Science.gov

Sample records for livestock grazing intensity

  1. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    PubMed

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system.

  2. A narrower gap of grazing intensity. Reply to Fetzel et al. 2017. Seasonality constrains to livestock grazing intensity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fetzel et al. (2017) globally mapped the gap between observed and potential grazing intensity (GI): the ratio between consumption by livestock and ANPP. Fetzel et al. (2017) estimated grazing land, forage production and livestock demand at a half-degree resolution. They mapped GI below 15% for most ...

  3. Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects the activity of a generalist predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Nacho; Lambin, Xavier; Evans, Darren; Pakeman, Robin; Redpath, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Grazing by domestic ungulates has substantial impacts on ecosystem structure and composition. In grasslands of the northern hemisphere, livestock grazing limits populations of small mammals, which are a main food source for a variety of vertebrate predators. However, no experimental studies have described the impact of livestock grazing on vertebrate predators. We experimentally manipulated sheep and cattle grazing intensity in the Scottish uplands to test its impact on a relatively abundant small mammal, the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and its archetypal generalist predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We demonstrate that ungulate grazing had a strong consistent negative impact on both vole densities and indices of fox activity. Ungulate grazing did not substantially affect the relationship between fox activity and vole densities. However, the data suggested that, as grazing intensity increased i) fox activity indices tended to be higher when vole densities were low, and ii) the relationship between fox activity and vole density was weaker. All these patterns are surprising given the relative small scale of our experiment compared to large red fox territories in upland habitats of Britain, and suggest that domestic grazing intensity causes a strong response in the activity of generalist predators important for their conservation in grassland ecosystems.

  4. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Gardner, Charles J; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J

    2006-12-22

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. Plots stocked with sheep alone (at high or low density) or not stocked at all held fewer pipit territories. Despite a year-on-year decline in pairs of meadow pipits in intensively grazed plots, we found no effect of sheep number on breeding abundance. Our results support the hypothesis that mixed species of herbivores generate greater heterogeneity in vegetation structure, which modifies prey availability, resulting in a greater abundance of birds. The results of our study should inform the management of grassland areas and enhance the abundance of some bird species, particularly in areas that have seen significant shifts from mixed livestock grazing to grazing dominated by single species of animals.

  5. Soil structural quality degradation by the increase in grazing intensity in integrated crop-livestock system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarola, Neyde; Auler, André; Galetto, Shivelly

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of soil use, as in integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) might promote soil structural degradation. A field method to evaluate the soil structural quality is the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS). Studies on the application of this method to ICLS are few. This work aimed to evaluate a structural quality of a Typic Dystrudept clayed under ICLS and different grazing intensities through VESS. Thus, the soil structure was evaluated in light grazing (LG) and heavy grazing (HG) in comparison to a neighboring native forest (NF) reference area. After the grazing period, 10 trenches were dug in each area to collect soil monoliths. The identification of structural differences and the attribution of visual scores were carried out according to the VESS. In NF and HG soils, up to 30 cm deep, it was possible to identify two layers with distinct structures, while in the LG up to three layers were identified. The NF soil presented the best structural quality. Regarding both grazing intensities, there was inversion of the structural quality between soil layers when compared to the NF. The increase in grazing intensity in ICLS promoted in depth degradation of the soil structural quality. The VESS method was shown suitable to evaluate soils under ICLS management with LG and HG.

  6. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Treesearch

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  7. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which...

  8. Differential relationships of livestock production and seasonal precipitation for three grazing intensities in shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term experiments have substantial utility for determining relationships of livestock weight gains to seasonal precipitation which can provide valuable understanding pertinent to the potential consequences of climate variability. A long-term (1939-2008, 70 years) data record of yearling Hereford...

  9. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ungulates often concentrate grazing at small hotspots in the larger landscape, and dispersing livestock away from these intensively grazed areas is one of the central challenges in range management. We evaluated a technique based on shifting the stocking date to prevent overgrazing of small areas co...

  10. Targeted livestock grazing to improve and restore rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Targeted grazing is the application of a specific kind of livestock at the appropriate season, duration, and intensity to accomplish defined vegetation or landscape goals. Grazing by wild and domestic animals is a powerful natural force working in all ecosystems. The ability of selective herbivory t...

  11. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  12. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  13. Livestock grazing and wildlife: developing compatabilities.

    Treesearch

    Martin. Vavra

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been considered detrimental to wildlife habitat. Managed gazing programs, however, have the potential to maintain habitat diversity and quality. In cases in which single-species management predominates (sage-grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus] or elk [Cervus elaphus nelsoni] winter range), grazing systems...

  14. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  15. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock...

  16. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Rinella; Marty Vavra; Bridgett J. Naylor; Jennifer M. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Livestock often concentrate grazing in particular regions of landscapes while partly or wholly avoiding other regions. Dispersing livestock from the heavily grazed regions is a central challenge in grazing land management. Position data gathered from GPS-collared livestock hold potential for increasing knowledge of factors driving livestock aggregation patterns, but...

  17. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  18. Quantifying the impact of livestock grazing on soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fučík, Petr; Zajíček, Antonín; Holubík, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    Livestock grazing is considered to have a noticeable influence on soil properties, when pedocompaction / soil pore reduction induced either by cattle or sheeps may curtail water residence time and accelerate the beginning and volume of overland flow. However, direct measurements of soil physical parameters and their changes under different pastoral management are seldom reported in central European conditions. Knowledge about these alterations are indispensable for setting the proper, soil and water conservative grazing management in the view of increasing areas of pastures, not only in the Czech Republic. Impact of cattle grazing on changes of soil properties was studied in three experimental upland catchments in the Czech Republic, differing in soil characteristics and grazing management. Values of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), assessed three times a year in-situ during 2012 - 2013 with pressure infiltrometers, were compared for grazed and ungrazed cambisols, pseudogleys and gleysols, for grazing intensity ranging from 0.5 to 2 Livestock units / ha. Soil bulk density (BD) and macroporosity (MP) were determined before and after grazing season every year with ring 100 cm3 steel cyllinders. These parameters were measured also on heavily treaded plots by cattle - hotspots - in each catchment. Ks values on grazed plots were significantly lower (on average by 39 - 66 %) than on ungrazed sites, BD values were reduced on average by 15 % and MP values were lower roughly about 22 % on grazed plots. Ks values on hotspots were lower by 50 - 90 %, BD values by 5 - 18 % and MP values by 8 - 28 % comparing to the rest of grazed areas. Decrease of soil infiltration capacity was influenced by grazing intensity and soil characteristics. The greatest reductions concerning infiltration capacity were manifested in soils being periodically waterlogged (either by surface or by groundwater). A profound influence on the infiltration process was revealed in pasture soils

  19. Rotational grazing systems and livestock grazing behavior in shrub-dominated semi-arid and arid rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rotational grazing systems (RGS) are often implemented to alleviate undesirable selective grazing by livestock. At both fine and coarse scales, livestock selectively graze individual plants, patches, communities, and landscapes. Smaller pastures, increased stocking density, and rotation allow manage...

  20. Grazing Intensity Does Not Affect Plant Diversity in Shortgrass Steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Responses of livestock gain and forage production to grazing intensity in shortgrass steppe are well-established, but effects on basal cover and plant diversity are less so. A long-term grazing intensity study was initiated on shortgrass steppe at the Central Plains Experimental Range (USDA-Agricult...

  1. Montane Meadow Plant Community Response to Livestock Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Matthew R.; Roche, Leslie M.; Weixelman, Dave; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2014-08-01

    We examined long-term (10 years) meadow plant community responses to (1) livestock grazing under riparian grazing utilization limits; (2) suspension of livestock grazing; and (3) meadow site wetness and precipitation on the Inyo National Forest, California. Observed trends in meadow plant species richness, diversity, and frequency of soil stabilizing species were not significantly different between grazed ( N = 16) and non-grazed ( N = 9) study sites ( P > 0.12 in all cases). Modest increases in richness and diversity were observed over the study period, but frequency of soil stabilizing species was constant. These results suggest that riparian conservation grazing strategies implemented during the study period neither degraded nor hampered recovery of meadow plant community conditions relative to non-grazed conditions. Meadow site wetness was negatively correlated to richness ( P < 0.01) and diversity ( P < 0.01), but was positively correlated to soil stabilization ( P = 0.02). Precipitation was not a significant predictor for plant community responses.

  2. Livestock grazing not detrimental to meadow wildflowers

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff

    1972-01-01

    Wildflower growth, meadow conditions, and grazing methods were compared in the Bogard area, Lassen National Forest, northeastern California. The two grazing methods were rest-rotation, in which range units are periodically rested from grazing, and free-choice, in which range units are not provided any rest periods from use. The results suggest that grazing per se need...

  3. The effect of grazing management on livestock exposure to parasites via the faecal-oral route.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Marion, G; Swain, D L; White, P C L; Hutchings, M R

    2009-10-01

    In grazing systems, heterogeneous distributions of forage resources and faeces result in localised accumulations of nutrients and parasites (both macroparasites and microparasites), creating trade-offs between the costs of exposure to infestation or infection and the benefits of nutrient intake. Each contact between livestock and faeces in the environment is a potential parasite/pathogen transmission event. Thus, herbivores must make foraging decisions in complex environments which will affect their intake of both nutrients and parasites. However, the pattern of forage and faecal resources in agricultural environments will also be affected by the grazing management system in place. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grazing management on the risk of infection/infestation to livestock. We used a spatially explicit individual based stochastic foraging model to simulate livestock contact (both grazing and investigative) with faeces in the environment. The model was parameterised to simulate cattle grazing under three types of grazing management: set stock (i.e. where sward growth and cattle intake are in equilibrium in a single field); a two pasture rotation grazing system with increasing number of rotations; and a rotational grazing system with two rotations and increasing subdivisions of the pasture. Overall the amount of cattle contact with faecal-contaminated patches was similar in both set stocking and rotational grazing scenarios, suggesting no difference in the risk of infection or infestation between the different systems. However, the timing and absolute amounts of peak contact varied greatly indicating that different grazing management systems expose livestock to risks of different types of parasites at different times of the grazing season. Intensive rotational systems with small pasture blocks (especially the first grazing period) maximised livestock contact with fresh faeces, and thus exposure to microparasites (e.g. bacterial

  4. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2016-06-17

    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km(2) , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy.

