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Sample records for livestock carcass elimination

  1. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and Animal... livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. (a) Each packer purchasing livestock on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis shall, prior...

  2. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and Animal... livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. (a) Each packer purchasing livestock on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis shall, prior...

  3. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and Animal... livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. (a) Each packer purchasing livestock on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis shall, prior...

  4. Fate of pathogens in a simulated bioreduction system for livestock carcasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyther, Ceri L.; Jones, David L.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Williams, A. Prysor

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioreduction is a novel on-farm storage option for livestock carcasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Legislation demands that pathogens are contained and do not proliferate during carcass storage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the survival of key pathogens in lab-scale bioreduction vessels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pathogen numbers reduced in the resulting liquor waste and bioaerosols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that bioreduction should be validated for industry use. - Abstract: The EU Animal By-Products Regulations generated the need for novel methods of storage and disposal of dead livestock. Bioreduction prior to rendering or incineration has been proposed as a practical and potentially cost-effective method; however, its biosecurity characteristics need to be elucidated. To address this, Salmonella enterica (serovars Senftenberg and Poona), Enterococcus faecalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and a lux-marked strain of Escherichia coli O157 were inoculated into laboratory-scale bioreduction vessels containing sheep carcass constituents. Numbers of all pathogens and the metabolic activity of E. coli O157 decreased significantly within the liquor waste over time, and only E. faecalis remained detectable after 3 months. Only very low numbers of Salmonella spp. and E. faecalis were detected in bioaerosols, and only at initial stages of the trial. These results further indicate that bioreduction represents a suitable method of storing and reducing the volume of livestock carcasses prior to ultimate disposal.

  5. Comparison of compositional characteristics of amino acids between livestock wastewater and carcass leachate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Woo; Kim, Jee-Young; Nam, Yong-Jae; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok

    2013-11-01

    This study was purposed to examine the use of amino acids as an indicator to determine whether groundwater around carcass burial sites is polluted by livestock wastewater (LW) or carcass leachate (CL). The analysis of samples showed that the average amino acid concentration of carcass leachate (531.897 mg/L; 4341.784 μmol/L) was about 300 times as high as that of livestock wastewater (1.755 mg/L; 16.283 μmol/L). To identify distinct characteristics between LW and CL, six amino acids were paired with one another to calculate their relative composition ratios, which were found to be Leu/Trp (CL 8.39∼98.6, LW 0.89∼4.77), Val/Trp (CL 11.95∼175.38, LW 0.73∼3.62), Lys/Leu (CL 0.01∼0.72, LW 0.96∼8.44), Lys/Ile (CL 0.02∼1.55, LW 1.64∼10.99), Met/Lys (CL 0.14∼0.45, LW 0.03∼0.14), and Ile/Val (CL 0.38∼0.73, LW 0.40∼0.97). The hierarchical clustering result showed that the similarity was 0.617 among the seven LW samples and 0.563 among the seven CL samples, while the similarity between LW and CL samples was 0.198, presenting that these two sources are distinct from each other. All these results indicate that amino acids can be used as a tracer to evaluate if the contamination source is livestock wastewater or carcass leachate. To apply amino acids to tracing pollutants more effectively, however, further studies are needed to understand whether the relative abundance ratios of amino acids are maintained as they are transporting through soils as a medium.

  6. The environmental and biosecurity characteristics of livestock carcass disposal methods: A review.

    PubMed

    Gwyther, Ceri L; Williams, A Prysor; Golyshin, Peter N; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, David L

    2011-04-01

    Livestock mortalities represent a major waste stream within agriculture. Many different methods are used throughout the world to dispose of these mortalities; however within the European Union (EU) disposal options are limited by stringent legislation. The legal disposal options currently available to EU farmers (primarily rendering and incineration) are frequently negatively perceived on both practical and economic grounds. In this review, we assess the potential environment impacts and biosecurity risks associated with each of the main options used for disposal of livestock mortalities in the world and critically evaluate the justification for current EU regulations. Overall, we conclude that while current legislation intends to minimise the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of infectious diseases (e.g. transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, bacterial pathogens), alternative technologies (e.g. bioreduction, anaerobic digestion) may provide a more cost-effective, practical and biosecure mechanism for carcass disposal as well as having a lower environmental footprint. Further social, environmental and economic research is therefore warranted to assess the holistic benefits of alternative approaches for carcass disposal in Europe, with an aim to provide policy-makers with robust knowledge to make informed decisions on future legislation.

  7. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses thereof shall be transported. 325.21... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.21 Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or... conveyance used by persons subject to § 325.20 for transporting in commerce or importing, any dead,...

  8. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses thereof shall be transported. 325.21... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.21 Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or... conveyance used by persons subject to § 325.20 for transporting in commerce or importing, any dead,...

  9. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses thereof shall be transported. 325.21... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.21 Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or... conveyance used by persons subject to § 325.20 for transporting in commerce or importing, any dead,...

  10. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packer on a USDA carcass grade shall be on an official (final—not preliminary) grade. If settlement and final payment are based upon any grades other than official USDA grades, such other grades shall be set... carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and...

  11. [Evaluation of Livestock Carcasses and Performance.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-B-1 through II-B-2; II-D-1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with evaluation of livestock. It contains sections on carcass evaluation, the evaluation of performance and production, and the design of livestock production facilities. Each of the first two sections has a glossary, and all three conclude with a…

  12. In-vessel bioreduction provides an effective storage and pre-treatment method for livestock carcasses prior to final disposal.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, David L

    2009-09-01

    The EU Animal By-Products Regulations forbid the burial of livestock carcasses on land. Farmers would benefit from the availability of biosecure and economically viable alternatives for storing and disposing of dead animals. We assessed the efficacy of bioreduction vessels as a mechanism of storing and reducing the volume of fallen livestock prior to ultimate disposal. Two experimental scenarios were tested: (1) a single input of 300 kg of dead sheep with no further inputs for 3 months, and (2) a continuous 'on-farm' addition of dead sheep over 12 months (ca. 2-3t animals vessel(-1)). The trials involved half-filling the vessels with water, addition of the dead sheep with subsequent heating (40 degrees C) and aeration of the liquor. Each trial was repeated three times. Our results showed a complete biodigestion and liquefaction of the animals alongside a significant bioreduction in the volume of the liquid. No pathogens could be detected in either the waste or the gaseous emissions. Calculations showed that bioreduction may offer significant long-term savings for farmers in terms of animal disposal costs. Our findings suggest that bioreduction may offer a practical, biosecure, and cost-effective method of storing fallen livestock prior to disposal via rendering or incineration. PMID:19349170

  13. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. 314.7 Section 314.7 Animals and Animal... condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock which have been condemned on ante-mortem inspection shall not be taken through rooms or compartments in...

  14. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  15. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  16. Detecting diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India with an ELISA: a tool to prevent widespread vulture poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saini, Mohini; Taggart, Mark A; Knopp, Dietmar; Upreti, Suchitra; Swarup, Devendra; Das, Asit; Gupta, Praveen K; Niessner, Reinhard; Prakash, Vibhu; Mateo, Rafael; Cuthbert, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic vulture declines across the Indian sub-continent. Here, an indirect ELISA is used to detect and quantify diclofenac in 1251 liver samples from livestock carcasses collected across India between August 2007 and June 2008, one to two years after a ban on diclofenac manufacture and distribution for veterinary use was implemented. The ELISAs applicability was authenticated with independent data obtained using LC-ESI/MS. Of 1251 samples, 1150 (91.9%) were negative for diclofenac using both methods, and 60 (4.8%) were positive at 10-4348 and 10-4441 μg kg(-1) when analysed by ELISA and LC-ESI/MS, respectively. The residue level relationship in the 60 positive samples was highly significant (p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.644). Data suggest that this immunological assay could be used not only for cost effective sample screening, but also for residue level semi-quantification.

  17. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  18. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics' metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

  19. Identification of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Korea and molecular comparison between isolates from animal carcasses and slaughterhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Park, Yong-Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    This study was undertaken to screen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animal carcasses and slaughterhouse workers and characterize MRSA isolates identified during 2010-2012 in Korea. A total of 830 (16.4%) S. aureus and 65 (1.3%) MRSA were isolated from 9669 carcass samples. MRSA was more frequently detected in chicken carcasses (1.2%) than in cattle (0.3%) and pig carcasses (0.6%). The prevalence of MRSA in workers was 6.9% (4/58) in chicken slaughterhouse workers, but no MRSA was detected in pig and cattle slaughterhouse workers (0/41). Two different lineages of MRSA were identified (i.e., human-associated type [ST5, ST59, and ST72] and livestock-associated [LA] type [ST398, ST541, and ST692]); only LA MRSA was observed in chicken carcasses, whereas both types were found in cattle and pig carcasses and workers. All human-associated MRSA isolates carried enterotoxin and/or leukotoxin genes, whereas LA MRSA types did not carry these genes, except ST692 type. However, all LA MRSA isolates were multiresistant, whereas human-associated types were susceptible or resistant to fewer than two antimicrobials except ST5. Furthermore, one or more resistance genes were attributed for resistance to aminoglycosides (aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″), ant(4')-Ia, and aph(3')-IIIa), tetracycline [tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), and tet(S)], macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (ermA, ermB, ermC, and ermT), lincosamide [lnu(B)], phenicol-lincosamide-oxazolidinone-pleuromutilin-streptogramin A (cfr), chloramphenicol (fexA), and fusidic acid [fus(C)]. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tet(S) gene in MRSA isolates and first detection of a unique (ST692) type of MRSA in occupational workers. Detection of new types of human-associated and LA MRSA with multiple resistance and virulence genes in food animal products constitutes a potential threat to public health.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%). S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline). Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA). Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts. PMID:21272304

  1. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses...

  2. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  3. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  4. Survival of bacteria in carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Penney, N

    1979-04-01

    Bacteria injected into the bloodstream of guinea pigs shortly before death decreased in number in carcass tissues for about 1 h after death. If initial bacterial numbers were sufficiently low, all bacteria were eliminated, and carcass tissues were sterile 24 h after death. Carcass tissue sterility was maintained with an initial density of Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella typhimurium of 20 cells per g or with an initial density of the other species examined of several hundred cells per gram. With larger numbers of strict and facultative anaerobes, growth commenced after 3 h in carcasses incubated at 30 degrees C. Spores of C. perfringens were killed over the same period as vegetative cells, but growth did not commence until 8 h after death. Bactericidal activity in carcass tissues must therefore be taken into account in evaluating the significance of reports of deep-tissue contamination of carcasses from meat animals.

  5. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  6. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  7. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  8. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  9. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  10. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. 329.1 Section 329.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... § 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass,...

  11. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. An evaluation of thermo-assisted drying and decontamination for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from contaminated livestock transport vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Torremorell, Montserrat; Thompson, Bob; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to validate a new protocol, the thermo-assisted drying and decontamination (TADD) system, for eliminating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from contaminated transport vehicles. Scale models of weaned pig trailers were used. The principle of TADD is to raise the interior temperature of trailers to 71 degrees C for 30 min to promote drying and degradation of PRRSV. Trailer interiors were artificially contaminated with 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of PRRSV strain MN 30-100, then treated with 1 of 4 treatments: 1) TADD; 2) air only (no supplemental heat); 3) overnight (8 h) drying; and 4) washing only. Following treatment, swabs were collected from the trailer interiors at 0, 10, 20, and 30 min post-treatment and from the overnight group after 8 h. Swabs were tested for PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a measure of the presence of infectious PRRSV, sentinel pigs were housed in treated trailers for 2 h post-treatment and supernatants from swabs were injected IM into naive pigs (bioassay), the recipient pigs were then tested for PRRSV infection. All trailers were PRRSV positive by PCR immediately after washing, prior to treatment (pt). At 10 min pt, 7/10 swabs were positive from the TADD trailers; however, all swabs collected at 20 and 30 min pt were PRRSV negative by PCR, and trailer interiors were visibly dry. In contrast, 9/19, 6/10, and 6/10 swabs collected at 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, from trailers treated with air only were positive and visibly wet. All swabs (10/10) collected from trailers treated with washing only were PRRSV positive by PCR and all swabs collected at 8 h of drying were PRRSV negative by PCR. All tests for the presence of infectious PRRSV were negative for trailers treated with TADD and overnight drying, while infectious PRRSV was detected in sentinel pigs and bioassay pigs in the other groups. Under the conditions of this study, the efficacy of the TADD system was equal to that

  14. Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

    PubMed

    Scholz, A M; Bünger, L; Kongsro, J; Baulain, U; Mitchell, A D

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach. PMID:25743562

  15. Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

    PubMed

    Scholz, A M; Bünger, L; Kongsro, J; Baulain, U; Mitchell, A D

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach.

  16. 9 CFR 309.2 - Livestock suspected of being diseased or affected with certain conditions; identifying suspects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.2 Livestock suspected of being diseased or affected...) Any livestock which, on ante-mortem inspection, do not clearly show, but are suspected of being... the carcass on post-mortem inspection, and any livestock which show, on ante-mortem inspection,...

  17. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  18. Thermogenesis in decomposing carcasses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aidan P; Mikac, Katarina M; Wallman, James F

    2013-09-10

    It is of fundamental importance in forensic entomology that the factors controlling carcass temperatures during decomposition are thoroughly understood. The thermal environment to which fly larvae are exposed is the primary influence on their growth rate, and hence affects any estimate of minimum time since death using such specimens in homicide investigations. To date, much of the entomological research on maggot masses has focused on their elevation of carcass temperatures, with very little focus on the bacteria associated with larval activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the heat associated with decay and the types of bacteria present during the decomposition of a carcass, both in the presence and in the absence of maggots. Three treatments were imposed: fresh, frozen and maggot-infested, each consisting of five replicate pig carcasses. Temperature measurements and bacterial swabs were taken from the gastro-intestinal region of each pig and temperatures and bacterial communities compared between treatments. All carcasses reached average maximum temperatures above 32 °C in a temperature controlled room set at 23 °C. Treatment had no statistically significant effect on the temperatures recorded in each carcass but did significantly affect the community structure of the bacteria. However, bacterial community structure varied across time. This study suggests that bacterial metabolism plays a significant role in carcass thermogenesis, and that maggot masses, while contributing to localised heating within the carcass, may have less of a role in elevating carcass temperatures than previously assumed.

  19. Development of Real-Time PCR to Monitor Groundwater Contaminated by Fecal Sources and Leachate from the Carcass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused about 4,054 carcass burial sites to dispose the carcasses. Potential environmental impacts by leachate of carcass on groundwater have been issued and it still needs to be studied. Therefore, we tried to develop robust and sensitive tool to immediately determine a groundwater contamination by the leachate from carcass burial. For tracking both an agricultural fecal contamination source and the leachate in groundwater, competitive real-time PCR and PCR method were developed using various PCR primer sets designed to detect E. Coli uidA gene and mtDNA(cytochrome B, cytB) of the animal species such as ovine, porcine, caprine, and bovine. The designed methods were applied to tract the animal species in livestock wastewater and leachate of carcass under appropriate PCR or real-time PCR condition. In the result, mtDNA primer sets for individual (Cow or Pig) and multiple (Cow and Pig) amplification, and E. Coli uidA primers for fecal source amplification were specific and sensitive to target genes. To determine contamination source, concentration of amplified mtDNA and uidA was competitively quantified in Livestock wastewater, leachate of carcass, and groundwater. The highest concentration of mtDNA and uidA showed in leachate of carcass and livestock wastewater, respectively. Groundwater samples possibly contaminated by leachate of carcass were analyzed by this assay and it was able to prove contamination source.

  20. Production of transgenic livestock: promise fulfilled.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, M B

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of specific genes into the genome of farm animals and its stable incorporation into the germ line has been a major technological advance in agriculture. Transgenic technology provides a method to rapidly introduce "new" genes into cattle, swine, sheep, and goats without crossbreeding. It is a more extreme methodology, but in essence, not really different from crossbreeding or genetic selection in its result. Methods to produce transgenic animals have been available for more than 20 yr, yet recently lines of transgenic livestock have been developed that have the potential to improve animal agriculture and benefit producers and/or consumers. There are a number of methods that can be used to produce transgenic animals. However, the primary method to date has been the microinjection of genes into the pronuclei of zygotes. This method is one of an array of rapidly developing transgenic methodologies. Another method that has enjoyed recent success is that of nuclear transfer or "cloning." The use of this technique to produce transgenic livestock will profoundly affect the use of transgenic technology in livestock production. Cell-based, nuclear transfer or cloning strategies have several distinct advantages for use in the production of transgenic livestock that cannot be attained using pronuclear injection of DNA. Practical applications of transgenesis in livestock production include enhanced prolificacy and reproductive performance, increased feed utilization and growth rate, improved carcass composition, improved milk production and/or composition, and increased disease resistance. One practical application of transgenics in swine production is to improve milk production and/or composition. To address the problem of low milk production, transgenic swine over-expressing the milk protein bovine alpha-lactalbumin were developed and characterized. The outcomes assessed were milk composition, milk yield, and piglet growth. Our results indicate that

  1. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) on cattle, sheep, and other livestock in Minnesota currently is a minor problem except to a few individual farmers. Indices to the seriousness of the problem are available only from recent years, so historical trends cannot be detected. From 1976 through 1980 the number of farms in the wolf range suffering verified losses to wolves ranged from 9 to 19 (mean of x = 13) per year out of about 12,230. From 1977 through 1980, the highest cattle losses claimed by farmers were 0.45 per 1,000 cattle available in 1979; the highest sheep losses claimed were 1.18 per 1,000 available in 1980. Many claims of losses (especially of calves) are based on missing animals, and few wolves are involved in the verified losses. Most losses occur in summer when livestock are released to graze in open and wooded pasture. Herd management practices, such as calving in forested or brushy pastures and disposal of carcasses in or near pastures, are responsible for many instances of wolf depredation. Failure to distinguish wolves from coyotes (Canis latrans) has contributed to an exaggerated view of the importance of wolves as livestock predators. Recently the number of wolves killed in depredation control has declined, whereas the number of livestock killed has remained fairly stable. Results of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's depredation- control program in 1979 and 1980 suggest that highly restricted trapping, coupled with other management methods, has potential for reducing both livestock losses and the number of wolves that need to be killed.

  2. 9 CFR 310.13 - Inflating carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; transferring caul or other fat. 310.13 Section 310.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat. (a) Establishments that slaughter livestock and... Sanitation SOPs or other prerequisite programs. (b)(1) Transferring the caul or other fat from a fat to...

  3. 9 CFR 310.13 - Inflating carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; transferring caul or other fat. 310.13 Section 310.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat. (a) Establishments that slaughter livestock and... Sanitation SOPs or other prerequisite programs. (b)(1) Transferring the caul or other fat from a fat to...

  4. 9 CFR 310.13 - Inflating carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; transferring caul or other fat. 310.13 Section 310.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat. (a) Establishments that slaughter livestock and... Sanitation SOPs or other prerequisite programs. (b)(1) Transferring the caul or other fat from a fat to...

  5. 9 CFR 310.13 - Inflating carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; transferring caul or other fat. 310.13 Section 310.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat. (a) Establishments that slaughter livestock and... Sanitation SOPs or other prerequisite programs. (b)(1) Transferring the caul or other fat from a fat to...

  6. The chilling of carcasses.

    PubMed

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  7. Assessing Salmonella typhimurium persistence in poultry carcasses under multiple thermal conditions consistent with composting and wet rendering.

    PubMed

    Vaddella, V; Pitesky, M; Cao, W; Govinthasamy, V; Shi, J; Pandey, P

    2016-03-01

    Mitigation of Salmonella associated with poultry carcasses is primarily accomplished by rendering or carcass composting. While rendering temperatures and pressures are well established for pathogen inactivation in poultry carcasses, parameters controlling composting processes are less defined in part because multiple conditions and procedures are utilized. Consequently, limited knowledge exists describing the impacts of composting with varying temperature and mixing protocols with respect to the inactivation of Salmonella in poultry carcasses. To improve the existing knowledge of Salmonella survival in poultry carcasses, inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) LT2 was investigated. The impacts of various composting temperatures (55, 62.5°C) and low-rendering (i.e., pasteurization) temperatures (70, 78°C) on Salmonella inactivation were tested in a bench-top setting using a ground carcass slurry and whole birds under mixed and non-mixed conditions. Results showed that the ground carcass slurry and the whole carcass exposed to temperatures consistent with composting had no detectable Salmonella after 110 h with a level of detection of one CFU/mL of ground carcass slurry and one CFU/g of whole carcasses, respectively. In addition, grinding of carcasses as opposed to whole carcasses was more predictable with respect to Salmonella heat inactivation. Furthermore, results showed that constant mixing decreased the overall time required to eliminate Salmonella under composting and low-rendering temperatures.

