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Sample records for livestock center swine

  1. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  2. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  3. Thermochemical Conversion of Livestock Wastes: Carbonization of Swine Solids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure represents a significant portion of the total sustainable U.S. renewable energy sources that can serve as a bioenergy feedstock in thermochemical conversion processes. The process of slow pyrolysis or carbonization promotes the conversion of animal manure like swine manure into charcoa...

  4. Complete genome sequence of livestock associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolated from swine in USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonizes and causes disease in many animal species. Livestock associated-MRSA isolates are represented by isolates of the sequence type 398. These isolates are considered to be livestock adapted. This report provides the complete genome of one swine assoc...

  5. Vancomycin-intermediate livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398/t9538 from swine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Dutra, Mauricio C; Moreno, Marina; Ferreira, Thais Sp; Silva, Givago Fr da; Matajira, Carlos Ec; Silva, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been mainly related with pig farming, in Europe and North America, with the ST398 as the most commonly identified type of LA-MRSA. Here we present the draft genome of the first vancomycin-intermediate MRSA ST398/t9538 isolated from a swine presenting exudative epidermitis in Brazil.

  6. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  7. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Smith, Tara C; Frana, Timothy S; Fraena, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  8. Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Isolates of Swine Origin Form Robust Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Tracy L.; Shore, Sarah M.; Smith, Tara C.; Fraena, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds. PMID:23951352

  9. Vancomycin-intermediate livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398/t9538 from swine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Dutra, Mauricio C; Moreno, Marina; Ferreira, Thais SP; da Silva, Givago FR; Matajira, Carlos EC; Silva, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been mainly related with pig farming, in Europe and North America, with the ST398 as the most commonly identified type of LA-MRSA. Here we present the draft genome of the first vancomycin-intermediate MRSA ST398/t9538 isolated from a swine presenting exudative epidermitis in Brazil. PMID:27759766

  10. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  11. Motion-based video monitoring for early detection of livestock diseases: The case of African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Ivorra, Benjamin; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ramos, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of infectious diseases can substantially reduce the health and economic impacts on livestock production. Here we describe a system for monitoring animal activity based on video and data processing techniques, in order to detect slowdown and weakening due to infection with African swine fever (ASF), one of the most significant threats to the pig industry. The system classifies and quantifies motion-based animal behaviour and daily activity in video sequences, allowing automated and non-intrusive surveillance in real-time. The aim of this system is to evaluate significant changes in animals' motion after being experimentally infected with ASF virus. Indeed, pig mobility declined progressively and fell significantly below pre-infection levels starting at four days after infection at a confidence level of 95%. Furthermore, daily motion decreased in infected animals by approximately 10% before the detection of the disease by clinical signs. These results show the promise of video processing techniques for real-time early detection of livestock infectious diseases.

  12. Beta-agonist residues in cattle, chicken and swine livers at the wet market and the environmental impacts of wastewater from livestock farms in Selangor State, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Nobumitsu; Sakai, Mika; Mohamad Haron, Didi Erwandi; Yoneda, Minoru; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Fourteen beta-agonists were quantitatively analyzed in cattle, chicken and swine liver specimens purchased at 14 wet markets in Selangor State, Malaysia, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol residues in the Malaysian population were assessed based on quantitative data and meat consumption statistics in Malaysia. Wastewater samples collected at swine farms (n = 2) and cattle/cow farms (n = 2) in the Kuala Langat district were analyzed for the presence for the 14 compounds. Wastewater in chicken farms was not collected because there was negligible discharge during the breeding period. The environmental impacts caused by beta-agonists discharged from livestock farms were spatially assessed in the Langat River basin using a geographic information system (GIS). As a result, 10 compounds were detected in the liver specimens. Ractopamine, which is a permitted compound for swine in Malaysia, was frequently detected in swine livers; also, 9 other compounds that are prohibited compounds could be illegally abused among livestock farms. The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol were assessed to be minimal as their hazard quotients were no more than 7.82 × 10(-4) and 2.71 × 10(-3), respectively. Five beta-agonists were detected in the wastewater samples, and ractopamine in the swine farm resulted in the highest contamination (30.1 μg/L). The environmental impacts of the beta-agonists in the Langat River basin were generally concluded to be minimal, but the ractopamine contamination released from swine farms was localized in coastal areas near the estuary of the Langat River basin because most swine farms were located in that region.

  13. Concentrations of Bioaerosols, Odors and Hydrogen Sulfide Inside and Downwind from Two Types of Swine Livestock Operations

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Ansley, Anne; Perry, Sarah Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Few data on in-barn and downwind concentrations of endotoxin, bioaerosols and odors from livestock facilities are available and no studies have compared conventional confinement operations to the more animal-friendly hoop operations. Hoops are open to the environment and use a composted bedding system rather than housing pigs on slatted floors over pits holding manure slurry as in conventional confinements. We assessed airborne toxicants upwind, in-barns and downwind and evaluated determinants of exposure. Inhalable particulate matter, endotoxin, odor threshold, hydrogen sulfide, culturable mesophilic bacteria, culturable fungi, and total airborne microbes along with wind speed, temperature, and humidity were measured at separate midsized livestock facilities (1 hoop, 1 confinement) in Central Iowa on ten occasions over two years. Significant differences in contaminants were observed between hoops and confinement buildings and across seasons for endotoxin, odors, airborne microorganisms, and hydrogen sulfide. For hoops and confinements, respectively, geometric mean in-barn concentrations were 3250 and 3100 EU/m3 for endotoxin; 1400 and 1910 μg/m3 for particulates; 19.6 and 146 ppb for hydrogen sulfide; 137 and 428 dilutions for odor threshold; and 3.0×106 and 1.5×106 organisms/m3 for total microbes. Endotoxin, odor, and culturable microorganisms exceeded recommended exposure limits. Reduced analysis of variance models for these contaminants demonstrated differences by barn type, season, number of pigs, and, in some cases, temperature and humidity. Both types of swine operations produced high airborne concentrations of endotoxin, odor, hydrogen sulfide, bacteria and fungi. Endotoxin and odors were found downwind at concentrations previously associated with adverse health effects. PMID:19177273

  14. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock (bovine and swine).

    PubMed

    Zehra, Asima; Singh, Randhir; Kaur, Simranpreet; Gill, J P S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to figure the prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine and swine nares. Colonies with typical morphology on Baird-Parker agar supplemented with egg-yolk tellurite emulsion were selected and biochemically/genotypically identified as S. aureus. These strains were further subjected to epsilometer test for their sensitivity to various clinically important antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility testing for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and double-disk diffusion testing was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. S. aureus strains were also tested for the presence of AR genes, viz., blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, erm (ermA, ermB, ermC), tet (efflux genes tetK and tetL, tetM and tetO of the ribosomal protection family), and vanA. The nasal cavities of 17 out of 47 randomly selected bovine and 20 out of 28 randomly selected swine were positive for S. aureus, representing the prevalence of 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5-49.9) and 71.4% (95% CI: 54.7-88.1), respectively. Most of the S. aureus strains showed higher resistance to penicillin (94.6%, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥1.5 µg/ml) followed by ciprofloxacin (56.7%, MIC ≥32 µg/ml) and tetracycline (18.9%, MIC ≥32 µg/ml). About 10-15% of the strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 16 µg/ml) and oxacillin (MIC 6-8 µg/ml). None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC 0.25-1.5 µg/ml). In this study, 32.4% strains were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and prevalence of this multi-drug resistant S. aureus was 45% (95%CI: 26.6-63.4) and 17.6% (95%CI: 6.7-28.5) in swine and bovine nasal samples, respectively. Four strains from pigs were borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus MIC 6-8 µg/ml, but none were mecA positive. Two of these strains were β-lactamase hyperproducers. Among the resistance genes blaZ, tetK, tetL, tetM, ermB, and aac

  15. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  16. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  17. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  18. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  19. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphoma risk in livestock farmers: results of the Epilymph study.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Pierluigi; Satta, Giannina; D'Andrea, Ileana; Nonne, Tinucia; Udas, Giuseppe; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Becker, Nikolaus; Sanjosé, Silvia de; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Ennas, Maria G; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    We explored the risk of lymphoma and its most prevalent subtypes associated with occupational contact with livestock, and whether risk was modified by age at first contact, in 2,348 incident lymphoma cases and 2,462 controls who participated in the EPILYMPH case-control study. A detailed occupational history was collected in cases and controls, including working in a livestock farm, species of livestock, its approximate number and circumstances of contact. For each disease outcome, and each type of livestock, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, education and center. Lymphoma risk (all subtypes combined) was not increased amongst those exposed to contact with any livestock (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.2). Overall, we did not observe an association between occupational contact with livestock and risk of lymphoma (all types) and B-cell lymphoma. The risk of diffuse large B cell lyphoma (DLBCL) was significantly lower amongst subjects who started occupational contact with any species of livestock before or at age 12 (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9), but not at older ages. A significant heterogeneity in risk of B cell lymphoma by age at first contact was detected for contact with cattle, poultry and swine. Early occupational contact with livestock might be associated with a decrease in risk of B cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they...

  2. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  3. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. (a...

  4. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. (a...

  5. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. (a...

  6. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. (a...

  7. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. (a...

  8. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  9. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... affects both animals and humans. The disease mainly affects cattle, bison, and swine. Swine brucellosis... with antibiotics. Pseudorabies is a contagious, communicable disease of livestock, primarily swine, and... as free of the disease. The swine brucellosis regulations also specify requirements for the...

  10. Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

    2014-01-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

  11. Safely coupling livestock and crop production systems: how rapidly do antibiotic resistance genes dissipate in soil following a commercial application of swine or dairy manure?

    PubMed

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for smallholder livestock production in post-conflict South Kivu, eastern DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Maass, Brigitte L; Musale, Dieudonné Katunga; Chiuri, Wanjiku L; Gassner, Anja; Peters, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A survey on smallholder livestock production with emphasis on monogastric animals was conducted in 20 villages of seven so-called 'groupements' of South Kivu province in DR Congo, situated along a north to south-west axis with the town of Bukavu in the center. This land adjacent to Lake Kivu is located at elevations ranging around 900- 1900 m asl, experiencing tropical highland climate. A diagnostic survey helped to rapidly obtain in-depth knowledge of constraints and opportunities in this environment. Correspondence analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to investigate the association of production constraints with particular livestock species and to understand the factors that govern the number of livestock that people owned (converted to tropical livestock units [TLU]), respectively. Responses of 112 informants demonstrated that livestock is an integral part of the region's mixed farming systems. Low livestock numbers per household at present reflect the poverty as a consequence of recent violent conflicts. Currently, farmers focus on small livestock, like poultry, swine, cavies (i.e., Guinea pigs) and rabbits. Families keep livestock to accumulate household reserves that are strongly invested in children's education. Major issues of animal husbandry were related to animal diseases and lack of feed resources, particularly in the dry season. Lack of feed or forages were unrelated to a particular livestock species. Livestock holdings depended on animal diversity, location, land size available and respondents' education level. The potential introduction of improved forages is challenged by their dry-season tolerance, compatibility with cropping on small farms; and people's readiness to cultivate forages.

  13. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kukielka, Esther A.; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs. PMID:27148545

  14. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kukielka, Esther A; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs.

  15. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  16. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  17. Interspecies Interactions and Potential Influenza A Virus Risk in Small Swine Farms in Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    sick poultry in an IAV-affected area was a risk factor for human infection [35]. Human-swine interactions The swine farms in Chancay and Tumbes...R. Soares-Magalhaes J, Rushton J, et al: Industrial livestock production and global health risks . Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living...available soon. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:58 doi:10.1186

  18. SWINE INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1931-01-01

    1. It has been possible to demonstrate, in Berkefeld filtrates of infectious material from experimental cases of swine influenza, a virus which when administered intranasally to susceptible swine induced a mild, usually afebrile illness of short duration. The changes in the respiratory tract resembled those in swine influenza but were usually much less extensive. When the filtrable virus was mixed with pure cultures of H. influenzae suis and administered to swine a disease identical clinically and pathologically with swine influenza was induced. The data presented indicate that the filtrable virus of swine influenza and H. influenzae suis act in concert to produce swine influenza and that neither alone is capable of inducing the disease. 2. One attack of swine influenza usually renders an animal immune to reinfection. Blood serum from an animal made immune in this way neutralizes infectious material from swine influenza in vitro, as shown by the failure of the mixture to produce disease in a susceptible animal. 3. The virus can be stored in a dried state or in glycerol for several weeks at least. In one instance dried material apparently retained both the virus and H. influenzas suis in viable form for a period of 54 days. 4. Fatal cases of experimental swine influenza have been observed in which H. influenzae suis was the only organism that could be cultivated from the respiratory tract. 5. Attention has been called to some features of marked similarity between epizootic swine influenzae and epidemic influenzae in man. PMID:19869924

  19. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures in the US: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-10-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s ``lessons learned``, are provided as a reality check.

  20. Effects of ochratoxin a on livestock production.

    PubMed

    Battacone, Gianni; Nudda, Anna; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.

  1. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  2. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization of both biol...

  3. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  4. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs.IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs. Our

  5. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer, swine contractor and live poultry dealer must exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading...

  6. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  7. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  8. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  9. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  10. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  11. Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    Burrough, E R

    2017-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a severe enteric disease in pigs, which is characterized by bloody to mucoid diarrhea and associated with reduced growth performance and variable mortality. This disease is most often observed in grower-finisher pigs, wherein susceptible pigs develop a significant mucohemorrhagic typhlocolitis following infection with strongly hemolytic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. While swine dysentery is endemic in many parts of the world, the disease had essentially disappeared in much of the United States by the mid-1990s as a result of industry consolidation and effective treatment, control, and elimination methods. However, since 2007, there has been a reported increase in laboratory diagnosis of swine dysentery in parts of North America along with the detection of novel pathogenic Brachyspira spp worldwide. Accordingly, there has been a renewed interest in swine dysentery and Brachyspira spp infections in pigs, particularly in areas where the disease was previously eliminated. This review provides an overview of knowledge on the etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of swine dysentery, with insights into risk factors and control.

  12. Absence of human innate immune evasion complex in LA-MRSA ST5 strains isolated from pigs, swine facilities, and humans with swine contact

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Since its first ties to swine, livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has raised public health concerns because livestock may be the largest reservoir of MRSA outside the hospital setting. In contrast to Europe and Asia, where the primary sequence type...

  13. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  14. Gene expression changes in the swine microbiota with the in-feed antibiotic carbadox

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Administering antibiotics to livestock and poultry can treat and prevent disease while improving feed efficiency. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic, commonly used in swine production to prevent swine dysentery and promote animal growth. Carbadox has been shown to induce bacteriophages in some cultiv...

  15. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures in the USA: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective alternative fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided and possible end-use applications for methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  16. Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.C.

    1985-06-01

    Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on livestock are from whole body gamma doses near the LD 50/60 level. However, grazing livestock would be subjected to added beta exposure from ingested and skin retained radioactive particles. Results of attempts to simulate exposure of the Hereford cattle at Alamogardo, NM show that cattle are more sensitive to ingested fallout radiation than other species. Poultry LD 50/60 for gamma exposure is about twice the level for mammals, and swine appear to have the most efficient repair system being able to withstand the most chronic gamma exposure. Productivity of most livestock surviving an LD 50/60 exposure is temporarily reduced and longterm effects are small. Livestock are good screeners against undesirables in our diet and with the exception of radiosotopes of iodine in milk, very little fission product radioactivity would be expected to be transferred through the food chain in livestock products for humans. Feeding of stored feed or moving livestock to uncontaminated pastures would be the best protective action to follow. 29 references.

  17. Effects of Ochratoxin A on Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Battacone, Gianni; Nudda, Anna; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs. PMID:22069661

  18. A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distinct strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been identified on livestock and livestock workers. Industrial food animal production may be an important environmental reservoir for human carriage of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational exposures associated with nasal carriage of MRSA in patients hospitalized at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary hospital serving a region with intensive livestock production in eastern North Carolina. Methods MRSA nasal carriage was identified via nasal swabs collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. MRSA carriers (cases) were gender and age matched to non-carriers (controls). Participants were interviewed about recent environmental and occupational exposures. Home addresses were geocoded and publicly available data were used to estimate the density of swine in residential census block groups of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Presence of the scn gene in MRSA isolates was assessed. In addition, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates was performed, and the Diversilab® system was used to match the isolates to USA pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Results From July - December 2011, 117 cases and 119 controls were enrolled. A higher proportion of controls than cases were current workforce members (41.2% vs. 31.6%) Cases had a higher odds of living in census block groups with medium densities of swine (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 1.36-16.69) and of reporting the ability to smell odor from a farm with animals when they were home (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.86). Of 49 culture positive MRSA isolates, all were scn positive. Twenty-two isolates belonged to clonal complex 5. Conclusions Absence of livestock workers in this study precluded evaluation of occupational exposures. Higher odds of MRSA in medium swine density

  19. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  20. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of illness at all. How common is swine flu among pigs? H1N1 and H3N2 swine flu viruses are endemic among pig populations in the ... and winter) , but can occur year round. While H1N1 swine viruses have been ... least 1930, H3N2 influenza viruses did not begin circulating among pigs in ...

  1. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  2. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  3. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  4. Swine production.

    PubMed

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  5. Governmental provisions to manage and eradicate feral swine in areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Shuman, Rebecca M

    2015-03-01

    Feral swine (wild hogs) are one of the most widely distributed free-ranging mammals in the world. In the United States, feral swine serve as game animals for the sport of hunting in some areas, while they are nuisance species at other locations. Increasing feral swine populations creates negative impacts to growing crops, native plant communities, and wildlife. Feral swine can also serve as reservoirs for a number of bacterial and viral diseases that can infect wild animals, livestock, and humans. The US state governments are adopting statutes and regulations to reduce the growth and dispersal of feral swine populations. An analysis of these provisions suggests that while they seek to control feral swine populations, they are unlikely to provide any significant relief from damages to crops and native ecosystems. More localized reduction plans and a national disease control program are suggested to assuage damages being wrought by these invasive animals.

  6. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  7. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments.

  8. 1. North view of livestock market: east and north elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North view of livestock market: east and north elevations, showing the 1960 wing at the left, the 1937 main section in the center, and the 1993 exterior pens - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  9. 3. Southwest view of livestock market: west and south elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest view of livestock market: west and south elevations, with remnants of the 1937 west exterior pens (adjoining 1937 main section) at right center - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  10. 7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants of the 1937 west exterior cattle pens in the center and circa 1970 south exterior pens at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  11. Potential Climate Change Effects on Warm-Season Livestock Production in the Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate changes suggested by some global circulation models (GCM) will impact livestock production systems in the Great Plains region of the United States. Production/response models for growing swine and beef cattle, and milk-producing dairy cattle, were developed based on summary information conta...