  5. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7 Section 293.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS... National Forests and in accordance with special provisions covering grazing use in units of National...

  6. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7 Section 293.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS... National Forests and in accordance with special provisions covering grazing use in units of National...

  7. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective.

  8. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  9. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Moorby, Jon M; Vale, James E; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st) century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and conservationists.

  10. 25 CFR 161.207 - What livestock are authorized to graze?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What livestock are authorized to graze? 161.207 Section... LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.207 What livestock are authorized to graze? The following livestock are authorized to graze on the Navajo Partitioned Lands: horses, cattle, sheep, goats,...

  11. 25 CFR 161.207 - What livestock are authorized to graze?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What livestock are authorized to graze? 161.207 Section... LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.207 What livestock are authorized to graze? The following livestock are authorized to graze on the Navajo Partitioned Lands: horses, cattle, sheep, goats,...

  12. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  13. Does livestock grazing influence spatial patterns of woody plant proliferation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patterns of woody plant proliferation in grasslands and savannas influence rates of erosion, spread of disturbance, and nutrient pools.  Spatial pattern is the outcome of plant dispersal, recruitment, competition/facilitation, and disturbance. We quantified effects of livestock grazing, a widely cit...

  14. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect wild horses or burros from...

  15. ANT COMMUNITIES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine if metrics for ant species assemblages can be used as indicators of rangeland condition, and to determine the influence of vegetation and ground cover variables, factors often influenced by livestock grazing, on ant communities. The ...

  16. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  17. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  18. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  19. ANT COMMUNITIES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine if metrics for ant species assemblages can be used as indicators of rangeland condition, and to determine the influence of vegetation and ground cover variables, factors often influenced by livestock grazing, on ant communities. The ...

  20. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  1. Changes in Semi-Arid Plant Species Associations along a Livestock Grazing Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, vegetation is heterogeneously distributed, with plant species often associating in patches. These associations between species are not constant, but depend on the particular response of each species to environmental factors. Here, we investigated how plant species associations change in response to livestock grazing in a semi-arid ecosystem, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in South East Spain. We established linear point-intercept transects at four sites with different grazing intensity, and recorded all species at each point. We investigated plant associations by comparing the number of times that each pair of species occurred at the same spatial point (co-occurrences), with the expected number of times based on species abundances. We also assessed associations for each shrub and grass species by considering all their pairs of associations and for the whole plant community by considering all pairs of associations on each site. At all sites, the plant community had a negative pattern of association, with fewer co-occurrences than expected. Negative association in the plant community increased at maximum grazing intensity. Most species associated as expected, particularly grass species, and positive associations were most important at intermediate grazing intensities. No species changed its type of association along the grazing gradient. We conclude that in the present plant community, grazing-resistant species compete among themselves and segregate in space. Some shrub species act as refuges for grazing-sensitive species that benefit from being spatially associated with shrub species, particularly at intermediate grazing intensities where positive associations were highest. At high grazing intensity, these shrubs can no longer persist and positive associations decrease due to the disappearance of refuges. Spatial associations between plant species and their response to grazing help identify the factors that organize plant communities, and

  2. Changes in semi-arid plant species associations along a livestock grazing gradient.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, vegetation is heterogeneously distributed, with plant species often associating in patches. These associations between species are not constant, but depend on the particular response of each species to environmental factors. Here, we investigated how plant species associations change in response to livestock grazing in a semi-arid ecosystem, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in South East Spain. We established linear point-intercept transects at four sites with different grazing intensity, and recorded all species at each point. We investigated plant associations by comparing the number of times that each pair of species occurred at the same spatial point (co-occurrences), with the expected number of times based on species abundances. We also assessed associations for each shrub and grass species by considering all their pairs of associations and for the whole plant community by considering all pairs of associations on each site. At all sites, the plant community had a negative pattern of association, with fewer co-occurrences than expected. Negative association in the plant community increased at maximum grazing intensity. Most species associated as expected, particularly grass species, and positive associations were most important at intermediate grazing intensities. No species changed its type of association along the grazing gradient. We conclude that in the present plant community, grazing-resistant species compete among themselves and segregate in space. Some shrub species act as refuges for grazing-sensitive species that benefit from being spatially associated with shrub species, particularly at intermediate grazing intensities where positive associations were highest. At high grazing intensity, these shrubs can no longer persist and positive associations decrease due to the disappearance of refuges. Spatial associations between plant species and their response to grazing help identify the factors that organize plant communities, and

  3. Environmental Quality and Aquatic Invertebrate Metrics Relationships at Patagonian Wetlands Subjected to Livestock Grazing Pressures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing can compromise the biotic integrity and health of wetlands, especially in remotes areas like Patagonia, which provide habitat for several endemic terrestrial and aquatic species. Understanding the effects of these land use practices on invertebrate communities can help prevent the deterioration of wetlands and provide insights for restoration. In this contribution, we assessed the responses of 36 metrics based on the structural and functional attributes of invertebrates (130 taxa) at 30 Patagonian wetlands that were subject to different levels of livestock grazing intensity. These levels were categorized as low, medium and high based on eight features (livestock stock densities plus seven wetland measurements). Significant changes in environmental features were detected across the gradient of wetlands, mainly related to pH, conductivity, and nutrient values. Regardless of rainfall gradient, symptoms of eutrophication were remarkable at some highly disturbed sites. Seven invertebrate metrics consistently and accurately responded to livestock grazing on wetlands. All of them were negatively related to increased levels of grazing disturbance, with the number of insect families appearing as the most robust measure. A multivariate approach (RDA) revealed that invertebrate metrics were significantly affected by environmental variables related to water quality: in particular, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and the richness and coverage of aquatic plants. Our results suggest that the seven aforementioned metrics could be used to assess ecological quality in the arid and semi-arid wetlands of Patagonia, helping to ensure the creation of protected areas and their associated ecological services. PMID:26448652

  4. Environmental Quality and Aquatic Invertebrate Metrics Relationships at Patagonian Wetlands Subjected to Livestock Grazing Pressures.

    PubMed

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing can compromise the biotic integrity and health of wetlands, especially in remotes areas like Patagonia, which provide habitat for several endemic terrestrial and aquatic species. Understanding the effects of these land use practices on invertebrate communities can help prevent the deterioration of wetlands and provide insights for restoration. In this contribution, we assessed the responses of 36 metrics based on the structural and functional attributes of invertebrates (130 taxa) at 30 Patagonian wetlands that were subject to different levels of livestock grazing intensity. These levels were categorized as low, medium and high based on eight features (livestock stock densities plus seven wetland measurements). Significant changes in environmental features were detected across the gradient of wetlands, mainly related to pH, conductivity, and nutrient values. Regardless of rainfall gradient, symptoms of eutrophication were remarkable at some highly disturbed sites. Seven invertebrate metrics consistently and accurately responded to livestock grazing on wetlands. All of them were negatively related to increased levels of grazing disturbance, with the number of insect families appearing as the most robust measure. A multivariate approach (RDA) revealed that invertebrate metrics were significantly affected by environmental variables related to water quality: in particular, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and the richness and coverage of aquatic plants. Our results suggest that the seven aforementioned metrics could be used to assess ecological quality in the arid and semi-arid wetlands of Patagonia, helping to ensure the creation of protected areas and their associated ecological services.

  5. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  6. 43 CFR 6304.25 - What special provisions apply to livestock grazing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grazing? 6304.25 Section 6304.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.25 What special provisions apply to livestock grazing? (a) If you hold a BLM grazing permit or grazing lease for land within a wilderness area, you may...

  7. Methane emissions measured directly from grazing livestock in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassey, Keith R.; Ulyatt, Marcus J.; Martin, Ross J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; David Shelton, I.

    We report measurements of methane emissions from individual ruminant livestock-both sheep and dairy cows-grazing pasture typical of New Zealand lowlands in the temperate southwest Pacific. These are the first measurements reported from grazing sheep, and among the first from grazing cattle. The measurement technique, developed at Washington State University, enables emission rates to be determined from analyses of "breath" samples collected while grazing. More than 250 measurements of daily methane emission from 50 sheep (8 months old) were made, with flock-mean emission 18.9 ± 0.8 g hd -1 d -1. Although emissions were weakly correlated with feed intake, they represented a 4.6 ± 0.1 % average loss of gross dietary energy. The corresponding mean emission based on 40 measurements of daily emissions from 10 lactating dairy cows was 263 ± 10 g hd -1 d -1, approximately 6.2% of estimated gross energy intake. A notable feature was the large inter-sheep variability in daily methane emission (factor of 1.4 range) that could not be attributed to variable intake. This would appear to suggest an appreciable diversity of methanogenetic response to digestion, and may be significant in the search for strategies to control emissions of this greenhouse gas.

  8. Wild Herbivore Grazing Enhances Insect Diversity over Livestock Grazing in an African Grassland System

    PubMed Central

    Roets, Francois; Samways, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa’s grassland biodiversity is threatened by habitat transformation such as commercial forestry. Ecological networks (ENs) have been instigated to alleviate the pressure of habitat transformation on local biodiversity. ENs are large scale webs of corridors and patches of natural vegetation criss-crossing production landscapes that can simulate conditions in protected areas (PAs). Many ENs have lost many native large mammal species, which have been replaced by domestic livestock to retain natural grazing dynamics, which could have an impact on the long-term value of ENs for insects. Here we compared dung beetle, butterfly and grasshopper diversity in ENs across a landscape mosaic of timber plantations, where 1) wild megaherbivores were maintained, 2) in ENs where these herbivores were replaced by livestock and, 3) in a nearby World Heritage PA which retained its natural complement of megaherbivores. Sites in the PA far from any plantation were similar in composition to those in the wild grazed EN. Presence of the wild grazers improved the alpha- and beta-diversity of all focal insect taxa when compared to domestic grazing. Furthermore, species composition shows significant differences between the two grazing systems indicating that an assemblage of native large mammals facilitates insect diversity conservation. We support the maintenance or introduction of large native mammals in ENs or similar conservation areas in production landscapes to simulate the ecological conditions and natural heterogeneity in nearby PAs. PMID:27783685

  9. Effects of livestock grazing on nutrient retention in a headwater stream of the Rio Puerco Basin

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Sewards; H. Maurice Valett

    1996-01-01

    Sediment and nutrient loss from headwater streams of sedimentary basins in the semi-arid Southwest have been attributed to both over-grazing by livestock and to climatic cycles that influence arroyo formation. Considerable effort has been directed toward the influence of livestock grazing on riparian species abundance and diversity. Less work has concentrated on the...