  8. 9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., part of a carcass, meat or meat food product, or any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, that is being transported in commerce or is otherwise subject to Title I or II of the Act, or is held for... prepared, sold, transported, or otherwise distributed or offered or received for distribution in...

  9. 9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., part of a carcass, meat or meat food product, or any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, that is being transported in commerce or is otherwise subject to Title I or II of the Act, or is held for... prepared, sold, transported, or otherwise distributed or offered or received for distribution in...

  10. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  11. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  12. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  13. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  14. Orbivirus of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Unit (ABADRU) mission is to solve major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock. The ABADRU has four 5-year project plans under two ARS National Research Programs; Animal Health NP103 and Veterinary, Medical, and Urban Entomolog...

  15. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  16. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  17. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  18. Tissue sterility in uneviscerated carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Penney, N; Nottingham, P M

    1978-08-01

    Sheep muscle tissue removed aseptically from control carcasses, from uneviscerated carcasses held at 20 degrees C for 24 h, and from carcasses of sheep subjected to stress before slaughter was examined for the presence of bacteria. All samples from a total of 68 carcasses were sterile. Whole-body autoradiography of mouse carcasses showed that 14C-labeled fixed bacteria injected after death remained in the lumen of the intestine. Live bacteria did not penetrate the mucosal surface until the tissue structure had been disrupted by proteolytic enzymes. Bacteria were unable to penetrate sections of intestine longitudinally until considerable structural breakdown had occurred, indicating that blood and lymph vessels do not normally offer a pathway for microbial invasion from the intestine. Clostridia, which have been reported to be responsible for deep spoilage of meat, reached maximum numbers 24 to 28 h after death in the intestines of guinea pig carcasses stored at 20 degrees C, but did not invade carcass tissues until the stomach ruptured as a result of proteolysis between 2 and 3 days after death.

  19. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories.

  20. Gene targeting in livestock.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A J; Marques, M M; McWhir, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of nuclear transfer from tissue culture cells in livestock made it possible in principle to produce animals with subtle, directed genetic changes by in vitro modification of nuclear donor cells. In the short period since nuclear transfer was first performed, gene targeting in livestock has become a reality. Although gene targeting has immediate potential in biotechnology, it is unclear whether there are practical agricultural applications, at present. The first livestock targeting experiments have been directed at engineering animals either to render their organs immunologically compatible for human transplantation, or for improving the commercial production of recombinant proteins in the transgenic mammary gland. All successful examples of targeting have involved target loci that are expressed in the nuclear donor cell line. Two important barriers to the further development of this technology are adapting protocols for non-expressed genes and modifying procedures to enhance the lifespan of targeted cells in vitro. This review provides data that illustrate the difficulty in targeting non-expressed genes and discusses some of the practical issues associated with providing targeted nuclear donor cells that are competent for nuclear transfer.

  1. Tremorgenic syndromes in livestock.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S S

    1989-07-01

    Grasses that are essential components of livestock grazing programs sometimes are the source of tremorgenic toxicants to the animals consuming them. Morbidity can be high but mortality need not be if management closely observes the cattle daily and removes them at first sign of trouble. Specific treatment generally is not available nor needed. Survivors recover completely within a few days or weeks, except in chronic phalaris poisoning, where sheep and cattle may die after prolonged illness--or at least not make an economical recovery. Certain poisonous plants are responsible for tremorgenic signs in livestock and horses. White snakeroot and rayless goldenrod pose a public health risk to individuals who might drink milk from a goat or cow grazing toxic amounts of these weeds. Poisonous weeds and trees often are a local or regional problem, and often are seasonal. A veterinarian new to the area who has a food animal practice should seek out information relative to poisonous plants, nutritional deficiencies, and diseases endemic to the practice area. The ability of certain fungi to produce toxic metabolites in feed-stuffs creates the potential for tremorgenic or other types of toxicosis in most classes of livestock. Wet grain byproducts from ethanol production and other processes can provide the right culture media for fungi. PMID:2667708

  2. Effect of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Livestock Material Burial Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bit-Na; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cha, Yougin; Park, Joon-Kyu; Kim, Geonha; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-08-28

    In recent years, foot-and-mouth disease has occurred in all parts of the world. The animals with the disease are buried in the ground; therefore, their concentration could affect ground or groundwater. Moreover, the complete degradation of carcasses is not a certainty, and their disposal is important to prevent humans, livestock, and the environment from being affected with the disease. The treatment of Corynebacterium glutamicum is a feasible method to reduce the risk of carcass decomposition affecting humans or the environment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of C. glutamicum on the soil environment with a carcass. The composition of amino acids in the soil treated with C. glutamicum was generally higher than those in the untreated soil. Moreover, the plant root in the soil samples treated with C. glutamicum had 84.0% amino acids relative to the standard value and was similar to that of the control. The results of this study suggest the possibility to reduce the toxicity of a grave land containing animals with this disease. PMID:27160580

  3. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, D.; Kim, H.; Lee, S.; Hyun, Y.; Moon, H.; Ko, K.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    The release of leachate from animal carcass disposal can potentially contaminate soil and groundwater. During the Korea's foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in 2010-2011, about 3.53 million of pigs and cattle were slaughtered and 4,538 burial sites were constructed. The objectives of this study are to determine the hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass disposal. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass burial facilities were monitored to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build effective plans for stabilization of the burial site. Two burial sites were investigated in this study. An animal carcass disposal site is located in a flat area and another disposal site is found in mountain area. The hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics were analyzed to identify groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. After 5-6 months of burial, the concentrations of NH4+, Cl-, and HCO3- in leachate were decreased since the leachate was regularly pumped and treated. However, high concentrations of major contaminants (NH4+, Cl-, and HCO3-) were still observed in landfill leachate of mountain area even though pumping and treatment of leachate were continuously conducted. Bacterial community diversity over time in leachate from animal carcass disposal was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. The impact of landfill leachate on change of bacterial community in soil and groundwater were monitored for a year.

  4. Effect of feeding sugarcane press mud on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjan; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the possibilities of feeding unconventional agro-industrial byproduct for livestock production. Sugarcane press-mud (SPM), is a byproduct derived from sugarcane industry, which is rich in protein as well as minerals. The effects of dietary inclusion of SPM at different levels on the carcass characteristics of lambs were evaluated. Materials and Methods: SPM was incorporated in concentrate mixture at different levels 0% (SP0 - concentrate mixture without SPM [Control diet]), 10% (SP10 - concentrate mixture containing 10% SPM) and 20% (SP20 - concentrate mixture containing 20% SPM). The concentrate mixtures were fed along with wheat straw for 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, six lambs per group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass and meat quality characteristics. Results: No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on pre-slaughter weight or empty body weight basis of lambs fed different levels of SPM incorporated diets. Likewise carcass weight, carcass length, and wholesale cuts appeared to have similar values among groups. The yield of visceral organs, chemical composition, and sensory attributes were not statistically affected by inclusion of SPM in the diets except juiciness of control group meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than treatment group (SP20). Conclusion: The SPM can be incorporated in the diet of lambs up to the level of 20% without affecting the carcass characteristics of lambs. PMID:27065649

  5. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices.

  6. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production.

    PubMed

    Reinders, R D; Weber, M F; Lipman, L J; Verhoeff, J; Bijker, P G

    2001-05-21

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a 'Masterplan VTEC', include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in the cases of an outbreak of VTEC associated with a cattle herd, the implementation of handbooks for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in slaughterhouses and deboning plants, and the execution of an action programme on zero-tolerance to faecal contamination of carcasses. Mid-term activities include surveillance of the occurrence of VTEC and other enteropathogens in livestock and meat, and the investigations of VTEC population dynamics in dairy farms, transportation and farm hygiene. In the longer term, this programme aims to produce a system of Integrated Quality Assurance, consolidating effective measures to control VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat, and integrating emerging means for control and prevention. PMID:11407551

  7. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  8. Livestock drugs and disease: the fatal combination behind breeding failure in endangered bearded vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A

    2010-11-30

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses.

  9. Livestock Drugs and Disease: The Fatal Combination behind Breeding Failure in Endangered Bearded Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses. PMID:21152405

  10. Consumer acceptance and carcass quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commodity production systems, beef quality is designated based on the USDA grading criteria which take into account carcass marbling, maturity and yield. Producers are rewarded economically for beef quality grade (QG) of Choice versus Select although the price difference (spread) varies seasonal...

  11. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals.

  12. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals. PMID:26708680

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in livestock.

    PubMed

    Catry, B; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; De Kruif, A

    2003-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance may become a major problem in veterinary medicine as a consequence of the intensive use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs. Related problems are now arising in human medicine, such as the appearance of multi-resistant food-borne pathogens. Product characteristics, dose, treatment interval and duration of treatment influence the selection pressure for antimicrobial drug resistance. There are theoretical, experimental and clinical indications that the emergence of de novo resistance in a pathogenic population can be prevented by minimizing the time that suboptimal drug levels are present in the infected tissue compartment. Until recently, attention has been focused on target pathogens. However, it should be kept in mind that when antimicrobial drugs are used in an individual, resistance selection mainly affects the normal body flora. In the long term, this is at least equally important as resistance selection in the target pathogens, as the horizontal transfer of resistance genes converts almost all pathogenic bacteria into potential recipients for antimicrobial resistance. Other factors contributing to the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance are the localization and size of the microbial population, and the age, immunity and contact intensity of the host. In livestock, dynamic herd-related resistance patterns have been observed in different animal species.

  14. Livestock farming and atmospheric emissions.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Livestock farming produces atmospheric emissions that may pose a risk to workers and a disturbance to the population. Emissions into the atmosphere produced by livestock farming consist of gases such as ammonia, dust, compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and bio-aerosols formed by microorganisms. Some gases, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, have foul odours and are thus potentially annoying to the population. Gaseous or volatile molecules produced by livestock installations and related activities may have several adverse effects on health and environment. The most significant exposure certainly relates to workers in the confined spaces of farms, rather than to residents in the surrounding areas. In this article we examine potential hazards to farm workers and to the population living in the vicinity of livestock farms, arising from emissions into the atmosphere.

  15. Nondestructive technique for detecting diseased poultry carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren

    1993-04-01

    In response to the need of the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, the Agriculture Research Service has undertaken a project to develop an accurate, reliable, and nondestructive sensor for detecting poultry diseased carcasses on-line at poultry processing plants. This paper presents some results of a study on the development of a nondestructive technique for the detection of abnormal poultry carcasses based on the spectroscopy of the carcasses. A diode array spectrophotometer equipped with a fiber optic probe was used to obtain optical spectra of the breasts of normal, septicemic, and cadaver poultry carcasses in visible and near-infrared regions (500 - 1100 nm). Optimal wavelengths of reflectance and interactance in the range of 500 to 850 nm were obtained for classifying the carcasses into normal and abnormal (septicemic and cadaver) classes. A back-propagation neural network model was used to develop classifiers for the classification of poultry carcasses into normal, septicemic, and cadaver classes.

  16. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, requiring extra attention for accommodation and welfare. Carcasses of DM animals are very lean, and intramuscular fat content is low. The fatty acid profile is different when compared with non-DM animals, containing less saturated fatty acids. Collagen content of the meat is lower, so that meat from double-muscled animals is mostly more tender. However, meat tenderness, color and juiciness are not always improved. A different metabolism as a consequence of faster glycolytic myofibers can be partly responsible for this phenomenon. DM animals are interesting for the producer and butcher, and beneficial for the consumer, if an appropriate nutrition and accommodation, and adequate slaughter conditions are taken into account. Abstract Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and

  17. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo O

    2012-09-20

    Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality.

  18. Uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of rotenone by bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Rach, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Yearling bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of [14C]rotenone (5.2 μg/l) for 30 days in a continuous flow exposure system and then transferred to clean, flowing water for an additional 21-day depuration period. Rates of uptake and elimination and profile of the rotenoid metabolites in head, viscera, and carcass components were evaluated by 14C counting and by high performance liquid chromatography. Total [14C]rotenone derived activity was relatively uniform in all body components within 3 days after initial exposure and remained constant during the ensuing 27 days of exposure. Initial uptake rate coefficients were highest in viscera (Ku = 80· h -1) and were nearly identical for head (Ku = 14 · h) and carcass (Ku = 10 · h-1). Analyses of tissue extracts by high performance liquid chromatography confirmed the presence of at least six biotransformation products of rotenone. More than 60% of the activity extracted from viscera was present as a single peak which represented a compound that was extremely soluble in water. Rotenone composed only 0.3% of the extractable activity in viscera taken from fish exposed to rotenone for 30 days; however, rotenone accounted for 15.4% of extractable activity in the head and 20.1% in the carcass components. Rotenolone and 6',7'-dihydro-6'-,7'--dihydroxyrotenolone were tentatively identified as oxidation products in all tissue extracts. Elimination of 14C activity from all body components was biphasic; both phases followed first-order kinetics. The rate of elimination was nearly equal for all body components during the initial phase but was most rapid from viscera during the second phase of elimination. Bioconcentration factors for the head, viscera, and carcass were 165, 3,550, and 125, respectively, when calculated on the basis of total 14C activity but only 25.4, 11, and 26 when calculated as the concentration of parent material.

  19. PLAG1 and NCAPG‐LCORL in livestock

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A recent progress on stature genetics has revealed simple genetic architecture in livestock animals in contrast to that in humans. PLAG1 and/or NCAPG‐LCORL, both of which are known as a locus for adult human height, have been detected for association with body weight/height in cattle and horses, and for selective sweep in dogs and pigs. The findings indicate a significant impact of these loci on mammalian growth or body size and usefulness of the natural variants for selective breeding. However, association with an unfavorable trait, such as late puberty or risk for a neuropathic disease, was also reported for the respective loci, indicating an importance to discriminate between causality and association. Here I review the recent findings on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stature in livestock animals, mainly focusing on the PLAG1 and NCAPG‐LCORL loci. I also describe our recent efforts to identify the causative variation for the third major locus for carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle. PMID:26260584

  20. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean. PMID:22055934

  1. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean.

  2. Livestock transport from the perspective of the pre-slaughter logistic chain: a review.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2014-09-01

    New developments in livestock transport within the pre-slaughter chain are discussed in terms of three logistic nodes: origin, stopovers and slaughterhouse. Factors as transport cost, haulier, truck specifications, micro-environment conditions, loading density, route planning, vehicle accidents and journey length are discussed as well as causes of morbidity, mortality, live weight and carcass damage. Taking into account current trends towards increased transport times, logistics stopovers and mixed transport, there is a need to develop systems of evaluation and decision-making that provide tools and protocols that can minimize the biological cost to animals, which may have been underestimated in the past. PMID:24824530

  3. Livestock waste: a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 118 papers presented at this conference provide guidelines for the design of livestock waste management systems. Topics discussed include waste collection, economics, lagoons, land application, methane generation, odor control, refeeding, runoff and storage, and waste treatment for stabilization. Twenty papers, dealing mostly with methane production, have been abstracted separately. 1166 references, 321 figures, 320 tables.

  4. Antibiotic use in livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic usage is a useful and commonly implemented practice in livestock and production agriculture that has progressively gained attention in recent years from consumers of animal products due to concerns about human and environmental health. Sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics has led to a con...

  5. Do Termites Avoid Carcasses? Behavioral Responses Depend on the Nature of the Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Neoh, Kok-Boon; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Tsunoda, Kunio; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (lower termites) and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites). We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses) and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1) the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2) the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3) only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. Conclusion We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species. PMID:22558452

  6. Reducing the carriage of foodborne pathogens in livestock and poultry.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M P; Erickson, M C

    2006-06-01

    Several foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella species and campylobacters, are common contaminants in poultry and livestock. Typically, these pathogens are carried in the animal's intestinal tract asymptomatically; however, they can be shed in feces in large populations and be transmitted by other vectors from feces to animals, produce, or humans. A wide array of interventions has been developed to reduce the carriage of foodborne pathogens in poultry and livestock, including genetic selection of animals resistant to colonization, treatments to prevent vertical transmission of enteric pathogens, sanitation practices to prevent contamination on the farm and during transportation, elimination of pathogens from feed and water, feed and water additives that create an adverse environment for colonization by the pathogen, and biological treatments that directly or indirectly inactivate the pathogen within the host. To successfully reduce the carriage of foodborne pathogens, it is likely that a combination of intervention strategies will be required.

  7. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  8. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of...

  9. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of...

  10. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of...

  11. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of...

  12. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions...

  13. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions...

  14. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions...

  15. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions...

  16. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions...

  17. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil...

  18. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be...-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.9 Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses...; general cleanup and disinfection. (a) Carcasses found before evisceration to be affected with...

  19. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be...-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.9 Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses...; general cleanup and disinfection. (a) Carcasses found before evisceration to be affected with...

  20. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  1. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  2. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  3. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  4. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-01-01

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:17117358

  5. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-07-31

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  6. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  7. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  8. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity. PMID:15719505

  9. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  10. Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow. PMID:19687034

  11. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  12. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  13. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  14. Wildlife contamination with fluoroquinolones from livestock: Widespread occurrence of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Segarra, David; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    There is much recent interest in the presence and impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals in wildlife. Livestock carcasses are often disposed of in supplementary feeding stations for avian scavengers, as a management and conservation tool for these species worldwide. In feeding stations, vultures and other scavengers can consume carcasses almost immediately after disposal, which implies the potential ingestion of veterinary pharmaceuticals as a non-target consequence of supplementary feeding. Using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-TOF, we evaluated the presence and concentration of fluoroquinolone residues in plasma of nestling vultures feeding on domestic livestock carrion. Three different fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin) and a non-targeted β-lactam (nafcillin) were detected in vulture plasma. The high proportion of individuals (92%) with fluoroquinolone residues at variable concentrations (up to ∼20 μg L(-1) of enrofloxacin and ∼150 μg L(-1) of marbofloxacin) sampled in several geographically distant colonies and on different dates suggests that these and other drugs were potentially ingested throughout nestling development. Contamination with veterinary fluoroquinolones and other pharmaceuticals should be considered as an unintended but alarming consequence of food management in threatened wildlife.

  15. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures. PMID:26105972

  16. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  17. Wildlife contamination with fluoroquinolones from livestock: Widespread occurrence of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Segarra, David; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    There is much recent interest in the presence and impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals in wildlife. Livestock carcasses are often disposed of in supplementary feeding stations for avian scavengers, as a management and conservation tool for these species worldwide. In feeding stations, vultures and other scavengers can consume carcasses almost immediately after disposal, which implies the potential ingestion of veterinary pharmaceuticals as a non-target consequence of supplementary feeding. Using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-TOF, we evaluated the presence and concentration of fluoroquinolone residues in plasma of nestling vultures feeding on domestic livestock carrion. Three different fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin) and a non-targeted β-lactam (nafcillin) were detected in vulture plasma. The high proportion of individuals (92%) with fluoroquinolone residues at variable concentrations (up to ∼20 μg L(-1) of enrofloxacin and ∼150 μg L(-1) of marbofloxacin) sampled in several geographically distant colonies and on different dates suggests that these and other drugs were potentially ingested throughout nestling development. Contamination with veterinary fluoroquinolones and other pharmaceuticals should be considered as an unintended but alarming consequence of food management in threatened wildlife. PMID:26498102

  18. Evaluation of Simmental carcass EPD estimated using live and carcass data.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Quaas, R L

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass EPD predicted using yearling live animal data and/or progeny carcass data, and to quantify the association between the carcass phenotype of progeny and the sire EPD. The live data model (L) included scan weight, ultrasound fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and percentage of intramuscular fat from yearling (369 d of age) Simmental bulls and heifers. The carcass data model (C) included hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score from Simmental-sired steers and cull heifers (453 d of age). The combined data model (F) included live animal and carcass data as separate but correlated traits. All data and pedigree information on 39,566 animals were obtained from the American Simmental Association, and all EPD were predicted using animal model procedures. The genetic model included fixed effects of contemporary group and a linear covariate for age at measurement, and a random animal genetic effect. The EPD from L had smaller variance and range than those from either C or F. Further, EPD from F had highest average accuracy. Correlations indicated that evaluations from C and F were most similar, and L would significantly (P < 0.05) re-rank sires compared with models including carcass data. Progeny (n = 824) with carcass data collected subsequent to evaluation were used to quantify the association between progeny phenotype and sire EPD using a model including contemporary group, and linear regressions for age at slaughter and the appropriate sire EPD. The regression coefficient was generally improved for sire EPD from L when genetic regression was used to scale EPD to the appropriate carcass trait basis. The EPD from C and F had similar linear associations with progeny phenotype, although EPD from F may be considered optimal because of increased accuracy. These data suggest that carcass EPD based on a combination of live and carcass data predict differences in progeny phenotype at or near

  19. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. PMID:25049722

  20. Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass – a tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is a tutorial for the R-package carcass. It starts with a short overview of common methods used to estimate mortality based on carcass searches. Then, it guides step by step through a simple example. First, the proportion of animals that fall into the search area is ...