  12. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection, the animal has a temperature of 106 °F. or higher in the case of swine, or 105 °F. or higher in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection, the animal has a temperature of 106 °F. or higher in the case of swine, or 105 °F. or higher in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection, the animal has a temperature of 106 °F. or higher in the case of swine, or 105 °F. or higher in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  15. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  16. Clinical assessment of selenium status of livestock.

    PubMed

    Stowe, H D; Herdt, T H

    1992-12-01

    Assessment of the selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine, but variations in reported values between laboratories and between methods may be > 30%. Reliable interpretations require considerable experience with an assay and an extensive database from field and research case samples of a variety of species. The Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (MSU-ADHL) has offered Se analyses by acid-digestion and fluorometric detection since 1982. This laboratory expects serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of livestock to increase gradually with age from starting ranges for neonates of 50 to 80 for calves and sheep and 70 to 90 for foals and pigs. Expected or "normal" values for the adults are in the ranges of 70 to 100 for cattle, 120 to 150 for sheep, 130 to 160 for horses, and 180 to 220 for swine. Normal liver Se concentrations are considered to range between 1.2 and 2.0 micrograms/g on a dry weight basis, regardless of the species or age. Based on samples submitted to MSU-AHDL between September 1990 and August 1991, contemporary feeding practices in the Michigan area resulted in mean serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of 75 +/- 19 for adult Holsteins, 170 +/- 27 for adult swine (mixed breeds), and 137 +/- 30 for adult race horses. Within that period of time, two field cases of Se toxicity were diagnosed. One involved feeder pigs with a recorded high serum Se value of 1,525 ng/mL due to a commercial premix manufacturing error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10−3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10−3 for ASF, and 2.5*10−3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10−4 for ASF, and 1.56*10−3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US. PMID:28797058

  18. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth; Mur, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  19. Stress Affected Livestock As Seen By Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Garry B.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared thermography, down through the years, has most typically been applied to inanimate objects, for example; building enclosures, roof assemblies and several others. With the significant advancements in computers, thermographic software/hardware and scanning techniques, the application field has advanced dramatically. Recently, the Canadian Government's Public Works Regional Facilities Maintenance and Agriculture branches have devoted numerous man-hours to thermographically scanning various livestock, such as; cattle and swine. These totally new research experiments are possibly embarking on new solutions for Agriculture Canada's livestock exporting ventures. The primary influencing factor which Agriculture Canada is trying to analyze and manipulate is stress. Significant research into human related stress has proved invaluable. In comparison, little is known concerning animal stress. The end result which all wholesalers, retailers and consumers are concerned with is, top quality meat products. These high quality products are especially desired by foreign countries. Thermography has given the scientists at Agriculture Canada the inside track for inspecting an animal prior to and during the initial meat processing process, for monitoring meat quality related to stress. This paper reveals the present day innovative research techniques which the Canadian Government is conducting on beef cattle.

  20. Ixodid ticks associated with feral swine in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, P Wesley; Strey, Otto F; Blankenship, Terry L; Teel, Pete D

    2013-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from feral swine in eight Texas ecoregions from 2008-2011. Sixty-two percent of 806 feral swine were infested with one or more of the following species: Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. halli, D. variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Juvenile and adult feral swine of both sexes were found to serve as host to ixodid ticks. Longitudinal surveys of feral swine at four geographic locations show persistent year-round tick infestations of all gender-age classes for tick species common to their respective geographic locations and ecoregions. Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were collected from 66% of feral swine harvested through an abatement program in seven ecoregions from March to October in 2009. These results indicate westward geographic expansion of D. variabilis. Summary results show feral swine are competent hosts for ixodid species responsible for the transmission of pathogens and diminished well-being in livestock, wildlife, and humans.

  1. Orbivirus of livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Unit (ABADRU) mission is to solve major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock. The ABADRU has four 5-year project plans under two ARS National Research Programs; Animal Health NP103 and Veterinary, Medical, and Urban Entomolog...

  2. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  3. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  4. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  5. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  6. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  7. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  8. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in agricultural fair livestock, United States.

    PubMed

    Keen, James E; Wittum, Thomas E; Dunn, John R; Bono, James L; Durso, Lisa M

    2006-05-01

    Agricultural fairs exhibiting livestock are increasingly implicated in human Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157:H7) outbreaks. To estimate livestock STEC O157:H7 prevalence at US fairs, we collected 2,919 fecal specimens at 29 county fairs in 2 states and at 3 state fairs in 2002. Fly pools were also collected. STEC O157:H7 was isolated from livestock at 31 (96.9%) of 32 fairs, including 11.4% of 1,407 cattle, 1.2% of 1,102 swine, 3.6% of 364 sheep and goats, and 5.2% of 154 fly pools. Cattle, swine, and flies at some fairs shared indistinguishable STEC O157:H7 isolate subtypes. In 2003, a total of 689 ambient environmental samples were collected at 20 fairgrounds 10-11 months after 2002 livestock sampling while fairgrounds were livestock-free. Four beef barn environmental samples at 3 fairgrounds yielded STEC O157:H7. These data suggest that STEC O157 is common and transmissible among livestock displayed at agricultural fairs and persists in the environment after the fair.

  9. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  10. Endotracheal intubation in swine.

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2012-11-01

    Swine are commonly used as research models for cardiovascular surgery and disease, gastrointestinal disease, organ transplantation and intra-renal surgery. These surgical models require anesthesia and, consequently, endotracheal intubation in order to protect the airway; prevent aspiration of saliva, blood and foreign materials; and maintain positive pressure ventilation of the animal. Successful intubation is vital to the stable maintenance of swine under inhalational anesthesia. Here we discuss key features of swine anatomy that make intubation challenging, equipment necessary for successful intubation and techniques for endotracheal intubation in swine.

  11. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  12. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienaber, J. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Eigenberg, R. A.

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep.

  13. Direct and indirect contact rates among livestock operations in Colorado and Kansas.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Sinclair, Marna; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, Mo D

    2014-05-01

    To characterize direct and indirect contacts among livestock operations in Colorado and Kansas. Cross-sectional quarterly survey. 532 livestock producers. Livestock producers in Colorado and Kansas were recruited by various means to participate in the survey, which was sent out via email or postal mail once quarterly (in March, June, September, and December) throughout 2011. Data were entered into an electronic record, and descriptive statistics were summarized. Large swine operations moving animals to other large swine operations had the highest outgoing direct contact rates (range, 5.9 to 24.53/quarter), followed by dairy operations moving cattle to auction or other dairy operations (range, 2.6 to 10.34/quarter). Incoming direct contact rates for most quarters were highest for large feedlots (range, 0 to 11.56/quarter) and dairies (range, 3.90 to 5.78/quarter). For large feedlots, mean total indirect contacts through feed trucks, livestock haulers, and manure haulers each exceeded 725 for the year. Dairy operations had a mean of 434.25 indirect contacts from milk trucks and 282.25 from manure haulers for the year. High direct contact rates detected among large swine operations may suggest a risk for direct disease transmission within the integrated swine system. Indirect contacts as well as incoming direct contacts may put large feedlots at substantial risk for disease introduction. These data can be useful for establishing and evaluating policy and biosecurity guidelines for livestock producers in the central United States. The results may be used to inform efforts to model transmission and control of infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease in this region.

  14. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows.

  15. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated.

  16. Swine immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  17. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  18. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    Treesearch

    Kim M. Pepin; Amy J. Davis; James Beasley; Raoul  Boughton; Tyler  Campbell; Susan M. Cooper; Wes Gaston; Steve Hartley; John Kilgo; Samantha M. Wisely; Christy Wyckoff; Kurt C. VerCauteren

    2016-01-01

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact...

  19. Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics are used in livestock and poultry production to treat and prevent disease as well as to promote animal growth. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. The goal of this study was to characterize the eff...

  20. A systematic review of occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide in livestock operations.

    PubMed

    Guarrasi, Justene; Trask, Catherine; Kirychuk, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations within intensive livestock operations. The review was undertaken to better understand H2S concentrations in intensive livestock operations, in relation to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) limit reduction to a 1 ppm time-weighted average (TWA). Several online academic databases were searched using two conceptual groups of search terms: "livestock" and "hydrogen sulfide." Industry gray literature was additionally identified via targeted searches of online agriculture-specific Web sites. Title, abstract, and full-text screening were performed to select articles reporting H2S measurements made within livestock facilities. Forty-five articles were included in this review. The bulk (70%) of articles described swine operations, whereas the remaining represented poultry and dairy operations. Although 14% of the articles described task-based monitoring of H2S, the majority of articles (86%) involved only area monitoring. Weighted means from all three livestock types were below 1 ppm, although swine operations displayed a wider range of exposure (from 0 to 97 ppm). Despite most mean task-based exposures being close to 1 ppm, the peak concentrations measurements may be higher during power washing (97 ppm) and miscellaneous tasks (11.4 ppm). This review provides a novel overview of H2S levels in intensive livestock operations, including information on task-based measurements. The review highlights numerous influences that produce a wide variability of H2S levels in intensive livestock operations. The review also highlights the need for research focused on personal monitoring of daily worker exposures to hydrogen sulfide in intensive livestock operations.

  1. Disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water in swine barns.

    PubMed

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Zhang, Q; Lin, B Zh; Ge, L P; Wang, C Y; Cao, W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 6·25-6·53), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine house air and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l(-1) can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l(-1) ) resulted in a significant (P < 0·05) reduction in microbes on the wall, rail and floor after flushing disinfection. Additionally, spraying SAEW at an ACC of 300 mg l(-1) reduced 59% of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (P < 0·03) after spraying disinfection except on the surface of the wall. SAEW may be a potential alternative disinfectant to reduce infections in swine barns. The results of this study provide information on the antimicrobial efficiency of SAEW on the airborne bacteria and fungi in swine barns. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Dynamics of Virus Distribution in a Defined Swine Production Network Using Enteric Viruses as Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, Virginie; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe; Brassard, Julie; L'Homme, Yvan

    2017-02-15

    Modern swine production systems represent complex and dynamic networks involving numerous stakeholders. For instance, livestock transporters carry live animals between fattening sites, abattoirs, and other premises on a daily basis. This interconnected system may increase the risk of microbial spread within and between networks, although little information is available in that regard. In the present study, a swine network composed of 10 finishing farms, one abattoir, and three types of stakeholders (veterinarians, livestock transporters, and nutritional technicians) in Quebec, Canada, was selected to investigate specific vectors and reservoirs of enteric viruses. Environmental samples were collected from the premises over a 12-month period. Samples were screened using targeted reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of two selected viral markers, group A rotaviruses (RVA) and porcine astroviruses (PoAstV), both prevalent and genetically heterogeneous swine enteric viruses. The results revealed frequent contamination of farm sites (21.4 to 100%), livestock transporter vehicles (30.6 to 68.8%) and, most importantly, the abattoir yard (46.7 to 94.1%), depending on the sample types. Although high levels of strain diversity for both viruses were found, identical PoAstV and RVA strains were detected in specific samples from farms, the abattoir yard, and the livestock transporter vehicle, suggesting interconnections between these premises and transporters. Overall, the results from this study underscore the potential role of abattoirs and livestock transport as a reservoir and transmission route for enteric viruses within and between animal production networks, respectively.

  3. Streamlined Livestock Trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Bull Nose livestock trailer, manufactured by American Trailer, Inc. is one of a line of highway transport vehicles manufactured by American Trailers, Inc. The slant side front end is a streamlining feature based on a NASA Research Program which investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of trailer/tractor combinations and suggested ways of reducing air resistance. Application of NASA's aerodynamic research technology to the bull nose design resulted in a 10 percent reduction in air drag, which translates into annual fuel savings of several hundred dollars.

  4. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  5. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  6. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  7. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  8. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  9. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  11. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  12. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations at three middle schools near industrial livestock facilities.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Virginia T; Kinlaw, Alan C; Johnston, Jill; Hall, Devon; Wing, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Safe school environments are essential for healthy development, yet some schools are near large-scale livestock facilities that emit air pollution. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from decomposing manure is an indicator of livestock-related air pollution. We measured outdoor concentrations of H2S at three public middle schools near livestock facilities in North Carolina. We used circular graphs to relate H2S detection and wind direction to geospatial distributions of nearby livestock barns. We also used logistic and linear regression to model H2S in relation to upwind, distance-weighted livestock barn area. Circular graphs suggested an association between upwind livestock barns and H2S detection. The log-odds of H2S detection per 1000 m(2) increased with upwind weighted swine barn area (School A: β-coefficient (β)=0.43, SE=0.06; School B: β=0.64, SE=0.24) and upwind weighted poultry barn area (School A: β=0.05, SE=0.01), with stronger associations during periods of atmospheric stability than atmospheric instability (School A stable: β=0.69, SE=0.11; School A unstable: β=0.32, SE=0.09). H2S concentration also increased linearly with upwind swine barn area, with greater increases during stable atmospheric conditions (stable: β=0.16 parts per billion (p.p.b.), SE=0.01; unstable: β=0.05 p.p.b., SE=0.01). Off-site migration of pollutants from industrial livestock operations can decrease air quality at nearby schools.

  14. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  15. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  16. The effect of a catastrophic flood disaster on livestock farming in Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, Chaidate; Supikulpong, Pichet; Vannametee, Ekkamol; Luengyosluechakul, Supol; Khanda, Somkid; Tashnakajankorn, Tanuwong; Ajariyakhajorn, Kittisak; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj; Techakumpu, Mongkol

    2013-04-01

    In 2011, a catastrophic flood disaster in Thailand affected not only humans but also took animal lives. Data on livestock losses, including death, loss, and decreased production, were collected in Nakhon Sawan province. The time-series map of the flooded area from August to December 2011 was available online from the Geo-informatics and Space Technology Development Agency. To evaluate the high-density areas of livestock loss, a spatial hot spot analysis was performed. The Getis-Ord Gi statistic with weighted zone of indifference and the Euclidean distance measurement were employed to identify spatial clusters of species that were affected by the flood. The results indicated that the majority of livestock losses were from poultry and swine farms. The density of poultry and swine loss was significantly different between sub-districts with clusters of high-density loss alongside the river, particularly in Chum Saeng and Kao Liew. Using spatial hot spot analysis as a tool to classify and rank the areas with high flood risks provides an informative outline for farmers to be aware of potential flood damage. To avoid unexpected loss from flooding, poultry and swine farms in risk areas should be properly managed, particularly during the flooding season between August and December.

  17. Microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Philippa J. M.; Amos-Ritchie, Rachel N.; Reverter, Antonio; Palacios, Gustavo; Quan, Phuong-Lan; Jabado, Omar; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian; Boyle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. It is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. Due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain elusive. With the ability to test a small quantity of sample for a large number of pathogens simultaneously, DNA microarrays represent a potential solution to this problem. This study describes the application of a long oligonucleotide microarray assay to the identification of viruses known to cause vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals. Eighteen virus isolates from cell culture were successfully identified to genus level, including representatives of each foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype, two species of vesicular stomatitis virus, swine vesicular disease virus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, orf virus, pseudocowpox virus, bluetongue virus serotype 1 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1. Vesicular stomatitis virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus were also identified in vesicular epithelium samples, with varying levels of sensitivity. The results indicate that with further development this microarray assay could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of vesicular and vesicular-like diseases. PMID:18621489

  18. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R; West, Tristram O

    2017-09-29

    Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure. We then use this updated information to calculate new livestock methane emissions factors for enteric fermentation in cattle, and for manure management in cattle and swine. Using the new emissions factors, we estimate global livestock emissions of 119.1 ± 18.2 Tg methane in 2011; this quantity is 11% greater than that obtained using the IPCC 2006 emissions factors, encompassing an 8.4% increase in enteric fermentation methane, a 36.7% increase in manure management methane, and notable variability among regions and sources. For example, revised manure management methane emissions for 2011 in the US increased by 71.8%. For years through 2013, we present (a) annual livestock methane emissions, (b) complete annual livestock carbon budgets, including carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) spatial distributions of livestock methane and other carbon fluxes, downscaled to 0.05 × 0.05 degree resolution. Our revised bottom-up estimates of global livestock methane emissions are comparable to recently reported top-down global estimates for recent years, and account for a significant part of the increase in annual methane emissions since 2007. Our results suggest that livestock methane emissions, while not the dominant overall source of global methane emissions, may be a major contributor to the observed annual emissions increases over the 2000s to 2010s. Differences at regional and local scales may help

  19. Efficient TALEN-mediated gene knockout in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Tan, Wenfang; Lillico, Simon G.; Stverakova, Dana; Proudfoot, Chris; Christian, Michelle; Voytas, Daniel F.; Long, Charles R.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are programmable nucleases that join FokI endonuclease with the modular DNA-binding domain of TALEs. Although zinc-finger nucleases enable a variety of genome modifications, their application to genetic engineering of livestock has been slowed by technical limitations of embryo-injection, culture of primary cells, and difficulty in producing reliable reagents with a limited budget. In contrast, we found that TALENs could easily be manufactured and that over half (23/36, 64%) demonstrate high activity in primary cells. Cytoplasmic injections of TALEN mRNAs into livestock zygotes were capable of inducing gene KO in up to 75% of embryos analyzed, a portion of which harbored biallelic modification. We also developed a simple transposon coselection strategy for TALEN-mediated gene modification in primary fibroblasts that enabled both enrichment for modified cells and efficient isolation of modified colonies. Coselection after treatment with a single TALEN-pair enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and biallelic modification in up to 54% and 17% of colonies, respectively. Coselection after treatment with two TALEN-pairs directed against the same chromosome enabled the isolation of colonies harboring large chromosomal deletions and inversions (10% and 4% of colonies, respectively). TALEN-modified Ossabaw swine fetal fibroblasts were effective nuclear donors for cloning, resulting in the creation of miniature swine containing mono- and biallelic mutations of the LDL receptor gene as models of familial hypercholesterolemia. TALENs thus appear to represent a highly facile platform for the modification of livestock genomes for both biomedical and agricultural applications. PMID:23027955

  20. Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Givens, Carrie E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Duris, Joseph; Moorman, Thomas B.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Manure application is a source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, zoonotic pathogens can contaminate surface water and streambed sediment and could affect both wildlife and human health. This study examined the environmental occurrence of gene markers for livestock-related bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens and antibiotic resistance in surface waters within the South Fork Iowa River basin before and after periods of swine manure application on agricultural land. Increased concentrations of indicator bacteria after manure application exceeding Iowa's state bacteria water quality standards suggest that swine manure contributes to diminished water quality and may pose a risk to human health. Additionally, the occurrence of HEV and numerous bacterial pathogen genes for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus in both manure samples and in corresponding surface water following periods of manure application suggests a potential role for swine in the spreading of zoonotic pathogens to the surrounding environment. During this study, several zoonotic pathogens were detected including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic enterococci, and S. aureus; all of which can pose mild to serious health risks to swine, humans, and other wildlife. This research provides the foundational understanding required for future assessment of the risk to environmental health from livestock-related zoonotic pathogen exposures in this region. This information could also be important for maintaining swine herd biosecurity and protecting the health of wildlife near swine facilities.