  10. 43 CFR 9264.2 - Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. 9264.2 Section 9264.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.2 Grazing administration—Alaska; livestock. ...

  11. 43 CFR 9264.2 - Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. 9264.2 Section 9264.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.2 Grazing administration—Alaska; livestock. ...

  12. 43 CFR 9264.2 - Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. 9264.2 Section 9264.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.2 Grazing administration—Alaska; livestock. ...

  13. 43 CFR 9264.2 - Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; livestock. 9264.2 Section 9264.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.2 Grazing administration—Alaska; livestock. ...

  14. Livestock Grazing, Golden Trout, and Streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California: Impacts and Management Implications

    Treesearch

    R. Knapp; K. Matthews

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of livestock grazing on California golden trout Oncorhynchus rnykiss aguabonita and their habitat were studied inside and outside of livestock exclosures in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. In two consecutive years, the majority of stream physical characteristics showed large differences between grazed and ungrazed areas, and the directions of these...

  15. Impacts of livestock grazing and tree clearing on birds of woodland and riparian habitats.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tara G; McIntyre, S

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of pastoral management on birds in subtropical grassy eucalypt woodland in southeastern Queensland, Australia, where the patterns of land management have made it possible to disentangle the effects of livestock grazing from those of tree clearing. We recorded changes in bird species composition, density, and relative abundance across two woodland habitat types (riparian and nonriparian) and two levels of clearing (wooded and nonwooded) and three levels of livestock grazing (low, moderate, and high) replicated over space (1000 km(2)) and time (2001-2002). We predicted that species that depend on understory vegetation would be most negatively affected by livestock grazing. A Bayesian generalized linear model showed that the level of grazing had the greatest effect when trees were present. When trees were absent, the impact of grazing was overshadowed by the effects of a lack of trees. Over 65% of species responded to different levels of grazing, and the abundance of 42% of species varied markedly with habitat and grazing. The most common response to grazing was high species relative abundance under low levels of grazing (28% of species), species absence at high levels of grazing (20%), and an increase in abundance with increasing grazing (18%). Despite having similar bird assemblages, the effect of grazing was stronger in riparian habitat than in adjacent woodland habitat. Our results suggest that any level of commercial livestock grazing is detrimental to some woodland birds, particularly the understory-dependant species, as predicted. Nevertheless, provided trees are not cleared, a rich and abundant bird fauna can coexist with moderate levels of grazing. Habitats with high levels of grazing, on the other hand, resulted in a species-poor bird assemblage dominated by birds that are increasing in abundance nationally.

  16. Moderation is best: effects of grazing intensity on plant--flower visitor networks in Mediterranean communities.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Amparo; Tscheulin, Thomas; Devalez, Jelle; Nakas, Georgios; Stefanaki, Anastasia; Hanlidou, Effie; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-04-01

    The structure of pollination networks is an important indicator of ecosystem stability and functioning. Livestock grazing is a frequent land use practice that directly affects the abundance and diversity of flowers and pollinators and, therefore, may indirectly affect the structure of pollination networks. We studied how grazing intensity affected the structure of plant-flower visitor networks along a wide range of grazing intensities by sheep and goats, using data from 11 Mediterranean plant-flower visitor communities from Lesvos Island, Greece. We hypothesized that intermediate grazing might result in higher diversity as predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which could in turn confer more stability to the networks. Indeed, we found that networks at intermediate grazing intensities were larger, more generalized, more modular, and contained more diverse and even interactions. Despite general responses at the network level, the number of interactions and selectiveness of particular flower visitor and plant taxa in the networks responded differently to grazing intensity, presumably as a consequence of variation in the abundance of different taxa with grazing. Our results highlight the benefit of maintaining moderate levels of livestock grazing by sheep and goats to preserve the complexity and biodiversity of the rich Mediterranean communities, which have a long history of grazing by these domestic animals.

  17. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  18. Grazing intensity significantly affects belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyao; Zhou, Xuhui; He, Yanghui; Shao, Junjiong; Hu, Zhenhong; Liu, Ruiqiang; Zhou, Huimin; Hosseinibai, Shahla

    2017-03-01

    Livestock grazing activities potentially alter ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland ecosystems. Despite the fact that numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses had been conducted, how grazing, especially its intensity, affects belowground C and N cycling in grasslands remains unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 115 published studies to examine the responses of 19 variables associated with belowground C and N cycling to livestock grazing in global grasslands. Our results showed that, on average, grazing significantly decreased belowground C and N pools in grassland ecosystems, with the largest decreases in microbial biomass C and N (21.62% and 24.40%, respectively). In contrast, belowground fluxes, including soil respiration, soil net N mineralization and soil N nitrification increased by 4.25%, 34.67% and 25.87%, respectively, in grazed grasslands compared to ungrazed ones. More importantly, grazing intensity significantly affected the magnitude (even direction) of changes in the majority of the assessed belowground C and N pools and fluxes, and C : N ratio as well as soil moisture. Specifically,light grazing contributed to soil C and N sequestration whereas moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased C and N losses. In addition, soil depth, livestock type and climatic conditions influenced the responses of selected variables to livestock grazing to some degree. Our findings highlight the importance of the effects of grazing intensity on belowground C and N cycling, which may need to be incorporated into regional and global models for predicting effects of human disturbance on global grasslands and assessing the climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  19. Livestock grazing impact on soil wettability and erosion risk in post-fire agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    Stavi, Ilan; Barkai, Daniel; Knoll, Yaakov M; Zaady, Eli

    2016-12-15

    Fires in agricultural areas are common, modifying the functioning of agro-ecosystems. Such fires have been extensively studied, and reported to considerably affect soil properties. Yet, understanding of the impact of livestock grazing, or more precisely, trampling, in fire-affected lands is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low- to moderate-fire severity and livestock trampling (hoof action) on the solid soil's wettability and related properties, and on soil detachment, in burnt vs. non-burnt croplands. The study was implemented by allowing livestock to access plots under high, medium, and low stocking rates in (unintentionally) burnt and non-burnt lands. Also, livestock exclusion plots were assigned as a control treatment. Results showed that fire slightly decreased the soil wettability. At the same time, water drop penetration time (WDPT) was negatively related to the stocking rate, and critical surface tension (CST) was ~13% smaller in the control plots than in the livestock-presence treatments. Also, the results showed that following burning, the resistance of soil to shear decreased by ~70%. Mass of detached material was similar in the control plots of the burnt and non-burnt plots. At the same time, it was three-, eight-, and nine-fold greater in the plots of the burnt×low, burnt×medium, and burnt×high stocking rates, respectively, than in the corresponding non-burnt ones. This study shows that livestock trampling in low- to moderate-intensity fire-affected lands increased the shearing of the ground surface layer. On the one hand, this slightly increased soil wettability. On the other hand, this impact considerably increased risks of soil erosion and land degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  1. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  2. Sierra Nevada grasslands: interactions between livestock grazing and ecosystem structure and function

    Treesearch

    Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Livestock grazing plays an integral role in the grass-dominated ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada. Grazing has been asserted to influence such key ecological characteristics as water quality, net primary productivity, nutrient cycling, plant and animal diversity, wildlife habitat availability, and oak regeneration (Belsky and others 1999, Kauffmann and Krueger 1984)....

  3. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of livestock grazing in semi-arid southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, D.P.; Neff, J.C.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the ecological and biogeochemical effects of livestock grazing in southeastern Utah. In this study, we evaluated how grazing has affected soil organic carbon and nitrogen to a depth of 50 cm in grasslands located in relict and actively-grazed sites in the Canyonlands physiographic section of the Colorado Plateau. We also evaluated differences in plant ground cover and the spatial distribution of soil resources. Results show that areas used by domestic livestock have 20% less plant cover and 100% less soil organic carbon and nitrogen compared to relict sites browsed by native ungulates. In actively grazed sites, domestic livestock grazing also appears to lead to clustered, rather than random, spatial distribution of soil resources. Magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for soil stability in this region, suggests that grazing increases soil erosion leading to an increase in the area of nutrient-depleted bare ground. Overall, these results, combined with previous studies in the region, suggest that livestock grazing affects both plant cover and soil fertility with potential long-term implications for the sustainability of grazing operations in this semi-arid landscape. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant community responses to livestock grazing: An assessment of alternative management practices in a semiarid grassland

    Treesearch

    Matthew R. Loeser; Thomas D. Sisk; Timothy E. Crews

    2001-01-01

    One of the most prevalent land-use practices in the American Southwest, and one of the most contentious issues among land-use policymakers, is the grazing of domestic livestock. In an effort to contribute scientific understanding to this debate, we have designed experiments comparing the effects of alternative grazing regimes on plant communities. In a semiarid...

  5. Habitat type plays a greater role than livestock grazing in structuring shrubsteppe plant-pollinator communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock grazing is a prevalent grassland disturbance and can negatively impact biodiversity. Pollinators constitute a vital component of grassland ecosystems, but the impact of grazing on pollinator diversity has seldom been assessed in North America. We assessed vegetation structure, and pollinat...

  6. Effects of livestock grazing on morphology, hydrology and nutrient retention in four riparian/stream ecosystems, New Mexico, USA

    Treesearch

    James R. Thibault; Douglas L. Moyer; Clifford N. Dahm; H. Maurice Valett; Michael C. Marshall

    1999-01-01

    Land-use practices such as livestock grazing influence the structure and function of riparian/stream ecosystems. In New Mexico, four streams were selected to determine the impact of moderate livestock grazing on morphology, solute transport, and nutrient retention. Each stream contained a reach currently exposed to grazing and an exclosed, ungrazed reach. Channel width...