  1. Universal leakage elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-05-15

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions.

  2. Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

    1999-01-01

    Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

  3. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  4. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  5. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  6. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  7. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  8. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  9. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  10. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  11. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  12. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    PubMed

    Wielgus, Robert B; Peebles, Kaylie A

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  13. Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Timothy P.; Wint, G. R. William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I.; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced. PMID:24875496

  14. Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations

    PubMed Central

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Peebles, Kaylie A.

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, – but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987–2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5–6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered. PMID:25470821

  15. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  16. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  17. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  19. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  20. Windmill tower shadow eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.J.

    1984-04-17

    In a wind driven propeller system an airfoil support for the shaft of a propeller having an even number of blades extends above and below the shaft a distance at least equal to the blade length and pivots with the propeller into the wind for substantially eliminating tower shadow effects on the propeller.

  1. Elimination chemistry in asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, J.L.; Ihsiung Wang; Martinez, D.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Elimination chemistry provides important information, not only about the chemical properties of asphalt, but also the chemical modification method of asphalt. The chemical reactions which use the natural abundance of radicals are important for free-radical halogenation reaction. Spectral data demonstrates the formation of halogenated asphalt. The utility of dehydrohalogenation modified asphalt is limited. However, the resulting dehydrohalogenation modified asphalt does produce a significant unsaturated intermediate, which can incorporate elastomeric polymers (and monomers) via condensation or addition process. The second chemical modification method is the Hofmann elimination reaction, which was performed by reaction of methyl iodide with asphalt, followed by treatment of base. Spectroscopic data shows that a methyl group attached to nitrogen or sulfur in asphalt after Hofmann elimination reaction. Physical data shows that the Hofmann elimination modification improved the quality of asphalt, such as low temperature susceptibility measured by PVN. The modified asphalt also studied by HP-GPC in order to correlate their physical properties. The result shows that the molecular size distribution has changed and reduced the amount of LMS. The amount of decreasing LMS is also dependent on the content of nitrogen and sulfur in asphalts.

  2. Modeling disease elimination.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce.

  3. The Role of Direct-Fed Microbials in Conventional Livestock Production.

    PubMed

    Buntyn, J O; Schmidt, T B; Nisbet, D J; Callaway, T R

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as a means to improve the health and performance of livestock has generated significant interest over the past 15+ years. A driving force for this increased interest in DFM is to reduce or eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in livestock production. This increased attention toward DFM supplementation has generated an extensive body of research. This effort has resulted in conflicting reports. Although there has been considerable variation in the design of these studies, one of the main causes for this lack of consistency may be attributed to the variation in the experimental immune challenge incorporated to evaluate DFM supplementation. Taking into account the experimental immune challenge, there is strong evidence to suggest that DFM supplementation may have an impact on the immune response, overall health, and performance of livestock. PMID:26667362

  4. Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass: a tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Behr, Oliver; Brinkmann, Robert; Etterson, Matthew A.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Korner-Nievergelt, Pius; Roth, Tobias; Niermann, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for the R-package carcass. It starts with a short overview of common methods used to estimate mortality based on carcass searches. Then, it guides step by step through a simple example. First, the proportion of animals that fall into the search area is estimated. Second, carcass persistence time is estimated based on experimental data. Third, searcher efficiency is estimated. Fourth, these three estimated parameters are combined to obtain the probability that an animal killed is found by an observer. Finally, this probability is used together with the observed number of carcasses found to obtain an estimate for the total number of killed animals together with a credible interval.

  5. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  6. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K

    2010-09-27

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  7. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  8. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is. PMID:22942531

  9. Minding Rachlin's eliminative materialism.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is. PMID:22942531

  10. Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts. PMID:19717761

  11. [Vaccines against livestock parasites: expectations and reality].

    PubMed

    Strube, Christina; Daugschies, Arwid

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infections in livestock are of major economic importance. However, increasing resistance against antiparasitic drugs, which is particularly prevalent among parasitic helminths and poultry coccidia, might sooner or later call the economic viability of certain livestock branches into question. Thus, there is a need to develop new efficient parasite control tools. In addition to efforts to discover new antiparasitic compounds or to implement targeted selective treatment strategies, development of vaccines would be a future-orientated alternative. The current review elucidates to what extend antiparasitic livestock vaccines are reality or still expectations.

  12. Effect of Substrate on Identification of Microbial Communities in Poultry Carcass Composting and Microorganisms Associated with Poultry Carcass Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Du, Xueqing; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Ting; Liao, Xindi

    2016-09-14

    Three composting systems, which consisted of different ratios of chicken manure, sawdust, and poultry carcasses, were used to investigate the effect of substrate on the identification of microbial communities and microorganisms associated with poultry carcass decomposition by characterizing the microbial communities and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical and Miseq Illumina sequencing results showed the composition of substrate had a significant effect on the identification and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in decomposting process. Poultry carcasses might be the potential driver for the identification of bacterial communities in poultry carcass composting, whereas the initial C/N ratio may mainly contribute to the diversity of fungal communities and the similar dominant microbial communities in treatments. Poultry carcasses and initial C/N ratio could respectively affect the composition and abundance of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of poultry carcasses. Understanding the potential composting driver could allow development of an efficient carcass degradation system.

  13. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  14. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  15. Advances in livestock nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kühholzer, B; Prather, R S

    2000-09-01

    Cloning and transgenic animal production have been greatly enhanced by the development of nuclear transfer technology. In the past, genetic modification in domestic animals was not tightly controlled. With the nuclear transfer technology one can now create some domestic animals with specific genetic modifications. An ever-expanding variety of cell types have been successfully used as donors to create the clones. Both cell fusion and microinjection are successfully being used to create these animals. However, it is still not clear which stage(s) of the cell cycle for donor and recipient cells yield the greatest degree of development. While for the most part gene expression is reprogrammed in nuclear transfer embryos, all structural changes may not be corrected as evidenced by the length of the telomeres in sheep resulting from nuclear transfer. Even after these animals are created the question of "are they really clones?" arises due to mitochondrial inheritance from the donor cell versus the recipient oocyte. This review discusses these issues as they relate to livestock.

  16. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  17. Environmental control for confinement livestock housing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.; DeForest, S.S.

    1980-06-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical ventilation systems for livestock housing are discussed. Various principles involved in environmental control are reviewed. The design, operation, maintenance, and management of the equipment needed for environmental control are discussed. (JGB)

  18. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line.

  19. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line. PMID:22564950

  20. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    PubMed

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  1. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    PubMed Central

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  2. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  3. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  4. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  5. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  6. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  7. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  8. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  9. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  10. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  11. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  13. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    PubMed

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products. PMID:19967941

  14. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  19. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors. PMID:3818464

  20. Effects of solids retention time on the fate of tetracycline resistance in SBRs for the treatment of carcass leachate.

    PubMed

    De Sotto, R B; Medriano, C A D; Salcedo, D E; Lee, H; Cho, Y; Kim, S

    2016-10-01

    In the event of a foot and mouth disease outbreak, further spread of the virus is generally prevented by culling of infected animals in burial pits. This practice may eventually lead to groundwater contamination through leaching of wastewater from the animal carcasses. Wastewater from carcass leachate often contains antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes as well as traces of pharmaceuticals, and a high nutrient content. The role of operational parameters used in activated sludge treatment of this wastewater in the spread of antibiotic resistance has not been fully understood. This study investigated the fate of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and genes in sequencing batch reactors with synthetic carcass leachate at different solid retention times. Escherichia coli DH5α was used as the representative tetracycline-resistant bacteria with multiple antibiotic-resistant genes encoded in plasmid pB10. Solids retention time contributed to an increase in antibiotic resistance in SBRC (SRT = 25 days) with TRB values up to 1.25 × 10(7) CFU/mL which is one log higher than the influent. Microbial community analysis of the DNA samples from effluent of SBRC showed four major phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria under which are ecologically-important microbial species. It was shown that antibiotic resistance genes cannot be eliminated during treatment of synthetic carcass leachate in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor.

  1. Effects of dietary lactose on incidence and levels of salmonellae on carcasses of broiler chickens grown to market age.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, A L; Yamaguchi, W; Skinner, J T; Waldroup, P W

    1992-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lactose in the diet of broilers grown to market weights on incidence and levels of salmonellae on the carcass. Lactose was substituted for sand in otherwise nutritionally complete diets at levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% and fed from day-old to 49 days of age. Birds were reared on used (Trial 1) or new (Trial 2) litter and inoculated via the drinking water on Days 2, 7, and 14 with 10(8) cfu/mL Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028). At 50 days, 12 (Trial 1) or 24 (Trial 2) birds per treatment were processed and prechill carcasses were evaluated for salmonellae incidence and level by the most probable number (MPN) method. Body weight of male broilers was significantly reduced by feeding diets containing up to 7.5% lactose. Feed intake of broilers fed diets containing lactose was significantly reduced and feed utilization improved, suggesting that lactose provided some metabolizable energy. The degree of litter caking was significantly increased, and cecal pH was significantly decreased as dietary lactose increased. Prechill carcases of broilers fed diets with 7.5% lactose had significantly higher levels of salmonellae than did prechill carcasses of broilers fed 0% lactose. The results of the present study suggest that supplementing poultry diets with lactose is not a viable means in itself of reducing or eliminating salmonellae incidence or levels on processed broiler carcasses.

  2. Effects of solids retention time on the fate of tetracycline resistance in SBRs for the treatment of carcass leachate.

    PubMed

    De Sotto, R B; Medriano, C A D; Salcedo, D E; Lee, H; Cho, Y; Kim, S

    2016-10-01

    In the event of a foot and mouth disease outbreak, further spread of the virus is generally prevented by culling of infected animals in burial pits. This practice may eventually lead to groundwater contamination through leaching of wastewater from the animal carcasses. Wastewater from carcass leachate often contains antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes as well as traces of pharmaceuticals, and a high nutrient content. The role of operational parameters used in activated sludge treatment of this wastewater in the spread of antibiotic resistance has not been fully understood. This study investigated the fate of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and genes in sequencing batch reactors with synthetic carcass leachate at different solid retention times. Escherichia coli DH5α was used as the representative tetracycline-resistant bacteria with multiple antibiotic-resistant genes encoded in plasmid pB10. Solids retention time contributed to an increase in antibiotic resistance in SBRC (SRT = 25 days) with TRB values up to 1.25 × 10(7) CFU/mL which is one log higher than the influent. Microbial community analysis of the DNA samples from effluent of SBRC showed four major phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria under which are ecologically-important microbial species. It was shown that antibiotic resistance genes cannot be eliminated during treatment of synthetic carcass leachate in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor. PMID:27372252

  3. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  4. Ecology and vegetarian considerations: does environmental responsibility demand the elimination of livestock?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1994-05-01

    Although the recommendation to avoid animal flesh for environmental reasons has been increasingly advanced, especially in the highly industrialized countries, the ecological implications of such avoidance are seldom carefully examined. If sustainable food systems are to be modeled after natural systems that maintain fertility, both plants and animals would be involved. This paper examines the history of the idea that environmental responsibility is linked to vegetarianism and the destructive effects of present methods of animal raising on farmers, animal welfare, and the environment. Finally, it explores the question of whether vegetarianism is the appropriate response to these problems.

  5. Pluripotent stem cells and livestock genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Soto, Delia A; Ross, Pablo J

    2016-06-01

    The unlimited proliferative ability and capacity to contribute to germline chimeras make pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) perfect candidates for complex genetic engineering. The utility of ESCs is best exemplified by the numerous genetic models that have been developed in mice, for which such cells are readily available. However, the traditional systems for mouse genetic engineering may not be practical for livestock species, as it requires several generations of mating and selection in order to establish homozygous founders. Nevertheless, the self-renewal and pluripotent characteristics of ESCs could provide advantages for livestock genetic engineering such as ease of genetic manipulation and improved efficiency of cloning by nuclear transplantation. These advantages have resulted in many attempts to isolate livestock ESCs, yet it has been generally concluded that the culture conditions tested so far are not supportive of livestock ESCs self-renewal and proliferation. In contrast, there are numerous reports of derivation of livestock induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with demonstrated capacity for long term proliferation and in vivo pluripotency, as indicated by teratoma formation assay. However, to what extent these iPSCs represent fully reprogrammed PSCs remains controversial, as most livestock iPSCs depend on continuous expression of reprogramming factors. Moreover, germline chimerism has not been robustly demonstrated, with only one successful report with very low efficiency. Therefore, even 34 years after derivation of mouse ESCs and their extensive use in the generation of genetic models, the livestock genetic engineering field can stand to gain enormously from continued investigations into the derivation and application of ESCs and iPSCs.

  6. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  7. Growth, carcass traits and palatability: can the influence of the feeding regimes explain the variability found on those attributes in different Uruguayan genotypes?

    PubMed

    Brito, G; San Julián, R; La Manna, A; Del Campo, M; Montossi, F; Banchero, G; Chalkling, D; Soares de Lima, J M

    2014-11-01

    It is well known what genetic and nutritional factors affect growth and meat quality, but there is less information related to interactive importance of them during the productive process. These systems are mainly based on rangelands affecting animal growth in early stages of life thus producing smaller cattle and reduced retail yield comparing with well grown calves. During the last ten years, Uruguayan livestock production systems have been intensified using improved pastures, concentrates and better genetic. The main breeds in Uruguay are Hereford, Angus and their crosses. These British breeds are under genetic evaluation programs which consider carcass trait parameters. It is important for beef industry to know if interactions between genotype and nutrition during growth and fattening phases are influencing production, efficiency, carcass weight and meat quality attributes. The aim of this article is to present information obtained under different feeding strategies during the post weaning and fattening and their influence on those attributes. PMID:25048096

  8. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  9. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    PubMed Central

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  10. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning.

  11. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Adherence to Beef Carcass Surface Tissues with a Bioluminescent Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Gregory R.; Nawotka, Kevin; Spilman, Stanley D.; Contag, Pamela R.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-01-01

    A method for studying bacteria that are attached to carcass surfaces would eliminate the need for exogenous sampling and would facilitate understanding the interaction of potential human food-borne pathogens with food animal tissue surfaces. We describe such a method in which we used a bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that was constructed by transformation with plasmid pCGLS1, an expression vector that contains a complete bacterial luciferase (lux) operon. Beef carcass surface tissues were inoculated with the bioluminescent strain, and adherent bacteria were visualized in real time by using a sensitive photon-counting camera to obtain in situ images. The reporter strain was found to luminesce from the tissue surfaces whether it was inoculated as a suspension in buffer or as a suspension in a bovine fecal slurry. With this method, areas of tissues inoculated with the reporter strain could be studied without obtaining, excising, homogenizing, and culturing multiple samples from the tissue surface. Use of the complete lux operon as the bioluminescent reporter eliminated the need to add exogenous substrate. This allowed detection and quantitation of bacterial inocula and rapid evaluation of adherence of a potential human pathogen to tissue surfaces. Following simple water rinses of inoculated carcass tissues, the attachment duration varied with different carcass surface types. On average, the percent retention of bioluminescent signal from the reporter strain was higher on lean fascia-covered tissue (54%) than on adipose fascia-covered tissue (18%) following water washing of the tissues. Bioluminescence and culture-derived viable bacterial counts were highly correlated (r2 = 0.98). Real-time assessment of microbial attachment to this complex menstruum should facilitate evaluation of carcass decontamination procedures and mechanistic studies of microbial contamination of beef carcass tissues. PMID:10103275

  13. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on young chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P; Rutto, G K; Ludwig, J B; Parveen, S

    2010-09-01

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the young chicken carcass, to improve poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained at retail over a 3-year period. Carcasses were aseptically sectioned into 12 parts, and then Salmonella was isolated from whole-part incubations by conventional culture methods. Isolates were characterized for serotype and antibiotic resistance, and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonella incidence was 21.5% (181 of 840) for parts and 57.1% (40 of 70) for carcasses. The number of contaminated parts per carcass ranged from 0 to 12, with a mean of 4.5 among contaminated carcasses. Chi-square analysis indicated that Salmonella incidence differed (P < 0.05) among parts, with rib back (38.6%) and sacral back (34.3%) being the most contaminated. Among the 40 contaminated carcasses, there were 37 different patterns of contamination among parts. Of the 33 carcasses with more than one contaminated part, 12.1% contained two serotypes, 33.3% contained two or more antibiotic resistance profiles, and 100% contained two or more PFGE patterns. The most common serotype was Typhimurium (94.5%), and most (97.2%) isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. These results indicated a diverse pattern of Salmonella contamination among carcasses and that multiple subtypes of Salmonella were often present on contaminated carcasses. Thus, whole-carcass incubation succeeded by characterization of multiple isolates per carcass is needed to properly assess and manage this risk to public health.

  14. Microbiological sampling of carcasses by excision or swabbing.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Jones, T

    2000-02-01

    Groups of 25 carcasses were obtained by random selection of carcasses at the end of each of eight commercial processes for the dressing or cooling of carcasses. Samples were collected from six groups of pig or beef carcasses by excision or swabbing with sponge, gauze, or cotton wool, with one sample obtained by each of the four methods from a separate, randomly selected site on each carcass. Total aerobic counts, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from each sample were enumerated. Values for the mean log10, log10 mean, and log10 total numbers recovered were calculated for each set of total aerobic counts. Those statistics indicated that the numbers of bacteria recovered by excision or swabbing with sponge or gauze were similar, while the numbers recovered by swabbing with cotton wool were at the lower end of or below the range of the numbers recovered by the other methods. The numbers of coliforms or E. coli recovered from carcasses by sampling areas up to 100 cm2 were too few for the estimation of log mean numbers. Sampling of two groups of carcasses by swabbing with gauze indicated that each 10-fold increase in the area sampled, from 10 to 1,000 cm2, approximately doubled the number of samples from which coliforms or E. coli were recovered. Sampling of six groups of carcasses from one process indicated that the sizes of swabs and volumes of diluent used for processing swabs did not have to be increased proportionally to the area of carcass surface sampled to recover numbers of E. coli proportional to the sampled area. It therefore appears that carcass sampling techniques can be varied widely without compromising the recovery of bacteria, and that the relative efficiencies with which bacteria are recovered by different techniques can be assessed by sampling each carcass in a group of 25 by each of the methods to be compared. PMID:10678419

  15. Toxicity of Compound 1080 livestock protection collars to sheep.

    PubMed

    Burns, R J; Connolly, G E

    1995-02-01

    The toxicity of Compound 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) livestock protection collars (LPCs) to sheep was investigated. Lambs wearing punctured LPCs were observed to determine dermal toxicity, sheep were fed hay treated with LPC solution to find a lethal concentration, hay treated with a lethal concentration was subjected to sun and simulated rain to assess weathering influences, and sheep were held on pasture treated with LPC solution to evaluate grazing effects. Five lambs that wore punctured LPCs for up to seven days showed no dermal erythema or edema, but three died after ingesting 1080 from LPCs. All sheep died after eating 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml, or more, of 1.0% LPC solution. Weathering 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml of LPC solution in the sun for up to 12 weeks, reduced, but did not eliminate, toxicity; one inch or more of simulated rain eliminated toxicity. Survival of sheep in 250 m2 pens containing 1.1 m2 of forage treated with different amounts of LPC solution depended on the treatment and amount of treated forage consumed. LPC solution poses no dermal toxicity or irritation to sheep, and toxic effects on sheep from LPC solution on hay and forage was variable and situation dependent. Under conditions of exaggerated hazard, sheep can be poisoned by ingesting LPC solution, but adverse effects from normal LPC use are rare.

  16. Internal parasite management in grazing livestock.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niranjan; Rao, Thakur Krishan Shankar; Varghese, Anju; Rathor, Veer Singh

    2013-10-01

    It is a challenging task to control internal parasites in grazing livestock even by applying multi label and multi directional approach. It is impossible to draw general recommendations to control parasitic diseases due to varied geo-climatic conditions and methods adopted for rearing the livestock in the country like India. In view of increasing incidence of anti-parasitic drug resistance in animals, there is an urgent need to design sustainable parasite control strategy which must include on the host as well as off the host control measures to harvest the maximum productivity from the animal for an indefinite period.