  1. Biotin in swine nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, E T

    1985-01-01

    For many years, it was believed that supplemental biotin was not needed in swine diets because of the wide distribution of biotin in feedstuffs used in the formulation of swine diets, and because of the known synthesis of biotin by the animal's intestinal microflora. However, interest in biotin nutrition for swine was rekindled in the mid-1970s when several field reports indicated a biotin deficiency in swine that was responsive to biotin supplementation in many cases. Results from university research are accumulating, especially from long-term sow studies (three to four parities), which suggest that supplemental biotin will improve litter size, conception rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, toe lesions, and haircoat condition. Milk biotin concentration and plasma biotin concentration of sows and piglets were also elevated when supplemental biotin was fed. Using presently available feedstuffs and under modern swine production conditions, a marginal biotin deficiency is possible. Swine producers experiencing poor reproductive performance in their sow herds, associated with excessive loss of hair and severe foot lesions, should evaluate the biotin content of their sow diet and consider supplemental biotin.

  2. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter and characterization of ecological succession in Swine gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jung-Man; Guevarra, Robin B; Nguyen, Son G

    2015-04-01

    Ever since the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), the livestock death rate has increased owing to pathogenic bacterial infections. There is a need of developing AGP alternatives; however, the mechanisms by which AGP enhances livestock growth performance are not clearly understood. In this study, we fed 3-week-old swine for 9 weeks with and without AGPs containing chlortetracycline, sulfathiazole, and penicillin to investigate the effects of AGPs on swine gut microbiota. Microbial community analysis was done based on bacterial 16S rRNA genes using MiSeq. The use of AGP showed no growth promoting effect, but inhibited the growth of potential pathogens during the early growth stage. Our results showed the significant increase in species richness after the stabilization of gut microbiota during the post-weaning period (4-week-old). Moreover, the swine gut microbiota was divided into four clusters based on the distribution of operational taxonomic units, which was significantly correlated to the swine weight regardless of AGP treatments. Taxonomic abundance analysis indicated a negative correlation between host weight and the abundance of the family Prevotellaceae species, but showed positive correlation to the abundance of the family Spirochaetaceae, Clostridiaceae_1, and Peptostreptococcaeae species. Although no growth performance enhancement was observed, the use of AGP inhibited the potential pathogens in the early growth stage of swine. In addition, our results indicated the ecological succession of swine gut microbiota according to swine weight. Here, we present a characterization of swine gut microbiota with respect to the effects of AGPs on growth performance.

  3. Livestock handling--minimizing worker injuries.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Morrow, W E Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Numerous hazards may occur on farms raising livestock. Animal contact is often ranked as the first or second leading cause of injuries on the farm. In addition to direct trauma from the animal, other injuries may occur from injection of medications, chemical splashes from cleaning the facility, and repetitive motion injuries. Exposures to toxic gases from decomposition of animal waste such as in manure pits and exposure to animal allergens may cause adverse health effects in humans. One additional consideration is the risk of developing various zoonotic infections. Human injuries happen more often when people are handling animals than during any other activity performed in pork production. The National Pork Board of the United States, in response to a request from pork producers, has developed a program designed to improve worker safety, pig welfare, and pork quality when pigs are moved for whatever reason. The objective of the Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) program is to help all those who transport, produce, or handle swine to do so in a way that is optimal for the pigs' well-being, the health of the handler, and to improve the quality of the pork produced. Understanding basic pig behavior, proper handling practices, and using proper handling equipment will help animal handling be a safe activity. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  4. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  5. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted.

  6. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Davies, P R

    2012-03-01

    The predicted expansion of global livestock populations to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing human population raises numerous concerns, including the implications for disease emergence. The evolution of animal production in developed countries has been marked by substantial reduction in farm numbers with correspondingly larger herd sizes, specialization of enterprises, concentration or ownership and vertical integration. Innovations in the structure and operations of swine production have been largely driven by efforts to improve swine health, and the impact of several important swine diseases has declined. Productivity in swine production and the safety of pork products have increased markedly. The most significant emerging infectious diseases of pigs over the last decades have been highly host-specific viruses rather than multihost pathogens. While some bacterial pathogens of pigs have increased in importance in modern systems, improved management systems and biosecurity have enabled herd sizes to increase without negative impact on swine health. The most vulnerable scenario for disease emergence in swine, particularly for zoonotic agents, may be rapid expansion and intensification of swine industries in developing countries without incorporating the stringent biosecurity measures and veterinary oversight that have helped maintain the health and productivity of large herds in North America. Factors that may influence disease emergence in the long term include regulatory measures (particularly related to antimicrobial use), genetics and feeding practices. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Swine flu vaccine: present status.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-11-01

    In early 2009, "swine flu", a new infectious disease, emerged in Mexico and further spread around the world. It is currently accepted as the most problematic infection at present. To control this new infection, the swine flu vaccine is the hope. The reasons that we need the swine flu vaccine will be discussed. Also, the present status, current attempts and problems of swine flu vaccine development will be presented in this commentary.

  8. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Ducey, Thomas; Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G

    2008-11-01

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary objective of this work is to present established and emerging energy conversion opportunities that can transform the treatment of livestock waste from a liability to a profit center. While biological production of methanol and hydrogen are in early research stages, anaerobic digestion is an established method of generating between 0.1 to 1.3m3m(-3)d(-1) of methane-rich biogas. The TCC processes of pyrolysis, direct liquefaction, and gasification can convert waste into gaseous fuels, combustible oils, and charcoal. Integration of biological and thermal-based conversion technologies in a farm-scale hybrid design by combining an algal CO2-fixation treatment requiring less than 27,000m2 of treatment area with the energy recovery component of wet gasification can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and efficiently recycle nutrients. These designs have the potential to make future large scale confined animal feeding operations sustainable and environmentally benign while generating on-farm renewable energy.

  9. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  10. Livestock drugs and disease: the fatal combination behind breeding failure in endangered bearded vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A

    2010-11-30

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses.

  11. Livestock Drugs and Disease: The Fatal Combination behind Breeding Failure in Endangered Bearded Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses. PMID:21152405

  12. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  13. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  14. Reduplication of swine spleen lobes.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Makita, T

    1996-04-01

    In a search for the reduplication of the spleen, a total of 227,513 swine from 130 breeders were surveyed at a slaughterhouse (Ozu Health Center, Ehime Prefecture, Japan) between October 1993 and June 1995. They were 6 to 7 months old and their body weight ranged from 95 to 120 kg. Twenty swine had two lobed spleens. Of these, nine were males and 11 were females. The second or sub-lobe was generally smaller than the main lobe but was variable in size. Large ones were similar in size to the main lobe and small ones were approximately 1/4 of the length of the main lobe. One very small lobe was just a protrusion of the main one across the greater omentum. The two lobes were always attached to each other in the central portion, and fat and the greater omentum were always found between the lobes. The splenic artery, vein and nerve were shared between the two lobes. The main lobe was covered with peritoneum from the parietal surface of the stomach while the sub-lobe was covered with visceral peritoneum. Both peritonea joined to the greater omentum at the hilus in ordinary spleens, but at short distance from the hilus in double lobed spleens.

  15. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Dayna M; Schmidt, John W

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact" environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences

  16. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar

  17. Characteristics of microbial aerosols released from chicken and swine feces.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Lin, Tzu-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Chien, Yu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Bioaerosols generated during livestock and poultry production are significant occupational hazards. This study investigates the characteristics of bioaerosols released from animal feces. Fresh feces from pigs and chickens were obtained and tested in a controlled-environment facility. Airborne viable (culturable) bacteria and fungi were sampled hourly for 48 hr. The predominant species were identified via polymerase chain reaction analysis. The number of bacterial colonies released from chicken feces increased gradually, peaked at approximately 20 hr, and remained relatively constant to test end; however, the bacterial colonies released from swine feces did not increase significantly. The chicken feces released significantly (P < 0.05) more bacterial aerosols than swine feces over 40 hr, by approximately 1 order of magnitude. However, the difference in total fungal aerosols released from the two feces types was relatively small (30-40%) and insignificant (P > 0.05). Aerosols sized between approximately 0.65 and 1.1 microm were predominant for bacteria, whereas aerosols sized between approximately 2.1 and 3.3 microm prevailed for fungi. Genera Stenotrophomonas were the predominant bacterial aerosols, whereas Cladosporium and Acremonium accounted for the greatest amounts of fungi from chicken and swine feces, respectively. More than 1000 culturable bacterial colonies can be released from 1 g of chicken feces per hour, and approximately 80% of these bioaerosols are respirable. Most bacterial aerosols released from swine and chicken feces were opportunistic human pathogens; thus, the significance of their presence warrants further investigations.

  18. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 Studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concern over Salmonella contamination of food is compounded by fear that antimicrobials traditionally used to combat the infection will become useless due to rising antibiotic resistance. Livestock, in particular swine, are often blamed for illnesses caused by Salmonella and for increasing antibioti...

  19. Production of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor knockdown (GnRHR2 KD) swine line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine are the only livestock species that produce both the second mammalian isoform of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2). Previously, we reported that GnRH2 and GnRHR2 mediate LH-independent testosterone secretion from porcine testes. To further explore this ligand-r...

  20. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  1. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzimpiros, P.; Barles, S.

    2012-02-01

    A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  2. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b)...

  3. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control...

  4. Livestock services and the poor.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Redmond, E

    2004-04-01

    This paper reviews the economic framework for the delivery of livestock services to the poor. It is argued that the demand for livestock products is likely to increase rapidly and the ability of the poor to participate in the opportunities presented by this growth is linked critically to the availability of good service support, both on the input and output side. Governments therefore have a responsibility to supply the necessary public goods (including the institutions and legal frameworks), and the market infrastructure for facilitating the emergence of efficient markets for livestock services. The paper further argues that the dynamics of public policy in developing countries are much more complex than the simple application of economic logic. It is the larger political economy that often dictates policy choices. It is therefore important to integrate political economy and governance issues into the economic debate on livestock service delivery. The paper also reviews the context in which the markets for livestock services will need to function. Different countries are facing very different sets of issues, and the identification of possible interventions in livestock service markets would require careful field research and analysis. In this context, the paper suggests the elements of a research agenda for the next few years.

  5. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  6. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  7. Intensive swine production and pork safety.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    Major structural changes in livestock production in developed countries, particularly intensive confinement production and increases in herd and flock sizes, have raised several societal concerns about the future directions and implications of livestock food production, including the safety of meat products. This review of the major parasitic and bacterial foodborne pathogens associated with pork production indicates that pork safety in the United States has improved demonstrably over recent decades. Most notably, changes in swine production methods have been associated with virtual elimination of risk of the foodborne parasites Taenia solium, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii from pigs reared on modern intensive farms. This represents a substantial public health achievement that has gone largely unheralded. Regulatory changes have led to demonstrably lower prevalence of Salmonella on pork carcasses, but control of bacterial foodborne pathogens on farms remains a significant challenge. Available evidence does not support the hypothesis that intensive pork production has increased risk for the major bacterial foodborne pathogens that are common commensals of the pig (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Yersinia enterocolitica), or that pigs produced in alternative systems are at reduced risk of colonization with these organisms. However, pigs raised in outdoor systems inherently confront higher risks of exposure to foodborne parasites, particularly T. gondii.

  8. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L E; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1) and swine (460 g kg-1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  9. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  10. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  11. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

    2011-06-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens.

  12. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  13. Dynamics of Virus Distribution in a Defined Swine Production Network Using Enteric Viruses as Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe; Brassard, Julie; L'Homme, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modern swine production systems represent complex and dynamic networks involving numerous stakeholders. For instance, livestock transporters carry live animals between fattening sites, abattoirs, and other premises on a daily basis. This interconnected system may increase the risk of microbial spread within and between networks, although little information is available in that regard. In the present study, a swine network composed of 10 finishing farms, one abattoir, and three types of stakeholders (veterinarians, livestock transporters, and nutritional technicians) in Quebec, Canada, was selected to investigate specific vectors and reservoirs of enteric viruses. Environmental samples were collected from the premises over a 12-month period. Samples were screened using targeted reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of two selected viral markers, group A rotaviruses (RVA) and porcine astroviruses (PoAstV), both prevalent and genetically heterogeneous swine enteric viruses. The results revealed frequent contamination of farm sites (21.4 to 100%), livestock transporter vehicles (30.6 to 68.8%) and, most importantly, the abattoir yard (46.7 to 94.1%), depending on the sample types. Although high levels of strain diversity for both viruses were found, identical PoAstV and RVA strains were detected in specific samples from farms, the abattoir yard, and the livestock transporter vehicle, suggesting interconnections between these premises and transporters. Overall, the results from this study underscore the potential role of abattoirs and livestock transport as a reservoir and transmission route for enteric viruses within and between animal production networks, respectively. IMPORTANCE Using rotaviruses and astroviruses as markers of enteric contamination in a swine network has revealed the potential role of abattoirs and livestock transporters as a reservoir and vectors of enteric pathogens. The results from this study highlight the importance of tightening

  14. Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from livestock and poultry waste emissions.

    PubMed

    Howard, Cody J; Kumar, Anuj; Mitloehner, Frank; Stackhouse, Kimberly; Green, Peter G; Flocchini, Robert G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    The global pattern of expanding urban centers and increasing agricultural intensity is leading to more frequent interactions between air pollution emissions from urban and agricultural sources. The confluence of these emissions that traditionally have been separated by hundreds of kilometers is creating new air quality challenges in numerous regions across the United States. An area of particular interest is California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), which has an agricultural output higher than many countries, a rapidly expanding human population, and ozone concentrations that are already higher than many dense urban areas. New regulations in the SJV restrict emissions of reactive organic gases (ROGs) from animal sources in an attempt to meet Federal and State ozone standards designed to protect human health. The objective of this work is to directly measure the ozone formation potential (OFP) of agricultural animal plus waste sources in representative urban and rural atmospheres using a transportable "smog" chamber. Four animal types were examined: beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, and poultry. Emissions from each animal plus waste type were captured in a 1 m(3) Teflon bag, mixed with representative background NO(x) and ROG concentrations, and then exposed to UV radiation so that ozone formation could be quantified. The emitted ROG composition was also measured so that the theoretical incremental reactivity could be calculated for a variety of atmospheres and directly compared with the measured OFP under the experimental conditions. The results demonstrate that OFP associated with waste ROG emissions from swine (0.39 +/- 0.04 g-O(3) per g-ROG), beef cattle (0.51 +/- 0.10 g-O(3) per g-ROG), and dairy cattle (0.42 +/- 0.07 g-O(3) per g-ROG) are lower than OFP associated with ROG emissions from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDV) (0.69 +/- 0.05 g-O(3) per g-ROG). The OFP of ROG emitted from poultry waste (1.35 +/- 0.73 g-O(3) per g-ROG) is approximately double the

  15. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  16. Aerial pollutants in swine buildings: a review of their characterization and methods to reduce them.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Lomig; Andrès, Yves; Dumont, Eric

    2012-11-20

    The swine industry follows a large increase of meat production since the 1950s causing the development of bigger swine buildings which involves a raise of pollutants emissions. Due to recent anthropological pressures concerning the animal welfare, the limitation of neighborhood disturbances and atmospheric pollutions limitations, the livestock farming has to adapt their management methods to reduce or treat the aerial pollutants emissions. Through the diversity of livestock barns configurations, their climatic location, their size, and their management, we thus propose hereafter a critical review of the characterizations of these aerial pollutants. This is realized by distinguishing both solids and gaseous emissions and by referencing the measurements methods mainly used to analyze and quantify airborne particles, odorants, and gaseous compounds in the atmosphere of swine buildings. The origins of these pollutants are focused and the sturdiest techniques for concentration measurements are highlighted. Finally, we discuss pollutants abatement techniques criticizing their implementation in swine buildings and emphasizing the use of biological ways such as biofiltration for gases and odors treatment.

  17. Livestock waste: a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 118 papers presented at this conference provide guidelines for the design of livestock waste management systems. Topics discussed include waste collection, economics, lagoons, land application, methane generation, odor control, refeeding, runoff and storage, and waste treatment for stabilization. Twenty papers, dealing mostly with methane production, have been abstracted separately. 1166 references, 321 figures, 320 tables.

  18. Antibiotic use in livestock production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic usage is a useful and commonly implemented practice in livestock and production agriculture that has progressively gained attention in recent years from consumers of animal products due to concerns about human and environmental health. Sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics has led to a con...

  19. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    PubMed

    Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced

  20. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  1. Classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Moennig, V; Becher, P; Beer, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever is a serious and economically important transboundary disease threatening pig production globally. The infection may occur in backyard pigs, feral pig populations and domestic pigs. Whereas there are proven control strategies for the latter pig population, control in backyard pigs with poor biosecurity settings or in wild boar populations of high density still poses a problem in some parts of the world. Laboratory diagnostic methods, efficacious vaccines and contingency plans are in place in most industrialised countries. So far modified live vaccines (MLV) are still the first choice for rapid and reliable immune protection. Since antibodies elicited by conventional MLV cannot be distinguished from antibodies after natural infection, considerable efforts are put into the development of a live marker vaccine accompanied by a serological test. Nevertheless, some remaining gaps with respect to the diagnosis of and vaccination against classical swine fever have been identified.

  2. Crude glycerin in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  3. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY...

  4. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  5. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  6. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  7. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  8. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  9. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  10. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks.

  11. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  12. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  13. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  14. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration...

