival was better. Independently of the preoperative kidney function, 76% of the patients had impaired kidney function at the first postoperative year. In this group, de novo diabetes mellitus was more frequently diagnosed (22,5% vs 9,5%; p = 0,023). Selection of personalized immunosuppressive medication has a positive effect on renal function.

  18. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  19. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  20. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-07-07

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key

  1. Self-similarity of waiting times in fracture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolini, G.; Bosia, F.; Carpinteri, A.

    2009-08-15

    Experimental and numerical results are presented for a fracture experiment carried out on a fiber-reinforced element under flexural loading, and a statistical analysis is performed for acoustic emission waiting-time distributions. By an optimization procedure, a recently proposed scaling law describing these distributions for different event magnitude scales is confirmed by both experimental and numerical data, thus reinforcing the idea that fracture of heterogeneous materials has scaling properties similar to those found for earthquakes. Analysis of the different scaling parameters obtained for experimental and numerical data leads us to formulate the hypothesis that the type of scaling function obtained depends onmore » the level of correlation among fracture events in the system.« less

  2. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    PubMed

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  3. Empowered citizen 'health hackers' who are not waiting.

    PubMed

    Omer, Timothy

    2016-08-17

    Due to the easier access to information, the availability of low cost technologies and the involvement of well educated, passionate patients, a group of citizen 'Health Hackers', who are building their own medical systems to help them overcome the unmet needs of their conditions, is emerging. This has recently been the case in the type 1 diabetes community, under the movement #WeAreNotWaiting, with innovative use of current medical devices hacked to access data and Open-Source code producing solutions ranging from remote monitoring of diabetic children to producing an Artificial Pancreas System to automate the management and monitoring of a patient's condition. Timothy Omer is working with the community to utilise the technology already in his pocket to build a mobile- and smartwatch-based Artificial Pancreas System.

  4. Waiting room time: An opportunity for parental oral health education.

    PubMed

    Soussou, Randa; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Harrison, Rosamund

    2017-09-14

    The UBC Children's Dental Program (CDP) has provided free dental treatments to underserved low-income children, but its preventive component needs to be enhanced. The study aims were: 1) to develop a "waiting-room based" dental education program engaging caregivers of these children, and 2) to assess the program's feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness. In preparation, a situational analysis (SA) included structured interviews with caregivers, and with various stakeholders (e.g., dental students, instructors, health authority) involved in the CDP program. Based on the SA, caregiver-centered education was designed using an interactive power point presentation; after the presentation, each caregiver set personalized goals for modifying his/her child's dental behaviours. Evaluation of the program was done with follow-up telephone calls; the program's effectiveness was assessed by comparing before/after proportions of caregivers brushing their child's teeth, children brushing teeth in the morning and evening, children eating sugar-containing snacks, and children drinking sugar-containing drinks. The program proved to be easy to implement (feasible) and the recruitment rate was 99% (acceptable). The follow-up rate was 81%. The SA identified that the caregivers' knowledge about caries etiology and prevention was limited. All recruited caregivers completed the educational session and set goals for their family. The evaluation demonstrated an increase in caregiver-reported short-term diet and oral self-care behaviours of their children. A dental education program engaging caregivers in the waiting room was a feasible, acceptable and promising strategy for improving short-term dental behaviours of children.

  5. Built spaces and features associated with user satisfaction in maternity waiting homes in Malawi.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Nathalie; Gruits, Patricia; Oppel, Eva; Shao, Amie