  7. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands

    Treesearch

    J.D. Reeder; G.E. Schuman

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in...

  8. Consequences of livestock grazing on water quality and Benthic algal biomass in a Canadian natural grassland plateau.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Kendall, Sharon

    2002-06-01

    The effects of livestock grazing on selected riparian and stream attributes, water chemistry, and algal biomass were investigated over a two-year period using livestock enclosures and by completing stream surveys in the Cypress Hills grassland plateau, Alberta, Canada. Livestock enclosure experiments, partially replicated in three streams, comprised four treatments: (1) early season livestock grazing (June-August), (2) late season livestock grazing (August-September), (3) all season grazing (June-September), and (4) livestock absent controls. Livestock grazing significantly decreased streambank stability, biomass of riparian vegetation, and the extent to which aquatic vegetation covered the stream channels compared with livestock-absent controls. Water quality comparisons indicated significant differences among the four livestock grazing treatments in Battle and Graburn creeks but not in Nine Mile Creek. In Graburn Creek, the concentration of total phosphorus in the all-season livestock grazing treatment was significantly higher than that in the livestock-absent control, and the early season and late season grazing treatments. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus in the all-season livestock grazing treatment also exceeded that in livestock-absent control. In contrast, differences in water quality variables in the remaining 22 comparisons (i.e., 22 of the total 24 comparisons) were minor even when differences were statistically significant. Effects of livestock grazing on algal biomass were variable, and there was no consistent pattern among creeks. At the watershed scale, spatial variation in algal biomass was related (P < 0.05) with concentrations of NO(2)(-) + NO(3) (-) and soluble reactive phosphorus in two of the four study creeks. Nutrient diffusing substrata experiments showed that algal communities were either nitrogen-limited or not limited by nutrients, depending on stream and season.

  9. Plant community composition after 75 years of sustained grazing intensity treatments in shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant community responses to livestock grazing lack conformity across studies, even those conducted within similar ecosystems. Variability in outcomes is often related to the strong influences of short-term weather patterns, mid-term climatic cycles, differences in the timing and intensity of grazin...

  10. Livestock grazing supports native plants and songbirds in a California annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Gennet, Sasha; Spotswood, Erica; Hammond, Michele; Bartolome, James W

    2017-01-01

    Over eight years we measured the effects of plant community composition, vegetation structure, and livestock grazing on occurrence of three grassland bird species-Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)-at sites in central California during breeding season. In California's Mediterranean-type climatic region, coastal and inland grassland vegetation is dominated by exotic annual grasses with occasional patches of native bunchgrass and forbs. Livestock grazing, primarily with beef cattle, is the most widely used management tool. Compared with ungrazed plots, grazed plots had higher bare ground, native plant cover, and vertically heterogeneous vegetation. Grazed plots also had less plant litter and shorter vegetation. Higher native plant cover, which is predominantly composed of bunchgrasses in our study area, was associated with livestock grazing and north-facing aspects. Using an information theoretic approach, we found that all three bird species had positive associations with native plant abundance and neutral (Western Meadowlark, Grasshopper Sparrow) or positive (Horned Lark) association with livestock grazing. All species favored flatter areas. Horned Larks and Western Meadowlark occurred more often where there were patches of bare ground. Western Meadowlarks and Grasshopper Sparrows were most common on north-facing slopes, suggesting that these species may be at risk from projected climate change. These findings demonstrate that livestock grazing is compatible with or supports grassland bird conservation in Mediterranean-type grasslands, including areas with high levels of exotic annual grass invasion, in part because grazing supports the persistence of native plants and heterogeneity in vegetation structure. However, conservation of low-lying grasslands with high native species presence, and active management to increase the abundance of native plant species are also likely to

  11. Livestock grazing supports native plants and songbirds in a California annual grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Michele; Bartolome, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Over eight years we measured the effects of plant community composition, vegetation structure, and livestock grazing on occurrence of three grassland bird species—Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)—at sites in central California during breeding season. In California’s Mediterranean-type climatic region, coastal and inland grassland vegetation is dominated by exotic annual grasses with occasional patches of native bunchgrass and forbs. Livestock grazing, primarily with beef cattle, is the most widely used management tool. Compared with ungrazed plots, grazed plots had higher bare ground, native plant cover, and vertically heterogeneous vegetation. Grazed plots also had less plant litter and shorter vegetation. Higher native plant cover, which is predominantly composed of bunchgrasses in our study area, was associated with livestock grazing and north-facing aspects. Using an information theoretic approach, we found that all three bird species had positive associations with native plant abundance and neutral (Western Meadowlark, Grasshopper Sparrow) or positive (Horned Lark) association with livestock grazing. All species favored flatter areas. Horned Larks and Western Meadowlark occurred more often where there were patches of bare ground. Western Meadowlarks and Grasshopper Sparrows were most common on north-facing slopes, suggesting that these species may be at risk from projected climate change. These findings demonstrate that livestock grazing is compatible with or supports grassland bird conservation in Mediterranean-type grasslands, including areas with high levels of exotic annual grass invasion, in part because grazing supports the persistence of native plants and heterogeneity in vegetation structure. However, conservation of low-lying grasslands with high native species presence, and active management to increase the abundance of native plant species are also

  12. Differences in gypsum plant communities associated with habitat fragmentation and livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Y; Alados, C L; Barrantes, O; Komac, B; Rietkerk, M

    2008-06-01

    The negative consequences of habitat fragmentation for plant communities have been documented in many regions of the world. In some fragmented habitats, livestock grazing has been proposed to be a dispersal mechanism reducing isolation between fragments. In others, grazing acts together with fragmentation in a way that increases habitat degradation. Iberian gypsum plant communities have been grazed and fragmented by agricultural practices for centuries. Although their conservation is considered a priority by the European Community, the effects of fragmentation on gypsum plant communities and the possible role of livestock grazing remain unknown. In addition, a substantial proportion of plant species growing in gypsum environments are gypsum specialists. They could be particularly affected by fragmentation, as was found for other habitat specialists (i.e., serpentine and calcareous specialists). In this study (1) we investigated the effect of fragmentation and grazing on gypsum plant community composition (species and life-forms), and (2) we tested to see if gypsum specialists were differently affected by fragmentation and grazing than habitat generalists. A vegetation survey was conducted in the largest gypsum outcrop of Europe (Middle Ebro Valley, northeast Spain). Fragmented and continuous sites in grazed and ungrazed areas were compared. Measurements related to species and composition of life-forms were contrasted first for the whole gypsum plant community and then specifically for the gypsum specialists. In the whole community, our results showed lower plant species diversity in fragmented sites, mainly due to the larger dominance of species more tolerant to fragmented habitat conditions. With livestock grazing, the plant species richness and the similarity in plant species composition between remnants was larger, suggesting that animals were acting as dispersal agents between fragments. As expected, gypsum specialists were less abundant in fragmented areas

  13. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  14. Examination of gastrointestinal helminth in livestock grazing in grassland of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, M. Motahar-Hussain; Islam, M-Khyrul; Hur, Jin; Lee, John-Hwa

    2000-01-01

    To determine association of grassland with parasitic diseases of livestock in Bangladesh, the 'Tracer' animals (two cow calves and two goats) were released for a month in a grassland used for communal grazing of livestock near school premise in Kanthal, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. After slaughtering of the tracer animals, their gastrointestinal tract examination revealed six species of nematode and one cestode. The nematode species were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Oesophagostomum spp., Trichuris spp. and Bunostomum sp. The cestode was one of the genus Moniezia. With this preliminary study, grasslands are thought to be one of the main sources of gastrointestinal parasitic diseases of livestock in Bangladesh. PMID:11002657

  15. Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Smit, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, are threatened by accelerated sea-level rise (SLR). Salt marshes deliver valuable ecosystem services such as coastal protection and the provision of habitat for a unique flora and fauna. Whether salt marshes in the Wadden Sea area are able to survive accelerated SLR depends on sufficient deposition of sediments which add to vertical marsh accretion. Accretion rate is influenced by a number of factors, and livestock grazing was recently included. Livestock grazing is assumed to reduce accretion rates in two ways: (a) directly by increasing soil compaction through trampling, and (b) indirectly by affecting the vegetation structure, which may lower the sediment deposition. For four years, we studied the impact of two livestock species (horse and cattle) at two stocking densities (0.5 and 1.0 animal ha-1) on accretion in a large-scale grazing experiment using sedimentation plates. We found lower cumulative accretion rates in high stocking densities, probably because more animals cause more compaction and create a lower canopy. Furthermore, a trend towards lower accretion rates in horse-compared to cattle-grazed treatments was found, most likely because (1) horses are more active and thus cause more compaction, and (2) herbage intake by horses is higher than by cattle, which causes a higher biomass removal and shorter canopy. During summer periods, negative accretion rates were found. When the grazing and non-grazing seasons were separated, the impact of grazing differed among years. In summer, we only found an effect of different treatments if soil moisture (precipitation) was relatively low. In winter, a sufficiently high inundation frequency was necessary to create differences between grazing treatments. We conclude that stocking densities, and to a certain extent also livestock species, affect accretion rates in salt marshes. Both stocking densities and livestock species should thus be taken into account in management

  16. LIVESTOCK GRAZING EFFECTS ON ANT COMMUNITIES IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of livestock grazing on composition and structure of ant communities were examined in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA for the purpose of evaluating ant communities as potential indicators of rangeland condition. Metrics for ant communities, vegetation, and other groun...

  17. Integrated crop-livestock systems and cover crop grazing in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrating crops and livestock has been identified as an approach to sustainably intensify agricultural systems, increasing production while reducing the need for external inputs, building soil health, and increasing economic returns. Cover crops and grazing these cover crops are a natural fit with...

  18. LIVESTOCK GRAZING EFFECTS ON ANT COMMUNITIES IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of livestock grazing on composition and structure of ant communities were examined in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA for the purpose of evaluating ant communities as potential indicators of rangeland condition. Metrics for ant communities, vegetation, and other groun...