  15. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  16. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  17. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  18. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  19. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  20. Deodorization of swine manure slurry using horseradish peroxidase and peroxides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fen Xia; Zhu, Rui Fen; Li, Ying

    2009-08-15

    Considering the development of highly confined piggery and increasing complaints about livestock manure odors, it is pressing to develop a practical way to reduce the odors. Peroxidase, which has been proved to be capable of removing toxic phenolic compounds from wastewater, may also be effective in deodorizing the swine manures. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (0.1-3.0 U/mL) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 0.5-6%) or calcium peroxide (CaO(2), 0.1-3.0g) was examined for the efficiency of controlling the release of seven malodor compounds, including three volatile fatty acids (isobutyric acid, isocaproic acid and isovaleric acid), two phenolic compounds (phenol and p-cresol) and two indolic compounds (indole and skatole) from swine manure slurry. Odor intensity and total nitrogen content in swine manure were also measured. The results showed almost 100% reduction in p-cresol, 54-84% reduction in odor intensity, 32-54% reduction in indolic compounds and 28-41% reduction of VFAs. The effect of deodorization can last for at least 48 h.

  1. Emissions savings in the corn-ethanol life cycle from feeding coproducts to livestock.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Virgil R; Liska, Adam J; Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Yang, Haishun S; Walters, Daniel T; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2010-01-01

    Environmental regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from corn (Zea mays L.)-ethanol production require accurate assessment methods to determine emissions savings from coproducts that are fed to livestock. We investigated current use of coproducts in livestock diets and estimated the magnitude and variability in the GHG emissions credit for coproducts in the corn-ethanol life cycle. The coproduct GHG emissions credit varied by more than twofold, from 11.5 to 28.3 g CO(2)e per MJ of ethanol produced, depending on the fraction of coproducts used without drying, the proportion of coproduct used to feed beef cattle (Bos taurus) vs. dairy or swine (Sus scrofa), and the location of corn production. Regional variability in the GHG intensity of crop production and future livestock feeding trends will determine the magnitude of the coproduct GHG offset against GHG emissions elsewhere in the corn-ethanol life cycle. Expansion of annual U.S. corn-ethanol production to 57 billion liters by 2015, as mandated in current federal law, will require feeding of coproduct at inclusion levels near the biological limit to the entire U.S. feedlot cattle, dairy, and swine herds. Under this future scenario, the coproduct GHG offset will decrease by 8% from current levels due to expanded use by dairy and swine, which are less efficient in use of coproduct than beef feedlot cattle. Because the coproduct GHG credit represents 19 to 38% of total life cycle GHG emissions, accurate estimation of the coproduct credit is important for determining the net impact of corn-ethanol production on atmospheric warming and whether corn-ethanol producers meet state- and national-level GHG emissions regulations.

  2. Distribution and interspecies contact of feral swine and cattle on rangeland in south Texas: implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Susan M; Scott, H Morgan; de la Garza, Guadalupe R; Deck, Aubrey L; Cathey, James C

    2010-01-01

    The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine are potent amplifiers of FMD virus. In this study, global positioning system (GPS) collars were placed on rangeland cattle (Bos indicus x taurus) and feral swine to determine shared habitat use by these species on a large ranch in south Texas from 2004 to 2006. The aim was to identify locations and rates of interspecies contact that may result in effective transfer of FMD virus, should an outbreak occur. In shrubland and riparian areas, animals were dispersed, so contacts within and between species were relatively infrequent. Indirect contacts, whereby cattle and feral swine used the same location (within 20 m) within a 360-min period, occurred primarily at water sources, and seasonally in irrigated forage fields and along ranch roads. Direct contacts between species (animals <20 m apart and within 15 min) were rare and occurred primarily at water sources. Changes in ranch management practices are suggested to reduce interspecies contact should an FMD disease outbreak occur. This information can also be used to improve current epidemiologic models to better fit free-ranging animal populations.

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  4. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  5. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  6. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  7. Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S

    2010-04-19

    Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limarí and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limarí and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limarí and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limarí and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between

  8. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center.

    PubMed

    Bannantine, John P; Olsen, Steven C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Stanton, Thad B; Casas, Eduardo; Whipple, Diana L; Zuelke, Kurt A

    2013-08-30

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animal health contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Perspective: Swine-origin influenza: 1976 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Sencer, David J

    2011-01-01

    I am in a unique situation, having been involved in 2 major US public health events resulting from novel swine-origin influenza viruses. In 1976, I was Director of the Center for Disease Control (CDC, the name of the agency at the time) when a new influenza virus, characterized as an influenza A(H1N1) swine virus, was isolated from military recruits at Fort Dix, New Jersey. Subsequently, I led the CDC through the US response to this outbreak, which culminated in the decision to implement the swine flu vaccination program during which 45 million people were vaccinated over 10 weeks. The program was stopped after cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome were identified following vaccination and when no spread of the virus occurred beyond Fort Dix. In 2009, as another new swine H1N1 virus was first identified and emergency response began, I was asked to be an advisor to the CDC Director in order that I might provide historical context to the novel H1N1 swine-origin outbreak and response. In this latter capacity, I have been able to observe and participate in discussions resulting in decision-making for the CDC's national response to this public health emergency as an unpaid consultant. This paper is a personal commentary on the similarities and dissimilarities of the 2 episodes.

  10. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  11. Carvacrol and thymol reduce swine waste odor and pathogens: stability of oils.

    PubMed

    Varel, Vincent H

    2002-01-01

    An incomplete anoxic fermentation of livestock waste results in offensive odor emissions. Antimicrobial additives may be useful in controlling odor emissions and pathogens. Natural antimicrobial compounds, carvacrol or thymol at 16.75 mM (2.5 g/l) completely inhibited the production of the offensive odor compounds, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, and cresol, and significantly reduced other short-chain volatile fatty acids and gas emissions from swine waste. Fecal coliforms were reduced from 6.3 x 10(6) to 1.0 x 10(3) cells per ml 2 days after treatment with carvacrol (13.3 mM) and were not detectable within 14 days. Total culturable anaerobic bacteria were reduced from 12.4 x 10(10) to 7.2 x 10(8) cells per ml after 2 days and were suppressed below this level for 28 days. Lactate production was not prevalent in untreated swine waste indicating that the microbial populations differ from those in cattle waste. Carvacrol and thymol were stable in swine waste under anoxic conditions for 62 days with 90 to 95% of the additive being recovered in the waste solids. In conclusion, carvacrol and thymol are not metabolized in anoxic swine waste and they are potentially useful in controlling odor emissions and pathogens in swine waste.

  12. Prevalence and Abundance of Florfenicol and Linezolid Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Swine Feedlots

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Zheng; Du, Xiang-dang; Jiang, Haiyang; Xia, Xi; Shen, Zhangqi; Ding, Shuangyang; Wu, Congming; Zhou, Bingrui; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites. Meanwhile, the detectable levels of florfenicol were also identified in soils from two of these three farms using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears that amount of florfenicol used on swine farms and the spreading of soils with swine waste could promote the prevalence and abundance of FRGs, including the linezolid resistance genes cfr and optrA, in adjacent soils, and agricultural application of swine manure with florfenicol may have caused a residual level of florfenicol in the soils. PMID:27573068

  13. Ammonia volatilization loss from surface applied livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, S; Jayaraman, K; Wilson, Takela C; Alva, Ashok K; Kelson, Luma; Jones, Leandra B

    2009-03-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emission from livestock manures used in agriculture reduces N uptake by crops and negatively impacts air quality. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate NH(3)emission from different livestock manures applied to two soils: Candler fins sand (CFS; light-textured soil, pH 6.8 and field capacity soil water content of 70 g kg(-1)) from Lake Alfred, Florida and Ogeechee loamy sand (OLS; medium-textured soil, pH 5.2 and field capacity soil water content of 140 g kg(-1)) from Savannah, Georgia. Poultry litter (PL) collected from a poultry farm near Douglas, Georgia, and fresh solid separate of swine manure (SM) collected from a farm near Clinton, North Carolina were used. Each of the soil was weighed in 100 g sub samples and amended with either PL or SM at rates equivalent to either 0, 2.24, 5.60, 11.20, or 22.40 Mg ha(-1) in 1L Mason jars and incubated in the laboratory at field capacity soil water content for 19 days to monitor NH(3) volatilization. Results indicated a greater NH(3) loss from soils amended with SM compared to that with PL. The cumulative NH(3)volatilization loss over 19 days ranged from 4 to 27% and 14 to 32% of total N applied as PL and SM, respectively. Volatilization of NH(3) was greater from light-textured CFS than that from medium-textured OLS. Volatilization loss increased with increasing rates of manure application. Ammonia volatilization was lower at night time than that during the day time. Differences in major factors such as soil water content, temperature, soil type and live stock manure type influenced the diurnal variation in volatilization loss of NH(3) from soils. A significant portion (> 50%) of cumulative NH(3) emission over 19 d occurred during the first 5-7 d following the application of livestock manures. Results of this study demonstrate that application of low rates of livestock manure (< or = 5.60 Mg ha(-1)) is recommended to minimize NH(3) emissions.

  14. Genes Indicative of Zoonotic and Swine Pathogens Are Persistent in Stream Water and Sediment following a Swine Manure Spill.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Duris, Joseph W; Kolpin, Dana W; Fogarty, Lisa R; Johnson, Heather E; Gibson, Kristen E; Focazio, Michael; Schwab, Kellogg J; Hubbard, Laura E; Foreman, William T

    2015-05-15

    Manure spills into streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for the following: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol, 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence PCR for viable cells, one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII gene) by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR or reverse transcription-qPCR. Twelve days postspill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli were detected in water or sediment. STII gene levels increased from undetectable before or above the spill to 10(5) copies/100 ml of water 12 days postspill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells postspill. Eighteen days postspill, porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. FIB concentrations (per gram [wet weight]) in sediment were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals postspill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days postspill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Genes Indicative of Zoonotic and Swine Pathogens Are Persistent in Stream Water and Sediment following a Swine Manure Spill

    PubMed Central

    Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills into streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for the following: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol, 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence PCR for viable cells, one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII gene) by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR or reverse transcription-qPCR. Twelve days postspill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli were detected in water or sediment. STII gene levels increased from undetectable before or above the spill to 105 copies/100 ml of water 12 days postspill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells postspill. Eighteen days postspill, porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. FIB concentrations (per gram [wet weight]) in sediment were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals postspill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days postspill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences. PMID:25769829

  16. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  17. Swine models, genomic tools and services to enhance our understanding of human health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric M; Wells, Kevin D; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Schommer, Susan; Prather, Randall S

    2017-03-22

    The pig is becoming increasingly important as a biomedical model. Given the similarities between pigs and humans, a greater understanding of the underlying biology of human health and diseases may come from the pig rather than from classical rodent models. With an increasing need for swine models, it is essential that the genomic tools, models and services be readily available to the scientific community. Many of these are available through the National Swine Resource and Research Center (NSRRC), a facility funded by the US National Institutes of Health at the University of Missouri. The goal of the NSRRC is to provide high-quality biomedical swine models to the scientific community.

  18. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in the US swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006).

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Haley, C; Wagner, B; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) in 1983 to collect, analyse and disseminate data on animal health, management and productivity in US domestic livestock populations, including swine. The programme includes an on-farm serological sampling component which can be used to monitor seroprevalence of various pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in grower/finisher pigs using sera collected during NAHMS Swine 2006 and to determine farm level factors associated with differences in seroprevalence on farms where sera was collected during the Swine 2006 survey. Sera and data on management practices for this study were collected from 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for > 90% of US swine production (Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas and Wisconsin). A total of 6238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay (Vet. Parasitol.128, 2005, 177). Seroprevalence in this study, as determined by ELISA, was 2.6%, with a herd prevalence of 21.6% and a mean within-herd prevalence of 2.7%. Analysis of swine management practices indicated that rodent control methods and carcass disposal methods were associated with differences in the number of T. gondii positive samples on farm. These results are consistent with current epidemiological knowledge of the transmission of Toxoplasma on the farm (ingestion of organic matter containing oocysts, or ingestion of infected animal tissues). Production practices which eliminate these sources of exposure can reduce the risk of Toxoplasma infection in pigs, and reduce the likelihood of human infection from consumption of infected pork.

  19. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  20. African swine fever virus eradication in Africa.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise; Vosloo, Wilna; Jori, Ferran; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever was reported in domestic pigs in 26 African countries during the period 2009-2011. The virus exists in an ancient sylvatic cycle between warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex in many of the countries reporting outbreaks and in two further countries in the region. Eradication of the virus from the countries in eastern and southern Africa where the classic sylvatic cycle occurs is clearly not an option. However, the virus has become endemic in domestic pigs in 20 countries and the great majority of outbreaks in recent decades, even in some countries where the sylvatic cycle occurs, have been associated with movement of infected pigs and pig meat. Pig production and marketing and ASF control in Africa have been examined in order to identify risk factors for the maintenance and spread of ASF. These include large pig populations, traditional free-range husbandry systems, lack of biosecurity in semi-intensive and intensive husbandry systems, lack of organisation in both pig production and pig marketing that results in lack of incentives for investment in pig farming, and ineffective management of ASF. Most of these factors are linked to poverty, yet pigs are recognised as a livestock species that can be used to improve livelihoods and contribute significantly to food security. The changes needed and how they might be implemented in order to reduce the risk of ASF to pig producers in Africa and to the rest of the world are explored.

  1. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments.

  2. Does the use of tubular digesters to treat livestock waste lower the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Wald, Ileana; Camacho-Céspedes, Fabricio; Izurieta, Ricardo; Haas, Charles N; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways. Risks related to cattle waste were greater than swine waste due to cattle shedding more (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium parvum also posed a greater risk than Giardia lamblia in all exposure pathways due to livestock shedding high loads of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocysts' lower inactivation rates during anaerobic digestion compared with Giardia lamblia cysts. The risk of infection from exposure to contaminated soil and crops was significantly lower for a community using tubular anaerobic digesters to treat livestock waste compared to a community where the untreated waste was applied to soil. The results indicate that treatment of livestock waste in small-scale tubular anaerobic digesters has the potential to significantly decrease the risk of infection below the World Health Organization's acceptable individual annual risk of infection (10(-4)).

  3. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  4. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  5. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  6. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hepatitis E Virus in a Canadian Swine Production Network.

    PubMed

    Nantel-Fortier, Nicolas; Letellier, Ann; Lachapelle, Virginie; Fravalo, Philippe; L'Homme, Yvan; Brassard, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Viral contamination along the production chain is a significant concern in both food safety and livestock health. Pigs have been reported to act as a reservoir for zoonotic viruses, sometimes emerging ones, and epidemiological studies have shown direct links between the consumption of uncooked pork offal and cases of hepatitis caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 in humans. The presence of HEV in swine herds has been reported, but its dissemination in pork production environments is still unknown. To investigate viral contamination sources in the swine industry, 452 environment and fecal samples, including samples from livestock transportation vehicles, were collected over a period of 11 months from ten farms and one slaughterhouse that together represent a single production network. Hepatitis E virus RNA was detected by nested RT-PCR in 32 samples from both inside and outside farm buildings, on trucks, and, mostly, from fomites collected in the slaughterhouse yard, such as on a utility vehicle. Phylogenetic analysis showed a wide diversity of HEV genotype 3 strains, similar to human and swine strains previously found. According to the results of this study, the movements of trucks and utility vehicles might play an important role in HEV dissemination on a slaughterhouse site and throughout an entire network.

  7. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  8. [Skin diseases of swine].

    PubMed

    von Altrock, A; Höltig, D

    2013-01-01

    Skin alterations can be caused by both environmental conditions and diseases of the organism. Some diseases may only manifest in the skin while others represent signs of a generalized infection. Regarding their origin, skin diseases can be divided into congenital, infectious, and nutritional disorders, and those resulting from housing scarcities. Additionally, there are skin diseases with unknown causes. Skin diseases in a swine herd can result in economic losses through decreased feed efficiency and growth rate and increased mortality. The knowledge of causes and symptoms as well as the selection of appropriate further laboratory investigations provide a valid diagnosis and enable a quick and effective therapy. This description of several skin diseases should provide a background.

  9. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 760 RIN 0560-AH95 Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and... the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program... events or loss conditions must have occurred to be eligible losses of livestock, honeybee, crops, and...

  10. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  11. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  12. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  13. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  14. Characterization of triple reassortant H1N1 influenza A viruses from swine in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Yassine, H M; Khatri, M; Zhang, Y J; Lee, C W; Byrum, B A; O'Quin, J; Smith, K A; Saif, Y M

    2009-10-20

    An H1N1 influenza A virus, A/swine/Ohio/24366/07, was isolated from pigs in an Ohio county fair. Twenty-six people who came in contact with the infected pigs developed respiratory disease and two of these people were laboratory confirmed as H1N1 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The A/swine/Ohio/24366/07 virus we isolated from swine was shown at the CDC to have 100% identical genome sequence to the human virus associated with the county fair. This prompted us to characterize three swine and two human origin H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated at different time points in the State of Ohio. The three swine viruses were shown to be triple reassortant viruses harboring genes of human (PB1), swine (HA, NA, NP, M, and NS), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineage viruses. Although viruses evaluated in this study were isolated during a short time interval (3 years), genetic drift was observed within the HA and NA genes, including changes at the receptor binding and antigenic sites of HA1 protein. Nevertheless, all viruses exhibited antigenic similarity as evaluated with hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing tests. Internal genes were similar to other reassortant viruses of various subtypes currently circulating in the United States. Interestingly, two of the swine viruses including the 2007 isolate replicated well in human airway epithelial cells, however, another virus isolated in 2006 showed very little replication.

  15. High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Joan A.; Curriero, Frank C.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Nachman, Keeve E.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Nearly 80% of antibiotics in the United States are sold for use in livestock feeds. The manure produced by these livestock contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resistance genes, and antibiotics, and is subsequently applied to crop fields where it may put community members at risk for antibiotic-resistant infections. Objective To assess the association between individual exposure to swine and dairy/veal industrial agriculture and risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based, nested case-control study of Geisinger primary care patients in Pennsylvania from 2005–2010. Incident MRSA cases were identified using electronic health records, classified as community-associated or healthcare-associated, and frequency-matched to randomly selected controls and patients with skin and soft tissue infection. Nutrient management plans were used to create two exposure variables: seasonal crop field manure application and number of livestock at the operation. In a sub-study we collected 200 isolates from patients stratified by location of diagnosis and proximity to livestock operations. Main outcome measures Community-associated MRSA, healthcare associated-MRSA, and skin and soft tissue infection status (with no history of MRSA) compared to controls. Results From 446,480 patients, 1539 community-associated MRSA, 1335 healthcare-associated MRSA, 2895 skin and soft tissue infection cases, and 2914 controls were included. After adjustment for MRSA risk factors, the highest quartile of swine crop field exposure was significantly associated with community-associated MRSA, healthcare-associated MRSA, and skin and soft tissue infection case status (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.13–1.69], 1.30 [95% CI, 1.05–1.61], and 1.37 [95% CI, 1.18–1.60], respectively); and there was a trend of increasing odds across quartiles for each outcome (all P for trend ≤0.01). There were similar but weaker

  16. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  17. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    PubMed

    Wielgus, Robert B; Peebles, Kaylie A

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  18. Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations

    PubMed Central

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Peebles, Kaylie A.