    2018-07-01

    To assess satisfaction with maternity waiting home built spaces and features in women who are at risk for underutilizing maternity waiting homes (i.e. residential facilities that temporarily house near-term pregnant mothers close to healthcare facilities that provide obstetrical care). Specifically we wanted to answer the questions: (1) Are built spaces and features associated with maternity waiting home user satisfaction? (2) Can built spaces and features designed to improve hygiene, comfort, privacy and function improve maternity waiting home user satisfaction? And (3) Which built spaces and features are most important for maternity waiting home user satisfaction? A cross-sectional study comparing satisfaction with standard and non-standard maternity waiting home designs. Between December 2016 and February 2017 we surveyed expectant mothers at two maternity waiting homes that differed in their design of built spaces and features. We used bivariate analyses to assess if built spaces and features were associated with satisfaction. We compared ratings of built spaces and features between the two maternity waiting homes using chi-squares and t-tests to assess if design features to improve hygiene, comfort, privacy and function were associated with higher satisfaction. We used exploratory robust regression analysis to examine the relationship between built spaces and features and maternity waiting home satisfaction. Two maternity waiting homes in Malawi, one that incorporated non-standardized design features to improve hygiene, comfort, privacy, and function (Kasungu maternity waiting home) and the other that had a standard maternity waiting home design (Dowa maternity waiting home). 322 expectant mothers at risk for underutilizing maternity waiting homes (i.e. first-time mothers and those with no pregnancy risk factors) who had stayed at the Kasungu or Dowa maternity waiting homes. There were significant differences in ratings of built spaces and features between the

  6. PROLACTIN REGULATES LIVER GROWTH DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Bravo-Manríquez, Marco; Baez, Arelí; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Reyes-Ortega, Pamela; De Los Ríos, Ericka A; Macotela, Yazmín; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2018-02-21

    The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth. At postnatal week 4, the production of PRL by the liver ceases coinciding with the elevation of circulating PRL and the faster liver growth that catches up with body growth. PRL receptor null mice (Prlr-/-) show a significant decrease in the LBW at 1, 4, 6, and 10 postnatal weeks and reduced liver expression of proliferation (cyclin D1, Ccnd1) and angiogenesis (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, Pecam1) markers relative to Prlr+/+ mice. However, the LBW increases in Prlr-/- mice at postnatal week 2 concurring with the enhanced liver expression of Igf-1 and the liver upregulation and downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2) and Socs3, respectively. These findings indicate that PRL acts locally and systemically to restrict and stimulate postnatal liver growth. PRL inhibits liver and body growth by attenuating growth hormone-induced Igf-1 liver expression via Socs2 and Socs3-related mechanisms.

  7. Recent Advancements in Diagnosis and Therapy of Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Stasi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a diffuse pathophysiological state of the liver considered to be the final stage of various liver injuries, characterized by chronic necroinflammatory and fibrogenetic processes, with subsequent conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules, dense fibrotic septa, concomitant parenchymal exaustment and collapse of the liver tissue. Alcoholic liver disease and chronic infections due to HBV and/or HCV constitute the main causes of liver cirrhosis worldwide. During a lag time of 15 to 30 years, chronic liver diseases can lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications. Active hepatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the inflammation- necrosis-regeneration process, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis of liver cirrhosis is highly variable and influenced by several variables, such as etiology, severity of liver disease, presence of complications and comorbidities. In advanced cirrhosis, survival decreases to one or two years. Correct advanced diagnosis and selected treatment with different molecules may help in understanding mechanisms of fibrogenesis, the driving forces of cirrhosis's pathogenesis, and the scrupulous approach to more effective therapeutic procedures. Prevention of fibrosis with further deterioration of liver function through specific treatments is always required, through the removal of the underlying causes of liver disease. Advanced liver disease, with subsequent complications, requires targeted treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis on the pathophysiological bases, searching for relevant studies published in English using the PubMed database from 2011 to the present.

  8. [Dealing with Waiting Times in Health Systems - An International Comparative Overview].