  17. Successful elimination of a lethal wildlife infectious disease in nature

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Jaime; Sanchez-Tomé, Eva; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Oliver, Joan A.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Garner, Trenton W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to mitigate the impacts of emerging infectious diseases affecting wildlife are urgently needed to combat loss of biodiversity. However, the successful mitigation of wildlife pathogens in situ has rarely occurred. Indeed, most strategies for combating wildlife diseases remain theoretical, despite the wealth of information available for combating infections in livestock and crops. Here, we report the outcome of a 5-year effort to eliminate infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis affecting an island system with a single amphibian host. Our initial efforts to eliminate infection in the larval reservoir using a direct application of an antifungal were successful ex situ but infection returned to previous levels when tadpoles with cleared infections were returned to their natal sites. We subsequently combined antifungal treatment of tadpoles with environmental chemical disinfection. Infection at four of the five pools where infection had previously been recorded was eradicated, and remained so for 2 years post-application. PMID:26582843

  18. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  19. USA supports measles elimination.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The United States, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has approved an $8 million grant in support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goal to eliminate measles in the Americas by the year 2000. From 1996 to 2001, the grant will complement regional efforts to stop the disease. Mrs. Hillary Clinton had pledged the support on World Health Day 1995. Although record low levels of measles cases were reported in 1995 for the region, the virus could be imported from elsewhere in the world. A major obstacle is the accumulation of susceptible preschool-aged children. As the proportion of susceptibles expands, the risk of a measles outbreak increases, if the virus is reintroduced. To prevent this, follow-up campaigns are being conducted throughout the region, focusing on all children aged 1-4 years, regardless of previous vaccination or disease history. PAHO recommends follow-up whenever the number of susceptible preschool children approaches the size of an average birth cohort. The interval between these campaigns and the specific age group targeted will depend on the vaccination coverage obtained through routine services since the last campaign. Follow-up campaigns were conducted in Cuba in 1993; in Belize, Brazil, Columbia, and Jamaica in 1995; and in Chile and the countries of Central America during April 1996. 19 million children were reached. Follow-up campaigns are planned for the remaining countries of the English-speaking Caribbean later in 1996. USAID played a key role in the successful completion of the 1994 poliomyelitis eradication initiative; the agency contributed approximately 60% of the external costs associated with the hemispheric campaign.

  20. USA supports measles elimination.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The United States, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has approved an $8 million grant in support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goal to eliminate measles in the Americas by the year 2000. From 1996 to 2001, the grant will complement regional efforts to stop the disease. Mrs. Hillary Clinton had pledged the support on World Health Day 1995. Although record low levels of measles cases were reported in 1995 for the region, the virus could be imported from elsewhere in the world. A major obstacle is the accumulation of susceptible preschool-aged children. As the proportion of susceptibles expands, the risk of a measles outbreak increases, if the virus is reintroduced. To prevent this, follow-up campaigns are being conducted throughout the region, focusing on all children aged 1-4 years, regardless of previous vaccination or disease history. PAHO recommends follow-up whenever the number of susceptible preschool children approaches the size of an average birth cohort. The interval between these campaigns and the specific age group targeted will depend on the vaccination coverage obtained through routine services since the last campaign. Follow-up campaigns were conducted in Cuba in 1993; in Belize, Brazil, Columbia, and Jamaica in 1995; and in Chile and the countries of Central America during April 1996. 19 million children were reached. Follow-up campaigns are planned for the remaining countries of the English-speaking Caribbean later in 1996. USAID played a key role in the successful completion of the 1994 poliomyelitis eradication initiative; the agency contributed approximately 60% of the external costs associated with the hemispheric campaign. PMID:12347182

  1. Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Moi, Marta; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara Correia; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration. PMID:25049751

  2. A survey of the causes of cattle organs and/or carcass condemnation, financial losses and magnitude of foetal wastage at an abattoir in Dodoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Wilfred; Nonga, Hezron E

    2015-04-16

    Slaughterhouses provide a safeguard that prevents the public from consuming meat of poor quality or meat which may be infected with zoonotic diseases. This work reviews a 3-year database of cattle that were slaughtered and inspected between 2010 and 2012 at Dodoma abattoir, Tanzania. In addition, meat inspection was undertaken for 1 month (December 2013). The aim of this study was to establish causes of organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications as well as the magnitude of slaughter of pregnant cows at Dodoma abattoir. During retrospective study, it was found that a total of 9015 (10.5%) lungs, 6276 (7.3%) intestines, 5402 (6.3%) livers, 3291 (3.8%) kidneys and 41 (0.05%) carcasses were condemned. Pulmonary emphysema (3.4%), fasciolosis (4.5%), pimply gut (5.7%), kidney congenital cysts (1.9%) and hydatidosis (3.1%) were major causes of organ condemnations. This large number of condemned edible organs and/or carcasses implies that public health considerations result in deprivation of valuable protein. Occurrence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, fasciolosis and tuberculosis illustrates the possible public health problem and presence of environmental infections. Of the 794 cows slaughtered in December 2013, 46% were pregnant. Financial loss as a result of organ and/or carcass condemnations was estimated at $9892. Condemnation of organs and/or carcasses and indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows represent a significant loss of meat and revenue and a reduction in growth of future herds, which has a negative effect on the livestock industry. This justifies appropriate surveillance and disease control programmes coupled with strict enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to curb the slaughter of pregnant animals.

  3. Presence of Helicobacter suis on pork carcasses.

    PubMed

    De Cooman, L; Houf, K; Smet, A; Flahou, B; Ducatelle, R; De Bruyne, E; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2014-09-18

    Helicobacter (H.) suis is a world-wide spread pathogen which not only colonizes the stomach of pigs, but is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. H. suis infections are associated with gastric lesions both in pigs and in humans. Recently, the presence of viable H. suis bacteria has been demonstrated in minced pork, suggesting that manipulation or consumption of contaminated pig meat is a possible route of transmission of this zoonotic agent. The main goal of this study was to determine the extent of pork carcass contamination with H. suis at slaughter. In two consecutive studies, the occurrence of H. suis DNA was assessed in scalding water, head and mouth swabs, mesenteric lymph nodes, palatine tonsils and on the chest, shoulder and ham region of pork carcasses from three slaughterhouses using qPCR with ureA gene based H. suis-specific primers. H. suis DNA was detected on carcasses in all slaughterhouses, in 8.3% of all 1083 samples. It was found in all sampled matrices, except for the palatine tonsils and scalding water samples. Contamination levels of dressed pork samples did not exceed 184 genomic equivalents per 100cm(2) (shoulder, ham) or 300cm(2) (chest). All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis of the ureA gene to confirm the identification of H. suis bacteria. Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on a selection of the positive samples, 5 unique sequence types (STs) could be assigned. Multiple H. suis strains were present on samples derived from one specific pig herd. Since H. suis DNA was detected in 11% (n: 90) of the mesenteric lymph nodes derived at the slaughterhouse, it was determined whether these organisms can colonize the mesenteric lymph nodes after experimental infection. Despite high-level colonization of the porcine stomachs with the H. suis strain, no H. suis DNA was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes at four weeks after experimental infection. This might indicate that

  4. Genetically engineered livestock for biomedical models.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    To commemorate Transgenic Animal Research Conference X, this review summarizes the recent progress in developing genetically engineered livestock species as biomedical models. The first of these conferences was held in 1997, which turned out to be a watershed year for the field, with two significant events occurring. One was the publication of the first transgenic livestock animal disease model, a pig with retinitis pigmentosa. Before that, the use of livestock species in biomedical research had been limited to wild-type animals or disease models that had been induced or were naturally occurring. The second event was the report of Dolly, a cloned sheep produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning subsequently became an essential part of the process for most of the models developed in the last 18 years and is stilled used prominently today. This review is intended to highlight the biomedical modeling achievements that followed those key events, many of which were first reported at one of the previous nine Transgenic Animal Research Conferences. Also discussed are the practical challenges of utilizing livestock disease models now that the technical hurdles of model development have been largely overcome.

  5. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock feed. 205.237 Section 205.237 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  6. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock feed. 205.237 Section 205.237 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  7. Advanced Livestock Production: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    With the introduction of specialized courses of study in the third and fourth year of high school, it has become necessary to do more specialized work in the area of livestock production. The course is designed to provide a guideline to encourage intensified studies in this area, and outlines materials and methods, time allotment, and the use of…

  8. Livestock and the promise of genomics.

    PubMed

    Ludu, Jagjit S; Plastow, Graham S

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of the middle class in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China is resulting in increasing global demand for animal-based food products. This increase represents a unique opportunity for Canadian livestock producers to export their products to new markets and expand Canada's reputation as a global provider of safe and highest quality food items. This article has two major themes. First, current Canadian contributions to livestock genomics in the cattle and swine industries are outlined. Second, important future opportunities are discussed, including the high throughput collection of phenotypic data, development of environmentally friendly livestock, emergence of decision support software, and the use of Web 2.0. Through the use of genomic technologies, livestock producers can not only ensure that the nutritional demands of Canada are secured, but also play a pivotal role in ensuring the rest of the world is fed as well. Furthermore, investment through initiatives led by Genome Canada has ensured that Canada is favorably positioned to contribute cutting-edge solutions to meet this global challenge. Ultimately, genomic-based innovations will enable producers to increase efficiency, lower production costs, decrease the use of prophylactics, and limit the expenditure of resources.

  9. Genetically engineered livestock for biomedical models.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    To commemorate Transgenic Animal Research Conference X, this review summarizes the recent progress in developing genetically engineered livestock species as biomedical models. The first of these conferences was held in 1997, which turned out to be a watershed year for the field, with two significant events occurring. One was the publication of the first transgenic livestock animal disease model, a pig with retinitis pigmentosa. Before that, the use of livestock species in biomedical research had been limited to wild-type animals or disease models that had been induced or were naturally occurring. The second event was the report of Dolly, a cloned sheep produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning subsequently became an essential part of the process for most of the models developed in the last 18 years and is stilled used prominently today. This review is intended to highlight the biomedical modeling achievements that followed those key events, many of which were first reported at one of the previous nine Transgenic Animal Research Conferences. Also discussed are the practical challenges of utilizing livestock disease models now that the technical hurdles of model development have been largely overcome. PMID:26820410

  10. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia and South America where they negatively impact livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating: ...

  11. The impact of high level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological impact of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10 fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated pre-chill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine treate...

  12. Livestock GRACEnet: A workgroup dedicated to evaluating and mitigating emissions from livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia, greenhouse gases, and other emissions (e.g., particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide) from livestock production systems are being increasingly scrutinized by regulatory agencies. These pollutants, which are also generated by energy, industrial, and transportation se...

  13. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  14. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  18. Sustainable livestock production on rangelands: Emerging trends in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent review of statistics published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that global livestock numbers have increased steadily over the past 30 years. By 2030, livestock numbers in the developing world are expected to reach record highs that will surpass livestock popu...

  19. The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

  20. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inspecting and repairing fences, wells, and windmills would be considered as the production of livestock. On... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production...

  1. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  2. Objective measurements of carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cross, H R; Belk, K E

    1994-01-01

    Lost competitiveness and declining per capita consumption have forced US meat industry sectors to become consumer oriented and address issues related to quality shortfalls. Because industry goals for value and quality-based marketing are becoming a reality, interest in objective carcass evaluation methodology has escalated. Even so, no official instrument grading systems are in place. Research addressing use of A-mode, B-mode and real-time ultrasound technique indicated several distinct advantages: (1) it may be used in live animals; (2) it may be used on slaughter floors before hide removal; (3) with development, it may accurately predict traits related to palatability; (4) it offers no health hazards; (5) it would allow complete automation of grading and remove the element of human error; and (6) with development, it offers great compatability with integrated artificial neural networking technology. However, other systems are now available which may present alternatives. Electrical conductivity (TOBEC) effectively predicts pork carcass composition, and is now used commercially. Potential exists for similar systems in the beef industry. Other instruments (NMR, CAT, PET), with continued development, offer advantages in image resolution and accuracy, but are cost prohibitive at this time. Elastography, a new technique, offers exciting prospects for the future with its potential to predict tenderness.

  3. Elimination of foot-and-mouth disease in South America: lessons and challenges.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, José; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Although vaccines are available and have been instrumental in eliminating the disease from most of the South American animal population, viral circulation still persists in some countries and areas, posing a threat to the advances of the last 60 years by the official veterinary services with considerable support of the livestock sectors. The importance of the disease for the social and economic development of the American continent led to the establishment in 1951 of the Pan American Centre for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), which has been providing technical cooperation to countries for the elimination of the disease. The first FMD national elimination programmes were established in South America around the 1960s and 1970s. To advance the regional elimination efforts in the 1980s, countries agreed on a Plan of Action 1988-2009 of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. The Plan of Action 1988-2009 did not reach the goal of elimination from the continent; and a new Plan of Action 2011-2020 was developed in 2010 based on the experience acquired by the countries and PANAFTOSA during the past 60 years. This plan is now being implemented; several challenges are still to be overcome to ensure the elimination of FMD from the Americas by 2020, however, the goal is achievable.

  4. Elimination of foot-and-mouth disease in South America: lessons and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, José; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Although vaccines are available and have been instrumental in eliminating the disease from most of the South American animal population, viral circulation still persists in some countries and areas, posing a threat to the advances of the last 60 years by the official veterinary services with considerable support of the livestock sectors. The importance of the disease for the social and economic development of the American continent led to the establishment in 1951 of the Pan American Centre for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), which has been providing technical cooperation to countries for the elimination of the disease. The first FMD national elimination programmes were established in South America around the 1960s and 1970s. To advance the regional elimination efforts in the 1980s, countries agreed on a Plan of Action 1988–2009 of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. The Plan of Action 1988–2009 did not reach the goal of elimination from the continent; and a new Plan of Action 2011–2020 was developed in 2010 based on the experience acquired by the countries and PANAFTOSA during the past 60 years. This plan is now being implemented; several challenges are still to be overcome to ensure the elimination of FMD from the Americas by 2020, however, the goal is achievable. PMID:23798699

  5. Impact of exporting dependence on livestock production systems, industry structure, and research.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K L; Kirton, A H

    1997-02-01

    From 84 to 93% of New Zealand's annual production from livestock is exported to over 100 markets throughout the world. This export dependence has produced production systems that are low-cost because the Mediterranean maritime climate allows animals to graze outdoors throughout the year without provision for housing and with minimal requirements for cropping, harvesting, and forage storage. These systems exploit the inherent tendencies for ruminants to have annual production cycles that can be synchronized to use the seasonal availability of pasture, but this means that processing facilities must handle peak supply for brief periods. Processing technology can reduce the impact of peaks in supply that may not match market demand. The disadvantages of seasonality in processing costs are outweighed by lower production costs, as well as by the opportunity to manage large numbers of animals per labor unit. Cooperative structures that are owned by livestock producers are a common feature, especially in New Zealand's dairy industry. This continued preference for cooperatives may reflect the need to have a guaranteed processor for a perishable product such as milk, as well as sharing the risk in an export industry that has scant control over prices received. In addition, management systems for ruminant livestock can only respond slowly to changes in market demand because their production cycles last at least 12 mo and only one or two offspring are produced in each cycle. Export marketing of livestock products is complicated by trade barriers and by dumping of subsidized surpluses. Negotiations to eliminate these practices may mean that livestock production systems in many countries will have to adopt some principles similar to those developed in New Zealand, not because of export dependence but because this dependence has created low-cost systems.

  6. Blow fly responses to semiochemicals produced by decaying carcasses.

    PubMed

    Johansen, H; Solum, M; Knudsen, G K; Hågvar, E B; Norli, H R; Aak, A

    2014-03-01

    Volatiles from mouse carcasses in decay stages ranging from fresh to 33 days old were used to investigate oriented flight and landings in male and female blow flies of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Oriented flight increased significantly from 36% towards fresh carcasses to 68%, 61% and 65% towards carcasses aged 3 days, 6 days and 9 days, respectively. Carcasses aged 20 days and 33 days were significantly less attractive, achieving 51% and 41% attraction, respectively. No differences emerged between the sexes in oriented flight, but a significant increase in female landings at the most attractive carcasses was observed. Headspace collections from the different stages of decay showed a succession in the volatile profile emitted from the carcasses and identified nine chemicals which peak in quantity in concurrence with the most attractive stages of decay. Three of these chemicals also showed dose-response effects as indicated by a significant correlation between the amount present and the proportion of flies responding. Blow flies are important pests and efficient traps are needed. The significant interaction between fly sex and carcass age highlights behavioural differences between male and female blow flies which can be exploited in blow fly trapping. Three new volatile chemicals, butylated hydroxyl toluene, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and nonanal, emitted from dead mice are suggested as potential attractants.

  7. Relationships between carcass quality parameters and genetic types.

    PubMed

    Gispert, M; Font I Furnols, M; Gil, M; Velarde, A; Diestre, A; Carrión, D; Sosnicki, A A; Plastow, G S

    2007-11-01

    It is important for the meat industry, including pig farmers and breeding companies, to know the composition of the carcass including the proportions of the different commercial cuts when making decisions on the type of pigs to be produced and marketed. Carcass composition is influenced significantly by the genotype of the animals. The aim of this work was to characterise carcasses from five different pig genotypes, by means of the quantification and comparison of their physical composition. Carcasses from 500 gilts from five different genetic types were studied. These lines were based on the following breeds: Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Piétrain and a Meishan synthetic population developed from a cross with a Large White based line. Measurements were taken in the carcasses directly with a ruler and with the Fat-O-Meat'er. The carcasses were cut following the European reference method and the four main joints were dissected. Carcasses from the Piétrain based line, which was halothane negative, presented the highest killing-out (83.34%) and were the shortest (81.81cm). The Piétrain based line was also the leanest and the Meishan based line the fattest. The highest proportion of ham (270.9g/kg) and the lowest proportion of belly (97.97g/kg) were found in the Piétrain line. The proportion of lean in all of the dissected cuts was higher in carcasses from this line while the Meishan line presented the highest proportions of intermuscular fat in all of the pieces. Carcasses came from the Piétrain line received the highest conformation scores and they were leaner and with better ham yield.

  8. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  9. Effects of Ochratoxin A on Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Battacone, Gianni; Nudda, Anna; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs. PMID:22069661

  10. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  11. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  12. Gene targeting in livestock: a preview.

    PubMed

    Clark, A J; Burl, S; Denning, C; Dickinson, P

    2000-01-01

    Until recently genetically modified livestock could only be generated by pronuclear injection. The discovery that animals can be cloned by nuclear transfer from cultured somatic cells means that it will now be possible to achieve gene targeting in these species. We discuss current developments in NT, the prospects and technical challenges for introducing targeted changes into the germline by this route, and the types of application for which this new technology will be used.

  13. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  14. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  15. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species

    PubMed Central

    de Simoni Gouveia, João José; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; de Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology. PMID:25071397

  16. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  17. Male germ cell transplantation in livestock.

    PubMed

    Hill, J R; Dobrinski, I

    2006-01-01

    Male germ cell transplantation is a powerful approach to study the control of spermatogenesis with the ultimate goal to enhance or suppress male fertility. In livestock animals, applications can be expanded to provide an alternative method of transgenesis and an alternative means of artificial insemination (AI). The transplantation technique uses testis stem cells, harvested from the donor animal. These donor stem cells are injected into seminiferous tubules, migrate from the lumen to relocate to the basement membrane and, amazingly, they can retain the capability to produce donor sperm in their new host. Adaptation of the mouse technique for livestock is progressing, with gradual gains in efficiency. Germ cell transfer in goats has produced offspring, but not yet in cattle and pigs. In goats and pigs, the applications of germ cell transplantation are mainly in facilitating transgenic animal production. In cattle, successful male germ cell transfer could create an alternative to AI in areas where it is impractical. Large-scale culture of testis stem cells would enhance the use of elite bulls by providing a renewable source of stem cells for transfer. Although still in a developmental state, germ cell transplantation is an emerging technology with the potential to create new opportunities in livestock production. PMID:16478598

  18. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  19. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity. PMID:26442116

  20. Digoxin elimination by exchange transfusion.

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H; Zach, M; Gleispach, H; Beitzke, A

    1977-02-21

    The report covers four cases presenting simultaneous indications for digitalisation and exchange transfusions. Intravenous administration of digoxin was followed: 1. by monitoring of the behaviour of the plasma digoxin level; 2. by determination of the total amount of glycoside eliminated by the blood exchange. Particular attention was paid to the effect of the delay between injection and exchange transfusion on the amount of digoxin eliminated. All four cases showed moderate falls in plasma levels. The amounts of digoxin eliminated by exchange transfusion were in reverse relationship to the delay between administration of digoxin and the blood exchange. At no time did the eliminated fraction exceed 5% of the total amount present in the body. PMID:837948

  1. Electronic weighing, identification and subdermal body temperature sensing of range livestock

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Landt, J.A.; Salazar, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Individual animal weights can be obtained manually or automatically in a computer-compatible format with an electronic scale. If an electronic identification, subdermal body temperature sensing unit is interfaced with an electronic scale, the weight, identification, and subdermal body temperature of individually identified animals can be obtained either manually or automatically, and transcriptional and phonetic errors thus eliminated. Electronics can be used at remote locations despite extreme temperatures, dust, and fluctuation in battery power. For research purposes, daily weight fluctuations, watering behavior, and subdermal body temperature can be recorded continuously. When the system becomes commercially available, increased livestock production at a lower cost will be possible.