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, – but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987–2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5–6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered. PMID:25470821

  19. Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Timothy P.; Wint, G. R. William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I.; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced. PMID:24875496

  20. Mycotoxins in ethanol co-products: modeling economic impacts on the livestock industry and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Munkvold, Gary P

    2008-06-11

    The rapidly expanding U.S. ethanol industry is generating a growing supply of co-products, mostly in the form of dried distillers' grain and solubles (DDGS) or wet distillers' grains (WDG). In the United States, 90% of the co-products of maize-based ethanol are fed to livestock. An unintended consequence is that animals are likely to be fed higher levels of mycotoxins, which are concentrated up to three times in DDGS compared to grain. The model developed in this study estimates current losses to the swine industry from weight gain reduction due to fumonisins in added DDGS at $9 million ($2-18 million) annually. If there is complete market penetration of DDGS in swine feed with 20% DDGS inclusion in swine feed and fumonisins are not controlled, losses may increase to $147 million ($29-293 million) annually. These values represent only those losses attributable to one mycotoxin on one adverse outcome on one species. The total loss due to mycotoxins in DDGS could be significantly higher due to additive or multiplicative effects of multiple mycotoxins on animal health. If mycotoxin surveillance is implemented by ethanol producers, losses are shifted among multiple stakeholders. Solutions to this problem include methods to reduce mycotoxin contamination in both pre- and postharvest maize.

  1. Environmental effectiveness of swine sewage management: a multicriteria AHP-based model for a reliable quick assessment.

    PubMed

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  2. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Recovered from Clinical Samples from Cattle and Swine in Minnesota, 2006 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Hong, Samuel; Rovira, Albert; Davies, Peter; Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Rendahl, Aaron; Olsen, Karen; Bender, Jeff B; Wells, Scott; Perez, Andres; Alvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the leading causes of foodborne disease worldwide despite preventive efforts at various stages of the food production chain. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica represents an additional challenge for public health authorities. Food animals are considered a major reservoir and potential source of foodborne salmonellosis; thus, monitoring of Salmonella strains in livestock may help to detect emergence of new serotypes/MDR phenotypes and to gain a better understanding of Salmonella epidemiology. For this reason, we analyzed trends over a nine-year period in serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance, of Salmonella isolates recovered at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) from swine (n = 2,537) and cattle (n = 1,028) samples. Prevalence of predominant serotypes changed over time; in swine, S. Typhimurium and S. Derby decreased and S. Agona and S. 4,5,12:i:- increased throughout the study period. In cattle, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. Cerro increased and S. Muenster became less frequent. Median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates were higher for those recovered from swine compared with cattle, and were particularly high for certain antibiotic-serotype combinations. The proportion of resistant swine isolates was also higher than observed in the NARMS data, probably due to the different cohort of animals represented in each dataset. Results provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in livestock in Minnesota, and can help to monitor emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  4. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Recovered from Clinical Samples from Cattle and Swine in Minnesota, 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samuel; Rovira, Albert; Davies, Peter; Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Rendahl, Aaron; Olsen, Karen; Bender, Jeff B.; Wells, Scott; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the leading causes of foodborne disease worldwide despite preventive efforts at various stages of the food production chain. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica represents an additional challenge for public health authorities. Food animals are considered a major reservoir and potential source of foodborne salmonellosis; thus, monitoring of Salmonella strains in livestock may help to detect emergence of new serotypes/MDR phenotypes and to gain a better understanding of Salmonella epidemiology. For this reason, we analyzed trends over a nine-year period in serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance, of Salmonella isolates recovered at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) from swine (n = 2,537) and cattle (n = 1,028) samples. Prevalence of predominant serotypes changed over time; in swine, S. Typhimurium and S. Derby decreased and S. Agona and S. 4,5,12:i:- increased throughout the study period. In cattle, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. Cerro increased and S. Muenster became less frequent. Median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates were higher for those recovered from swine compared with cattle, and were particularly high for certain antibiotic-serotype combinations. The proportion of resistant swine isolates was also higher than observed in the NARMS data, probably due to the different cohort of animals represented in each dataset. Results provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in livestock in Minnesota, and can help to monitor emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27936204

  5. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  6. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  7. Occurrence of sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Quanhua; Li, Jin; Sun, Yingxue; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock feedlots deserve attention because they are prone to transfer to human pathogens and thus pose threats to human health. In this study, the occurrence of 21 ARGs, including tetracycline (tet)-, sulfonamide (sul)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone (PMQR)- and macrolide-resistance (erm) genes were investigated in feces and adjacent soils from chicken, swine, and cattle feedlots in Northern China. PMQR and sul ARGs were the most prevalent and account for over 90.0 % of the total ARGs in fecal samples. Specifically, PMQR genes were the most prevalent, accounting for 59.6 % of the total ARGs, followed by sul ARGs (34.2 %). The percentage of tet ARGs was 3.4 %, and erm ARGs accounted for only 1.9 %. Prevalence of PMQR and sul ARGs was also found in swine and cattle feces. The overall trend of ARG concentrations in feces of different feeding animals was chicken > swine > beef cattle in the studied area. In soils, sul ARGs had the highest concentration and account for 71.1 to 80.2 % of the total ARGs, which is possibly due to the widely distributed molecular carriers (i.e., class one integrons), facilitating sul ARG propagation. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of various types of ARGs in livestock feedlots and thus provides a reference for the management of antibiotic use in livestock farming.

  8. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    PubMed

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  9. Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

  10. Diseases at the livestock-wildlife interface: status, challenges, and opportunities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan S; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Malmberg, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    In the last half century, significant attention has been given to animal diseases; however, our understanding of disease processes and how to manage them at the livestock-wildlife interface remains limited. In this study, we conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the status of diseases at the livestock-wildlife interface in the United States. Specifically, the goals of the literature review were three fold: first to evaluate domestic animal diseases currently found in the United States where wildlife may play a role; second to identify critical issues faced in managing these diseases at the livestock-wildlife interface; and third to identify potential technical and policy strategies for addressing these issues. We found that of the 86 avian, ruminant, swine, poultry, and lagomorph diseases that are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), 53 are present in the United States; 42 (79%) of these have a putative wildlife component associated with the transmission, maintenance, or life cycle of the pathogen; and 21 (40%) are known to be zoonotic. At least six of these reportable diseases-bovine tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, brucellosis, avian influenza, rabies, and cattle fever tick (vector control)-have a wildlife reservoir that is a recognized impediment to eradication in domestic populations. The complex nature of these systems highlights the need to understand the role of wildlife in the epidemiology, transmission, and maintenance of infectious diseases of livestock. Successful management or eradication of these diseases will require the development of cross-discipline and institutional collaborations. Despite social and policy challenges, there remain opportunities to develop new collaborations and new technologies to mitigate the risks posed at the livestock-wildlife interface. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan S; Sweeney, Steven J; Slootmaker, Chris; Grear, Daniel A; Di Salvo, Paul A; Kiser, Deborah; Shwiff, Stephanie A

    2017-08-10

    Cross-species disease transmission between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is an increasing threat to public and veterinary health. Wild pigs are increasingly a potential veterinary and public health threat. Here we investigate 84 pathogens and the host species most at risk for transmission with wild pigs using a network approach. We assess the risk to agricultural and human health by evaluating the status of these pathogens and the co-occurrence of wild pigs, agriculture and humans. We identified 34 (87%) OIE listed swine pathogens that cause clinical disease in livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans. On average 73% of bacterial, 39% of viral, and 63% of parasitic pathogens caused clinical disease in other species. Non-porcine livestock in the family Bovidae shared the most pathogens with swine (82%). Only 49% of currently listed OIE domestic swine diseases had published wild pig surveillance studies. The co-occurrence of wild pigs and farms increased annually at a rate of 1.2% with as much as 57% of all farms and 77% of all agricultural animals co-occurring with wild pigs. The increasing co-occurrence of wild pigs with livestock and humans along with the large number of pathogens shared is a growing risk for cross-species transmission.

  12. Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: Implications for disease risk management in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ryan S.; Sweeney, Steven J; Slootmaker, Chris; Grear, Daniel; DiSalvo, Paul A.; Kiser, Deborah; Shwiff, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-species disease transmission between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is an increasing threat to public and veterinary health. Wild pigs are increasingly a potential veterinary and public health threat. Here we investigate 84 pathogens and the host species most at risk for transmission with wild pigs using a network approach. We assess the risk to agricultural and human health by evaluating the status of these pathogens and the co-occurrence of wild pigs, agriculture and humans. We identified 34 (87%) OIE listed swine pathogens that cause clinical disease in livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans. On average 73% of bacterial, 39% of viral, and 63% of parasitic pathogens caused clinical disease in other species. Non-porcine livestock in the family Bovidae shared the most pathogens with swine (82%). Only 49% of currently listed OIE domestic swine diseases had published wild pig surveillance studies. The co-occurrence of wild pigs and farms increased annually at a rate of 1.2% with as much as 57% of all farms and 77% of all agricultural animals co-occurring with wild pigs. The increasing co-occurrence of wild pigs with livestock and humans along with the large number of pathogens shared is a growing risk for cross-species transmission.

  13. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  14. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Treesearch

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  15. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock...

  16. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which...

  17. Induction of swine dysentery in swine by the intravenous injection of filtered Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, L D

    1981-01-01

    Swine dysentery was induced in 18 swine exposed by intravenous injection of a filtrate which contained Treponema hyodysenteriae and was obtained from macerated colonic scrapings of swine dysentery. However, swine dysentery did not develop in swine injected intravenously with a pure culture of T. hyodysenteriae or when combined with a colonic filtrate from normal swine. Diarrheal feces from the swine injected intravenously with the filtered T. hyodysenteriae contained more mucus, and fecal smears contained more T. hyodysenteriae and fewer other bacteria than did swine exposed orally to colon infected with swine dysentery or filtered T. hyodysenteriae. In the colons of the 12 swine injected intravenously with filtered T. hyodysenteriae that died, there was a minimum amount of croupous membrane and, microscopically, the T. hyodysenteriae were located deep in the colonic crypts. Five of the six surviving swine injected intravenously with filtered T. hyodysenteriae developed serum anti-T. hyodysenteriae antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test and four of these swine developed diarrhea when reexposed with swine dysentery infected colon six weeks after initial exposure. None of the swine injected intravenously with cultured T. hyodysenteriae developed serum anti-T. hyodysenteriae antibodies and all were highly susceptible to swine dysentery. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7337868

  18. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  19. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  20. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  1. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  2. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  3. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  4. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  5. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  6. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  7. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  8. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  9. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  10. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  11. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  12. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  13. Immunological and respiratory findings in swine farmers.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Mustajbegovic, J; Goswami, S; Maayani, S; Marom, Z; Rienzi, N

    1991-12-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity abnormalities in relation to immunological status was studied in 32 swine farmers and in 39 controls. A large number of swine farmers reacted to swine confinement building antigens (swine hair, 34%, swine confinement agents, 28%) but also to other extracts such as animal food (78%) and corn flour (37%). Control workers also reacted to these antigens in similar frequencies. Increased serum IgE levels were found in 3 swine farmers (9.4%) and all 3 had positive skin tests to at least one of the swine antigens. Among control workers one (2.6%) had an increased serum IgE level; this worker exhibited a positive skin reaction to swine food antigen. Swine farmers with positive skin reactions had across-shift reductions of FEF50 and FEF25 significantly larger than those with negative skin tests (P less than 0.01). Preshift measured ventilatory capacity data (FEV1, FEF50, FEF25) in swine farmers with positive skin tests were significantly lower (compared to predicted) than in those with negative skin tests. Additionally, we showed that a water-soluble swine confinement building antigen causes a dose-related contraction of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea smooth muscle studied in vitro. Our data indicate significant differences in lung function between swine workers with positive and negative skin tests. We suggest that skin testing may be helpful in identifying workers at risk for developing lung disease.

  14. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strategy that is based on the idea that farms that have the highest expected number of secondary infections should be culled first. We show that, in comparison with conventional approaches (ring culling), our new method of risk based culling can reduce the total number of farms that need to be culled, the number of culled infected farms (and thus the expected number of human infections in case of a zoonosis), and the duration of the epidemic. Our novel risk based culling strategy requires three pieces of information, viz. the location of all farms in the area at risk, the moments when infected farms are detected, and an estimate of the distance-dependent probability of transmission. PMID:21714865

  15. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  16. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( < 0.05). A multidimensional scaling diagram was constructed based on the SNP genotypes. Animals within breeds clustered tightly together except for 2 Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  17. Deodorization of swine manure using minced horseradish roots and peroxides.

    PubMed

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Heinemann, Paul H; Kephart, Kenneth B; Dec, Jerzy

    2005-06-15

    Public concerns about offensive odors from livestock manures are on the rise and so is the pressure to develop practical ways to reduce the odors. The use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticanaL) roots (1:10 w/v plant tissue to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO2 at 26 or 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at 34, 52, or 68 mM) for the deodorization of swine manure, was evaluated through a series of laboratory experiments. The principle underlying this deodorization method is the oxidation of odorants by the concerted action of horseradish peroxidase (present in the plant tissue) and peroxide that serves as an electron acceptor, followed by polymerization of phenolic odorants with a possible copolymerization or adsorption of other odorant compounds. The deodorization effect was assessed by a human panel and gas chromatography (GC). In the case of the GC method, 12 compounds commonly associated with malodor (7 volatile fatty acids or VFAs, 3 phenolic compounds, and 2 indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Malodor assessment of the treated slurry by a human panel indicated a 50% reduction in odor intensity. GC results showed 100% removal of all phenolic odorants without reoccurrence for at least 72 h. In view of these data, using plant materials as enzyme carriers and peroxides as electron acceptors emerges as an effective approach to phenolic odor control in animal manure.

  18. Adaptation of avian influenza virus to a swine host

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Jon; Frost, Simon D. W.; Teillaud, Angélique; Smith, Catherine A.; Leclaire, Sarah; Fu, JinQi; Gandon, Sylvain; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Tiley, Laurence S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The emergence of pathogenic RNA viruses into new hosts can have dramatic consequences for both livestock and public health. Here we characterize the viral genetic changes that were observed in a previous study which experimentally adapted a field isolate of duck influenza virus to swine respiratory cells. Both pre-existing and de novo mutations were selected during this adaptation. We compare the in vitro growth dynamics of the adapted virus with those of the original strain as well as all possible reassortants using reverse genetics. This full factorial design showed that viral gene segments are involved in complex epistatic interactions on virus fitness, including negative and sign epistasis. We also identify two point mutations at positions 67 and 113 of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin protein conferring a fast growth phenotype on the naïve avian virus in swine cells. These HA2 mutations enhance the pH dependent, HA-mediated membrane fusion. A global H1 maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis, combined with comprehensive ancestry reconstruction and tests for directional selection, confirmed the field relevance of the mutation at position 113 of HA2. Most notably, this mutation was associated with the establishment of the H1 ‘avian-like’ swine influenza lineage, regarded as the most likely to cause the next influenza pandemic in humans. This multidisciplinary approach to study the genetics of viral adaptation provides unique insights on the underlying processes leading to influenza emergence in a new host species, and identifies specific targets for future surveillance and functional studies. PMID:28458917

  19. Review of group A rotavirus strains reported in swine and cattle.

    PubMed

    Papp, Hajnalka; László, Brigitta; Jakab, Ferenc; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; De Grazia, Simona; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Ciarlet, Max; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2013-08-30

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) infections cause severe economic losses in intensively reared livestock animals, particularly in herds of swine and cattle. RVA strains are antigenically heterogeneous, and are classified in multiple G and P types defined by the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, respectively. This study summarizes published literature on the genetic and antigenic diversity of porcine and bovine RVA strains published over the last 3 decades. The single most prevalent genotype combination among porcine RVA strains was G5P[7], whereas the predominant genotype combination among bovine RVA strains was G6P[5], although spatiotemporal differences in RVA strain distribution were observed. These data provide important baseline data on epidemiologically important RVA strains in swine and cattle and may guide the development of more effective vaccines for veterinary use.

  20. Effect of solids retention time on the bioavailability of organic carbon in anaerobically digested swine waste.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be used to stabilize and produce energy from livestock waste; however, digester effluents may require further treatment to remove nitrogen. This paper quantifies the effects of varying solids retention time (SRT) methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and organic carbon bioavailability for denitrification during swine waste AD. Four bench-scale anaerobic digesters, with SRTs of 14, 21, 28 and 42 days, operated with swine waste feed. Effluent organic carbon bioavailability was measured using anoxic microcosms and respirometry. Excellent performance was observed for all four digesters, with >60% VS removal and CH4 yields between 0.1 and 0.3(m(3)CH4)/(kg VS added). Organic carbon in the centrate as an internal organic carbon source for denitrification supported maximum specific denitrification rates between 47 and 56(mg NO3(-)-N)/(g VSS h). The digester with the 21-day SRT had the highest CH4 yield and maximum specific denitrification rates.

  1. Prostaglandins in swine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kingston, D J

    1982-05-01

    A review is presented of the roles of prostaglandins in swine reproduction. PGE and PGF are both produced in the ovary. PGE is thought to mediate steroidogenic activity of L.H. on the development of the granulosa cells leading to increased progesterone production in the preovulatory phase of the oestrus cycle. PGF2 acts on the theca cells leading to increased oestradiol and oestrus manifestation. The PG blocker indomethacin prevents oocyte rupture, but not maturation. The L.H. surges in the follicular phase stimulate ovarian PG production which initiates oestrus and ovulation. The uterus produces PGF2alpha. Disorders leading to abortion usually result in excess PGF2alpha production at the endometrium leading to luteolysis. With normal gestation circulatory progesterone levels fall during the last two weeks of pregnancy associated with increased circulatory foetal corticoid levels. The foetal corticoids are thought to trigger endometrial PGF2alpha levels leading to luteolysis and parturition. The use of exogenous PGF2alpha for induction of oestrus and abortion, parturition, semen collection and resolution of anoestrus is reviewed.

  2. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  3. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  4. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  5. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Research Center experienced with the construction and maintenance of hyperbaric chambers for swine experiments to simulate deep sea dives in the...this project, the Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC) designed and built a chamber that can be de-pressurized to atmospheric pressure at 8,000ft... Chamber construction has been completed and swine experiments have been initiated. The NMRC Center for Hypobaric Experimentation, Simulation and

  6. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  7. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in said...