    PubMed

    Finkenstädt, V

    2015-10-01

    Waiting times in the health system are a form of rationing that exists in many countries. Previous studies on this topic are mainly related to the problem of international comparability of waiting times or on the presentation of national strategies as to how they should be reduced. This review adds to this analysis and examines how the OECD countries deal with waiting times in the health-care system and investigates which information is published about waiting for what purpose. Furthermore, waiting times and the type of health system financing are compared. A systematic internet research on waiting times in the health-care system was conducted on the websites of the competent authorities (Ministry of Health or other authorities and institutions). The identified publications were then examined for the purpose of their deployment. Finally, the OECD Health Data were analysed to determine the relationship between tax and contribution financing of public health care expenditure. The primary form of financing was compared with the results of the waiting time analysis. 16 OECD countries are identified which officially collect and publish administrative data on waiting times on the Internet. The data are processed differently depending on the country. By providing this information, two main objectives are pursued: a public monitoring of waiting times in the health system (14 countries) and information for patients on waiting times (9 countries). Official statistics on waiting times exist mainly in countries with tax-financed health systems, whereas this is not the case in the majority of OECD countries with health systems that are funded through contributions. The publication of administrative waiting times data is primarily intended to inform the patient and as a performance indicator in terms of access to health care. Even if data on waiting times are published, the publication of indicators and the management of waiting lists alone will not solve the problem. Rather

  9. Patient Satisfaction Is Associated With Time With Provider But Not Clinic Wait Time Among Orthopedic Patients.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brendan M; Eskildsen, Scott M; Clement, R Carter; Lin, Feng-Chang; Olcott, Christopher W; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Tennant, Joshua N

    2017-01-01

    Clinic wait time is considered an important predictor of patient satisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether patient satisfaction among orthopedic patients is associated with clinic wait time and time with the provider. The authors prospectively enrolled 182 patients at their outpatient orthopedic clinic. Clinic wait time was defined as the time between patient check-in and being seen by the surgeon. Time spent with the provider was defined as the total time the patient spent in the examination room with the surgeon. The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey was used to measure patient satisfaction. Factors associated with increased patient satisfaction included patient age and increased time with the surgeon (P=.024 and P=.037, respectively), but not clinic wait time (P=.625). Perceived wait time was subject to a high level of error, and most patients did not accurately report whether they had been waiting longer than 15 minutes to see a provider until they had waited at least 60 minutes (P=.007). If the results of the current study are generalizable, time with the surgeon is associated with patient satisfaction in orthopedic clinics, but wait time is not. Further, the study findings showed that patients in this setting did not have an accurate perception of actual wait time, with many patients underestimating the time they waited to see a provider. Thus, a potential strategy for improving patient satisfaction is to spend more time with each patient, even at the expense of increased wait time. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):43-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. International comparisons of waiting times in health care--limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Nina; Forsberg, Birger C; Borowitz, Michael; Molin, Roger

    2013-09-01

    Long waiting times for health care is an important health policy issue in many countries, and many have introduced some form of national waiting time guarantees. International comparison of waiting times are critical for countries to improve policy and for patients to be able to make informed choices, especially in Europe, where patients have the right to seek care in other countries if there is undue delay. The objective of this study was to describe how countries measure waiting times and to assess whether waiting times can be compared internationally. Twenty-three OECD countries were included. Information was collected through scientific articles, official and unofficial documents and web pages. Fifteen of the 23 countries monitor and publish national waiting time statistics and have some form of waiting time guarantees. There are significant differences in how waiting times are measured: whether they measure the "ongoing" or "completed" waiting period what kind of care the patient is waiting for; the parameters used; and where in the patient journey the measurement begins. Current national waiting time statistics are of limited use for comparing health care availability among the various countries due to the differences in measurements and data collection. Different methodological issues must be taken into account when making such cross-country comparisons. Within the given context of national sovereignty of health systems it would be desirable if countries could collaborate in order to facilitate international comparisons. Such comparisons would be of benefit to all involved in the process of continuous improvement of health services. They would also benefit patients who seek cross-border alternatives for their care. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Urine output - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003147.htm Urine output - decreased To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Decreased urine output means that you produce less urine than ...