  19. Livestock grazing and sage-grouse habitat: impacts and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sage-grouse obtain resources from sagebrush communities for breeding, summer, and winter life stages. Grazing changes the productivity, composition, and structure of herbaceous plants in sagebrush communities, thus directly influencing the productivity of nesting and early brood-rearing habitats. In...

  20. Dutchwoman Butte revisited: Examining paradigms for livestock grazing exclusion

    Treesearch

    J. Sprinkle; M. Holder; C. Erickson; A. Medina; D. Robinett; G. Ruyle; J. Maynard; S. Tuttle; Jr. J. Hays; W. Meyer; S. Stratton; A. Rogstad; K. Eldredge; J. Harris; L. Howery; W. Sprinkle

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, a collaborative rangeland monitoring program was established with the University of Arizona, Gila County Cattlegrowers, and the Tonto National Forest. Dutchwoman Butte (DWB) is an isolated, ungrazed 40 ha mesa with relict vegetation. Our objective was to contrast the vegetation of DWB to that of a grazed site, Whiskey tank (WT), across multiple years (2001,...

  1. Response of Polygonum viviparum species and community level to long-term livestock grazing in alpine shrub meadow in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Lundholm, Jeremy; Li, Yingnian; Wang, Xiaoan

    2008-06-01

    Grazing by domestic herbivores is generally recognized as a major ecological factor and an important evolutionary force in grasslands. Grazing has both extensive and profound effects on individual plants and communities. We investigated the response patterns of Polygonum viviparum species and the species diversity of an alpine shrub meadow in response to long-term livestock grazing by a field manipulative experiment controlling livestock numbers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Here, we hypothesize that within a range of grazing pressure, grazing can alter relative allocation to different plant parts without changing total biomass for some plant species if there is life history trade-offs between plant traits. The same type of communities exposed to different grazing pressures may only alter relative species' abundances or species composition and not vary species diversity because plant species differ in resistant capability to herbivory. The results show that plant height and biomass of different organs differed among grazing treatments but total biomass remained constant. Biomass allocation and absolute investments to both reproduction and growth decreased and to belowground storage increased with increased grazing pressure, indicating the increasing in storage function was attained at a cost of reducing reproduction of bulbils and represented an optimal allocation and an adaptive response of the species to long-term aboveground damage. Moreover, our results showed multiform response types for either species groups or single species along the gradient of grazing intensity. Heavy grazing caused a 13.2% increase in species richness. There was difference in species composition of about 18%-20% among grazing treatment. Shannon-Wiener (H') diversity index and species evenness (E) index did not differ among grazing treatments. These results support our hypothesis.

  2. Postfire Succession in Big Sagebrush Steppe With Livestock Grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prescribed fire in rangeland ecosystems is applied for a variety of management objectives including enhancing productivity of forage species for domestic livestock. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) steppe of the western United States, fire has been a natural and prescribed disturbance ...

  3. Interactions among livestock grazing, vegetation type, and fire behavior in the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in Idaho and Nevada, July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Launchbaugh, Karen; Brammer, Bob; Brooks, Matthew L.; Bunting, Stephen C.; Clark, Patrick; Davison, Jay; Fleming, Mark; Kay, Ron; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of wildland fires were ignited by lightning in sagebrush and grassland communities near the Idaho-Nevada border southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho in July 2007. The fires burned for over two weeks and encompassed more than 650,000 acres. A team of scientists, habitat specialists, and land managers was called together by Tom Dyer, Idaho BLM State Director, to examine initial information from the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in relation to plant communities and patterns of livestock grazing. Three approaches were used to examine this topic: (1) identify potential for livestock grazing to modify fuel loads and affect fire behavior using fire models applied to various vegetation types, fuel loads, and fire conditions; (2) compare levels of fuel consumed within and among major vegetation types; and (3) examine several observed lines of difference and discontinuity in fuel consumed to determine what factors created these contrasts. The team found that much of the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex burned under extreme fuel and weather conditions that likely overshadowed livestock grazing as a factor influencing fire extent and fuel consumption in many areas where these fires burned. Differences and abrupt contrast lines in the level of fuels consumed were affected mostly by the plant communities that existed on a site before fire. A few abrupt contrasts in burn severity coincided with apparent differences in grazing patterns of livestock, observed as fence-line contrasts. Fire modeling revealed that grazing in grassland vegetation can reduce surface rate of spread and fire-line intensity to a greater extent than in shrubland types. Under extreme fire conditions (low fuel moisture, high temperatures, and gusty winds), grazing applied at moderate utilization levels has limited or negligible effects on fire behavior. However, when weather and fuel-moisture conditions are less extreme, grazing may reduce the rate of spread and intensity of fires allowing for patchy burns with

  4. Interactions Among Livestock Grazing, Vegetation Type, and Fire Behavior in the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in Idaho and Nevada, July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Launchbaugh, Karen; Brammer, Bob; Brooks, Matthew L.; Bunting, Stephen C.; Clark, Patrick; Davison, Jay; Fleming, Mark; Kay, Ron; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of wildland fires were ignited by lightning in sagebrush and grassland communities near the Idaho-Nevada border southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho in July 2007. The fires burned for over two weeks and encompassed more than 650,000 acres. A team of scientists, habitat specialists, and land managers was called together by Tom Dyer, Idaho BLM State Director, to examine initial information from the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in relation to plant communities and patterns of livestock grazing. Three approaches were used to examine this topic: (1) identify potential for livestock grazing to modify fuel loads and affect fire behavior using fire models applied to various vegetation types, fuel loads, and fire conditions; (2) compare levels of fuel consumed within and among major vegetation types; and (3) examine several observed lines of difference and discontinuity in fuel consumed to determine what factors created these contrasts. The team found that much of the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex burned under extreme fuel and weather conditions that likely overshadowed livestock grazing as a factor influencing fire extent and fuel consumption in many areas where these fires burned. Differences and abrupt contrast lines in the level of fuels consumed were affected mostly by the plant communities that existed on a site before fire. A few abrupt contrasts in burn severity coincided with apparent differences in grazing patterns of livestock, observed as fence-line contrasts. Fire modeling revealed that grazing in grassland vegetation can reduce surface rate of spread and fire-line intensity to a greater extent than in shrubland types. Under extreme fire conditions (low fuel moisture, high temperatures, and gusty winds), grazing applied at moderate utilization levels has limited or negligible effects on fire behavior. However, when weather and fuel-moisture conditions are less extreme, grazing may reduce the rate of spread and intensity of fires allowing for patchy burns with

  5. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving soil health and productivity on grasslands using managed grazing of livestock.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Bisinger, J J

    2015-06-01

    resulting in considerable spatial and temporal variation in the responses. Furthermore, a single grazing management system may not maximize livestock productivity and each of the potential ecological services provided by grasslands. Therefore, production and ecological goals must be integrated to identify the optimal grazing management system.

  6. Managed livestock grazing is compatible with the maintenance of plant diversity in semidesert grasslands.

    PubMed

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Firn, J

    2014-04-01

    Even when no baseline data are available, the impacts of 150 years of livestock grazing on natural grasslands can be assessed using a combined approach of grazing manipulation and regional-scale assessment of the flora. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this method across 18 sites in the semidesert Mitchell grasslands of northeastern Australia. Fifteen-year-old exclosures (ungrazed and macropod grazed) revealed that the dominant perennial grasses in the genus Astrebla do not respond negatively to grazing disturbance typical of commercial pastoralism. Neutral, positive, intermediate, and negative responses to grazing disturbance were recorded amongst plant species with no single life-form group associated with any response type. Only one exotic species, Cenchrus ciliaris, was recorded at low frequency. The strongest negative response was from a native annual grass, Chionachne hubbardiana, an example of a species that is highly sensitive to grazing disturbance. Herbarium records revealed only scant evidence that species with a negative response to grazing have declined through the period of commercial pastoralism. A regional analysis identified 14 from a total of 433 plant species in the regional flora that may be rare and potentially threatened by grazing disturbance. However, a targeted survey precluded grazing as a cause of decline for seven of these based on low palatability and positive responses to grazing and other disturbance. Our findings suggest that livestock grazing of semidesert grasslands with a short evolutionary history of ungulate grazing has altered plant composition, but has not caused declines in the dominant perennial grasses or in species richness as predicted by the preceding literature. The biggest impact of commercial pastoralism is the spread of woody leguminous trees that can transform grassland to thorny shrubland. The conservation of plant biodiversity is largely compatible with commercial pastoralism provided these woody weeds are

  7. The Impact of Livestock Grazing on US Rangeland Productive Capacity from 1981 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Kulawardhana, R. W.; Reeves, M. C.; Mitchell, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Humans have appropriated an estimated 20% of global net primary productivity (NPP) and 38% of this population is dependant on the $900 billion yr-1 in ecosystem services from drylands that cover 41% of the terrestrial surface. Commercial and subsistence livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) grazing is embedded in this appropriation and has been implicated in dryland degradation. However, the extent of dryland degradation is unknown with estimates ranging from 10 - 80%. As a solution to this problem, we derived rangeland above-ground biomass or the forage available for grazing from a 1981 - 2009 time-series of 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP and 8-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (AVHRR-GIMMS) annual summed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We derived the forage required by livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) at the county and state spatial scales from annual agricultural census records that were collected by the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS) from 1981 - 2009. We found that in 2002 US rangelands covered some 257 million ha and that grazing livestock reached 216 million tons of biomass appropriated though only an estimated 149 million tons were available in the US. Consequently, the percentage US rangeland impacted by livestock appropriation of NPP (distributed at the state spatial scale) was 19%. This hotspot was primarily located in southwestern Arizona.