  2. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  3. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  4. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interior surfaces of the cargo space. Substances permitted for such use are: (a) “Liquified phenol” (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in the proportion of at least 6 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water....

  5. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interior surfaces of the cargo space. Substances permitted for such use are: (a) “Liquified phenol” (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in the proportion of at least 6 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water....

  6. Stream food web response to a salmon carcass analogue addition in two central Idaho, U.S.A. streams

    PubMed Central

    KOHLER, ANDRE E; RUGENSKI, AMANDA; TAKI, DOUG

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon and steelhead once contributed large amounts of marine-derived carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America (California, Oregon, Washington and Idaho). Declines in historically abundant anadromous salmonid populations represent a significant loss of returning nutrients across a large spatial scale. Recently, a manufactured salmon carcass analogue was developed and tested as a safe and effective method of delivering nutrients to freshwater and linked riparian ecosystems where marine-derived nutrients have been reduced or eliminated. We compared four streams: two reference and two treatment streams using salmon carcass analogue(s) (SCA) as a treatment. Response variables measured included: surface streamwater chemistry; nutrient limitation status; carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes; periphyton chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass (AFDM); macroinvertebrate density and biomass; and leaf litter decomposition rates. Within each stream, upstream reference and downstream treatment reaches were sampled 1 year before, during, and 1 year after the addition of SCA. Periphyton chlorophyll a and AFDM and macroinvertebrate biomass were significantly higher in stream reaches treated with SCA. Enriched stable isotope (δ15N) signatures were observed in periphyton and macroinvertebrate samples collected from treatment reaches in both treatment streams, indicating trophic transfer from SCA to consumers. Densities of Ephemerellidae, Elmidae and Brachycentridae were significantly higher in treatment reaches. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure, as measured by taxonomic richness and diversity, did not appear to respond significantly to SCA treatment. Leaf breakdown rates were variable among treatment streams: significantly higher in one stream treatment reach but not the other. Salmon carcass analogue treatments had no detectable effect on measured water chemistry variables. Our results

  7. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  8. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries.

  9. Malaria elimination: surveillance and response

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Daniel J; Winters, Anna M; Hamer, Davidson H

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria-associated morbidity and mortality across the globe. Nevertheless, sustained malaria control is essential to continue this downward trend. In some countries, where aggressive malaria control has reduced malaria to a low burden level, elimination, either nationally or subnationally, is now the aim. As countries or areas with a low malaria burden move towards elimination, there is a transition away from programs of universal coverage towards a strategy of localized detection and response to individual malaria cases. To do so and succeed, it is imperative that a strong surveillance and response system is supported, that community cadres are trained to provide appropriate diagnostics and treatment, and that field diagnostics are further developed such that their sensitivity allows for the detection and subsequent treatment of malaria reservoirs in low prevalence environments. To be certain, there are big challenges on the road to elimination, notably the development of drug and insecticide resistance. Nevertheless, countries like Zambia are making great strides towards implementing systems that support malaria elimination in target areas. Continued development of new diagnostics and antimalarial therapies is needed to support progress in malaria control and elimination. PMID:23265423

  10. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  11. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  12. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Salem, CB Ould Ahmed; Schneegans, F; Chollet, JY; Jemli, MH et

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus. PMID:22347274

  13. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T; Bedunah, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  14. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard B.; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  15. Livestock production systems in developing countries: status, drivers, trends.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, H; Wassenaar, T; Jutzi, S

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes and assesses the current status of livestock production systems, the drivers of global livestock production, and the major trends in such production. The analysis covers the six major livestock species: cattle and buffaloes, goats and sheep, pigs and chickens. Global drivers of the livestock sector include economic growth and income, demographic and land use changes, dietary adjustments and technological change. The rate of change and direction of livestock development vary greatly among world regions, with Asia showing the most rapid growth and structural change. The paper also examines system dynamics, by analysing the ways livestock production has adjusted to external forces. A brief discussion of how these trends link to food safety concludes the paper.

  16. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances. PMID:23473873

  17. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    PubMed

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  18. The Burden of Livestock Parasites on the Poor.

    PubMed

    Rist, Cassidy L; Garchitorena, Andres; Ngonghala, Calistus N; Gillespie, Thomas R; Bonds, Matthew H

    2015-11-01

    Parasitic diseases of humans and livestock are ubiquitous in the developing world and have substantial impacts on human wellbeing. For the estimated one billion people living in poverty who rely on livestock for their livelihoods, parasites steal valuable nutritional resources through multiple pathways. This diversion of nutrients ultimately contributes to chronic malnutrition, greater human disease burdens, and decreased productivity of both humans and livestock. PMID:26604161

  19. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA. PMID:26338130

  20. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  1. Integrated crop/livestock systems reduce late-fall livestock feeding costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs during the late-fall and winter periods represent the greatest cost to cow-calf production in the northern Great Plains. Integration of crop and livestock enterprises may improve sustainability through synergisms among enterprises reducing waste and improving productivity, and providing b...

  2. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology. PMID:25000791

  3. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  4. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle IV): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Crouse, J D

    1996-05-01

    Carcass and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from 888 steers obtained from mating Hereford and Angus cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Charolais (Ch), Gelbvieh (Gb), Pinzgauer (Pz), Shorthorn (Sh), Galloway (Gw), Longhorn (Lh), Nellore (Ne), Piedmontese (Pm), and Salers (Sa) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (324 kg), fat thickness (1.2 cm), fat trim percentage (23%), and marbling (small00) end points. At a constant age of 426 d, carcasses from Ch steers were heaviest (P < .05) and Gw and Lh carcasses were lightest (P < .05). Adjusted fat thickness was greatest (P < .05) on carcasses from HA and least (P < .05) on carcasses from Ch, Gb, Lh, and Pm steers. USDA numerical yield grades were lowest (P < .05) for carcasses from Pm and highest (P < .05) for carcasses from HA, Ne, and Sh steers. Marbling scores were highest (P < .05) for carcasses from HA, Pz, and Sh and lowest (P < .05) for carcasses from Ch, Ne, and Pm steers. Longissimus thoracis from Pz had a lower (P < .05) shear force than that from all other breeds except HA, Gb, and Pm. Longissimus thoracis of carcasses from Ne steers was least (P < .05) tender. Adjustment of traits to various end points resulted in some changes in sire breed differences depending on the end point and the trait being considered but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of carcass and longissimus palatability traits.

  5. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings.

    PubMed

    Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Lallu, K R

    2015-10-01

    Dead copepods (carcasses) are widespread in aquatic systems, but their scientific quantification is rare due to the difficulty in discriminating them from live ones. In this paper, we hypothesized that due to large spatial and temporal changes in hydrography in the Cochin backwaters, the percentage of copepod carcasses in the system could also change significantly on a spatial and temporal scale. In order to understand this aspect, we quantified the live and dead copepods in the Cochin backwaters under different hydrographical settings based on live and mortal staining technique. The most prominent temporal hydrographical feature during the study period was the large decline in salinity across the system, which was more pronounced downstream (15-20 units) and was caused by the large freshwater influx associated with the southwest monsoon. During the entire sampling period, copepod carcasses were pervasive all over the study area with large spatial and temporal variations in their percentage contribution (2.5-35.8 %) to the total community abundance. During all sampling, carcasses concentrated more in the downstream region, with maximum turbidity (16.5-35.8 %), than in the upstream region (2.5-14.5 %). The percentage of carcasses was the highest during the onset of the southwest monsoon (av. 23.64 ± 8.09 %), followed by the pre-southwest monsoon (av. 13.59 ± 6.72 %) and southwest monsoon (av. 8.75 ± 4.14 %). During the onset of the southwest monsoon, copepod carcasses in the downstream were contributed by ∼80 % high saline and ∼15 % low saline species, indicating a salinity shock-induced mortality. On the other hand, the cumulative effect of the long residence time of the Cochin backwaters and high partial predation rate of carnivores contributed to the high abundance of carcasses during the pre-monsoon. PMID:27614959

  6. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  7. Novel livestock water tank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Novel photovoltaic system provides freeze protection for livestock tanks. Ranchers and farmers living in northern climates traditionally use electric resistance heaters to prevent there stock tanks from freezing in the winter. This traditional method has two distinct drawbacks, it is expensive and it uses large quantities of electrical power each year. This project is to design to keep water tanks ice free without either of those two drawbacks. In this project a small photovoltaic under 100 watts powered an air bubbling system similar to ice prevention systems currently used to keep year round harbors open. This project is designed so that water from the bottom of the stock tank flows to the bottom of heat exchange barrier box 6 feet underground. Heat from the surrounding earth will flow into the heat exchanger and the incoming cool water from the stock tank above. An airbubbler similar to that found in many aquariums will push the warm water up and will discharge the warm water into livestock tanks.

  8. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To be considered eligible livestock for livestock feed losses and grazing...

  9. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To be considered eligible livestock for livestock feed losses and grazing...

  10. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts....

  11. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts....

  12. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts....

  13. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts....

  14. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts....

  15. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligible livestock producer will be calculated based on losses for no more than 90 days during the calendar year. Payment calculations for feed losses will be based on 60 percent of the producer's actual cost... eligible adverse weather or eligible loss condition, as provided in § 760.203(d)(1); (2) Livestock...

  16. The effect of multiple plant toxins on livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When livestock are poisoned by plants in a range setting, there is normally more than one poisonous plant in that area. Additionally, many plants contain more than one compound that is toxic to livestock. Frequently, much is known regarding the toxicity of the individual plants and their individual ...

  17. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  18. Livestock Responses to Complementary Forages in Shortgrass Steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage gaps for livestock producers exist in the spring and fall in shortgrass steppe because of dominance by the perennial warm-season grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis). Livestock gains of yearling Hereford heifers were evaluated during 1996-1999 on two complementary forage grasses [‘Bozoisky-S...

  19. Livestock responses to complementary forages in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage gaps for livestock producers exist in the spring and fall in shortgrass steppe because of dominance by the perennial warm-season grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis). Livestock gains of yearling Hereford heifers were evaluated during 1996-1999 on two complementary forage grasses [‘Bozoisky-S...

  20. Ammonia Volatilization Loss from Surface Applied Livestock Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock manures used in agriculture reduces N uptake by crops and negatively impacts air quality. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate NH3 emission from different livestock manures applied to two soils: Candler fins sand (CFS; light-textured soil, pH 6.8 and...

  1. Wolf-livestock interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since reintroduction in 1995, gray wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Although rough tallies of livestock death/injury losses resulting from wolf predation are made each year, we know almost nothing about the indirect effects of wolf-livestock interactions...

  2. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  3. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  4. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  5. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14 Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing...

  6. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14 Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing...

  7. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14 Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing...

  8. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14 Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing...

  9. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eligible livestock producer will be calculated based on losses for no more than 90 days during the calendar year. Payment calculations for feed losses will be based on 60 percent of the producer's actual cost... eligible adverse weather or eligible loss condition, as provided in § 760.203(d)(1); (2) Livestock...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding, driving across, allowing on, pasturing or...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  19. Virtual herding for flexible livestock management - a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging livestock play a pivotal role globally in the conversion of plant tissue into products and services that support man’s many and changing lifestyles. With domestication came the task of providing livestock with an adequate plane of nutrition while simultaneously managing vegetation for s...

  20. Effects of dietary ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and carcass cutability in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Arp, T S; Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Scanga, J A; McKenna, D R; Kolath, W H; Chapman, P L; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-02-01

    British × Continental steers (initial BW = 484.6 kg) were fed at a commercial feed yard to evaluate the effects of β-agonists on live performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass subprimal yield. Weights and ultrasonic measurements were used to allocate steers to pens (n = 40) divided equally into 4 blocks, with 2 treatment replicates per block. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: control; ractopamine-HCl (RH) fed at 200 or 300 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1), or 400 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1) top dress for the final 30 d of feeding; or zilpaterol-HCl (ZH) fed at 7.5 mg/kg beginning 23 d before slaughter with a 3-d withdrawal period. Steers were harvested by block at a commercial facility over 4 wk. Carcass based performance measures were calculated using initial pen weights and actual DMI. From each pen, eight carcasses that were within ± 13.6 kg of the mean pen HCW were selected such that two carcasses were within each of the following four Yield Grade (YG) ranges: YG ≤ 2.8; 2.9-3.2; 3.3-3.5; YG > 3.5. Carcasses were fabricated by plant personnel to determine subprimal yield. Steers fed ZH had higher carcass-based ADG and carcass-based G:F compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Carcass-based ADG and carcass-based G:F were higher in RH treatments compared with controls (P < 0.05). Steers fed ZH had higher dressing percentages (1.0 to 1.6%) and larger LM area (4.3 to 6.7 cm(2)) than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Use of RH 400 and ZH increased HCW 6.3 and 11.1 kg, respectively compared with controls (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, RH 300 and ZH decreased marbling score and the frequency of carcasses qualifying for upper 2/3 Choice premiums (P < 0.05). Beta-agonists increased subprimal yield from the round and loin; however, blade meat was the only cut from the rib or chuck affected by β-agonists. Results from this study indicated improvements in performance and carcass traits as a result of β-agonist use; however, differences

  1. 9 CFR 311.1 - Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adulterated carcasses and parts; general. 311.1 Section 311.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... disease or condition: Provided, That no product shall be passed for human food under any such section... exercise his judgment regarding the disposition of all carcasses or parts of carcasses under this part in...

  2. 9 CFR 311.1 - Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adulterated carcasses and parts; general. 311.1 Section 311.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... disease or condition: Provided, That no product shall be passed for human food under any such section... exercise his judgment regarding the disposition of all carcasses or parts of carcasses under this part in...

  3. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs... the upper shank of the leg, where small amounts of serous infiltrates or small edematous patches...

  4. 75 FR 28763 - Permission To Use Air Inflation of Meat Carcasses and Parts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... inflation with air of carcasses or parts of carcasses (35 FR 15568). On September 5, 1989, FSIS modified the... removal of hides and foot hair (54 FR 36755). Establishments interested in the use of air inflation... of carcasses (54 FR 36755). However, the Agency recognized in that final rule that air...

  5. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  6. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  7. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  8. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  9. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  10. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  11. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  12. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  13. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  15. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  16. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  17. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  18. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  19. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  20. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  1. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  2. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  3. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  4. Recovery of Salmonella from retail broilers by a whole-carcass enrichment procedure.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M; Fletcher, D L; Cason, J A; Berrang, M E

    2003-03-01

    Fresh whole broiler carcasses were purchased from grocery stores over a 20-week period. Carcasses were selected on the basis of their having intact packages and unique U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) plant numbers and sell-by dates, such that each bird represented a single processing plant-processing day combination. Carcasses were tested for Salmonella with a rinse aliquot obtained after whole-bird incubation in the rinse media for 24 h. On the basis of the number of unique processing plants (USDA plant numbers) and expiration dates involved, the number of birds available each week ranged from 6 to 17. Over the 20-week period, 251 independent carcasses from 14 processing plants were tested. The percentages of carcasses testing positive for Salmonella ranged from 0 (for 1 week) to >60% (for 3 weeks). For only 4 of the 20 weeks was an incidence of Salmonella-positive carcasses of <20% found. For the entire 20-week study, 85 (33.9%) of the 251 carcasses tested were found to be Salmonella positive. For those processing plants from which >10 carcasses were obtained, the percentages of carcasses testing positive for Salmonella ranged from <20 (two plants) to >40% (four plants). These results indicate that a whole-carcass enrichment may be more sensitive for the detection of Salmonella-positive carcasses than the traditional whole-carcass rinse followed by immediate testing of a subsample aliquot when small numbers of Salmonella are expected. PMID:12636299

  5. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  6. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index.

  7. Eliminating sexism in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, T

    1993-01-01

    Sexism exists in many nursing classrooms without the teacher or students being aware of it. Speech patterns, written-communication, and pedagogical styles may contribute to sexism. Nurse educators need to take measures to identify and eliminate sexism from the classroom, because it subordinates and limits students. The classroom should promote gender-free situations that enhance and contribute to learning and advancement of all students.

  8. [Aspects of animal welfare in livestock production].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2000-12-01

    The modern consumer is increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals which are kept in intensive systems on specialised farms where the health and well-being is almost completely dependent on the will, ability and care of the farmer. Further demands related to animal production are consumer health (quality and safety of food products), the protection of the environment and cheap food. The currently used husbandry systems are man made and emphasise automation which requires permanent critical observation of the welfare of the animals. Ethological indicators are equally important as health and performance to evaluate keeping systems. Future animal farming will be influenced by new technologies such as electronic animal identification and milking robots, and more important by biotechnology and genome analysis. Veterinary surgeons and farmers have to co-operate on the basis of scientifically sound animal welfare schemes which help to protect our farm animals in modern and intensive livestock production systems.

  9. Groundwater pollution by nitrates from livestock wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, V.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Utilization of wastes from livestock complexes for irrigation involves the danger of groundwater pollution by nitrates. In order to prevent and minimize pollution, it is necessary to apply geological-hydrogeological evidence and concepts to the situation of wastewater irrigation for the purposes of studying natural groundwater protectiveness and predicting changes in groundwater quality as a result of infiltrating wastes. The procedure of protectiveness evaluation and quality prediction is described. With groundwater pollution by nitrate nitrogen, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen noticeably increases. One of the reasons for this change is the process of denitrification due to changes in the hydrogeochemical conditions in a layer. At representative field sites, it is necessary to collect systematic stationary observations of the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in groundwater and changes in redox conditions and temperature.

  10. Facilitative glucose transporters in livestock species.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Abe, H

    2000-01-01

    The study of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) requires carefully done immunological experiments and sensitive molecular biology approaches to identify the various mechanisms which control GLUT expression at the RNA and protein levels. The cloning of species-specific GLUT cDNAs showed that GLUT4 and GLUT1 diverge less among species than other GLUT isoforms. The key role of GLUT in glucose homeostasis has been demonstrated in livestock species. In vitro studies have suggested specific roles of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in avian cells. In vivo studies have demonstrated a regulation of GLUTs (especially of GLUT4) by nutritional and hormonal factors in pigs and cattle, in lactating cows and goats and throughout the foetal life in the placenta and tissues of lambs and calves. All these results suggest that any changes in GLUT expression and activity (such as GLUT4 in muscles) could modify nutrient partitioning and tissue metabolism, and hence, the qualities of animal products (milk, meat).

  11. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  12. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who...

  13. The use of forward looking infrared to locate bird carcasses in agricultural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Helicopter-mounted Forward Looking Infrared has mainly been used for large animal censuses. I examined the use of this instrument in locating bird carcasses in agricultural fields to improve current carcass searching techniques. Mallard (Arias platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) carcasses were measured with an infrared thermometer immediately following death and for 5 consecutive nights to determine the optimal time for detection. Preliminary flights were conducted to design a protocol that was used in test flights. Bird species (mallard versus quail) and cover type (bare ground versus short grass) were compared in the flights. Carcasses were recovered with the aid of Global Positioning Systems. Carcasses remained above ambient ground temperatures for all or part of night 1. Quail carcass temperatures decreased faster than mallard carcasses. In warmer weather, carcass temperatures increased 3-5 nights following death. In colder weather, carcasses were 1-2 C cooler than the ground after the first night. Mallard and quail carcasses were both detected on bare ground and short grass cover types with Forward Looking Infrared. The carcass recovery rates were 40% arid 30% on bare ground and short grass, respectively. There were no significant differences in detection for species or cover type. In warmer weather, carcasses could be detected for several hours following death and again 3-5 nights after death. Carcasses may be detected as objects cooler than the ground in colder weather. Forward Looking Infrared was successful in detecting mallard and quail carcasses. Further research should evaluate improved mapping techniques to enhance carcass recovery.