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision modeling in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kenneth A; Camilleri-Brennan, Julian; Knight, Stephen R; Drake, Thomas M; Ots, Riinu; Shaw, Catherine A; Wigmore, Stephen J; Harrison, Ewen M

    2017-05-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver allografts are increasingly used for transplantation. However, the posttransplantation clinical and quality of life outcomes of DCD recipients are traditionally considered to be inferior compared with donation after brain death (DBD) allograft recipients. Decision making for such marginal organs can be difficult. This study investigated the optimal decision to accept or decline a DCD liver allograft for a patient based on their current health. A Markov decision process model was constructed to predict the 5-year clinical course of patients on the liver transplant waiting list. Clinical outcomes were determined from the UK transplant registry or appropriate literature. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were determined using the condition-specific short form of liver disease quality of life (SF-LDQoL) questionnaire. There were 293/374 (78.3%) eligible patients who completed the SF-LDQoL questionnaire. A total of 73 respondents (24.9%) were before transplant and 220 were after transplant (DBD recipient, 56.3%; DCD recipient, 8.5%; ischemic cholangiopathy patient, 2.4%; retransplant recipient, 7.9%). Predictive modeling indicated that QALYs gained at 5 years were significantly higher in DCD recipients (3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.44-4.10) compared with those who remained on the waiting list for a DBD transplant with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores of 15-20 (3.36; 95% CI, 3.28-3.43), or >20 (3.07; 95% CI, 3.00-3.14). There was no significant advantage for individuals with MELD scores <15 (3.55; 95% CI, 3.47-3.63). In conclusion, this model predicts that patients on the UK liver transplant waiting list with MELD scores >15 should receive an offered DCD allograft based on the QALYs gained at 5 years. This analysis only accounts for donor-recipient risk pairings seen in current practice. The optimal decision for patients with MELD scores <15 remains unclear. However, a survival benefit was observed

  14. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  15. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  16. Left Lobe Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for End-stage Hepatitis B Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-F; Chen, X-P; Chen, Z-S; Wei, L; Dong, S-L; Guo, H; Jiang, J-P; Teng, W-H; Huang, Z-Y; Zhang, W-G

    2017-06-01

    Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis previously showed poor results, because the native liver was a significant source of HBV recurrence and the graft could be rapidly destroyed by HBV infection in an immunosuppressive condition. Four patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis were unable to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation because the only available grafts of left lobe were too small. Under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment, they underwent ALT in which the recipient left liver was removed and the small left lobe graft was implanted in the corresponding space. The mean graft weight/recipient weight was 0.49% (range, 0.38%-0.55%). One year after transplantation, the graft sizes were increased to 273% and the remnant livers were decreased to 44%. Serum HBV DNA was persistently undetectable. Periodic graft biopsy showed no signs of tissue injury and negative immunostaining for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen. After a mean follow-up period of 21 months, all patients live well with normal graft function. Our study suggests that ALT for HBV-related liver cirrhosis is feasible under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment. Successful application of small left livers in end-stage liver cirrhosis may significantly increase the pool of left liver grafts for adult patients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  18. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Unresectable Liver Adenomatosis Associated with Congenital Absence of Portal Vein: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Grigorie, Razvan; Mihaila, Mariana; Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dumitru, Radu; Herlea, Vlad; Iorgescu, Andreea; Tomescu, Dana; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 21 Final Diagnosis: Unresectable liver adenomatosis associated with congenital absence of portal vein Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor liver transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Abernethy malformation (AM), or congenital absence of portal vein (CAPV), is a very rare disease which tends to be associated with the development of benign or malignant tumors, usually in children or young adults. Case Report: We report the case of a 21-year-old woman diagnosed with type Ib AM (portal vein draining directly into the inferior vena cava) and unresectable liver adenomatosis. The patient presented mild liver dysfunction and was largely asymptomatic. Living donor liver transplantation was performed using a left hemiliver graft from her mother. Postoperatively, the patient attained optimal liver function and at 9-month follow-up has returned to normal life. Conclusions: We consider that living donor liver transplantation is the best therapeutic solution for AM associated with unresectable liver adenomatosis, especially because compared to receiving a whole liver graft, the waiting time on the liver transplantation list is much shorter. PMID:26386552

  19. Reading and Television Viewing Habits of American Adults during Time Spent in Waiting Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirn, Sharon L.