  8. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  9. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  10. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  11. Assessing the effects of abiotic stress and livestock grazing disturbance on an alpine grassland with CSR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Mou, Chengxiang; Yang, Hao; Mo, Li; Luo, Chuan; Kattge, Jens

    2016-04-01

    How the abiotic factors represented by cold environment and biotic factors represented by livestock grazing will affect the vegetation structure of alpine grassland is a core issue in understanding the cause of biodiversity change on Tibetan Plateau. Past studies on changes of floristic composition, growth forms did not adequately answer question. Given the fact that the response of plant to environment change depend on its life strategy, a synthetical method that based on plant life strategy may deepen our understanding of the mechanism. Using Grime's concept of CSR plant classification, we carried out a vegetation survey along a gradient (three levels) of graze intensity on the south-east of Tibet Plateau, in order to evaluate the role and mechanism of abiotic stress and grazing disturbance in driving plant diversity change, by analyzing the plant life strategy compositions in each of the community and by comparing the characteristic of the strategy compositions along the graze gradient. When the graze intensity was relative low, the dominant plant life strategy gathered in the stress tolerance corner, which conformed the theory of environmental filter, indicating that the ideal top plant community may be dominated by the species with stress tolerant strategy. We also found that the response of strategy dominance to graze intensity increase is positively correlated with the competitive capacity (R 2=0.671; P<0.001) and negatively correlated with the capacity of tolerating stress (R 2=0.378; P=0.011), but is not affected by the ruderal strategy (R 2=0.047; P=0.42). This reflected a general shift of plant strategy from stress tolerant to competitive (rather than ruderal as expected) and suggested that the mechanism of graze to affect plant community is different from that of other disturbance like fire, clipping, till, etc. The particular selective foraging and escaping from feces may provide more opportunities for competitive than ruderal strategy to dominant the

  12. Monitoring grazing intensity: an experiment with canopy spectra applied to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Ying; Zheng, Jiajia; Luo, Juhua; Zhang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of grassland grazing intensity (GI) and its detailed spatial distribution are important for grassland management and ecological protection. Remote sensing has great potential in these areas, but its use is still limited. This study analyzed the impacts of grazing on biophysical properties of vegetation and suggested using biomass to quantify GI because of its stability and interpretability. In comparison to a single spectral index, such as the red edge index (REI), combining REI and a cellulose absorption ratio index calculated from hyperspectral data performs better for biomass estimation. Further, an auxiliary spectral index, called the grazing monitoring index (GMI), was developed based on differences in spectral reflectance in the infrared range. Experiments in a grazing area of the Inner Mongolia grassland indicated that GMI can identify GI, with three range intervals (GMI <0, 0-1, and ≥1) used to describe the biomass distribution. The results showed that combining GMI and biomass was more successful than existing approaches for identifying the grassland variability resulting from the spatial heterogeneity of grazing behavior. The thresholds of biomass for four GI levels (ungrazed, lightly grazed, moderately grazed, and heavily grazed) could be determined by the intersections of biomass distributions. In addition, the approach developed at the on-ground canopy scale was extended to remotely sensed Hyperion data. The results showed that the approach could successfully identify the grazing treatments of blocks in the experimental grazing area. Overall, our study provides inspiration and ideas for using satellite remote sensing for evaluating plant production, standing biomass, and livestock impacts.

  13. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands. 4120.3-9 Section 4120.3-9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF...

  14. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: effects of livestock grazing.

    Treesearch

    William S. Platts

    1981-01-01

    This paper documents current knowledge on interactions of livestock and fish habitat. Included are discussions of incompatibility and compatibility between livestock grazing and fisheries, present management guidelines, information needed for problem solving, information available for problem solving, and future research needs.

  15. Soil Fungal Distribution and Functionality as Affected by Grazing and Vegetation Components of Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated crop and livestock (ICL) agroecosystems are characterized by a mixture of perennial or annual vegetation grazed by livestock and annual harvested crops. Compared to annual crops, ICLs hold the potential to enhance soil organic matter (OM) inputs, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, an...

  16. Impacts of simulated livestock grazing on Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) in a low productivity ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ellen; Ritchie, Mark E

    2006-03-01

    Allometric foraging theory suggests that herbivores of greatly differing size should co-exist through niche segregation, but a few studies of large-small herbivore foraging relationships have reported competitive interactions. This study addresses the potential roles of habitat productivity and large herbivore grazing intensities on large-small herbivore foraging interactions. We examined effects of different intensity simulated grazing treatments on forage abundance and quality for Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) in a low productivity ecosystem, and consequent effects on prairie dog individual growth rates, foraging preferences, and activity budgets. We hypothesized that simulated grazing would have predominantly facilitative impacts on Utah prairie dogs, as was found for black-tailed prairie dogs in higher productivity ecosystems. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of simulated grazing on forage nitrogen, digestibility, and biomass. Simulated grazing increased average forage nitrogen and digestibility while decreasing forage biomass. These effects were associated with reduced individual growth rates, increased juvenile foraging time, and reduced juvenile vigilance. Results suggest that the negative effects of reduced vegetation biomass greatly outweighed positive treatment effects in this study. However, prairie dogs in the moderate intensity defoliation treatment showed some preference for "grazed" plots over "ungrazed" plots, and this preference increased with time. Our study lends support to the idea that habitat productivity and herbivore densities may mediate shifts between facilitative and competitive interactions between different-sized herbivores.

  17. Livestock concentration areas on intensively managed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP)-Grazing Lands national assessment includes science-based estimates of expected environmental effects of installed conservation practices on working farms. As part of this effort, on-farm research was conducted to understand how to best tailor farm a...

  18. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, C.L.; Casazza, M.L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1263/). The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 (http://www.geocommunicator.gov). We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System (http://www.blm.gov/ras/). In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  19. Combined effects of climatic gradient and domestic livestock grazing on reptile community structure in a heterogeneous agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Guy; Gavish, Yoni; Shacham, Boaz; Giladi, Itamar; Bouskila, Amos; Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Grazing plays an important role in shaping ecological communities in human-related ecosystems. Although myriad studies have explored the joint effect of grazing and climate on plant communities, this interactive effect has rarely been studied in animals. We hypothesized that the effect of grazing on the reptile community varies along a climatic gradient in relation to the effect of grazing on habitat characteristics, and that grazing differentially affects reptiles of different biogeographic regions. We tested our hypotheses by collecting data on environmental characteristics and by trapping reptiles in four heterogeneous landscapes experiencing differing grazing intensities and distributed along a sharp climatic gradient. We found that while reptile diversity increased with grazing intensity at the mesic end of the gradient, it decreased with grazing intensity at the arid end. Moreover, the proportion of reptile species of differing biogeographic origins varied with the interactive effect of climate and grazing. The representation of species originating in arid biogeographic zones was highest at the arid end of the climatic gradient, and representation increased with grazing intensity within this area. Regardless of the climatic context, increased grazing pressure results in a reduction in vegetation cover and thus in changes in habitat characteristics. By reducing vegetation cover, grazing increased habitat heterogeneity in the dense mesic sites and decreased habitat heterogeneity in the arid sites. Thus, our results suggest that the same direction of habitat alteration caused by grazing may have opposite effects on biodiversity and community composition in different climatic contexts.

  20. Inferring Behavioral States of Grazing Livestock from High-Frequency Position Data Alone

    PubMed Central

    Homburger, Hermel; Schneider, Manuel K.; Hilfiker, Sandra; Lüscher, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior are crucial to understanding animal-ecosystem interactions, but require substantial efforts in visual observation or sensor measurement. We investigated how classifying behavioral states of grazing livestock using global positioning data alone depends on the classification approach, the preselection of training data, and the number and type of movement metrics. Positions of grazing cows were collected at intervals of 20 seconds in six upland areas in Switzerland along with visual observations of animal behavior for comparison. A total of 87 linear and cumulative distance metrics and 15 turning angle metrics across multiple time steps were used to classify position data into the behavioral states of walking, grazing, and resting. Five random forest classification models, a linear discriminant analysis, a support vector machine, and a state-space model were evaluated. The most accurate classification of the observed behavioral states in an independent validation dataset was 83%, obtained using random forest with all available movement metrics. However, the state-specific accuracy was highly unequal (walking: 36%, grazing: 95%, resting: 58%). Random undersampling led to a prediction accuracy of 77%, with more balanced state-specific accuracies (walking: 68%, grazing: 82%, resting: 68%). The other evaluated machine-learning approaches had lower classification accuracies. The state-space model, based on distance to the preceding position and turning angle, produced a relatively low accuracy of 64%, slightly lower than a random forest model with the same predictor variables. Given the successful classification of behavioral states, our study promotes the more frequent use of global positioning data alone for animal behavior studies under the condition that data is collected at high frequency and complemented by context-specific behavioral observations. Machine-learning algorithms, notably random forest, were found very useful for classification

  1. Effects of open grazing and livestock exclusion on floristic composition and diversity in natural ecosystem of Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rowaily, Saud L.; El-Bana, Magdy I.; Al-Bakre, Dhafer A.; Assaeed, Abdulaziz M.; Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Ali, Mohammed Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of rangeland degradation in Saudi Arabia. Fencing to exclude grazers is one of the main management practices used to restore vegetation and conserve biodiversity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in plant diversity and abundance, floristic composition and plant groups of the major life forms in response to thirty-five years of grazing exclosure in western Saudi Arabia. These vegetation attributes and palatability were compared in 30 sampling stands located in the excluded and grazed sites. Our results showed that livestock exclusion significantly increased covers, density and species richness of annuals, grasses, perennial forbs, shrubs and trees. Exclosure enhanced the abundance and richness of palatable species and depressed the development of weedy species. About 66.7% of the recorded species at the excluded site were highly palatable compared to 34.5% at the grazed site. In contrary, about 55.2% unpalatable species were found in the grazed site compared to 25.8% in the protected site. Jaccard’s similarity index between the excluded and grazed sites showed lower values of 0.39%, 0.40% and 0.31% at levels of families, genus and species, respectively. The results suggest that establishing livestock exclusion may be a useful sustainable management tool for vegetation restoration and conservation of plant diversity in degraded rangelands of arid regions. PMID:26150749

  2. Effects of open grazing and livestock exclusion on floristic composition and diversity in natural ecosystem of Western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rowaily, Saud L; El-Bana, Magdy I; Al-Bakre, Dhafer A; Assaeed, Abdulaziz M; Hegazy, Ahmad K; Ali, Mohammed Basharat

    2015-07-01

    Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of rangeland degradation in Saudi Arabia. Fencing to exclude grazers is one of the main management practices used to restore vegetation and conserve biodiversity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in plant diversity and abundance, floristic composition and plant groups of the major life forms in response to thirty-five years of grazing exclosure in western Saudi Arabia. These vegetation attributes and palatability were compared in 30 sampling stands located in the excluded and grazed sites. Our results showed that livestock exclusion significantly increased covers, density and species richness of annuals, grasses, perennial forbs, shrubs and trees. Exclosure enhanced the abundance and richness of palatable species and depressed the development of weedy species. About 66.7% of the recorded species at the excluded site were highly palatable compared to 34.5% at the grazed site. In contrary, about 55.2% unpalatable species were found in the grazed site compared to 25.8% in the protected site. Jaccard's similarity index between the excluded and grazed sites showed lower values of 0.39%, 0.40% and 0.31% at levels of families, genus and species, respectively. The results suggest that establishing livestock exclusion may be a useful sustainable management tool for vegetation restoration and conservation of plant diversity in degraded rangelands of arid regions.