  14. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Thylefors, B; Alleman, M

    2006-12-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a severely disabling filarial disease that is endemic in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen. The disease causes a high burden of blindness and visual loss, along with itching and other severe dermal manifestations. It constitutes a significant obstacle to socio-economic development in highly endemic riverine areas, where the Simulium blackflies that act as vectors breed. Onchocerciasis has been subject to control efforts for more than 50 years, initially mainly through vector control but since 1988, with free access to ivermectin (Mectizan), also through large-scale chemotherapy. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa operated successfully from 1974 to 2002 in 11 countries, covering the worst savannah foci of the disease through vector control and, in its later stages, also through ivermectin distribution. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control was established in 1995, to cover the remaining endemic areas in Africa, with the sustainable annual distribution of ivermectin by 2010 its main goal. Meanwhile, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas is making rapid progress in the virtual regional elimination of the disease through ivermectin distribution, which is achievable primarily because the vectors in the western hemisphere are less efficient than those elsewhere. The global elimination of onchocerciasis as a public-health problem is now within reach but this will require long-term strategies to secure the great gains made so far, through ivermectin treatment and local vector control. Research is needed to define the optimal approaches with the existing tools and to intensify the development of alternative strategies, such as macrofilaricidal drugs for wide-scale use. PMID:17227651

  15. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Thylefors, B; Alleman, M

    2006-12-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a severely disabling filarial disease that is endemic in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen. The disease causes a high burden of blindness and visual loss, along with itching and other severe dermal manifestations. It constitutes a significant obstacle to socio-economic development in highly endemic riverine areas, where the Simulium blackflies that act as vectors breed. Onchocerciasis has been subject to control efforts for more than 50 years, initially mainly through vector control but since 1988, with free access to ivermectin (Mectizan), also through large-scale chemotherapy. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa operated successfully from 1974 to 2002 in 11 countries, covering the worst savannah foci of the disease through vector control and, in its later stages, also through ivermectin distribution. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control was established in 1995, to cover the remaining endemic areas in Africa, with the sustainable annual distribution of ivermectin by 2010 its main goal. Meanwhile, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas is making rapid progress in the virtual regional elimination of the disease through ivermectin distribution, which is achievable primarily because the vectors in the western hemisphere are less efficient than those elsewhere. The global elimination of onchocerciasis as a public-health problem is now within reach but this will require long-term strategies to secure the great gains made so far, through ivermectin treatment and local vector control. Research is needed to define the optimal approaches with the existing tools and to intensify the development of alternative strategies, such as macrofilaricidal drugs for wide-scale use.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  17. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  18. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Jameson, R.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammlas. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982-1983 was the dominate influence in terms of interannual variation in carcassdeposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specificand were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach subtrate type and local patterns of san deposition influenced the location of carcass carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  19. Carcass mass has little influence on the structure of gravesoil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sophie; Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how variables, such as carcass mass, affect the succession pattern of microbes in soils during decomposition. To investigate the effects of carcass mass on the soil microbial community, soils associated with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses of four different masses were sampled until the 15th day of decomposition during the month of June in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska. Soils underneath swine of 1, 20, 40, and 50 kg masses were investigated in triplicate, as well as control sites not associated with a carcass. Soil microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the archaeal, bacterial (16S), and eukaryotic (18S) rRNA genes in soil samples. We conclude that time of decomposition was a significant influence on the microbial community, but carcass mass was not. The gravesoil associated with 1 kg mass carcasses differs most compared to the gravesoil associated with other carcass masses. We also identify the 15 most abundant bacterial and eukaryotic taxa, and discuss changes in their abundance as carcass decomposition progressed. Finally, we show significant decreases in alpha diversity for carcasses of differing mass in pre-carcass rupture (days 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 postmortem) versus post-carcass rupture (days 9 and 15 postmortem) microbial communities.

  20. The effect of high-level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Bartenfeld, L N; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological effect of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10-fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated prechill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine-treated carcasses were subjected to a 1-min drench in 500 mL of a 500 mg/kg chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite). Water-drenched carcasses were treated the same way except water was used in place of chlorinated water drench. Control carcasses were not drenched. All carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 450 mL of buffered peptone water, from which 50 mL of the rinsate was removed for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli, and total coliforms (TC). The entire carcass was then incubated 24 h at 37°C (whole carcass enrichment, WCE) for recovery of Salmonella. Levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were lower by 0.6 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.8 for E. coli, and 0.9 for TC when carcasses were drenched with water compared with undrenched control levels. Similarly, the levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were further lower by 1.0 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.5 for E. coli, and 0.5 for TC, when carcasses were drenched with 500 mg/kg of chlorine compared with water. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella among the treatments (29% positive for control, 26% positive for water, 38% positive for chlorinated). These results indicate that drenching eviscerated carcasses with water or chlorinated water at 500 mg/kg significantly, but minimally, reduces the numbers of APC, E. coli, and TC bacteria recovered compared with undrenched carcasses. However, neither drenching carcasses with water or high chlorine had an effect on the prevalence of Salmonella that remain with the carcass as determined by WCE. The results of this study confirms the importance of maintaining and replenishing free chlorine for

  1. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  2. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries. PMID:21309458

  3. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation.

  4. Toxoplasmosis in livestock in Italy: an epidemiological update.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Scala, A

    2008-06-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human being and other warm-blooded animals. It has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia. Public health organizations repeatedly encourage the collection of accurate data about T. gondii in animals and humans due to its medical importance as a major source of parasitic zoonosis. For these reasons, epidemiological updates on toxoplasmosis in livestock are strongly advised also to plan control strategies. In the present paper, seroprevalence data on T. gondii that have been recorded in livestock from different Italian regions over the last 3 decades are reviewed, showing the high level of exposure of livestock to this parasite.

  5. The feasibility of eliminating podoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; M Tukahebwa, Edrida; Umulisa, Irenee; Molyneux, David H; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Podoconiosis is an inflammatory disease caused by prolonged contact with irritant minerals in soil. Major symptoms include swelling of the lower limb (lymphoedema) and acute pain. The disease has major social and economic consequences through stigma and loss of productivity. In the last five years there has been good progress in podoconiosis research and control. Addressing poverty at household level and infrastructure development such as roads, water and urbanization can all help to reduce podoconiosis incidence. Specific control methods include the use of footwear, regular foot hygiene and floor coverings. Secondary and tertiary prevention are based on the management of the lymphoedema-related morbidity and include foot hygiene, foot care, wound care, compression, exercises, elevation of the legs and treatment of acute infections. Certain endemic countries are taking the initiative to include podoconiosis in their national plans for the control of neglected tropical diseases and to scale up interventions against the disease. Advocacy is needed for provision of shoes as a health intervention. We suggest case definitions and elimination targets as a starting point for elimination of the disease. PMID:26600613

  6. 9 CFR 354.127 - Condemnation and treatment of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Condemnation and treatment of carcasses. 354.127 Section 354.127 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  7. 9 CFR 354.127 - Condemnation and treatment of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condemnation and treatment of carcasses. 354.127 Section 354.127 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  9. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  10. 9 CFR 354.128 - Certification of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of carcasses. 354.128 Section 354.128 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  11. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS)...

  12. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Register (78 FR 63959-63960, Docket No. APHIS- 2013-0044) a notice \\1\\ stating our intent to prepare an... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...

  13. Live and carcass leg characteristics in terminally-sired lambs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live and carcass leg characteristics of F1 wether lambs were investigated to determine whether there were terminal-sire breed differences. Over a 3-yr period, Columbia, MARCIII, Suffolk, and Texel rams were mated with mature Rambouillet ewes to produce the lambs (n=521). Lambs were finished in a fee...

  14. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  16. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  17. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits. PMID:12008662

  18. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  19. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions.

  20. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  1. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  2. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits.

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Following Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Suler, Denis; Mullins, David; Rudge, Travis; Ashurst, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection. PMID:27583243

  4. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Greenlee, M Heather West

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in mink, and Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. These diseases are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (called PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system and other tissues, depending on the host species. Typically, TSEs are acquired through exposure to infectious material, but inherited and spontaneous TSEs also occur. All TSEs share pathologic features and infectious mechanisms but have distinct differences in transmission and epidemiology due to host factors and strain differences encoded within the structure of the misfolded prion protein. The possibility that BSE can be transmitted to humans as the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has brought attention to this family of diseases. This review is focused on the TSEs of livestock: bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and scrapie in sheep and goats.

  5. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Greenlee, M Heather West

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in mink, and Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. These diseases are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (called PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system and other tissues, depending on the host species. Typically, TSEs are acquired through exposure to infectious material, but inherited and spontaneous TSEs also occur. All TSEs share pathologic features and infectious mechanisms but have distinct differences in transmission and epidemiology due to host factors and strain differences encoded within the structure of the misfolded prion protein. The possibility that BSE can be transmitted to humans as the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has brought attention to this family of diseases. This review is focused on the TSEs of livestock: bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and scrapie in sheep and goats. PMID:25991695

  6. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  7. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  10. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  11. Livestock Waste Management in a Quality Environment. Circular 1074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedele, D. G., Ed.

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of livestock operations. It discusses a systematic approach to resolving problems through feedlot runoff control, liquid manure handling, hauling and lagooning, and ditching. (CS)

  12. 7 CFR 760.1103 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beginning date of the disaster period; (7) Any wild free roaming livestock, including horses and deer; (8... commercial use as part of a farming operation. Such excluded uses include, but are not limited to, wild...

  13. 7 CFR 760.1103 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beginning date of the disaster period; (7) Any wild free roaming livestock, including horses and deer; (8... commercial use as part of a farming operation. Such excluded uses include, but are not limited to, wild...

  14. 7 CFR 760.1103 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beginning date of the disaster period; (7) Any wild free roaming livestock, including horses and deer; (8... commercial use as part of a farming operation. Such excluded uses include, but are not limited to, wild...

  15. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  16. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  17. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  18. River and groundwater nitrogen contamination caused by livestock production.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, T; Omura, N; Fujita, K; Zhang, Z Y; Suzuki, K; Ihara, I; Morioka, R

    2001-02-01

    Water quality of rivers in Japanese domestic dairy and pig raising regions, as well as the groundwater in these regions, was investigated. Regarding the method of disposing livestock excreta, interview results from the livestock production farmers and the results of water quality analysis were evaluated. It is concluded that the rivers and the groundwater were contaminated due to inappropriate disposal methods of the livestock excreta. The concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the rivers and groundwater were high. The sludge from the bottom of the rivers was also investigated and bacteria which are characteristic of excreta of dairy cattle and pigs were detected. The above pollutants were, therefore, considered to be of livestock origin.

  19. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) To be considered eligible, livestock must meet all the following conditions: (1) Be adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats,...

  20. 2. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) Buckingham Road, cattle pens, and Stock yards Autopark. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  1. 8. Detail of viaduct, livestock exchange building to left, stock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of viaduct, livestock exchange building to left, stock yards autopark right. View to north. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  2. 1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) cattle pens and Buckingham Road, which terminates at "L" Street. View to north. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  3. 1. General overview, Buckingham Road in foreground, livestock exchange building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General overview, Buckingham Road in foreground, livestock exchange building to right. View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Motor Truck No. 1, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  4. 6. Detail of light standards, sidewalk, and railing, with livestock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of light standards, sidewalk, and railing, with livestock exchange building to right. View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  5. Human anthrax outbreak associated with livestock exposure: Georgia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Navdarashvili, A; Doker, T J; Geleishvili, M; Haberling, D L; Kharod, G A; Rush, T H; Maes, E; Zakhashvili, K; Imnadze, P; Bower, W A; Walke, H T; Shadomy, S V

    2016-01-01

    Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-18·1, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.

  6. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  7. Elimination communication as colic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Geraldine J

    2014-09-01

    Colic is generally defined as excessive crying in early infancy and can have negative consequences on the infant as well as on the infant's family life. Excessive crying can result in escalating parental stress levels, abusive caregiver response, increased risk of shaken baby syndrome and parental postpartum depression. In addition to excessive crying, symptoms and descriptors of infant colic include inconsolable crying, screaming, legs drawn up against the abdomen, furrowing of eyebrows, distended abdomen, arched back, passing gas, post-feeding crying and difficulty defecating. There are few well-designed, reproducible, randomized, large-scale studies which demonstrate efficacy of any therapeutic method for colic. An unexplored etiology is that colic is functionally related to a decrease in stooling frequency. Gut distention may periodically result in intensifying discomfort for the infant and in concomitant inconsolable crying. Elimination communication (EC; also known as Natural Infant Hygiene and sometimes referred to as infant potty training, baby-led potty training or assisted infant toilet training) involves the use of cues by which the infant signals to the caregiver that the infant needs to micturate or defecate. Such cues can include types of crying, squirming, straining, wriggling, grimacing, fussing, vocalizing, intent look at caregiver, red face, passing gas and grunting, many of which are the same initial symptoms related to the onset of colicky infant states. A caregiver's attentive and nurturant response to an infant's cues involve uncovering the infant's intergluteal cleft and cradling the infant gently and non-coercively in a supported, secure squatting position. This position will increase the infant's anorectal angle thus facilitating complete defecation. It is hypothesized that effective and timely elimination will cause increased physical comfort for the infant; colic symptoms will concomitantly decrease.

  8. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  9. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species. PMID:17318699

  10. Comparison of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of food poisoning outbreak isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Johler, Sophia; Layer, Franziska; Stephan, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the etiological agent in a variety of infections in humans and livestock and produces enterotoxins leading to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent foodborne intoxication diseases worldwide. Pork and bovine milk are considered possible sources of SFP because pig skin is often colonized by S. aureus and bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus is common, but conclusive data are limited. The objective of the present study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with cases of SFP with isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses. DNA microarray analysis and spa gene typing were performed with 100 S. aureus isolates: 20 isolates related to outbreaks of SFP in humans, 39 isolates obtained from pig carcasses, and 41 isolates collected from bovine mastitis milk. No overlap in spa types was observed for SFP isolates (t008, t015, t018, t024, t056, t084, t279, t377, t383, t648, t733, t912, t1239, t1270, t4802, and t6969) and isolates gathered from milk or pork. The porcine isolates were assigned to t034, t208, t337, t524, t899, t1939, t2922, t2971, t4475, and t7006, and the bovine isolates belonged to t267, t524, t529, t1403, t2953, t7007, t7008, and t7013. Comparison of microarray profiles revealed similar virulence gene patterns for isolates collected from the same host (pigs or cattle) but few similarities between SFP isolate profiles and the profiles of isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses. Although only some bovine and porcine isolates possessed the β-lactamase gene blaZ (milk, 24%; pork, 28%), significantly higher numbers of SFP isolates contained blaZ (90%). Investigations of these isolates provided no evidence that pork or bovine mastitis milk represent common sources of SFP.

  11. QTL analysis of body weight and carcass body length traits in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Park, H B; Lee, J B; Jung, E J; Kim, B M; Kim, H I; Ahn, S J; Ko, M S; Cho, I C; Lim, H T

    2014-08-01

    Growth traits, such as body weight and carcass body length, directly affect productivity and economic efficiency in the livestock industry. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect body weight, growth curve parameters and carcass body length in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs. Eight phenotypes related to growth were measured in approximately 1000 F2 progeny. All experimental animals were subjected to genotypic analysis using 173 microsatellite markers located throughout the pig genome. The least squares regression approach was used to conduct the QTL analysis. For body weight traits, we mapped 16 genome-wide significant QTL on SSC1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 12 as well as 22 suggestive QTL on SSC2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16 and 17. On SSC12, we identified a major QTL affecting body weight at 140 days of age that accounted for 4.3% of the phenotypic variance, which was the highest test statistic (F-ratio = 45.6 under the additive model, nominal P = 2.4 × 10(-11) ) observed in this study. We also showed that there were significant QTL on SSC2, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 12 affecting carcass body length and growth curve parameters. Interestingly, the QTL on SSC2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 17 influencing the growth-related traits showed an obvious trend for co-localization. In conclusion, the identified QTL may play an important role in investigating the genetic structure underlying the phenotypic variation of growth in pigs.

  12. Weight decline in body, carcass, organs, and ``gut fill'' of sheep during the long dry seasons of the sub-Saharan West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaku, O.; Attah, S.

    1986-06-01

    Data were collected from 188 indigenous (92 Uda and 96 Yankasa) breeds of sheep slaughtered at Maiduguri abbatoir from November 1983 to May 1984 to study decline in weight of body, carcass, organs, and “gut fill” in animals during the long dry seasons of the sub-Saharan West Africa. There was a highly significant (P<0.001) decline in all traits, which was most rapid by March May (the hottest season), which is also the end of the long dry spell. From December to May the skin suffered greatest decline (about 58%), followed by the intestine (about 48%), liver, and stomach (about 44% respectively), and the head (about 41%). Total decline was 32% and 30% for body and carcass weights respectively. The Uda, which is the larger breed, apparently suffered greater overall depreciation. Both the absolute and relative weights of the liver seem larger in tropical- than in temperate-type sheep. However, liveweight, empty body, carcass, skin weights obtained herein are comparable with data from lambs of only 2-to 16-week old temperate sheep. Also the highest “gut fill” (3.91 kg, about 11% of body weight) recorded for these adult tropical sheep was far inferior to the 6.58 kg or 17% of body weight recorded for 16-week old lambs of temperate sheep. These may be forms of physiological responses to warm tropical environments, or simply, a very good reflection of the nutritional differences existing between animals of the tropical world on one hand and those of the temperate countries on the other. Studies on these topics would prove invaluable for successful livestock improvement programmes here.

  13. QTL analysis of body weight and carcass body length traits in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Park, H B; Lee, J B; Jung, E J; Kim, B M; Kim, H I; Ahn, S J; Ko, M S; Cho, I C; Lim, H T

    2014-08-01

    Growth traits, such as body weight and carcass body length, directly affect productivity and economic efficiency in the livestock industry. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect body weight, growth curve parameters and carcass body length in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs. Eight phenotypes related to growth were measured in approximately 1000 F2 progeny. All experimental animals were subjected to genotypic analysis using 173 microsatellite markers located throughout the pig genome. The least squares regression approach was used to conduct the QTL analysis. For body weight traits, we mapped 16 genome-wide significant QTL on SSC1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 12 as well as 22 suggestive QTL on SSC2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16 and 17. On SSC12, we identified a major QTL affecting body weight at 140 days of age that accounted for 4.3% of the phenotypic variance, which was the highest test statistic (F-ratio = 45.6 under the additive model, nominal P = 2.4 × 10(-11) ) observed in this study. We also showed that there were significant QTL on SSC2, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 12 affecting carcass body length and growth curve parameters. Interestingly, the QTL on SSC2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 17 influencing the growth-related traits showed an obvious trend for co-localization. In conclusion, the identified QTL may play an important role in investigating the genetic structure underlying the phenotypic variation of growth in pigs. PMID:24797173

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of livestock and vegetable processing wastes: fibre degradation and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Gómez, Xiomar; Morán, Antonio; García-González, Mari Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes (swine manure (SM) and poultry litter (PL)) and vegetable processing wastes (VPW) mixtures was evaluated in terms of methane yield, volatile solids removal and lignocellulosic material degradation. Batch experiments were performed with 2% VS (volatile solids) to ensure complete conversion of TVFAs (total volatile fatty acids) and to avoid ammonia inhibition. Experimental methane yields obtained for the mixtures resulted in higher values than those obtained from the sum of the methane yields from the individual components. VPW addition to livestock wastes before anaerobic digestion also resulted in improved VS elimination. In SM-VPW co-digestions, CH4 yield increased from 111 to 244 mL CH4 g VS added(-1), and the percentage of VS removed increased from 50% to 86%. For PL-VPW co-digestions, the corresponding values were increased from 158 to 223 mL CH4 g VS added(-1) and from 70% to 92% VS removed. Hemicelluloses and more than 50% of cellulose were degraded during anaerobic digestion. Thermal analyses indicated that the stabilization of the wastes during anaerobic digestion resulted in significantly less energy being released by digestate samples than fresh samples.

  15. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    PubMed

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits. PMID:22303340

  16. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A.; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE–QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0–9 cM; genomic region of 5.0–10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait’s phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits. PMID:22303340

  17. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    PubMed

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits.

  18. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... location of stolen cattle, and apprehension of cattle thieves are not employed in raising livestock and are... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising” employed with reference to livestock in section...

  19. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... location of stolen cattle, and apprehension of cattle thieves are not employed in raising livestock and are... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising” employed with reference to livestock in section...

  20. Cosmic Ray elimination using the Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Cruz, J.; Altamirano, L.; Serrano, A.

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.

  1. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  2. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world. PMID:21415899

  3. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which ‘infiltrated’ livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. PMID:26295347

  4. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades.

  6. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  7. Integration of visible/NIR spectroscopy and multispectral imaging for poultry carcass inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Chen, Yud-Ren; Huffman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated system which consisted of a visible/near-infrared spectroscopic subsystem and an intensified multispectral imaging subsystem was tested for its accuracy in separating abnormal (unwholesome) from normal poultry carcasses. The spectroscopic subsystem measured reflectance spectra of the poultry carcasses at wavelengths from 471 to 965 nm. For the multispectral imaging subsystem, the gray-level intensity of whole carcasses was measured using six different optical filters of 542, 571, 641, 700, 720, and 847 nm wavelengths. The preliminary results showed that, with the integrated system, there were no abnormal carcasses being misclassified as normal carcasses. When individual subsystem was used for classification, the error of the spectroscopic subsystem was 2.6% and that of the multispectral imaging subsystem was 3.9%. Thus, the integrated system could be used for separating carcasses into normal and abnormal streams. With perfect selection of normal carcasses in the normal carcass stream, the inspector needs only inspect the abnormal carcass stream. Thus, the through-put of carcasses of the processing line per inspector could be greatly increased.

  8. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable.