    In order to determine the reading and television viewing habits of American adults during time spent in waiting rooms, a study observed 100 adults waiting outside the Emergency Treatment Room of John F. Kennedy Hospital in Edison, New Jersey, over a four-week period. Results revealed that more of these adults chose to watch television as an…

  20. Space, place and (waiting) time: reflections on health policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Sheard, Sally

    2018-02-19

    Health systems have repeatedly addressed concerns about efficiency and equity by employing trans-national comparisons to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of specific policy initiatives. This paper demonstrates the potential for explicit historical analysis of waiting times for hospital treatment to add value to spatial comparative methodologies. Waiting times and the size of the lists of waiting patients have become key operational indicators. In the United Kingdom, as National Health Service (NHS) financial pressures intensified from the 1970s, waiting times have become a topic for regular public and political debate. Various explanations for waiting times include the following: hospital consultants manipulate NHS waiting lists to maintain their private practice; there is under-investment in the NHS; and available (and adequate) resources are being used inefficiently. Other countries have also experienced ongoing tensions between the public and private delivery of universal health care in which national and trans-national comparisons of waiting times have been regularly used. The paper discusses the development of key UK policies, and provides a limited Canadian comparative perspective, to explore wider issues, including whether 'waiting crises' were consciously used by policymakers, especially those brought into government to implement new economic and managerial strategies, to diminish the autonomy and authority of the medical professional in the hospital environment.

  1. 24 CFR 882.513 - Public notice to low-income families; waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-income families; waiting list. (a) Public notice to low-income Families. (1) If the PHA does not have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notice to low-income families; waiting list. 882.513 Section 882.513 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  2. 24 CFR 882.513 - Public notice to low-income families; waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-income families; waiting list. (a) Public notice to low-income Families. (1) If the PHA does not have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notice to low-income families; waiting list. 882.513 Section 882.513 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  3. 24 CFR 882.513 - Public notice to low-income families; waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-income families; waiting list. (a) Public notice to low-income Families. (1) If the PHA does not have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notice to low-income families; waiting list. 882.513 Section 882.513 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  4. 24 CFR 882.513 - Public notice to low-income families; waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-income families; waiting list. (a) Public notice to low-income Families. (1) If the PHA does not have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notice to low-income families; waiting list. 882.513 Section 882.513 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  5. 24 CFR 882.513 - Public notice to low-income families; waiting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-income families; waiting list. (a) Public notice to low-income Families. (1) If the PHA does not have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notice to low-income families; waiting list. 882.513 Section 882.513 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  6. 24 CFR 982.207 - Waiting list: Local preferences in admission to program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Waiting list: Local preferences in... Admission to Tenant-Based Program § 982.207 Waiting list: Local preferences in admission to program. (a) Establishment of PHA local preferences. (1) The PHA may establish a system of local preferences for selection of...