  8. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  9. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  10. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  11. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  12. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  13. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in said...

  14. High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Curriero, Frank C; Cosgrove, Sara E; Nachman, Keeve E; Schwartz, Brian S

    2013-11-25

    Nearly 80% of antibiotics in the United States are sold for use in livestock feeds. The manure produced by these animals contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resistance genes, and antibiotics and is subsequently applied to crop fields, where it may put community members at risk for antibiotic-resistant infections. To assess the association between individual exposure to swine and dairy/veal industrial agriculture and risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. A population-based, nested case-control study of primary care patients from a single health care system in Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2010. Incident MRSA cases were identified using electronic health records, classified as community-associated MRSA or health care-associated MRSA, and frequency matched to randomly selected controls and patients with skin and soft-tissue infection. Nutrient management plans were used to create 2 exposure variables: seasonal crop field manure application and number of livestock animals at the operation. In a substudy, we collected 200 isolates from patients stratified by location of diagnosis and proximity to livestock operations. Community-associated MRSA, health care-associated MRSA, and skin and soft-tissue infection status (with no history of MRSA) compared with controls. From a total population of 446,480 patients, 1539 community-associated MRSA, 1335 health care-associated MRSA, 2895 skin and soft-tissue infection cases, and 2914 controls were included. After adjustment for MRSA risk factors, the highest quartile of swine crop field exposure was significantly associated with community-associated MRSA, health care-associated MRSA, and skin and soft-tissue infection case status (adjusted odds ratios, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.13-1.69], 1.30 [95% CI, 1.05-1.61], and 1.37 [95% CI, 1.18-1.60], respectively); and there was a trend of increasing odds across quartiles for each outcome (P ≤ .01 for trend in all comparisons). There were similar but weaker

  15. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  16. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  17. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak.

  18. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-12-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic duration was predicted to be 21days (5th and 95th percentiles; 1-55days), the median number of infected herds was predicted to be 3 herds (1-8), and the total costs were predicted to be €326 million (€256-€442 million). Adding pre-emptive depopulation or intensive surveillance by testing live animals resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario reduced the epidemic duration to 9days (1-38) and the total costs to €294 million (€257-€392 million). Export losses were the driving force of the total costs of the epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Global assessment of livestock intensification potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Stocking densities of livestock on pasture are below attainable rates in many parts of the world. Quantifying this "yield gap" in livestock would allow for targeting of interventions to reduce land use change while meeting demand for milk and meat products. Calculating such yield gaps with semi-empirical methods is more difficult for livestock than for crops for several reasons, including the existence of overstocked areas in global datasets. Here, we use measures of NDVI to exclude regions where overstocking may be associated with pasture degradation. We then use quantile regression methods to empirically determine maps of attainable livestock stocking densities. The resulting maps are compared with maps of actual stocking densities to estimate stocking density yield gaps.

  20. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  1. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report describes relative exposures and hazards for different livestock carcass management options in the event of a natural disaster. A quantitative exposure assessment by which livestock carcass management options are ranked relative to one another for a hypothetical site setting, a standardized set of environmental conditions (e.g., meteorology), and following a single set of assumptions about how the carcass management options are designed and implemented. These settings, conditions, and assumptions are not necessarily representative of site-specific carcass management efforts. Therefore, the exposure assessment should not be interpreted as estimating levels of chemical and microbial exposure that can be expected to result from the management options evaluated. The intent of the relative rankings is to support scientifically-based livestock carcass management decisions that consider potential hazards to human health, livestock, and the environment. This exposure assessment also provides information to support choices about mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate specific exposure pathways.

  2. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This research brief summarizes an evaluation of livestock carcass management options following a natural disaster through a comparative exposure assessment. This assessment helps to inform a scientifically-based selection of environmentally protective methods in times of emergency.

  3. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report describes relative exposures and hazards for different livestock carcass management options in the event of a natural disaster. A quantitative exposure assessment by which livestock carcass management options are ranked relative to one another for a hypothetical site setting, a standardized set of environmental conditions (e.g., meteorology), and following a single set of assumptions about how the carcass management options are designed and implemented. These settings, conditions, and assumptions are not necessarily representative of site-specific carcass management efforts. Therefore, the exposure assessment should not be interpreted as estimating levels of chemical and microbial exposure that can be expected to result from the management options evaluated. The intent of the relative rankings is to support scientifically-based livestock carcass management decisions that consider potential hazards to human health, livestock, and the environment. This exposure assessment also provides information to support choices about mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate specific exposure pathways.

  4. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    PubMed

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  5. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    PubMed Central

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  6. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  7. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjunct livestock auction operations. 780.617 Section 780... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.617 Adjunct livestock auction operations. The livestock auction...

  8. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Rinella; Marty Vavra; Bridgett J. Naylor; Jennifer M. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Livestock often concentrate grazing in particular regions of landscapes while partly or wholly avoiding other regions. Dispersing livestock from the heavily grazed regions is a central challenge in grazing land management. Position data gathered from GPS-collared livestock hold potential for increasing knowledge of factors driving livestock aggregation patterns, but...

  9. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  10. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  11. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  13. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  14. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  15. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  16. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  17. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  18. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  19. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-03-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    PubMed

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of a swine influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Korea in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Sehee; Lee, Sangmoo; Hwang, Min-Woong; Bae, Joon-Yong; Heo, Jun; Kim, Donghwan; Jang, Seok-Il; Kim, Kabsu; Park, Man-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can infect avian and mammalian species, including humans. The genome nature of IAVs may contribute to viral adaptation in different animal hosts, resulting in gene reassortment and the reproduction of variants with optimal fitness. As seen again in the 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic, pigs are known to be susceptible to swine, avian, and human IAVs and can serve as a 'mixing vessel' for the generation of novel IAV variants. To this end, the emergence of swine influenza viruses must be kept under close surveillance. Herein, we report the isolation and phylogenetic study of a swine IAV, A/swine/Korea/PL01/2012 (swPL01, H3N2 subtype). After screening nasopharyngeal samples from pigs in the Gyeongsangnam-do region of Korea from December 2011 to May 2012, we isolated the swPL01 virus and sequenced its all of 8 genome segments (polymerase basic 2, PB2; polymerase basic 1, PB1; polymerase acidic, PA; hemagglutinin, HA; nucleocapsid protein, NP; neuraminidase, NA; matrix protein, M; and nonstructural protein, NS). The phylogenetic study, analyzed with reference strains registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, indicated that the swPL01 virus was similar to the North American triple-reassortant swine strains and that the HA gene of the swPL01 virus was categorized into swine H3 cluster IV. The swPL01 virus had the M gene of the triple-reassortant swine H3N2 viruses, whereas that of other contemporary strains in Korea was transferred from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. These data suggest the possibility that various swine H3N2 viruses may co-circulate in Korea, which underlines the importance of a sustained surveillance system against swine IAVs.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Isolated in Korea in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sehee; Lee, Sangmoo; Hwang, Min-Woong; Bae, Joon-Yong; Heo, Jun; Kim, Donghwan; Jang, Seok-Il; Kim, Kabsu; Park, Man-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can infect avian and mammalian species, including humans. The genome nature of IAVs may contribute to viral adaptation in different animal hosts, resulting in gene reassortment and the reproduction of variants with optimal fitness. As seen again in the 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic, pigs are known to be susceptible to swine, avian, and human IAVs and can serve as a ‘mixing vessel’ for the generation of novel IAV variants. To this end, the emergence of swine influenza viruses must be kept under close surveillance. Herein, we report the isolation and phylogenetic study of a swine IAV, A/swine/Korea/PL01/2012 (swPL01, H3N2 subtype). After screening nasopharyngeal samples from pigs in the Gyeongsangnam-do region of Korea from December 2011 to May 2012, we isolated the swPL01 virus and sequenced its all of 8 genome segments (polymerase basic 2, PB2; polymerase basic 1, PB1; polymerase acidic, PA; hemagglutinin, HA; nucleocapsid protein, NP; neuraminidase, NA; matrix protein, M; and nonstructural protein, NS). The phylogenetic study, analyzed with reference strains registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, indicated that the swPL01 virus was similar to the North American triple-reassortant swine strains and that the HA gene of the swPL01 virus was categorized into swine H3 cluster IV. The swPL01 virus had the M gene of the triple-reassortant swine H3N2 viruses, whereas that of other contemporary strains in Korea was transferred from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. These data suggest the possibility that various swine H3N2 viruses may co-circulate in Korea, which underlines the importance of a sustained surveillance system against swine IAVs. PMID:24523938

  3. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  4. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  5. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  6. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  7. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  8. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  9. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  10. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  11. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  12. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  13. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  14. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  15. A possible outbreak of swine influenza, 1892.

    PubMed

    Morens, David M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2014-02-01

    Influenza A viruses are globally enzootic in swine populations. Swine influenza has been recognised only since 1918, but an anecdotal report suggests that a swine-influenza epizootic might have occurred in England in 1892, at the same time as an explosive epidemic (or pandemic recurrence) of human influenza. This outbreak suggests that the ecobiological association between human and swine influenza could extend to before 1918. By contrast with the recent documentation of swine influenza, influenza in horses has been well documented for hundreds of years, and was often linked temporally and geographically to epidemics of human influenza. Both decreased contact between people and horses, and the concomitant increase in swine production over the past century, might have altered the character and dynamics of influenza host-switch events between people and domestic mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A possible outbreak of swine influenza, 1892

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are globally enzootic in swine populations. Swine influenza has been recognised only since 1918, but an anecdotal report suggests that a swine-influenza epizootic might have occurred in England in 1892, at the same time as an explosive epidemic (or pandemic recurrence) of human influenza. This outbreak suggests that the ecobiological association between human and swine influenza could extend to before 1918. By contrast with the recent documentation of swine influenza, influenza in horses has been well documented for hundreds of years, and was often linked temporally and geographically to epidemics of human influenza. Both decreased contact between people and horses, and the concomitant increase in swine production over the past century, might have altered the character and dynamics of influenza host-switch events between people and domestic mammals. PMID:24290840

  17. Purification of swine haptoglobin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Eurell, T E; Hall, W F; Bane, D P

    1990-01-01

    A globin-agarose affinity chromatography technique was used to purify swine haptoglobin. This technique provides a highly specific, single-step purification method without the contamination of extraneous serum proteins reported by previous studies. Complex formation between the haptoglobin isolate and swine hemoglobin confirmed that biological activity was maintained during the purification process. Immunoelectrophoretic and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods revealed that the swine haptoglobin isolate cross-reacted with polyvalent antisera against human haptoglobin. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2123414

  18. Influence of physiological status on residues of lipophilic xenobiotics in livestock.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, D J

    2009-05-01

    Data on the transfer of lipophilic xenobiotics from livestock feed and the environment to meat and milk are required for risk assessment purposes. Often, data are only available for lactating dairy cattle. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been used to explore differences between classes of food-producing animals. Blood and tissue levels of lipophilic xenobiotics under conditions approximating steady-state were simulated. Simulations of constant exposure were performed for lactating cows, non-lactating cattle, sheep, goats and swine. The tissue : blood partition coefficient, fat volume and fat blood flow were identified as critical determinants of predicted tissue concentrations. There may be significant breed differences in residues in milk and fat following exposure. Modeling was used to derive scaling factors that can be used to assist the extrapolation of transfer studies, carried out on lactating dairy cows, to other classes of cattle and different species.

  19. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  20. Vulnerability of the British swine industry to classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Gamado, Kokouvi; Auty, Harriet K; Hutchinson, Ian; Reeves, Aaron; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2017-02-22

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB. Despite the consistently low vulnerability of the British swine industry to large CSF outbreaks, we identified concerns with respect to the role played by the non-commercial sector of the industry. The model further revealed how various epidemiological features may influence the spread of CSF in GB, highlighting the importance of between-farm biosecurity in preventing widespread dissemination of the virus. Knowledge of factors affecting the risk of spread are key components for surveillance planning and resource allocation, and this work provides a valuable stepping stone in guiding policy on CSF surveillance and control in GB.

  1. Vulnerability of the British swine industry to classical swine fever

    PubMed Central

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gamado, Kokouvi; Auty, Harriet K.; Hutchinson, Ian; Reeves, Aaron; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB. Despite the consistently low vulnerability of the British swine industry to large CSF outbreaks, we identified concerns with respect to the role played by the non-commercial sector of the industry. The model further revealed how various epidemiological features may influence the spread of CSF in GB, highlighting the importance of between-farm biosecurity in preventing widespread dissemination of the virus. Knowledge of factors affecting the risk of spread are key components for surveillance planning and resource allocation, and this work provides a valuable stepping stone in guiding policy on CSF surveillance and control in GB. PMID:28225040

  2. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  4. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs and Farm Workers on Conventional and Antibiotic-Free Swine Farms in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Abley, Melanie J.; Harper, Abby L.; Forshey, Brett M.; Male, Michael J.; Martin, H. Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies. PMID:23667659

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and farm workers on conventional and antibiotic-free swine farms in the USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tara C; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Abley, Melanie J; Harper, Abby L; Forshey, Brett M; Male, Michael J; Martin, H Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies.

  7. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    PubMed Central

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children <5 y of age into an ongoing linked human and animal surveillance cohort in rural western Kenya. Using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, and household wealth, we tested whether baseline household livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children <2 y of age in households with livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to

  8. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    PubMed

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children <5 y of age into an ongoing linked human and animal surveillance cohort in rural western Kenya. Using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, and household wealth, we tested whether baseline household livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children <2 y of age in households with livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for

  9. Market analyses of livestock trade networks to inform the prevention of joint economic and epidemiological risks.

    PubMed

    Moslonka-Lefebvre, Mathieu; Gilligan, Christopher A; Monod, Hervé; Belloc, Catherine; Ezanno, Pauline; Filipe, João A N; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-03-01

    Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g., via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic-epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade.

  10. Market analyses of livestock trade networks to inform the prevention of joint economic and epidemiological risks

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Christopher A.; Belloc, Catherine; Filipe, João A. N.; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g. via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic–epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade. PMID:26984191

  11. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  13. Energy integrated swine farm system in Nebraska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, W.E.; Schulte, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    One of the guidelines used to establish the Energy-Integrated Farm System (EIFS) was that it be representative of Midwest agriculture. Sales of irrigated crops and hogs in Nebraska generate over 50% of the state's revenue. Thus, an irrigated crop and wine farm was chosen for demonstration. The concept of this project involved the use of ''state-of-the-art'' technology in an attempt to achieve zero flow of direct and indirect petroleum input into the farming operation. Specific objectives were: utilization of energy-saving irrigation scheduling and low-pressure center-pivot and gated-pipe irrigation systems; use of 190 proof ethanol produced from sweet sorghum as a replacement for fuel in farm engines; reduced tillage and fertilizer usage for energy, soil and water conservation; development of solar energy and methane gas usage in an integrated fashion for electricity production and for hot-water and space heating in a swine-production facility; use of mini- and micro-computer technology for on-farm energy conservation and management; recovery of waste heat and carbon dioxide from alcohol fermentation and swine production for greenhouse production of vegetables; demonstration of natural air grain drying, use of windbreaks, and other energy conservation practices; and determination of the economic feasibility of energy integrated farming for swine and irrigated crop production. A new farm was constructed to achieve these objectives. This report describes the system, its components and gives an economic analysis.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates recovered from swine: A NARMS report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1996 the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine established the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System – Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) as a post-approval monitoring program. From 1997 through 2005 10,565 Salmonella isolates originated from swine slaughter/processing ...

  15. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  16. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine at the US Meat Animal Research Center has relied heavily on linkage mapping in either F2 or Backcross families. QTL identified in the initial scans typically have very broad confidence intervals and further refinement of the QTL’s position is needed bef...

  17. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  18. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    PubMed

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system.

  19. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2014-04-01

    This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME) increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×10(9) kg annually) from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR) was noted for goat (2.0%), followed by buffalo (1.57%) and swine (1.53%). Global EME is projected to increase to 120×10(9) kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3%) between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%), followed by buffalo (1.55%), swine (1.28%), sheep (1.25%) and cattle (0.70%). In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×10(9) kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM) increased from 6.81 ×10(9) kg in 1961 to 11.4×10(9) kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%), and is projected to grow to 15×10(9) kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×10(9) kg to 1.1×10(9) kg (with an AGR of 1.57%) in this period, which could increase to 1.54×10(9) kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×10(6) kg in 2050 from 15.3×10(6) kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11%) from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23%) for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%), swine (9.57%) and sheep (7.40%), and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%), buffalo (13.7%) and goat (5.4%). The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010) than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×10(9) kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  20. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME) increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×109 kg annually) from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR) was noted for goat (2.0%), followed by buffalo (1.57%) and swine (1.53%). Global EME is projected to increase to 120×109 kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3%) between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%), followed by buffalo (1.55%), swine (1.28%), sheep (1.25%) and cattle (0.70%). In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×109 kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM) increased from 6.81 ×109 kg in 1961 to 11.4×109 kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%), and is projected to grow to 15×109 kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×109 kg to 1.1×109 kg (with an AGR of 1.57%) in this period, which could increase to 1.54×109 kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×106 kg in 2050 from 15.3×106 kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11%) from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23%) for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%), swine (9.57%) and sheep (7.40%), and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%), buffalo (13.7%) and goat (5.4%). The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010) than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×109 kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world. PMID:25049993

  1. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Windisch, W; Schedle, K; Plitzner, C; Kroismayr, A

    2008-04-01

    This article summarizes the experimental knowledge on efficacy, possible modes of action, and aspects of application of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Phytogenic feed additives comprise a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. The assumption that phytogenic compounds might improve the palatability of feed has not yet been confirmed by choice-feeding studies. Although numerous studies have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. The same applies to the supposition that phytogenic compounds may specifically enhance activities of digestive enzymes and nutrient absorption. Nevertheless, a limited number of experimental comparisons of phytogenic feed additives with antibiotics and organic acids have suggested similar effects on the gut, such as reduced bacterial colony counts, fewer fermentation products (including ammonia and biogenic amines), less activity of the gut-associated lymphatic system, and a greater prececal nutrient digestion, probably reflecting an overall improved gut equilibrium. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. Such effects may explain a considerable number of practical studies with swine and poultry reporting improved production performance after providing phytogenic feed additives. In total, available evidence indicates that phytogenic feed additives may add to the set of nonantibiotic growth promoters for use in livestock, such as organic acids and probiotics. However, a systematic approach toward the efficacy and safety of phytogenic compounds used as feed additives for swine and poultry is still missing.