  9. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  10. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  11. Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for determining Salmonella prevalence and E. coli counts on broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regulatory agency (FSIS) in the U.S. rinses whole broiler carcasses with 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water (BPW) for Salmonella detection, while the European Union (EU) samples a 25g composited neck skin from three carcasses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the FSIS and EU procedures fo...

  12. Effect of body mass and clothing on decomposition of pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Konwerski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Szafałowicz, Michał

    2014-11-01

    Carcass mass and carcass clothing are factors of potential high forensic importance. In casework, corpses differ in mass and kind or extent of clothing; hence, a question arises whether methods for post-mortem interval estimation should take these differences into account. Unfortunately, effects of carcass mass and clothing on specific processes in decomposition and related entomological phenomena are unclear. In this article, simultaneous effects of these factors are analysed. The experiment followed a complete factorial block design with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed). Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into three blocks, which were separated in time. Generally, carcass mass revealed significant and frequently large effects in almost all analyses, whereas carcass clothing had only minor influence on some phenomena related to the advanced decay. Carcass mass differently affected particular gross processes in decomposition. Putrefaction was more efficient in larger carcasses, which manifested itself through earlier onset and longer duration of bloating. On the other hand, active decay was less efficient in these carcasses, with relatively low average rate, resulting in slower mass loss and later onset of advanced decay. The average rate of active decay showed a significant, logarithmic increase with an increase in carcass mass, but only in these carcasses on which active decay was driven solely by larval blowflies. If a blowfly-driven active decay was followed by active decay driven by larval Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was regularly found in medium/large and large carcasses, the average rate showed only a slight and insignificant increase with an increase in carcass mass. These results indicate that lower efficiency of active decay in larger carcasses is a consequence

  13. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population. PMID:17339417

  14. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P < .001) than the model assuming homogeneous variances for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, total lean yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance

  15. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population.

  16. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P < .001) than the model assuming homogeneous variances for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, total lean yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance

  17. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-01

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain.

  18. Costs and financial feasibility of malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Kahn, James G; Basu, Suprotik; Tang, Linhua; Zheng, Bin; Gao, Qi; Zou, Linda; Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Usas, Jennifer; Barrett, Scott; Cohen, Jessica L; Jamison, Dean T; Feachem, Richard GA

    2010-01-01

    Summary The marginal costs and benefits of converting malaria programmes from a control to an elimination goal are central to strategic decisions, but empirical evidence is scarce. We present a conceptual framework to assess the economics of elimination and analyse a central component of that framework—potential short-term to medium-term financial savings. After a review that showed a dearth of existing evidence, the net present value of elimination in five sites was calculated and compared with effective control. The probability that elimination would be cost-saving over 50 years ranged from 0% to 42%, with only one site achieving cost-savings in the base case. These findings show that financial savings should not be a primary rationale for elimination, but that elimination might still be a worthy investment if total benefits are sufficient to outweigh marginal costs. Robust research into these elimination benefits is urgently needed. PMID:21035839

  19. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  20. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  1. Colonization of butchers with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Boost, M; Ho, J; Guardabassi, L; O'Donoghue, M

    2013-12-01

    Reports have documented colonization of swine in Europe, North America and more recently in China with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Contamination of pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers with these strains has been observed. However, although contamination levels of 10% of retail pork were reported from the Netherlands and Canada, there are limited data of contamination rates of workers handling raw meat. We investigated the rates of MRSA contamination of local butchers working in wet markets, where recently slaughtered pigs are cut up. Nasal swabs collected from 300 pork butchers at markets throughout Hong Kong were enriched in brain heart infusion broth with 5% salt and cultured on MRSASelect(®) . Isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and susceptibility testing performed. The presence of mecA was confirmed, SCCmec and spa type determined and relatedness investigated by PFGE. Subjects completed a questionnaire on MRSA carriage risk factors. Seventeen samples (5.6%) yielded MRSA, 15 harbouring SCCmec IVb. Ten strains were t899 (CC9), previously reported from local pig carcasses. Five strains were healthcare associated: SCCmec type II, t701(CC6), colonizing two subjects at the same establishment, and single isolates of t008 (CC8), t002 (CC5) and t123 (CC45). The remaining isolates were t359 (CC97), previously reported from buffaloes, and t375 (CC5), reported from bovine milk. None of these butchers reported recent hospitalization or a healthcare worker in the family. Two had recently received antibiotics, one for a skin infection. Four reported wound infections within the last year. All were exposed to meat for >9 h per day. Carriage of MRSA was higher in butchers than in the general community. Although five strains were probably of healthcare origin, the high incidence of t899 (CC9) suggests that cross-contamination from pork occurs frequently. Washing of hands after touching raw pork is advised.

  2. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  3. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  4. Foodborne illness associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock.

    PubMed

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2011-11-01

    Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high prevalence of infection, shedding large numbers of oocysts and cysts. Molecular epidemiological studies have advanced our knowledge on the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in specific livestock. This has enabled better source tracking of contaminated foods. Livestock generate large volumes of fecal waste, which can contaminate the environment with (oo)cysts. Evidence suggests that livestock, particularly cattle, play a significant role in food contamination, leading to outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. However, foodborne giardiasis seems to originate primarily from anthroponotic sources. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are underreported because of the limited knowledge of the zoonotic potential and public health implications. Methods more sensitive and cheaper are needed to detect the often-low numbers of (oo)cysts in contaminated food and water. As the environmental burden of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from livestock waste increases with the projected increase in animal agriculture, public health is further compromised. Contamination of food by livestock feces containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts could occur via routes that span the entire food production continuum. Intervention strategies aimed at preventing food contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia will require an integrated approach based on knowledge of the potential points of entry for these parasites into the food chain. This review examines the potential for foodborne illness from Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock sources and discusses possible mechanisms for prevention and control.

  5. Microbiology of beef carcasses before and after slaughterline automation.

    PubMed

    Whelehan, O P; Hudson, W R; Roberts, T A

    1986-04-01

    The bacterial status of beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir was monitored before and after slaughterline automation. Bacterial counts did not differ significantly overall (P greater than 0.05) between the original manual line and the automated line for either morning or afternoon slaughter. On the manual line counts in the morning were lower than those from carcasses slaughtered in the afternoon, but on the automated line there was no difference between morning and afternoon counts. Due to highly significant line X sample site interaction for both morning and afternoon counts, overall differences among sample sites were not found by analysis of variance. However, principal components analysis revealed a significant shift in bacterial contamination among some sites due to slaughterline changes. The incidence of Enterobacteriaceae increased marginally following automation.

  6. Linking human health and livestock health: a “one-health” platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communitities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in minimizing the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. Although these relationships are recognized, they are complex and there is limited data on the...

  7. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    PubMed

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  8. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    in forages, which are sufficient for optimum crop yields, are not adequate to meet the needs of livestock. Selenium is a trace mineral, which is not required by plants, and maximum forage yields can be obtained on soils with very low amounts of soil Se. However, if animals are fed feed crops and forages with low Se, they could suffer from serious muscular disorders and other diseases. White muscle disease caused by Se deficiency is the most common disorder and is found in calves and lambs. Sufficiency levels of micronutrients for crops have been discussed in relation to the animal requirement.

  9. Use of blood levels to infer carcass levels of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Stout, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Inferences may be made about the carcass levels of a contaminant based on the contaminant level in blood samples. A method is given for comparing such populations that utilizes bivariate normal distributions and their principal axes, thereby avoiding a dilemma arising from the use of regression techniques. Confidence intervals and power calculations are given. Data from captive barn owls provide partial justification for the use of this method.

  10. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor testing cofiring animal-tissue biomass with coal as a carcass disposal option

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Elizabeth M. Fedorowicz; David W. Harlan; Linda A. Detwiler; Michelle L. Rossman

    2006-10-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the technical viability of cofiring animal-tissue biomass (ATB) in a coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) as an option for disposing of specified risk materials (SRMs) and carcasses. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical issues of feeding/combusting ATB and not to investigate prion deactivation/pathogen destruction. Overall, the project successfully demonstrated that carcasses and SRMs can be cofired with coal in a bubbling FBC. Feeding ATB into the FBC did, however, present several challenges. Specifically, handling/feeding issues resulting from the small scale of the equipment and the extremely heterogeneous nature of the ATB were encountered during the testing. Feeder modifications and an overbed firing system were necessary. Through statistical analysis, it was shown that the ATB feed location had a greater effect on CO emissions, which were used as an indication of combustion performance, than the fuel type due to the feeding difficulties. Baseline coal tests and tests cofiring ATB into the bed were statistically indistinguishable. Fuel feeding issues would not be expected at the full scale since full-scale units routinely handle low-quality fuels. In a full-scale unit, the disproportionate ratio of feed line size to unit diameter would be eliminated thereby eliminating feed slugging. Also, the ATB would either be injected into the bed, thereby ensuring uniform mixing and complete combustion, or be injected directly above the bed with overfire air ports used to ensure complete combustion. Therefore, it is anticipated that a demonstration at the full scale, which is the next activity in demonstrating this concept, should be successful. As the statistical analysis shows, emissions cofiring ATB with coal would be expected to be similar to that when firing coal only. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  12. Spring succession of necrophilous insects on wildlife carcasses in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Watson, E J; Carlton, C E

    2003-05-01

    Seven fresh animal carcasses were monitored throughout decomposition in a mixed flatwood forest in East Baton Rouge Parish, LA from 1 April to 1 July 1999. Succession patterns of necrophilous insects were documented for the following: one Louisiana black bear (threatened species), two white-tailed deer, two alligators, and two swine as the experimental reference. Our results suggest variation in the species composition of necrophilous insects among animal carcass types. A total of 93 arthropod species, from 46 families and three classes, were manually collected from the seven carcasses. Only 19 insect species were collected on all four animal types and were represented by eight families: Coleoptera: Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae; Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae. Eleven of the 46 families were not collected at either alligator site but were observed at bear, deer, and swine carrion: Coleoptera: Cleridae, Dermestidae, Geotrupidae, Scarabaeidae; Diptera: Micropezidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae; and Odonata: Libellulidae. Residency and succession patterns of necrophilous insects are presented for each animal type with particular emphasis on selected fly (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Stratiomyidae) and beetle species (Cleridae, Dermestidae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae). PMID:12943113

  13. Spring succession of necrophilous insects on wildlife carcasses in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Watson, E J; Carlton, C E

    2003-05-01

    Seven fresh animal carcasses were monitored throughout decomposition in a mixed flatwood forest in East Baton Rouge Parish, LA from 1 April to 1 July 1999. Succession patterns of necrophilous insects were documented for the following: one Louisiana black bear (threatened species), two white-tailed deer, two alligators, and two swine as the experimental reference. Our results suggest variation in the species composition of necrophilous insects among animal carcass types. A total of 93 arthropod species, from 46 families and three classes, were manually collected from the seven carcasses. Only 19 insect species were collected on all four animal types and were represented by eight families: Coleoptera: Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae; Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae. Eleven of the 46 families were not collected at either alligator site but were observed at bear, deer, and swine carrion: Coleoptera: Cleridae, Dermestidae, Geotrupidae, Scarabaeidae; Diptera: Micropezidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae; and Odonata: Libellulidae. Residency and succession patterns of necrophilous insects are presented for each animal type with particular emphasis on selected fly (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Stratiomyidae) and beetle species (Cleridae, Dermestidae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae).

  14. Manipulation of cattle growth to target carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Mustafa, A F; Christensen, D A

    2001-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of breed type, backgrounding program, and backfat end point (USBFEP) as determined by ultrasound on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Trial 1 utilized 144 large-framed Charolais- (304.6 +/- 16.3 kg) and 144 medium-framed Hereford-cross steers (294.8 +/- 20.9 kg). Trial 2 utilized 88 medium-framed Angus (289.5 +/- 15.0 kg), 88 large-framed Charolais- (299.8 +/- 17.7 kg), and 88 medium-framed Hereford-cross (291.1 +/- 20.9 kg) steers. Within breed type, short- (70 d) or long-term (126 d) backgrounding programs (Trial 1) and 6- or 12-mm USBFEP (Trials 1 and 2) were assigned. In both trials, carcass size was greater (P < 0.05) for the large-framed Charolais-cross steers, longer backgrounding, and fatter USBFEP treatments. Lean meat yield was greater (P < 0.05) for Charolais- than Hereford-cross steers (Trial 1) and for the leaner USBFEP (Trials 1 and 2). Marbling was greater (P < 0.05) for Angus- (Trial 2) and Charolais- (Trials 1 and 2) than Hereford-cross steers (Trials 1 and 2) and for the fatter end point (Trials 1 and 2). It was concluded that breed type, backgrounding program, and USBFEP were effective in altering growth and could be used to target carcass traits of interest for value-based marketing programs. PMID:11204693

  15. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species. PMID:25209935

  16. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  17. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L.; Ogada, Darcy L.; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer–scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species. PMID:25209935

  18. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  19. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P < 0.05) and carcasses from Bo- and Tu-sired steers were lightest (P < 0.05). Adjusted fat thickness was greatest (P < 0.05) on carcasses from HA-sired steers and least (P < 0.05) on carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers. Numerical USDA yield grades were lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Pm- and BB-sired steers and highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Br-sired steers. Marbling scores were highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Tu-sired steers and lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Br-, BB-, and Pm-sired steers. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of HA-, Pm-, and Tu-sired steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) 14-d postmortem Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Carcasses from HA-sired steers had longissimus thoracis with the highest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of Br- and Bo-sired steers had the highest (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear forces and the lowest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Adjustment of traits to various slaughter end points resulted in some changes in sire breed differences for carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had

  20. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used. PMID:26065699

  1. Estimating carcass fat and protein in northern pintails during the nonbreeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    I used northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected from August through March 1979-82 in the Sacramento Valley, California to derive equations to predict ether-extracted carcass fat, carcass protein, and skeletal lean dry weight. Ether-extracted carcass fat was best predicted by total fat depot weight (wet skin, abdominal fat, and intestinal fat) (r2 = 0.94) and estimates based on carcass water content (r2 = 0.93-0.98). Measured carcass protein was best predicted by a multiple regression including total protein depot weight (breast muscles, leg muscles, and gizzard) and tarsus length (R2 = 0.79). I predicted skeletal lean dry weight by a multiple regression incorporating culmen, tarsus, and wing length (R2 = 0.77). Predicted carcass fat agreed well with measured carcass fat in an independent data set of 30 pintails using total fat depot (r2 = 0.92-0.96) and carcass water (r2 = 0.97-0.99), but predicted carcass protein agreed less well with measured protein.

  2. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    PubMed

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  3. Periphyton response to increased light and salmon carcass introduction in northern California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambrose, H.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.; Cummins, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton response to riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition in coastal streams of northern California was evaluated in a manipulative field experiment. The experiment followed a split-plot design, with streams as whole plots and two 100-m reaches in each of 6 streams as subplots. At the subplot level, riparian hardwoods were removed from one reach in each stream. At the whole-plot level, carcasses were added to both open- and closed-canopy reaches of 3 of the streams. Thus, treatments consisted of reaches with open or closed canopies, in the presence and absence of carcasses. Nutrient limitation of the periphyton was assessed in 2 streams (1 with carcasses and 1 without carcasses) using nutrient-diffusing clay saucers (N-enriched, P-enriched, N+P-enriched, or unenriched control) incubated in open- and closed-canopy reaches in the streams. Canopy and carcass treatments did not affect gross primary productivity or periphyton biomass on natural substrates. The periphyton assemblage consisted primarily of diatoms in all reaches on all dates. N amendment of agar in nutrient-diffusing, clay saucers and canopy removal increased biofilm ash-free dry mass on the saucers, but carcass introduction did not. Failure of periphyton to respond to carcass addition may have reflected overriding light limitation, inadequate within-stream retention of carcass nutrients, and/or limitations of the study design.

  4. Electromagnetic scanning to estimate carcass lean content of Taiwan native broilers.

    PubMed

    Lin, R S; Chen, L R; Huang, S C; Liu, C Y

    2002-07-01

    To estimate lean content of Taiwan native broiler carcasses accurately, objectively and rapidly, electrical conductivity measurements of broiler carcasses and other relative factors (carcass weight, length and temperature) were used in multiple linear regression analysis for lean prediction. Forty native broiler carcasses, with average market weight 2477.5±465.5 g, were scanned through a 10 MHz electromagnetic field created by an electromagnetic scanner (SA-3203) to measure the total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) index. After scanning, each broiler carcass was separated into wing, breast, leg and back. Each primal cut was dissected into lean, fat and bone. The weight, length, temperature and TOBEC index of broiler carcass were significantly correlated with lean weight of broiler carcass (P<0.001). Regression analysis for lean estimation with carcass weight, length, temperature and TOBEC index showed higher coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.968) and lower coefficient of variation (CV=4.178) with an equation using beheaded carcass weight, temperature and TOBEC index as variables. PMID:22060853

  5. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P < 0.05) and carcasses from Bo- and Tu-sired steers were lightest (P < 0.05). Adjusted fat thickness was greatest (P < 0.05) on carcasses from HA-sired steers and least (P < 0.05) on carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers. Numerical USDA yield grades were lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Pm- and BB-sired steers and highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Br-sired steers. Marbling scores were highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Tu-sired steers and lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Br-, BB-, and Pm-sired steers. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of HA-, Pm-, and Tu-sired steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) 14-d postmortem Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Carcasses from HA-sired steers had longissimus thoracis with the highest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of Br- and Bo-sired steers had the highest (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear forces and the lowest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Adjustment of traits to various slaughter end points resulted in some changes in sire breed differences for carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had

  6. Microbiological effects of carcass decontaminating treatments at four beef packing plants.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Landers, C

    2003-11-01

    The effects on the microbiological conditions of carcasses of decontaminating treatments at four beef packing plants were examined. Spraying with 2% lactic acid, vacuum-hot water cleaning and trimming were generally ineffective. Washing reduced numbers of bacteria on carcasses when numbers were relatively high but not when they were relatively low. Pasteurizing with steam or hot water was consistently effective. The results suggest that the maximum reduction of bacteria on carcasses may be obtained by washing and pasteurizing without the other decontaminating treatments that are currently applied to carcasses.

  7. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  8. A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals. PMID:21968824

  9. A review of water quality concerns in livestock farming areas.

    PubMed

    Hooda, P S; Edwards, A C; Anderson, H A; Miller, A

    2000-04-24

    Post-war changes in farming systems and especially the move from mixed arable-livestock farming towards greater specialisation, together with the general intensification of food production have had adverse affects on the environment. Livestock systems have largely become separated into pasture-based (cattle and sheep) and indoor systems (pigs and poultry). This paper reviews water quality issues in livestock farming areas of the UK. The increased losses of nutrients, farm effluents (particularly livestock wastes), pesticides such as sheep-dipping chemicals, bacterial and protozoan contamination of soil and water are some of the main concerns regarding water quality degradation. There has been a general uncoupling of nutrient cycles, and problems relating to nutrient loss are either short-term direct losses or long-term, related to accumulated nutrient surpluses. Results from several field studies indicate that a rational use of manure and mineral fertilisers can help reduce the pollution problems arising from livestock farming practices. Several best management practices are suggested for the control of nutrient loss and minimising release of pathogen and sheep-dip chemicals into agricultural runoff. PMID:10811258

  10. Livestock odours and quality of life of neighbouring residents.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Peters, Astrid; Praml, Georg; Ehrenstein, Vera; Schulze, Anja; Hehl, Oliver; Nowak, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Neighbours of intensive livestock production facilities frequently complain of odour annoyance. They are also concerned about potential negative health effects of environmental exposures to livestock emissions. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed in residents of a rural community neighbouring an area with high concentration of animal farms. A postal cross-sectional survey was carried out among the 4,537 residents, aged 18-44 years. Of these, 3,112 (69 %) responded to questions on annoyance by livestock odours (4-point scale), on QoL (assessed by the short form 12, SF-12), and on potential confounders (age, gender, respiratory symptoms, smoking, living on or close to a farm, and employment status). SF-12 scores were available for 2745 (88 %) subjects. Sixty-one percent of the respondents complained about unpleasant odours, 91 % of these accused livestock as source of these odours. Physical and emotional SF-12 scores were inversely related to annoyance scores. Better risk communication might improve QoL in concerned neighbours of intensive livestock production facilities. PMID:15236499

  11. A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals.

  12. Genetic correlations between live yearling bull and steer carcass traits adjusted to different slaughter end points. 1. Carcass lean percentage.