  7. The relationship between educational attainment and waiting time among the elderly in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarboe, Oddvar Martin

    2015-11-01

    We investigate whether educational attainment affects waiting time of elderly patients in somatic hospitals. We consider three distinct pathways; that patients with different educational attainment have different disease patterns, that patients with different levels of education receive treatments at different hospitals, and that patient choice and supply of local health services within hospital catchment areas explain unequal waiting time of different educational groups. We find evidence of an educational gradient in waiting time for male patients, but not for female patients. Conditional on age, male patients with tertiary education wait 45% shorter than male patients with secondary or primary education. The first pathway is not quantitatively important as controlling for disease patters has little effect on relative waiting times. The second pathway is important. Relative to patients with primary education, variation in waiting time and education level across local hospitals contributes to higher waiting time for male patients with secondary education and female patients with secondary or tertiary education and lower waiting time for male patients with tertiary education. These effects are in the order of 15-20%. The third pathway is also quantitatively important. The educational gradients within catchment areas disappear when we control for travel distance and supply of private specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic Attention Deployment for Delay of Gratification in Working and Waiting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Philip K.; Hebl, Michelle; Mischel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined whether effects of attention to rewards during a delay of gratification task in waiting situations affects preschoolers' ability to delay gratification in working situations. Findings show that when work provides distraction, attention on rewards reduces delay time whether working or waiting; when work is not engaging,…

  9. Continuous-Time Finance and the Waiting Time Distribution: Multiple Characteristic Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we model the tick-by-tick dynamics of markets by using the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model. We employ a sum of products of power law and stretched exponential functions for the waiting time probability distribution function; this function can fit well the waiting time distribution for BUND futures traded at LIFFE in 1997.

  10. Waiting Time: The De-Subjectification of Children in Danish Asylum Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…

  11. Effects of Wait Time When Communicating with Children Who Have Sensory and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole; Parker, Amy T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study utilized wait-time procedures to determine if they are effective in helping children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities that include a visual impairment communicate in their home. Methods: A single subject with an alternating treatment design was used for the study. Zero- to one-second wait time was utilized…

  12. Differential Effects of Wait-Time on Textually Explicit and Implicit Responding: Interactional Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Marlene R.; Newman, Isadore

    The effects of wait-time, the pause following a teacher question and the pause after a student response, on the length and number of student responses were analyzed at different cognitive levels. Data were obtained from 95 students in grade 4 and from 5 teachers using a wait-time of 5 seconds. Four oral discussion sessions by teachers and students…

  13. Outpatient Office Wait Times And Quality Of Care For Medicaid Patients.

    PubMed

    Oostrom, Tamar; Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy

    2017-05-01

    The time patients spend in a doctor's waiting room prior to a scheduled appointment is an important component of the quality of the overall health care experience. We analyzed data on twenty-one million outpatient visits obtained from electronic health record systems, which allowed us to measure time spent in the waiting room beyond the scheduled appointment time. Median wait time was a little more than four minutes. Almost one-fifth of visits had waits longer than twenty minutes, and 10 percent were more than thirty minutes. Waits were shorter for early-morning appointments, for younger patients, and at larger practices. Median wait time was 4.1 minutes for privately insured patients and 4.6 minutes for Medicaid patients. After adjustment for patient and appointment characteristics, Medicaid patients were 20 percent more likely than the privately insured patients to wait longer than twenty minutes, with most of this disparity explained by differences in practices and providers they saw. Wait times for Medicaid patients relative to privately insured patients were longer in states with relatively lower Medicaid reimbursement rates. The study complements other work that suggests that Medicaid patients face some additional barriers in the receipt of care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Outpatient Office Wait Times and Quality of Care for Medicaid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Oostrom, Tamar; Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Time spent in the doctor’s waiting room captures an important aspect of the healthcare experience. We analyzed data on 21 million outpatient visits obtained from electronic health record systems, allowing us to measure time spent in the waiting room beyond the scheduled appointment time. Median wait time was just over 4 minutes. Almost one-fifth of visits had waits longer than 20 minutes, and 10% were over 30 minutes. Waits were shorter for early morning appointments, younger patients, and at larger practices. Median wait time was 4.1 minutes for privately-insured and 4.6 minutes for Medicaid patients; adjusting for patient and appointment characteristics, Medicaid patients were 20% more likely than the privately-insured to wait longer than 20 minutes (P<0.001), with most of this disparity explained by differences in practices and providers they saw. Wait time for Medicaid patients relative to the privately-insured was longer in states with relatively lower Medicaid reimbursement rates. PMID:28461348