  3. Soil properties and species composition under different grazing intensity in an alpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen'an; Xiong, Wan; Xu, Yingyi; Jiang, Lin; Zhu, Erxiong; Zhan, Wei; He, Yixin; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Chen, Huai

    2016-12-01

    As the main form of land use and human disturbance of grassland, livestock grazing has great influences on the soil resources and plant communities. This study observed the variation of soil properties and community characteristics of four treatments of different grazing intensity (no grazing, UG; light grazing, LG; moderate grazing, MG; and heavy grazing, HG) in an alpine meadow of Sichuan Province on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that grazing increased the pH, soil bulk density (BD), and contents of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the BD increased while the others decreased with the grazing intensity. At the community level, with the increase of the grazing intensity, the vegetation coverage (R (2) = 0.61, P < 0.001), mean height of community (R (2) = 0.37, P < 0.001), aboveground biomass (R (2) = 0.54, P < 0.001), litter biomass (R (2) = 0.84, P < 0.001), and percentage of aboveground biomass of palatable grasses to total biomass (R (2) = 0.74, P < 0.001) significantly decreased, while the belowground biomass (R (2) = 0.72, P < 0.001) and the root/shoot (R/S) ratio (R (2) = 0.65, P < 0.001) increased. The species richness was the greatest at LG and the total biomass at UG. With grazing, the dominant species of the plant community shifted from palatable grasses (Gramineae and Cyperaceae) to unpalatable grasses (Compositae and Ranunculaceae). Based on the results, LG may be the optimal grassland management mode to be used in the long time in the alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Protection from livestock fails to deter shrub proliferation in a desert landscape with a history of heavy grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Desertification is often characterized by the replacement of mesophytic grasses with xerophytic shrubs. Livestock grazing is considered a key driver of shrub encroachment, although most evidence is anecdotal or confounded by other factors. Mapping of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina) shrubs in and...

  5. Influence of winter-spring livestock grazing on survival and growth of Quercus lobata and Q. agrifolia seedlings

    Treesearch

    Claudia M. Tyler; Bruce E. Mahall; Frank W. Davis

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of livestock grazing in limiting or enhancing oak recruitment remains unclear because results from previous studies have been contradictory. In Santa Barbara County, we have replicated large-scale planting experiments from 1997 to 2001 to determine the effects of cattle and other factors on seedling establishment of valley oak (Quercus...

  6. Evidence based review: positive versus negative effects of livestock grazing on wildlife. What do we really know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieltz, Jennifer M.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.

    2016-11-01

    More than a quarter of earth’s land surface is used for grazing domestic livestock. Livestock grazing is generally assumed to negatively affect wildlife, however, a number of studies have found positive impacts as well. We conducted an evidence-based review of the existing literature using a series of livestock- and wildlife-related search words to systematically query Google Scholar and Web of Science. A total of 807 sources were included in the final list, including 646 primary sources which reported original data. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (338) or Europe (123), with many fewer from Africa (57), Australia (54), Central/South America (43), or Asia (31). Most studies examined birds (330) and mammals (262), with fewer including reptiles (91) or amphibians (58). We extracted further information from studies that included mammals on positive, negative, and neutral effects of livestock grazing on mammals. We found that livestock change vegetation structure and cover in ways important to small mammals, while ungulates may be affected more by interference competition and changes in forage quantity and quality. Community-level total abundance of small mammals typically declines with grazing. Species richness of small mammals either declines or stays the same, as many studies found a change in species composition from ungrazed to grazed sites while the number of species remained similar. Individual species responses of small mammals vary. Voles, harvest mice, cotton rats, and shrews show consistently negative responses to grazing while deer mice, kangaroo rats, ground squirrels, and lagomorphs show positive or variable responses. In general, species adapted to open habitats are often positively affected by grazing, while species needing denser cover are negatively affected. Studies of wild ungulates are more variable in methodology and quality than those for small mammals. We found more negative (n = 86) than positive (n = 34) ungulate

  7. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie.

    PubMed

    Branson, David H; Sword, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically based grasshopper management strategy must be investigated in regional studies. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing and fire on grasshopper population density and community composition in a northern Great Plains mixed-grass prairie. We employed a large-scale, replicated, and fully-factorial manipulative experimental design across 4 yr to examine the separate and interactive effects of three grazing systems in burned and unburned habitats. Grasshopper densities were low throughout the 4-yr study and 1 yr of pretreatment sampling. There was a significant fire by grazing interaction effect on cumulative density and community composition, resulting from burned season long grazing pastures having higher densities than unburned pastures. Shannon diversity and grasshopper species richness were significantly higher with twice-over rotational livestock grazing. The ability to draw strong conclusions regarding the nature of species composition shifts and population changes in the presence of fire and grazing is complicated by the large site differences and low grasshopper densities. The results reinforce the importance of long-term research to examine the effects of habitat manipulation on grasshopper population dynamics.

  8. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant differences in vegetation structure, plant species composition, and soil chemical properties in relation to type of grazing animals, various levels of grazing intensity and grazing type, and if potential differences alter with ecosystem productivity (increase in more productive ecosystems). The study was conducted in three mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians with a predominance of alkaline substrates (the Bucegi Mts, the Little Retezat Mts and the Ceahlău Massif). Statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software environment. The effects of grazing animals (cattle, horses and sheep), grazing types (fence, regular, irregular) and grazing intensity (low, medium, high) on the community structure were tested using ordination methods. In the case of soil properties, General Linear Mixed Model was applied. Special statistical approach eliminated the differences between the examined mountains and sites. Type of grazing animal does not significantly influence species cover but it is related to specific species occurrence. According to our results, grazing horses had similar effects as cattle compared to sheep. Grazing in restricted areas (surrounded by fence) and regular unrestricted grazing were more similar if compared to irregular grazing. When comparing the intensity of grazing, high and medium intensity were more similar to each other than to the low intensity grazing. Cattle grazed sites had significantly higher lichens cover, while the sheep patches were covered with increased overall herb layer (forbs, graminoids and low shrubs together). Medium grazing intensity decreased the lichens cover, cover of overall herb layer, and total vegetation cover compared to high and low grazing intensity. Grazing type had important impact on the lichens cover and cover of overall herb layer. The lichens cover appeared to decrease while the cover of overall herb layer

  9. Prescribed grazing on pasturelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Principles of grazing management center round the temporal and spatial distribution of various kinds and number of livestock. Within the context of this chapter, management of grazing or browsing will be characterized in terms of intensity, method, and season (timing), and as a function of the type ...

  10. Investigating the Effect of Livestock Grazing and Associated Plant Community Shifts on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, D. B.; Chuan, S.; Stolnikova, E.; Bork, E. W.; Carlyle, C. N.; Chang, S. X.

    2015-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems are ubiquitous across the globe covering an estimated 40 % of Earth's terrestrial landmass. These ecosystems are widely valued for providing forage for domestic livestock and a suite of important ecosystem goods and services including carbon (C) storage. Despite storing more than 30 % of soil C globally, the effect of both livestock grazing and the associated change in plant community structure in response to grazing on C and nutrient cycling remains uncertain. To gain a quantitative understanding of the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on C and nutrient cycling, we established study sites at 15 existing site localities with paired long-term grazing (ca. 30 y) and non-grazed treatments (totaling 30 unique plant communities). Our sites were distributed widely across Alberta in three distinct grassland bioclimatic zones allowing us to make comparisons across the broad range of climate variability typical of western Canadian grasslands. In each plant community we decomposed 5 common plant species that are known to increase or decrease in response to grazing pressure, a unique plant community sample, and a cellulose paper control. We measured mass loss, initial lignin, C and N concentrations at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of field incubation. In addition we assayed hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes associated with for C (n= 5 hydrolytic; phenoloxidase and peroxidase) and nutrients (i.e. N and P; n=1 ea.) cycling from each litter sample at each collection. Our results suggest that by changing the plant community structure, grazing can affect rates of decomposition and associated biogeochemical cycling by changing plant species and associated litter inputs. Moreover, measures of microbial function are controlled by site-specific conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation), litter chemistry over the course of our incubation.

  11. Dietary selection of sheep grazing the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China at different grazing intensities.

    PubMed

    Schiborra, A; Gierus, M; Wan, H W; Glindemann, T; Wang, C J; Susenbeth, A; Taube, F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate dietary selection of sheep grazing semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, using the difference in organic matter digestibility (OMD) of herbage ingested and herbage on offer as indicator for selection. Faecal N was used as digestibility index for herbage ingested (FOMD), while OMD of herbage on offer (GOMD) was estimated from gas production obtained by the Hohenheim gas test. It was hypothesized that the difference between FOMD and GOMD is high, when grazing animals select against low quality herbage provided that herbage is abundant. In a grazing experiment, six grazing intensities (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ha), representing light to very heavy grazing intensity for the semi-arid grassland, were compared. The amount of herbage on offer decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Independent statistical analysis of FOMD and GOMD showed that the differences between grazing intensities for both OMD determinations (FOMD: 54.0-57.3%, GOMD: 55.2-57.5%) were not significant (p > 0.05). The difference between FOMD and GOMD was not significant for grazing intensities, but varied between sampling periods from -4 to 1 percentage units. In conclusion, the lack of significance for the difference between FOMD and GOMD suggests that for the semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China, sheep did not select their feed due to a homogeneous nutritional composition of herbage on offer in 2005, regardless of grazing intensity.