  2. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of non-commercial producers on disease spread via livestock movement is related to their level of interaction with other commercial actors within the industry. Although understanding these relationships is crucial in order to identify likely routes of disease incursion and transmission prior to disease detection, there has been little research in this area due to the difficulties of capturing movements of small producers with sufficient resolution. Here, we used the Scottish Livestock Electronic Identification and Traceability (ScotEID) database to describe the movement patterns of different pig production systems which may affect the risk of disease spread within the swine industry. In particular, we focused on the role of small pig producers. Results Between January 2012 and May 2013, 23,169 batches of pigs were recorded moving animals between 2382 known unique premises. Although the majority of movements (61%) were to a slaughterhouse, the non-commercial and the commercial sectors of the Scottish swine industry coexist, with on- and off-movement of animals occurring relatively frequently. For instance, 13% and 4% of non-slaughter movements from professional producers were sent to a non-assured commercial producer or to a small producer, respectively; whereas 43% and 22% of movements from non-assured commercial farms were sent to a professional or a small producer, respectively. We further identified differences between producer types in several animal movement characteristics which are known to increase the risk of disease spread. Particularly, the distance travelled and the use of haulage were found to be significantly different between producers. Conclusions These results showed that commercial producers are not isolated from the non-commercial sector of the Scottish swine industry and may frequently interact, either directly or indirectly. The observed patterns in the frequency of movements, the type of producers involved, the distance

  3. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry.

  4. Mini-review: Epidemiology and zoonotic potential of multiresistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile in livestock and food

    PubMed Central

    Dahms, Carmen; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Wilke, Florian; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Information on the epidemiology of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) with zoonotic potential is growing but still remains quite incomplete. This narrative mini-review provides a general overview of the epidemiology of the most important zoonotic MRB in cattle, swine and poultry in Europe. Methods: A literature search was conducted mainly on the PubMed website including articles published until April 2012. Results: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) especially poses a zoonotic risk to people working in close contact with livestock. These people may become carriers themselves and the hazard of transmission into health-care facilities needs surveillance. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria are widely spread in both humans and livestock, sharing similar genotypes, especially of the CTX-M-group, which makes a zoonotic transfer very likely. Identical strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found both in humans and animals, after ingestion of animal strains transient colonization of the human gut may be possible. Only a few data are available on the transmission of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) between humans and animals. Direct contact to colonized animals may be a risk factor as well as the exchange of resistance genes between human and animal staphylococci. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) ribotype 078 emerges in livestock and humans and a zoonotic transmission seems probable as genotypes and diseases resemble each other. Conclusion: All discussed MRB and C. difficile are important nosocomial agents which also occur in livestock and were found in foods of animal origin. Further analysis is needed to reveal the exact transmission routes and to perform a reliable risk assessment. PMID:25285265

  5. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons.

  6. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  7. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  8. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  9. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  10. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value...

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  12. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be landed...

  13. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  14. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  15. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  16. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows: (1...

  17. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for...

  18. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  19. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  20. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  2. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be landed...

  3. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  5. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for...

  6. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  7. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be landed...

  8. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  9. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  10. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  11. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  13. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  14. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be landed...

  15. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows: (1...

  16. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be landed...

  17. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  18. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  19. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  20. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows: (1...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  2. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  3. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do..., Des Moines, Iowa 50309. (f) What information from the swine contract library will be made available...

  4. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do..., Des Moines, Iowa 50309. (f) What information from the swine contract library will be made available...

  5. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do..., Des Moines, Iowa 50309. (f) What information from the swine contract library will be made available...

  6. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do..., Des Moines, Iowa 50309. (f) What information from the swine contract library will be made available...

  7. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it...

  8. Summary of Control Issues for Swine Influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple subtypes of endemic swine influenza virus (SIV) co-circulate in the U.S. and Canada (H3N2, H1N1, and H1N2 with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses). As a result of reassortment events and antigenic drift, four H1 SIV...

  9. Source identification of airborne Escherichia coli of swine house surroundings using ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huiyong; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Jianzhu; Zhang, Xingxiao; Qi, Chunhua; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yaling; Cai, Yumei; Miao, Zengmin; Yao, Meiling; Schlenker, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that microorganisms originating from livestock impact the air quality of the animal houses themselves and the public in the surrounding neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to develop efficient bacterial source tracking capabilities to identify sources of Escherichia coli aerosol pollution caused by pigs. Airborne E. coli were isolated from indoor air, upwind air (10 and 50 m away) and downwind air samples (10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m away) for five swine houses using six-stage Andersen microbial samplers and Reuter-Centrifugal samplers (RCS). E. coli strains from pig fecal samples were also collected simultaneously. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerize chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) approaches were used to study the genetic variability and to determine the strain relationships among E. coli isolated from different sites in each swine house. Results showed that 35.1% (20/57) of the bacterial DNA fingerprints from the fecal isolates matched with the corresponding strains isolated from indoor and downwind air samples (similarity > or = 90%). E. coli strains from the indoor and downwind air samples were closely related to the E. coli strains isolated from feces, while those isolated from upwind air samples (swine house C) had low similarity (61-69%). Our results suggest that some strains isolated from downwind and indoor air originated in the swine feces. Effective hygienic measures should be taken in animal farms to prevent or minimize the downwind spread of microorganism aerosol.

  10. Seroepidemiological Survey for Coxiella burnetii Antibodies and Associated Risk Factors in Dutch Livestock Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Van den Brom, René; Schimmer, Barbara; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Swart, Wim A.; van der Hoek, Wim; Vellema, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Little was known about the consequences of these outbreaks for those professional care providers directly involved. The aim of this survey was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii among Dutch livestock veterinarians and to determine possible risk factors. Single blood samples from 189 veterinarians, including veterinary students in their final year, were collected at a veterinary conference and a questionnaire was filled in by each participant. The blood samples were screened for IgG antibodies against phase I and phase II antigen of C. burnetii using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, and for IgM antibodies using an ELISA. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 123 (65.1%) out of 189 veterinarians. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity were number of hours with animal contact per week, number of years graduated as veterinarian, rural or sub urban living area, being a practicing veterinarian, and occupational contact with swine. Livestock veterinarians should be aware of this risk to acquire an infection with C. burnetii. Physicians should consider potential infection with C. burnetii when treating occupational risk groups, bearing in mind that the burden of disease among veterinarians remains uncertain. Vaccination of occupational risk groups should be debated. PMID:23342063

  11. Seroepidemiological survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies and associated risk factors in Dutch livestock veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, René; Schimmer, Barbara; Schneeberger, Peter M; Swart, Wim A; van der Hoek, Wim; Vellema, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Little was known about the consequences of these outbreaks for those professional care providers directly involved. The aim of this survey was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii among Dutch livestock veterinarians and to determine possible risk factors. Single blood samples from 189 veterinarians, including veterinary students in their final year, were collected at a veterinary conference and a questionnaire was filled in by each participant. The blood samples were screened for IgG antibodies against phase I and phase II antigen of C. burnetii using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, and for IgM antibodies using an ELISA. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 123 (65.1%) out of 189 veterinarians. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity were number of hours with animal contact per week, number of years graduated as veterinarian, rural or sub urban living area, being a practicing veterinarian, and occupational contact with swine. Livestock veterinarians should be aware of this risk to acquire an infection with C. burnetii. Physicians should consider potential infection with C. burnetii when treating occupational risk groups, bearing in mind that the burden of disease among veterinarians remains uncertain. Vaccination of occupational risk groups should be debated.

  12. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus.

  14. Geographical variation in cloacal microflora and bacterial antibiotic resistance in a threatened avian scavenger in relation to diet and livestock farming practices.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier; Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan M; Donázar, José A; Arroyo, Bernardo; Frías, Oscar; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    The impact on wildlife health of the increase in the use of antimicrobial agents with the intensification of livestock production remains unknown. The composition, richness and prevalence of cloacal microflora as well as bacterial resistance to antibiotics in nestlings and full-grown Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus were assessed in four areas of Spain in which the degree of farming intensification differs. Differences in diet composition, especially the role of stabled livestock carrion, appear to govern the similarities of bacterial flora composition among continental populations, while the insular vulture population (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands) showed differences attributed to isolation. Evidence of a positive relationship between the consumption of stabled livestock carrion and bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics was found. Bacterial resistance was high for semisynthetic penicillins and enrofloxacin, especially in the area with the most intensive stabled livestock production. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was similar for the different bacterial species within each area. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may be determined by resistance of bacteria present in the livestock meat remains that constituted the food of this species, as indicated by the fact that resistance to each antibiotic was correlated in Escherichia coli isolated from swine carrion and Egyptian vulture nestlings. In addition, resistance in normal faecal bacteria (present in the microflora of both livestock and vultures) was higher than in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a species indicator of the transient flora acquired presumably through the consumption of wild rabbits. Potential negative effects of the use of antimicrobials in livestock farming included the direct ingestion of these drug residues and the effects of bacterial antibiotic resistance on the health of scavengers.

  15. Cluster Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni Genotypes Isolated from Small and Medium-Sized Mammalian Wildlife and Bovine Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S K; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms (eight beef, eight swine and nine dairy) in 2010, we assessed clustering of molecular subtypes of C. jejuni based on a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (CGF40) subtypes, using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. Exact logistic regression was used to determine which genes differentiate wildlife and livestock subtypes in our study population. A total of 33 bovine livestock (17 beef and 16 dairy), 26 wildlife (20 raccoon (Procyon lotor), five skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and one mouse (Peromyscus spp.) C. jejuni isolates were subtyped using CGF40. Dendrogram analysis, based on UPGMA, showed distinct branches separating bovine livestock and mammalian wildlife isolates. Furthermore, two-dimensional multiple correspondence analysis was highly concordant with dendrogram analysis showing clear differentiation between livestock and wildlife CGF40 subtypes. Based on multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept for farm of origin, we found that isolates in general, and raccoons more specifically, were significantly more likely to be part of the wildlife branch. Exact logistic regression conducted gene by gene revealed 15 genes that were predictive of whether an isolate was of wildlife or bovine livestock isolate origin. Both multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression revealed that in most cases, the presence of a particular gene (13 of 15) was associated with an isolate being of livestock rather than wildlife origin. In conclusion, the evidence gained from dendrogram analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression indicates that mammalian wildlife carry CGF40 subtypes of C. jejuni distinct from those carried by bovine livestock. Future studies focused on source attribution of C. jejuni in human infections will help determine whether wildlife

  16. Evidence of class 1 integron transfer between Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on livestock farms.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Alan G; Liamthong, Sumalee; Lin, Jun; Hong, Yingying

    2009-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine if homologous integrons occurred in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. within livestock production sites in the United States and Thailand suggesting transfer of genetic resistance elements between those organisms. Fecal samples were collected via rectal swabs from live swine in the United States and Thailand, and cloacal swabs from live chickens in Thailand, and killed chickens at a U.S. abattoir. Isolates were derived only from farms harboring both Salmonella and E. coli, resulting in the inclusion of 571 E. coli and 98 Salmonella isolates derived from both livestock species in the United States and Thailand. Class 1 integron variable regions were detected using polymerase chain reaction targeting 5' and 3' conserved sequences. When integron-positive E. coli and Salmonella from the same farm had identical amplicon patterns, polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced to determine homology. Nine integron amplicons, with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 kb, were observed in bacterial isolates, and we found a single swine farm in Thailand from which identical amplicons were observed in both E. coli and Salmonella. Sequence analysis revealed a 1.0 kb amplicon common to both bacteria contained an aadA1 gene cassette encoding aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase, conferring resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. A 2.0 kb amplicon was also found in both types of bacteria from that farm, containing an aadA5 gene encoding aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase, an additional reading frame, orfD, with unknown function, and a dfrA17 gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase, conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Further analyses determined the amplicons were contained on plasmid DNA in both E. coli and Salmonella, and a plasmid of similar size was identified in both species and was found to harbor the class 1 integron. Our results indicate that while in most cases, integrons of coexisting E. coli and Salmonella differed, identical

  17. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  18. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  19. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  20. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  1. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  2. Genotype by environment interaction and breeding for robustness in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy M.; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of the human population is projected to result in an increase in meat consumption. However, at the same time, the dominant position of meat as the center of meals is on the decline. Modern objections to the consumption of meat include public concerns with animal welfare in livestock production systems. Animal breeding practices have become part of the debate since it became recognized that animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency are more at risk for behavioral, physiological and immunological problems. As a solution, animal breeding practices need to include selection for robustness traits, which can be implemented through the use of reaction norms analysis, or though the direct inclusion of robustness traits in the breeding objective and in the selection index. This review gives an overview of genotype × environment interactions (the influence of the environment, reaction norms, phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and genetic homeostasis), reaction norms analysis in livestock production, options for selection for increased levels of production and against environmental sensitivity, and direct inclusion of robustness traits in the selection index. Ethical considerations of breeding for improved animal welfare are discussed. The discussion on animal breeding practices has been initiated and is very alive today. This positive trend is part of the sustainable food production movement that aims at feeding 9.15 billion people not just in the near future but also beyond. PMID:26539207

  3. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia and South America where they negatively impact livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating: ...

  4. 6. Southeast view of livestock market: south elevation, looking through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Southeast view of livestock market: south elevation, looking through the south exterior cattle pens - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  5. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) The covered livestock categories are: (1) Adult beef cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas, (5) Deer, (6) Elk, (7) Emu, (8) Equine, (9..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry,...

  6. Advanced Livestock Production: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    With the introduction of specialized courses of study in the third and fourth year of high school, it has become necessary to do more specialized work in the area of livestock production. The course is designed to provide a guideline to encourage intensified studies in this area, and outlines materials and methods, time allotment, and the use of…

  7. Is Continued Genetic Improvement of Livestock Sustainable?

    PubMed

    Hill, William G

    2016-03-01

    Large genetic improvements in the quantitative traits of growth, production, and efficiency of farmed livestock have been made over recent decades, and by introduction of genomic technology these are being enhanced. Such continued improvement requires that there be available variation to utilize. The evidence is that little variation has been lost and such rates are indeed sustainable in the future.

  8. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 700.725 Section 700.725 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands... of $1 per head per day for each cow, bull, horse, mule or donkey and 25¢ per head per day for each...

  9. Livestock grazing and wildlife: developing compatabilities.

    Treesearch

    Martin. Vavra

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been considered detrimental to wildlife habitat. Managed gazing programs, however, have the potential to maintain habitat diversity and quality. In cases in which single-species management predominates (sage-grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus] or elk [Cervus elaphus nelsoni] winter range), grazing systems...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.203 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eligible county in accordance with 7 CFR 760.101, must meet all the following: (i) Be catfish or crawfish... meet all the following: (i) Be adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, catfish... and any other Federal program for the same loss. Except catfish and crawfish, livestock that died in...

  11. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  12. Biological control of livestock pests : Parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests on livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. ...

  13. Livestock GRACEnet: A workgroup dedicated to evaluating and mitigating emissions from livestock production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia, greenhouse gases, and other emissions (e.g., particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide) from livestock production systems are being increasingly scrutinized by regulatory agencies. These pollutants, which are also generated by energy, industrial, and transportation se...

  14. Intracellular and extracellular antimicrobial resistance genes in the sludge of livestock waste management structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Snow, Daniel D; Parker, David; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-09-17

    The sludge compartment in livestock waste management structures is a potential hotbed for the emergence and proliferation of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria. Little is known about the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) between the intracellular and extracellular DNA pools in the sludge. The overall objective of this study was to assess the significance of extracellular ARGs to the total ARGs in the sludge of livestock waste management structures. In this study, sludge samples were collected from four cattle manure storage ponds and three swine waste treatment lagoons and analyzed for genetic indicators of resistance. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the sludge were separately extracted using an optimized protocol. ARGs [sul(I), sul(II), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(X)] in both the iDNA and eDNA extracts were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and antimicrobials, including sulfonamides and tetracyclines, were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that eDNA constituted less than 1.5% of the total DNA in sludge. All ARGs tested were detected in nearly all eDNA and iDNA samples. Furthermore, every gram of dry sludge contained from 1.7 × 10(3) to 4.2 × 10(8) copies of extracellular ARG and from 3.2 × 10(7) to 3.2 × 10(10) copies of intracellular ARG. Chlortetracycline concentrations ranged between 187 and 2674 μg/g of sludge wet weight (ww), while sulfonamide concentrations were lower than 6.3 μg/g of sludge ww. The detection of ARGs in eDNA extracts suggests that transformation is a potential mechanism in ARG proliferation in the sludge of livestock waste management structures.

  15. African swine fever: a global view of the current challenge.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Ma Carmen; Reoyo, Ana de la Torre; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Iglesias, Irene; Muñoz, Ma Jesús; Arias, Ma Luisa

    2015-01-01

    African Swine Fever (ASF) is an important contagious haemorrhagic viral disease affecting swine whose notification is mandatory due to its high mortality rates and the great sanitary and socioeconomic impact it has on international trade in animal and swine products. This disease only affects porcine species, both wild and domestic, and produces a variety of clinical signs such as fever and functional disorders of the digestive and respiratory systems. Lesions are mainly characterized by congestive-haemorrhagic alterations. ASF epidemiology varies significantly between countries, regions and continents, since it depends on the characteristics of the virus in circulation, the presence of wild hosts and reservoirs, environmental conditions and human social behaviour. Furthermore, a specific host will not necessarily always play the same active role in the spread and maintenance of ASF in a particular area. Currently, ASF is endemic in most sub-Saharan African countries where wild hosts and tick vectors (Ornithodoros) play an important role acting as biological reservoirs for the virus. In Europe, the disease has been endemic since 1978 on the island of Sardinia (Italy) and since 2007, when it was first reported in Georgia, in a number of Eastern European countries. It is also endemic in certain regions of the Russia Federation, where domestic pig and wild boar populations are widely affected. By contrast, in the affected eastern European Union (EU) countries where ASF is currently as epidemic, the on-going spread of the disease affects mainly wild boar populations located in restricted areas and, to a much less extent, domestic pigs. Unlike most livestock diseases, no vaccine or specific treatment is currently available for ASF. Therefore, disease control is mainly based on early detection and the application of strict sanitary and biosecurity measures. Epidemiology of ASF is very complex by the existence of different virus circulating, reservoirs and a number of

  16. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    PubMed

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  17. Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2008-11-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group

  18. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) on cattle, sheep, and other livestock in Minnesota currently is a minor problem except to a few individual farmers. Indices to the seriousness of the problem are available only from recent years, so historical trends cannot be detected. From 1976 through 1980 the number of farms in the wolf range suffering verified losses to wolves ranged from 9 to 19 (mean of x = 13) per year out of about 12,230. From 1977 through 1980, the highest cattle losses claimed by farmers were 0.45 per 1,000 cattle available in 1979; the highest sheep losses claimed were 1.18 per 1,000 available in 1980. Many claims of losses (especially of calves) are based on missing animals, and few wolves are involved in the verified losses. Most losses occur in summer when livestock are released to graze in open and wooded pasture. Herd management practices, such as calving in forested or brushy pastures and disposal of carcasses in or near pastures, are responsible for many instances of wolf depredation. Failure to distinguish wolves from coyotes (Canis latrans) has contributed to an exaggerated view of the importance of wolves as livestock predators. Recently the number of wolves killed in depredation control has declined, whereas the number of livestock killed has remained fairly stable. Results of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's depredation- control program in 1979 and 1980 suggest that highly restricted trapping, coupled with other management methods, has potential for reducing both livestock losses and the number of wolves that need to be killed.