  15. Developmental Changes in Anger Expression and Attention Focus: Learning to Wait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Tan, Patricia Z.; Hall, Sarah E.; Zhang, Yiyun; Crnic, Keith A.; Blair, Clancy B.; Li, Runze

    2011-01-01

    Being able to wait is an essential part of self-regulation. In the present study, the authors examined the developmental course of changes in the latency to and duration of target-waiting behaviors by following 65 boys and 55 girls from rural and semirural economically strained homes from ages 18 months to 48 months. Age-related changes in latency…

  16. The Impact of Patient-to-Patient Interaction in Health Facility Waiting Rooms on Their Perception of Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Willis, William Kent; Ozturk, Ahmet Ozzie; Chandra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Patients have to wait in waiting rooms prior to seeing the physician. But there are few studies that demonstrate what they are actually doing in the waiting room. This exploratory study was designed to investigate the types of discussions that patients in the waiting room typically engage in with other patients and how the conversations affected their opinion on general reputation of the clinic, injections/blocks as treatment procedures, waiting time, time spent with the caregiver, overall patient satisfaction, and the pain medication usage policy. The study demonstrates that patient interaction in the waiting room has a positive effect on patient opinion of the pain clinic and the caregivers.

  17. Residual heat of laparoscopic energy devices: how long must the surgeon wait to touch additional tissue?

    PubMed

    Govekar, Henry R; Robinson, Thomas N; Stiegmann, Greg V; McGreevy, Francis T

    2011-11-01

    Energy devices are essential laparoscopic tools. Residual heat is defined as the increased instrument temperature after energy activation is completed. This study aimed to determine the length of time a surgeon needs to wait before touching other tissue using four common laparoscopic energy sources. Thermal imaging quantified instrument and tissue temperature ex vivo using monopolar coagulation, argon beam coagulation, ultrasonic dissection, and bipolar tissue fusion devices. To simulate realistic operative usage, each instrument was activated for 5 s four consecutive times with 5 s pauses between fires. Thermal conductivity to bovine liver tissue was measured 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 s after final activation. The maximum increase in instrument tip temperature was 172 ± 63°C for the ultrasonic dissection, 81 ± 18°C for the monopolar coagulation, 46 ± 19°C for the bipolar tissue fusion, and 1 ± 1°C for the argon beam coagulation (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Touching the instrument tip to tissue at four intervals after the final activation (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 s) found that ultrasonic energy raised the tissue temperature higher (maximum change, 58°C) than the other three energy devices at all four time points (P < 0.05). Ultrasonic energy instruments have greater residual heat than monopolar electrosurgery, bipolar tissue fusion, and argon beam. The ultrasonic energy instrument tips heated tissue more than 20°C from baseline even 20 s after activation; whereas all the other energy sources raised the tissue temperature less than 20°C by 5 s. These practical findings may alter a surgeon's usage of these common energy devices.

  18. Toys are a potential source of cross-infection in general practitioners' waiting rooms.

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Eileen; Corwin, Paul; Ikram, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    The waiting rooms of general practitioners' surgeries usually have toys provided for children. The level of contamination of these toys and the effectiveness of toy decontamination was investigated in this study. Hard toys from general practitioners' waiting rooms had relatively low levels of contamination, with only 13.5% of toys showing any coliform counts. There were no hard toys with heavy contamination by coliforms or other bacteria. Soft toys were far more likely to be contaminated, with 20% of toys showing moderate to heavy coliform contamination and 90% showing moderate to heavy bacterial contamination. Many waiting-room toys are not cleaned routinely. Soft toys are hard to disinfect and tend to rapidly become recontaminated after cleaning. Conversely, hard toys can be cleaned and disinfected easily. Soft toys in general practitioners' waiting rooms pose an infectious risk and it is therefore recommended that soft toys are unsuitable for doctors' waiting rooms. PMID:11885823