    PubMed

    Bergen, R; Miller, S P; Wilton, J W; Crews, D H; Mandell, I B

    2006-03-01

    We studied genetic relationships between age-constant live yearling beef bull growth and ultrasound traits and steer carcass traits with dissected steer carcass lean percentage adjusted to slaughter age-, HCW-, fat depth-, and marbling score-constant end points. Three measures of steer carcass lean percentage were used. Blue Tag lean percentage (BTLean) was predicted from HCW, fat depth, and LM area measurements. Ruler lean percentage (RulerLean) was predicted from carcass fat depth and LM depth and width measurements. Dissected lean percentage (DissLean) was based on dissection of the 10-11-12th rib section. Both BTLean (h2 = 0.30 to 0.44) and DissLean (h2 = 0.34 to 0.39) were more heritable than RulerLean (h2 = 0.05 to 0.14) at all end points. Genetic correlations among DissLean and RulerLean (rg = 0.61 to 0.70), DissLean and BTLean (rg = 0.56 to 0.72), and BTLean and RulerLean (rg = 0.59 to 0.90) indicated that these traits were not genetically identical. Adjusting Diss-Lean to different end points changed the magnitude, but generally not the direction, of genetic correlations with indicator traits. Ultrasound scan-age-constant live yearling bull lean percentage estimates were heritable (h2 = 0.26 to 0.42) and genetically correlated with each other (rg = 0.68 to 0.99) but had greater correlations with DissLean at slaughter age (rg = 0.24 to 0.48) and HCW (rg = 0.16 to 0.40) end points than at fat depth (rg = -0.08 to 0.13) and marbling score (rg = 0.02 to 0.11) end points. Scan-age-constant yearling bull ultrasound fat depth also had stronger correlations with DissLean at slaughter age (rg = -0.34) and HCW (rg = -0.25) than at fat depth (rg = -0.02) and marbling score (rg = -0.03) end points. Yearling bull scan-age-constant ultrasound LM area was positively correlated with DissLean at all endpoints (rg = 0.11 to 0.23). Genetic correlations between yearling bull LM method 1 width (rg = 0.38 to 0.56) and method 2 depth (rg = -0.17 to -0.38) measurements with Diss

  13. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Genome elimination – whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent – is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict. PMID:25328085

  14. Mapping residual transmission for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Robert C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Kunene, Simon; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Hsiang, Michelle S; Perkins, T Alex; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tatem, Andrew J; Cohen, Justin M; Smith, David L

    2015-12-29

    Eliminating malaria from a defined region involves draining the endemic parasite reservoir and minimizing local malaria transmission around imported malaria infections . In the last phases of malaria elimination, as universal interventions reap diminishing marginal returns, national resources must become increasingly devoted to identifying where residual transmission is occurring. The needs for accurate measures of progress and practical advice about how to allocate scarce resources require new analytical methods to quantify fine-grained heterogeneity in malaria risk. Using routine national surveillance data from Swaziland (a sub-Saharan country on the verge of elimination), we estimated individual reproductive numbers. Fine-grained maps of reproductive numbers and local malaria importation rates were combined to show 'malariogenic potential', a first for malaria elimination. As countries approach elimination, these individual-based measures of transmission risk provide meaningful metrics for planning programmatic responses and prioritizing areas where interventions will contribute most to malaria elimination.

  15. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.

  16. Genetically engineered livestock: ethical use for food and medical models.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of genetically engineered (GE) livestock have resulted in a variety of new transgenic animals with desirable production and composition changes. GE animals have been generated to improve growth efficiency, food composition, and disease resistance in domesticated livestock species. GE animals are also used to produce pharmaceuticals and as medical models for human diseases. The potential use of these food animals for human consumption has prompted an intense debate about food safety and animal welfare concerns with the GE approach. Additionally, public perception and ethical concerns about their use have caused delays in establishing a clear and efficient regulatory approval process. Ethically, there are far-reaching implications of not using genetically engineered livestock, at a detriment to both producers and consumers, as use of this technology can improve both human and animal health and welfare.

  17. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  18. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    PubMed

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  19. Endogenously determined cycles: empirical evidence from livestock industries.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Michael P; Huffaker, Ray; Marsh, Thomas L

    2012-04-01

    This paper applies the techniques of phase space reconstruction and recurrence quantification analysis to investigate U.S. livestock cycles in relation to recent literature on the business cycle. Results are presented for pork and cattle cycles, providing empirical evidence that the cycles themselves have slowly diminished. By comparing the evolution of production processes for the two livestock cycles we argue that the major cause for this moderation is largely endogenous. The analysis suggests that previous theoretical models relying solely on exogenous shocks to create cyclical patterns do not fully capture changes in system dynamics. Specifically, the biological constraint in livestock dynamics has become less significant while technology and information are relatively more significant. Concurrently, vertical integration of the supply chain may have improved inventory management, all resulting in a small, less deterministic, cyclical effect.

  20. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    PubMed

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25812201

  1. Generation and applications of monoclonal antibodies for livestock production.

    PubMed

    Van Der Lende, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) have found widespread applications in livestock production. Although the generation of murine MCAs is at present a routine, the production of homologous MCAs, especially important for in vivo applications, is still hampered by the lack of efficient homologous fusion partners for immortalization of antibody producing lymphocytes of livestock species. At present, MCAs are used in immunodiagnostic tests e.g. to monitor livestock reproduction and quality of livestock products. In the future MCAs will also be used in immunosensors for real-time and on-site applications in the same areas. The commercial application of MCAs for the immunomodulation of (pharmacologically induced) physiological processes underlying important (re)production traits is at present limited to the use of anti-PMSG MCAs in PMSG-induced superovulation. However, many potentially interesting applications are under investigation (e.g. immunopotentiation of growth hormone to enhance growth; immunocytolysis of adipocytes to increase lean meat production; immunoneutralization of GnRH for immunocastration; immunoimitation of hormone activity with anti-idiotype antibodies). Attempts to use specific MCAs for the sexing of embryos have been disappointing, mainly because of the relatively low accuracy. In the future, MCAs against membrane proteins which are specific for X- or Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa might be used for bulk separation of livestock sperm. In general, it is expected that engineered (homologous) recombinant MCAs will largely contribute to the development of a new generation of rapid immunodiagnostic tests and effective immunomodulation applications. They will further increase the use of MCAs in livestock production.

  2. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and their live animal indicators in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Weaber, R L; Quaas, R L; Lipsey, R J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate parameters required for genetic evaluation of Simmental carcass merit using carcass and live animal data. Carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were available from 5,750 steers and 1,504 heifers sired by Simmental bulls. Additionally, yearling ultrasound measurements of fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and estimated percentage of intramuscular fat were available on Simmental bulls (n = 3,409) and heifers (n = 1,503). An extended pedigree was used to construct the relationship matrix (n = 23,968) linking bulls and heifers with ultrasound data to steers and heifers with carcass data. All data were obtained from the American Simmental Association. No animal had both ultrasound and carcass data. Using an animal model and treating corresponding ultrasound and carcass traits separately, genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for carcass traits were 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.35 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.54 +/- 0.05 for carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score, respectively. Heritability estimates for bull (heifer) ultrasound traits were 0.53 +/- 0.07 (0.69 +/- 0.09), 0.37 +/- 0.06 (0.51 +/- 0.09), and 0.47 +/- 0.06 (0.52 +/- 0.09) for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and intramuscular fat percentage, respectively. Heritability of weight at scan was 0.47 +/- 0.05. Using a bivariate weight model including scan weight of bulls and heifers with carcass weight of slaughter animals, a genetic correlation of 0.77 +/- 0.10 was obtained. Models for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were each trivariate, including ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and heifers, and corresponding carcass traits of slaughter animals. Genetic correlations of carcass fat thickness with bull and heifer ultrasound fat were 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.83 +/- 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations of

  3. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Leheska, J M; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were conducted at 3 US locations (California, Idaho, and Texas) to determine the effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride and duration of zilpaterol feeding on carcass composition and beef palatability. At each site, 160 steers and 160 heifers were stratified within sex by initial BW (study d -1) and assigned randomly within BW strata to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (4 blocks/treatment for each sex). The 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (20- or 40-d duration of zilpaterol feeding) factorial. When included in the diet, zilpaterol was supplemented at 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). Each pen consisted of 10 animals. After slaughter 2 carcasses per pen (n=64 per trial site) were selected. The entire right side of the selected carcasses was collected for dissection and chemical analysis of the soft tissue. Additionally, the left strip loin was collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determinations and aged to 28 d postmortem. Sensory analysis was conducted on the Idaho trial site samples only. All data were pooled for analyses. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass muscle deposition (P<0.01) of both steer and heifer carcasses. However, carcass percentage fat of steers and heifers was not affected (P>0.11) by the zilpaterol treatment. In heifer carcasses, carcass moisture percentage was increased (P=0.04) and bone percentage was decreased (P=0.02), whereas in steer carcasses, carcass moisture and bone percentage were not affected (P>0.10). In heifer carcasses, carcass ash percentage was not affected (P=0.61) by zilpaterol, whereas in steer carcasses, carcass ash percentage tended (P=0.07) to be increased. The protein-to-bone ratio was increased (P<0.001) by zilpaterol hydrochloride treatment in both steers and heifers, whereas the protein-to-fat ratio was not affected (P=0.10). Cooking loss of the LM was not affected (P=0.41) by zilpaterol treatment of steers or heifers. However, LM Warner

  4. Counts of Campylobacter spp. and prevalence of Salmonella associated with New Zealand broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, Natalie D; Hargraves, Sara J; Boa, Amanda C; Ironside, Catherine J

    2008-12-01

    In common with many other countries around the world, the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal illness in New Zealand is campylobacteriosis. The poultry industry and regulatory agencies are working to address this. Similarly, the control of Salmonella on poultry has been a focus of industry and regulatory agencies for some time. However, recent data are limited on the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella on retail chicken products in New Zealand. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and number of Campylobacter and the prevalence of Salmonella on chickens sold at retail in New Zealand. In total, 163 samples (representing the major chicken processors in New Zealand) were purchased from retail outlets in Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch and analyzed. Salmonella was not detected on any carcasses or associated external packaging. Campylobacter was isolated from 73 (44.8%) carcass rinse samples collected and from weep water samples associated with 20 (12.3%) of the 163 carcasses, but was not detected on the external packaging of any samples. Counts of Campylobacter present on whole bird carcasses ranged from less than 400 CFU per carcass (not detected) to more than 600,000 CFU per carcass. The overall mean count of Campylobacter on positive carcasses was 3.6 log CFU per carcass. The difference between processing plants in the overall mean count of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses or on the frequency of Campylobacter-positive carcasses was not significant. The levels of Campylobacter found to be associated with broiler carcasses were similar to levels reported in other developed countries.

  5. Genetic correlation estimates between ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and carcass measurements on finished steers.

    PubMed

    Devitt, C J; Wilton, J W

    2001-11-01

    Carcass and growth measurements of finished crossbred steers (n = 843) and yearling ultrasound and growth measurements of purebred bulls (n = 5,654) of 11 breeds were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between finished steer carcass measurements and yearling bull ultrasound measurements. Separate analyses were conducted to examine the effect of adjustment to three different end points: age, backfat thickness, and weight at measurement. Age-constant heritability estimates from finished steer measurements of hot carcass weight, carcass longissimus muscle area, carcass marbling score, carcass backfat, and average daily feedlot gain were 0.47, 0.45, 0.35, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively. Age-constant heritability estimates from yearling bull measurements of ultrasound longissimus muscle area, ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat, ultrasound backfat, and average daily postweaning gain were 0.48, 0.23, 0.52, and 0.46, respectively. Similar estimates were found for backfat and weight-constant traits. Age-constant genetic correlation estimates between steer carcass longissimus muscle area and bull ultrasound longissimus muscle area, steer carcass backfat and bull ultrasound backfat, steer carcass marbling and bull ultrasound intramuscular fat, and steer average daily gain and bull average daily gain were 0.66, 0.88, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. The strong, positive genetic correlation estimates between bull ultrasound measurements and corresponding steer carcass measurements suggest that genetic improvement for steer carcass traits can be achieved by using yearling bull ultrasound measurements as selection criteria.

  6. Sulfonamides and tetracyclines in livestock wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Hong, Youngmin; Park, Jae-eun; Sharma, Virender K; Cho, Sung-il

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics (sulfonamides and tetracyclines) have attractive increasing attention due to their persistence for a long time, which lead to concern of widespread antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the aquatic environment. Investigation of the occurrence and elimination of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is thus imperative. This paper presents the method development of the liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometer (IT-MS)-time-of-flight mass spectrometer in series (LC-IT-ToF/MS) hybrid technique to determine concentrations of sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the effluent of animal WWTP. Detection limits of the developed method were 22.8, 23.0, 25.8, 23.6, and 9.8ngL(-1) for sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, respectively. Average recovery efficiencies of the method for sulfonamides fortified in effluent samples of ananimal WWTP at 1.0, and 4.0μgL(-1) were 73-95%, and 89-104%, respectively, while that of the method for tetracyclines fortified at 0.4 and 4.0μgL(-1) was 76-104%, and 101-107%, respectively. The analysis of effluent of the WWTP showed that more than 90% of analyzed antibiotics were removed by the treatment consisted of biological, a UF membrane, and a coagulation process. The maximum concentrations of sulfonamide and tetracycline in the WWTP were 49.5 and 4.1μgL(-1), respectively.

  7. International livestock markets and the impact of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N; Prakash, A

    2006-08-01

    Escalating and pervasive outbreaks of animal diseases are posing considerable challenges to livestock producers, industries, and policy-makers around the globe in a context of steadily rising demand for locally produced and imported livestock products. This paper reviews the factors and trends underpinning the growth in meat trade over the past decade and assesses the impact of animal diseases on international markets. The factors shaping the transmission of the impact of animal disease to global markets and back into domestic markets are identified and the potential global market impact of further animal disease outbreaks evaluated.

  8. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  9. 9 CFR 310.21 - Carcasses suspected of containing sulfa and antibiotic residues; sampling frequency; disposition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal identification with the test unit, and ensure integrity of the testing program. (5) All carcasses... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses suspected of containing... Section 310.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 9 CFR 310.21 - Carcasses suspected of containing sulfa and antibiotic residues; sampling frequency; disposition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animal identification with the test unit, and ensure integrity of the testing program. (5) All carcasses... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses suspected of containing... Section 310.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. 310.6 Section 310.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  12. 75 FR 69575 - Permission To Use Air Inflation of Meat Carcasses and Parts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Inspection regulations were revised to prohibit inflation with air of carcasses or parts of carcasses (35 FR... acceptable (54 FR 36756). The regulations required that establishments interested in the use of air inflation... conjunction with a captive bolt stunner (75 FR 28763). The 2004 rule also amended FSIS's humane...

  13. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  14. Impact of sampling area and location on measurement of indicator organisms during beef carcass interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of sponge sample collection site on the recovery of multiple indicator organisms from beef carcass surfaces was evaluated. Two 4,000 cm2 samples were collected from pre-evisceration carcasses (n=248), one from the inside and outside round area (top site) and one from the navel-plate-bris...

  15. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteri...

  16. Effect of simulated sanitizer carryover on recovery of salmonella from broiler carcass rinsates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous antimicrobial chemicals are currently utilized as processing aids with the aim of reducing pathogenic bacteria on processed poultry carcasses. Carry-over of active sanitizer to a carcass rinse solution intended for detection of viable pathogenic bacteria by regulatory agencies may cause fal...

  17. Does carcass suspension technique influence reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) meat quality attributes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 8 reindeer steers (ages 3 – 6 years old) were used in the study to evaluate the effects of carcass suspension technique on meat tenderness, color and water-holding capacity (WHC). Carcasses were split along the spine and sides randomly allocated to pelvic suspension (hanged in a butcher h...

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella in retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Columbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella populations, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw poultry carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. As recommended by the Unite...

  19. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to reduce Campylobacter numbers on postpick carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on br...

  20. Estimating Carcass Persistence and Scavenging Bias in a Human Influenced Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Lance, Ellen W.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined variation in persistence rates of waterfowl carcasses placed along a series of transects in tundra habitats in western Alaska. This study was designed to assess the effects of existing tower structures and was replicated with separate trials in winter, summer and fall as both the resident avian population and the suite of potential scavengers varied seasonally. Carcass persistence rates were uniformly low, with <50% of carcasses persisting for more than a day on average. Persistence rate varied by carcass age, carcass size, among transects and was lowest in the fall and highest in the summer. We found little support for models where persistence varied in relation to the presence of tower structures. We interpret this as evidence that scavengers were not habituated to searching for carcasses near these structures. Our data demonstrate that only a small fraction of bird carcasses are likely to persist between searches, and if not appropriately accounted for, scavenging bias could significantly influence bird mortality estimates. The variation that we documented suggests that persistence rates should not be extrapolated among tower locations or across time periods as the variation in carcass persistence will result in biased estimates of total bird strike mortality.

  1. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  2. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  3. Detection of Salmonella Serotypes by Overnight Incubation of Entire Broiler Carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a human bacterial pathogen that has been associated with poultry and poultry products. There are multiple ways to sample broiler chicken carcasses for the prevalence of Salmonella. A common method in the USA is a whole carcass rinse and culture of an aliquot of the rinse. The object...

  4. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  5. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  6. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  7. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  8. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution (w/v). Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing li...

  9. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions to reduce carcass bacterial contamination was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Campylobacter coli. In one trial, in...

  10. A review of methods and microbial risks associated with composting of animal carcasses in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal carcass composting for both routine and emergency management of food animal mortalities is an alternative method of carcass disposal in those situations where conventional methods are inadequate. Carcass composting has been referred to as ‘above ground burial in a bio-filter with pathogen kil...

  11. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  12. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  13. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements... referred to in section 13(b)(13) are those engaged in by the farmer “as an adjunct” to the raising of... claim exemption under section 13(b)(13). To qualify under the exemption provision, the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements... referred to in section 13(b)(13) are those engaged in by the farmer “as an adjunct” to the raising of... claim exemption under section 13(b)(13). To qualify under the exemption provision, the...

  15. Livestock models for exploiting the promise of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R Michael; Yuan, Ye; Genovese, Nicholas; Ezashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Livestock species are widely used as biomedical models. Pigs, in particular, are beginning to have a significant role in regenerative medicine for testing the applicability, success, and safety of grafts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Animal testing must always be performed before any clinical trials are performed in humans, and pigs may sometimes be the species of choice because of their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have been generated with some success from livestock species by a variety of reprogramming procedures, but authenticated embryonic stem cells (ESC) have not. There are now several studies in which porcine iPSC have been tested for their ability to provide functional grafts in pigs. Pigs have also served as recipients for grafts derived from human iPSC. There have also been recent advances in creating pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Like SCID mice, these pigs are expected to be graft tolerant. Additionally, chimeric, partially humanized pigs could be sources of human organs. Another potential application of pluripotent stem cells from livestock is for the purpose of differentiating the cells into skeletal muscle, which, in turn, could be used either to produce cultured meat or to engraft into damaged muscle. None of these technologies has advanced to a stage that they have become mainstream, however. Despite the value of livestock models in regenerative medicine, only a limited number of institutions are able to use these animals.

  16. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin of... management beginning no later than the second day of life; (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products must...

  17. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ..., NOP published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) (71 FR 19131) seeking input on: (1... the ``National Organic Program (NOP)--Access to Pasture (Livestock)'' proposed rule (73 FR 63584). On... approximately 130 individual comments with the remaining comments consisting of three modified form...

  18. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin of... management beginning no later than the second day of life; (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products must...

  19. Hmong women, opium cultivation and livestock production in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Oparaocha, S

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects on Hmong women of a Laotian government policy to replace production of opium by upland farmers with other cash crops by the year 2000. In 1996, 15% of the population relied on opium as a cash crop. This project aimed to include Hmong women in small livestock production in 2 villages: Ban Kampanien and Ban Pha Ven in Nong Het district, Xieng Khouang province, near the Vietnamese border. Interviews were conducted among 33 families using the Harvard Gender Analytical Tools (1991) to determine gender roles in livestock production. Participatory assessment relied on matrix ranking, resource maps, and trend charts. In Nong Het, White Hmong dominate. Average family size is 7 persons. Polygamy is allowed, but declining. The birthrate is high. Swidden agriculture is practiced. Agricultural production meets demand. Patriarchal authority dominates; men and women have separate public and private spheres. Education favors boys. Women are involved in all aspects of agricultural production. The author describes women's role in small livestock production and gender roles in feed management. Women exercise autonomy only through raising livestock and poultry. Women's production is constrained by limited access to extension services, feed resources, labor saving technology, and credit. In order to offset the loss of income from opium, Hmong women need to increase their income by increasing the product output per animal using selective breeding, and decreasing time spent on preparing and processing food. Assistance should be provided to improve women's resources and knowledge.

  20. 7 CFR 760.1103 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deer; (2) Been physically located in the eligible disaster county on the beginning date of the disaster...) Goats; (8) Sheep; (9) Equine; (10) Reindeer; (11) Elk; (12) Poultry; and (13) Deer. (d) Ineligible... beginning date of the disaster period; (7) Any wild free roaming livestock, including horses and deer;...