  19. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2017-05-29

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions. PMID:23151353

  1. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17 Section 309.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock...

  2. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17 Section 309.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock...

  3. Identifying plant poisoning in livestock: Diagnostic approaches and laboratory tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant poisoning is often associated with a variety of livestock diseases and unexplained animal deaths. Although toxic plants commonly poison livestock and it is estimated to cost the livestock industry in the western United States more than $340 million every year, obtaining a definitive diagnosis ...

  4. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock used in any research investigation involving an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical...

  5. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock used in any research investigation involving an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical...

  6. The Use of and Need for Livestock Market News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Herman M.

    This publication reports the practices of 46 livestock producers relating to their use of market news as reported in personal interviews made in September, 1969, in three counties in Illinois. The questionnaire provided for information for: volume of livestock, type, location, frequency of use of various media used to obtain livestock market news;…

  7. The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

  8. 76 FR 62313 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Livestock Moving Interstate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... livestock moving interstate. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit... requirements for the traceability of livestock moving interstate. Comments on the proposed rule were...

  9. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant...

  10. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4 Section 85.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved...

  11. Sustainable livestock production on rangelands: Emerging trends in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent review of statistics published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that global livestock numbers have increased steadily over the past 30 years. By 2030, livestock numbers in the developing world are expected to reach record highs that will surpass livestock popu...

  12. Evaluation of aluminosilicate compounds to reduce aflatoxin residues and toxicity to poultry and livestock: a review report.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R B; Kubena, L F; Phillips, T D

    1993-01-01

    The aflatoxins (AFs) are reported to be hepatotoxic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic. Methods to prevent, reduce, or remediate AF toxicity and residues in the environment are in great demand. Various AF-detoxification procedures are reviewed with particular emphasis on ammoniation and the use of adsorbent compounds to bind AF. A series of in vivo experiments by the authors are reviewed that evaluated the ability of a specific hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce the toxicity of AF to poultry and livestock and to reduce AF residues in milk. These studies showed that HSCAS forms stable bonds with AF in vitro, and when added to AF-contaminated poultry and livestock feeds, HSCAS is able to protect chickens, swine, and lambs from the deleterious toxic effects of AF and to reduce AF residues in milk of dairy cows and goats. These results indicate that HSCAS, when used in conjunction with other mycotoxin management practices, may prove effective for the preventive management of AF-contaminated feedstuffs in livestock and poultry and may reduce AF residues in the food-chain.

  13. A direct fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes in swine dysentery using hyperimmunized swine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Olson, L D

    1976-01-01

    A direct fluorescent antibody test was developed for the identification of large spirochetes which are considered to be the cause of swine dysentery. Sera from swine which had recovered from swine dysentery and had been hyperimmunized by the intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of filtered spirochetes were used for conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate. A bright greenish fluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with the conjugated serum from hyperimmunized pig No. 1 when diluted 1:8 and hyperimmunized pig No. 2 when diluted 1:2. Pig No. 1 had developed a serum titer of 1:64 using the indirect fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes. The conjugated serum from the three swine which had recovered from swine dysentery fluoresced spirochetes only when undiluted. The conjugated serum from the two swine treated while having a hemorrhagic diarrhea did not fluoresce spirochetes. No immunofluorescence of Vibrio spp. was observed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793697

  14. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Marcinko, Sarah E; Goewert, Ann E; Mitchell, Charles E

    2008-07-15

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ("CAFO") lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH(3)), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km(2) grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH(3) yr(-1), 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water

  15. Classical swine fever in China: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-08-06

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an OIE-listed, highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine worldwide. Currently, the disease is controlled by prophylactic vaccination in China and many other countries using the modified live vaccines derived from C-strain, which was developed in China in the mid-1950s. This minireview summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control and challenges of CSF in China. Though CSF is essentially under control, complete eradication of CSF in China remains a challenging task and needs long-term, joint efforts of stakeholders.

  16. Hepatitis E in Norway: seroprevalence in humans and swine.

    PubMed

    Lange, H; Øverbø, J; Borgen, K; Dudman, S; Hoddevik, G; Urdahl, A M; Vold, L; Sjurseth, S K

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, no published data on seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in humans and swine exists. Serum samples from blood donors, veterinarians, swine farm workers and swine were analysed by ELISA to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV in Norway and to investigate the association between direct contact with swine and HEV seroprevalence in humans. The seroprevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was 30% (24/79) in farm workers, 13% (21/163) in veterinarians, 14% (162/1200) in blood donors and 90% (137/153) in swine. Our results show a high seroprevalence of HEV in humans and swine in Norway. HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and blood donors increased with age, and veterinarians working with swine were twice as likely to be HEV seropositive compared to other veterinarians. High HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and veterinarians working with swine support previous reports suggesting swine as a reservoir for HEV infections in humans in Europe.

  17. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia.

    PubMed

    Seo, S Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-10-19

    This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  18. Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone.

    PubMed

    Macauley, John J; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig D; Surampalli, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2006-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are widely used at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent disease and promote growth of livestock. However, the majority of antibiotics are excreted from animals in urine, feces, and manure. Consequently, the lagoons used to store these wastes can act as reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is currently no regulation or control of these systems to prevent the spread of these bacteria and their genes for antibiotic resistance into other environments. This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria. Results indicate that a chlorine dose of 30 mg/L could achieve a 2.2-3.4 log bacteria reduction in lagoon samples. However, increasing the dose of chlorine did not significantly enhance the disinfection activity due to the presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria. The chlorine resistant bacteria were identified to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. A significant percentage of lagoon bacteria were not susceptible to the four selected antibiotics: chlortetracycline, lincomycin, sulfamethazine and tetracycline (TET). However, the presence of both chlorine and TET could inactivate all bacteria in one lagoon sample. The disinfection potential of UV irradiation and ozone was also examined. Ultraviolet light was an effective bacterial disinfectant, but was unlikely to be economically viable due to its high energy requirements. At an ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the bacteria inactivation efficiency could reach 3.3-3.9 log.

  19. Livestock and microbiological risk (a review).

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The presence of pathogens in animal manure depends on several factors such as, for example, the species, age, type of power supply, state of health, methods and times of storage, treatments administered. Currently there are no specific requirements for the minimum sanitary standards of livestock manure to be used in agriculture, or even of the digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion, such as cattle slurry and plant matrices (e.g. maize). While there are some indications for products fermented aerobically (compost deriving also from manure) and the sludge resulting from wastewater treatment and intended for use as fertilizers. In this paper we sum up the information given in the scientific literature on the viability of some microorganisms and on the effects of the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and plant matter, such as maize, on the microbial concentrations.

  20. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  1. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  2. Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases in antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine environment.

    PubMed

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC β-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n=6), pigs (n=6) and the swine farm environment (n=9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC β-lactamase enzyme encoding gene blaCMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-Iγ Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC β-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids.

  3. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  4. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  5. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  6. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  7. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species.

    PubMed

    de Simoni Gouveia, João José; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; de Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology.

  8. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species

    PubMed Central

    de Simoni Gouveia, João José; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; de Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology. PMID:25071397

  9. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  10. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity. PMID:26442116

  11. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  12. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza in pigs. ...

  13. Metabolic Response to Hemorrhage in Swine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fatty acid, triglyceride growth hormone and glucagon response of swine to shock was completed. Results of a fourth study comparing venous and arterial lactate are also summarized. (Author Modified Abstract)

  14. tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chad W; Loftin, Keith A; Meyer, Michael T; Davis, Jessica G; Pruden, Amy

    2010-08-15

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and sul(II)] ARGs in a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas sul ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, sul ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities.

  15. Tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, C.W.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Davis, J.G.; Pruden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and su/(II)] ARGsin a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas su ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, su ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms.

    PubMed

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Rahbek, Carsten; Madsen, Jesper Johannes; Wainø, Michael; Chriél, Mariann; Nordentoft, Steen; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Madsen, Mogens

    2016-02-03

    Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119. The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P < 0.001) and winter (P < 0.001) than birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age, fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R(2) = 0.92) and poultry farms (R(2) = 0.54), and between the prevalence (%) of C. coli in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. coli in manure on pig farms (R(2) = 0.62). The ecological guild of wild birds influences the prevalence of

  18. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  19. Eliminating Xenoantigen Expression on Swine RBC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Yu; Martens, Gregory R; Blankenship, Ross L; Sidner, Richard A; Li, Ping; Estrada, Jose L; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The rapidly improving tools of genetic engineering may make it possible to overcome the humoral immune barrier that prevents xenotransplantation. We hypothesize that levels of human antibody binding to donor tissues from swine must approximate the antibody binding occurring in allotransplantation. It is uncertain if this is an attainable goal. Here we perform an initial analysis of this issue by comparing human antibody binding to red blood cells (RBC) isolated from knockout swine and to allogeneic or autologous human RBC. Human sera were incubated with RBC isolated from various genetically engineered swine or from humans. The level of IgG and IgM binding to these cells were compared using either flow cytometry or a novel mass spectrometric assay. Mass spectroscopic quantitation of human antibody binding demonstrated that as few as 3 gene inactivations can reduce the levels human antibody binding to swine RBC that is as low as autologous human RBC. Flow cytometry showed that RBC from 2-gene knockout swine exhibited less human antibody binding than human blood group O allogeneic RBC in 22% of tested sera. Deletion of a third gene from pigs resulted in 30% of human samples having less IgG and IgM RBC xenoreactivity than alloreactivity. Xenoantigenicity of swine RBC can be eliminated via gene disruption. These results suggest that the gene knockout approach may be able reduce antigenicity in other pig tissues to levels that enable the xenotransplantation humoral barrier to be overcome.

  20. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul

    2009-10-07

    Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1), reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  1. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G

    1987-07-01

    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  2. Assessment of swine-specific bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms with different antibiotic practices.

    PubMed

    Leknoi, Yuranan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples. Phages of SP25 exist in the proximity of certain swine farms, regardless of their antibiotic use (p > 0.05). B. fragilis strain SP25 exhibited relatively high resistance to most of the veterinary antimicrobial agents tested. Interestingly, most farms that were positive for SP25 phages were also positive for RYC2056 phages. In conclusion, the swine-specific SP25 strain has the potential to indicate swine fecal contamination in certain bodies of water. Bacterial isolates with larger distributions are being studied and validated. This study highlights the importance of assessing the abundance of phages in local swine populations before determining their potential applicability for source tracking in local surface waters.

  3. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  4. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  5. Pathogenesis and transmission studies: non-swine influenza A viruses in the swine host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) causes disease in poultry, pigs, and people with wild waterfowl being the natural reservoir. IAV strains have been periodically transmitted between swine and humans in both directions and avian IAV have also sporadically infected swine. If an individual is infected w...

  6. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... to exist in all regions of the world, except Australia; Canada; Chile; Fiji; Iceland; the...

  7. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  8. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine.

    PubMed

    Butler, J E; Wertz, Nancy; Sinkora, Marek

    2017-02-08

    We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls. We believe swine fetal development and early class switch evolved to provide natural secretory IgA antibodies able to prevent translocation of bacteria from the gut while the bacterial PAMPs drive development of adaptive immunity. We discuss the value of using the isolator piglet model to address these issues.

  9. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  10. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  11. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron Am; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, Js Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-04-15

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans.

  13. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  15. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  16. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in livestock in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Suepaul, Sharianne M; Carrington, Christine V; Campbell, Mervyn; Borde, Gustave; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and infecting serovars across livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs) in Trinidad using the microscopic agglutination test with an international panel of 23 serovars. Of a total of 590 cattle tested, 21.5% were seropositive with agglutinations to 13 of the 23 antigens used in the panel. Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.3%), Sejroe (4.1%), Ballum (4.1%), and Autumnalis (1.9%) were the predominant serogroups detected in the cattle sampled (n = 590). Of 222 sheep tested, 5.0% were seropositive with agglutinations to five serovars belonging to two serogroups. These serogroups were Autumnalis at 2.7%, and Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.3% of all sheep tested (n = 222). Of a total of 180 goats tested, 3.3% were seropositive, all agglutinating to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup, 1.7% to serovar Copenhageni, 1.1% to serovar Mankarso, and 0.6% to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. Among pigs (n = 200), 5.0% were seropositive for five serovars belonging to three serogroups. These serogroups were Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.5%, Australis at 2%, and Ballum at 0.5%. Overall, age and sex of animals were not significantly associated with leptospirosis with the exception of cattle where age was a significant factor for seropositivity. It was concluded that for livestock, leptospirosis may be an important zoonotic and economic disease, particularly in the case of cattle. It is imperative that the impact of leptospirosis on abortion, stillbirths, and decreased milk production in livestock in the country be assessed.

  18. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances.

  19. Geographical variation in antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from swine, poultry, beef and dairy cattle farm water retention ponds in Florida.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Lukasik, J; Scott, T M; Tamplin, M L; Portier, K M; Sheperd, S; Braun, K; Farrah, S R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess geographical variation in multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) profiles of livestock Escherichia coli as well as to evaluate the ability of MAR profiles to differentiate sources of faecal pollution. More than 2000 E. coli isolates were collected from water retention ponds and manure of swine, poultry, beef and dairy farms in south, central and north Florida, and analysed for MAR using nine antibiotics. There were significant differences in antibiotic resistance of E. coli by season and livestock type for more than one antibiotic, but regional differences were significant only for ampicillin. Over the three regions, discriminant analysis using MAR profiles correctly classified 27% of swine, 49% of poultry, 56% of beef and 51% of dairy isolates. Regional variations in MAR combined with moderate discrimination success suggest that MAR profiles of E. coli may only be marginally successful in identifying sources of faecal pollution. This study demonstrates the existence of regional and seasonal differences in MAR profiles as well as the limited ability of MAR profiles to discriminate among livestock sources.

  20. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepin, Kim; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; Boughton, Raoul; Campbell, Tyler; Cooper, Susan; Gaston, Wes; Hartley, Stephen B.; Kilgo, John C.; Wisely, Samantha; Wyckoff, Christy; VerCauteren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated by >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.

  1. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    DOE PAGES

    Pepin, Kim M.; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; ...

    2016-03-17

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated bymore » >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.« less

  2. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    PubMed

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  3. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  4. Field Air Sampling with SPME for Ranking and Prioritization of Downwind Livestock Odors with MDGC-MS-Olfactometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziel, Jacek A.; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald W.; Hoff, Steven J.

    2009-05-01

    Air sampling and characterization of odorous livestock gases is one of the most challenging analytical tasks. This is due to low concentrations, physicochemical properties, and problems with sample recoveries for typical odorants. Livestock operations emit a very complex mixture of volatile organic compounds and other gases. Many of these gases are odorous. Relatively little is known about the link between specific VOCs/gases and specifically, about the impact of specific odorants downwind from sources. In this research, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for field air sampling of odors downwind from swine and beef cattle operations. Sampling time ranged from 20 min to 1 hr. Samples were analyzed using a commercial GC-MS-Olfactometry system. Odor profiling efforts were directed at odorant prioritization with respect to distance from the source. The results indicated the odor downwind was increasingly defined by a smaller number of high priority odorants. These `character defining' odorants appeared to be dominated by compounds of relatively low volatility, high molecular weight and high polarity. In particular, p-cresol alone appeared to carry much of the overall odor impact for swine and beef cattle operations. Of particular interest was the character-defining odor impact of p-cresol as far as 16 km downwind of the nearest beef cattle feedlot. The findings are very relevant to scientists and engineers working on improved air sampling and analysis protocols and on improved technologies for odor abatement. More research evaluating the use of p-cresol and a few other key odorants as a surrogate for the overall odor dispersion modeling is warranted.

  5. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  6. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  7. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... are dangerous and destructive communicable diseases of ruminants and swine. Sections 94.9 and 94.10 of... ruminant and swine meat and products to the United States are subject to certain restrictions to...

  8. Immunofluorescence of spirochetes with serum from swine recovered from swine dysentery using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Olson, L D

    1976-01-01

    Using an indirect fluorescent antibody test, immunofluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with serum from swine that had recovered from swine dysentery. The spirochetes were obtained from scrapings of the colonic mucosa on the first day of diarrhea which was the time when the spirochete population was observed to be the highest. Of 29 exposed nonmedicated swine which developed and recovered from a diarrhea characteristic of swine dysentery 27 had antispirochete serum titers which ranged from 1:2 to 1:16. None of the 50 nonexposes swine developed a titer. Of 19 swine with a serum titer and reexposed with infective swine dysentery inoculum, 18 did not develop a diarrhea and were presumed to be immune. Considering these findings it is possible that this test could be used to detect antispirochete antibody in unknown swine serum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793698

  9. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113.44 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted...

  10. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when prescribed in a Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Test...

  11. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when prescribed in a Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Test...

  12. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when prescribed in a Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Test...

  13. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  14. THE EFFECT OF HEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE SUIS VACCINES ON SWINE INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1937-01-01

    Either living or heat-killed H. influenzae suis vaccines, given intramuscularly to swine, elicit an immune response capable of modifying the course of a later swine influenza infection. The protection afforded is only partial and is in no way comparable to the complete immunity afforded by swine influenza virus vaccines. PMID:19870654

  15. Glutaraldehyde Inactivation of Exotic Animal Viruses in Swine Heart Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, H. R.; Blackwell, J. H.; Walker, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde, 0.2%, in a 1:100 (wt/vol) ratio, inactivated four animal viruses (foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, African swine fever, hog cholera) in swine heart tissues during 11-day exposures at 22 to 26°C. PMID:225989

  16. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... freedom from the said diseases of the district of origin only: And provided further, That in the case of... disease of the district of origin only. For domestic swine, the certificate shall also show that the entire region of origin is free of African swine fever and swine vesicular disease and that, for 60...

  17. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  19. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  20. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...