  19. Improved estimation of commuter waiting times using headway and commuter boarding information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Muhamad Azfar; Jayaraman, Vasundhara; Kwek, Hyen Chee; Tan, Kian Heong; Lee Kee Khoon, Gary; Monterola, Christopher

    2018-07-01

    The average amount of waiting time spent by commuters is one of the key indicators of service quality for public bus operations. While actual measurements of actual waiting time is difficult to be done en masse, models of waiting time can be derived from bus headways and these models have been adopted by transport planners in monitoring and regulating service reliability of operators. However, these models are founded on several assumptions on the patterns of commuter arrival which may not be applicable for bus services that experience high demand and heavily fluctuating commuter patterns. Given the availability of granular data on commuter boarding from automated fare collection systems, we propose a new methodology to better estimate the average waiting time of commuters. The formulation is anchored and validated using a three-month dataset from ten selected bus routes in Singapore. Finally, we discuss how our new measure allows for minimization of commuter waiting time through schedule optimization.

  20. Platelets in liver disease, cancer and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-05-14

    Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood. In this paper, experimental evidence of platelets improving liver fibrosis and accelerating liver regeneration is summarized and addressed based on studies conducted in our laboratory and current progress reports from other investigators. In addition, we describe our current perspective based on the results of these studies. Platelets improve liver fibrosis by inactivating hepatic stellate cells, which decreases collagen production. The regenerative effect of platelets in the liver involves a direct effect on hepatocytes, a cooperative effect with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and a collaborative effect with Kupffer cells. Based on these observations, we ascertained the direct effect of platelet transfusion on improving several indicators of liver function in patients with CLD and liver cirrhosis. However, unlike the results of our previous clinical study, the smaller incremental changes in liver function in patients with CLD who received eltrombopag for 6 mo were due to patient selection from a heterogeneous population. We highlight the current knowledge concerning the role of platelets in CLD and cancer and anticipate a novel application of platelet-based clinical therapies to treat liver disease.

  1. An investigation of the impact of prolonged waiting times on blood donors in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McKeever, T; Sweeney, M R; Staines, A

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of prolonged queuing times on blood donors, by measuring their satisfaction levels, and positive and negative affects. As donation times have increased over the past number of years within the Irish Blood Transfusion Service, this is an important issue to examine in a climate where voluntary donors are becoming scarce and demands on people's time are increasing. Eighty-five blood donors were sampled from one urban and one rural blood donor clinic. The respondents conducted a questionnaire by means of face-to-face interview, while waiting in the clinic. The questionnaire contained the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and a waiting satisfaction scale. Both actual and perceived waiting times of the donors were noted. Waiting time was found to be negatively related to satisfaction. Inexperienced donors expressed higher levels of negative affect than experienced donors. Urban donors were significantly more satisfied than rural donors. There was a significant difference in perceived waiting time between lone donors and those queuing in a group, with those waiting alone perceiving their wait as shorter. While all respondents stated that they intended to donate again, over one-third stated that prolonged waiting times would be their most likely deterrent. However, only 15% stated that long queuing times might actually prevent them from donating in the future, and almost all respondents said that they would recommend donation to a friend, despite long queuing times. Although our results show that the respondents were not satisfied with current waiting times, it did not seem to affect their future intentions to donate. These findings provide some optimism for the future of blood donation in Ireland, as they suggest a strong sense of commitment to donation within the population sampled. Future research could explore the application of 'the service industry' approach to waiting times to blood donation clinics.

  2. [Waiting time for the first colposcopic examination in women with abnormal Papanicolaou test].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.

  3. Outpatient clinic waiting time, provider communication styles and satisfaction with healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Payal

    2016-08-08

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of extended waiting time on patients' perceptions of provider communication skills and i