  12. Lessons learned from past experience with intensive livestock management systems.

    PubMed

    Cronin, G M; Rault, J L; Glatz, P C

    2014-04-01

    The main impetus for 'modern' intensive animal production occurred after the Second World War, when Western governments developed policies to increase the availability of cheap, safe food for their populations. Livestock benefit under intensive husbandry by protection from environmental extremes and predators, and better nutritional and health management. Nevertheless, there are costs to the animal, such as impaired social behaviour, limited choice of living environment or pen mates, poor environmental stimulation and behavioural restrictions. The rapid progress in genetic selection of production traits has also, in some cases, adversely affected welfare by creating anatomical and metabolic problems. Above all, the intensively housed animal is heavily reliant on the stockperson and, therefore, inadequate care and husbandry practices by the stockperson may be the largest welfare risk. In a future in which the food supply may be limited as the world's population grows and land availability shrinks, intensive animal production is likely to expand. At the same time, ethical considerations surrounding intensive farming practices may also become more prominent. Novel technologies provide the opportunity to enhance both the productivity and welfare of intensively kept animals. Developing countries are also establishing more intensive commercial systems to meet their growing need for animal protein. Intensive livestock production in such countries has the potential for major expansion, particularly if such developments address the key constraints of poor welfare, inadequate nutrition, poor reproduction, poor housing, and high mortality often seen with traditional systems, and if farmer access to emerging market opportunities is improved. However, as shown by previous experience, inadequate regulation and staff who lack the appropriate training to care for the welfare of intensively housed livestock can be major challenges to overcome.

  13. Grazing intensity on vegetation dynamics of a typical steppe in Northeast Inner Mongolia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation features radiating from residential areas in response to livestock grazing were quantified for an arid steppe rangeland in the Keshiketeng Banner, Chifeng Prefecture in northeastern Inner Mongolia in 2004 and 2006. The aim of this study was to estimate grazing impacts on the vegetation dy...

  14. Response of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen storage to grazing intensity in semi-arid grasslands in the agro-pastoral zone of northern china.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0-50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m-2 and 1.69 kg N m-2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m-2 and 1.22 kg N m-2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm-2) than under other treatments (725-731 kg N hm-2) in the 0-50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of "take half-leave half" has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region.

  15. Strategic Selenium Management: Natural Biofortification of Grazing Livestock with Selenium to Avert Selenium Deficiency and Enhance the Nutritional Value of Food Products.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Efficient and effective management of Se deficiency is required to sustain profitability of grazing-based livestock operations. Selenium deficiency increases morbidity and mortality rates, reduces reproduction rates, and reduces yield and quality of marketable products. Therefore, producers must p...

  16. Towards sustainability in the extensive and intensive livestock sectors.

    PubMed

    Niamir-Fuller, M

    2016-11-01

    An increase in both human population and economic growth has been accompanied by rising per capita demand for animal products. The livestock industry is under pressure to meet this demand, but its current patterns of production are not environmentally sustainable, causing negative health impacts on humans and raising welfare concerns for animals. With little regulation of the intensive livestock sector in most countries, animal products are available at cheaper prices on consumer markets, undercutting more sustainable production systems, such as those used by pastoralists and organic farmers. Other beneficial aspects of sustainable intensification and sustainable pastoralism should also be taken into account. However, it is unclear whether moving towards sustainable animal husbandry (both intensive and extensive) will meet the projected demand from nine billion people in 2030, unless attention is also paid to fairer and more responsible consumption. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to transform the livestock sector, using principles of sustainable consumption and production, environmental stewardship, inclusive prosperity, and healthy lifestyles. It also highlights several areas where additional research and modelling are required.

  17. Carbon balance of an intensively grazed permanent grassland in southern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlez de la Motte, Louis; Jérôme, Elisabeth; Mamadou, Ossénatou; Beckers, Yves; Bodson, Bernard; Heineisch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands are an important component of the global carbon balance but their carbon storage potential is still highly uncertain. Especially, the impact of weather variability and management practices on grassland carbon budgets need to be assessed. This study investigates the carbon balance of an intensively managed permanent grassland (Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO)) and its uncertainties by combining 5-years of eddy covariance measurements and other organic carbon exchanges estimates. The specificities of this study lie in: (i) the age of the pasture, which has probably been established since more than one century; (ii) the intensive character of the management with a mean grazing pressure larger than 2 livestock unit ha-1 and stocking cycle including stocking and rest periods, (iii) the livestock production system, typical of Wallonia, farming intensively Belgian Blue breed of cattle in order to produce meat. The results showed that, despite the high stocking rate and the old age of the pasture and the high stocking rate, the site acted as a relatively stable carbon sink from year to year with a 5-year average Net Biome Productivity of ‒173 [‒128 ‒203] g C m-2 yr-1. The carbon sink behavior of the pasture was directly increased by management practices through food complementation and organic fertilization and indirectly by mineral fertilization. The relatively low carbon budget inter-annual variability could be explained both by: (i) grazing management of the farmer that regulated Growth Primary Productivity by adapting the stocking rate to the Leaf Area Index which itself depends on weather conditions, (ii) carbon imports through food complements only when grass regrowth was not sufficient to feed the cattle. The results suggest that management practices that tend to optimize forage availability for meat production could contribute to maintaining a carbon sink. Keywords : grassland, carbon budget, carbon dioxide flux, management, eddy covariance

  18. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  19. Chapter 2: Livestock and grazed land emissions. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2005. Technical bulletin 1921

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : A total of 259 Tg CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2005. This represents about 49% of total emissions from the agricultural sector. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from this source were about 2% lower in...

  20. Is livestock production for the birds?: Linking grazing management and grassland brds in North America shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many grassland bird populations in the western Great Plains have declined substantially over the past half century. Today, the majority of the remaining grassland bird habitat supports livestock production. Since grassland bird abundance is linked to vegetation structure, and livestock grazing shape...

  1. Effects of controlled fire and livestock grazing on bird communities in East African savannas.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nathan C; Sensenig, Ryan L; Wilcove, David S

    2010-12-01

    In East Africa fire and grazing by wild and domestic ungulates maintain savannas, and pastoralists historically set fires and herded livestock through the use of temporary corrals called bomas. In recent decades traditional pastoral practices have declined, and this may be affecting biodiversity. We investigated the effects of prescribed fires and bomas on savanna bird communities in East Africa during the first and second dry seasons of the year (respectively before and after the rains that mark the onset of breeding for most birds). We compared abundance, richness, and community composition on 9-ha burned plots, recently abandoned bomas, and control plots in the undisturbed matrix habitat over a 3-year period. Generally, recently burned areas and abandoned bomas attracted greater densities of birds and had different community assemblages than the surrounding matrix. The effects of disturbances were influenced by interactions between primary productivity, represented by the normalized difference vegetation index, and time. Bird densities were highest and a greater proportion of species was observed on burned plots in the months following the fires. Drought conditions equalized bird densities across treatments within 1 year, and individuals from a greater proportion of species were more commonly observed on abandoned bomas. Yearly fluctuations in abundance were less pronounced on bomas than on burns, which indicate that although fire may benefit birds in the short term, bomas may have a more-lasting positive effect and provide resources during droughts. Several Palearctic migrants were attracted to burned plots regardless of rainfall, which indicates continued fire suppression may threaten their already-declining populations. Most notably, the paucity of birds observed on the controls suggests that the current structure of the matrix developed as a result of fire suppression. Traditional pastoralism appears critical to the maintenance of avian diversity in these

  2. Livestock grazing and habitat for a threatened species: Land-use decisions under scientific uncertainty in the White Mountains, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias

    1994-07-01

    The North Fork of Cottonwood Creek, in the White Mountains, Inyo National Forest, California, is a critically important refuge for the Paiute cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarki seleniris), a federally listed threatened species. Habitat for these fish appears to be limited by excessive levels of fine sediment in the channel, and livestock grazing of riparian meadows has been implicated in delivery of sediment to the channel. However, the relationships between land use and sediment yield have not been conclusively determined, in large part because there are no historically ungrazed sites to serve as long-term controls. Accordingly, land-use decisions must be made under scientific uncertainty. To reduce erosion and sedimentation in the stream, the Forest Service spent approximately US260,000 from 1981 to 1991 to repair watershed damage from livestock grazing, prevent livestock from traversing steep banks, and limit livestock access to the channel. Throughout this period, livestock grazing has continued on these lands, yielding less than 12,000 in grazing fees. In revising its Allotment Management Plan for the basin, the Forest Service rejected the “no-grazing” alternative because it was inconsistent with its Land and Resource Management Plan, which specifies there is to be no net reduction of grazing.

  3. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... written permit. (H) Paid permits to holders of grazing permits for breeding animals used to service... prior to the end of ten years, or it will be in the best interest of sound land management to specify a... capacity exists to graze specified numbers of animals. (ii) A term permit holder has first priority...

  4. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... written permit. (H) Paid permits to holders of grazing permits for breeding animals used to service... prior to the end of ten years, or it will be in the best interest of sound land management to specify a... capacity exists to graze specified numbers of animals. (ii) A term permit holder has first priority...

  5. Veterinary Antibiotics in Young Dutch Groundwater under Intensive Livestock Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliet, M. V.; Kivits, T.; Broers, H. P.; Beeltje, H.; Griffioen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dutch groundwater is heavily affected by nutrient loads from agricultural origin. The use of antibiotics is also widespread in Dutch farming practice, 200.000 kg active substance over 1.839.000 ha of agricultural land. National measures were established to reduce the applications. Spreading of manure over farmlands is assumed to be the main pathway for the leaching of antibiotics to groundwater, but actual numbers are lacking. We studied the occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in groundwater in two areas with intensive livestock farming, sampling existing multi-level wells that were previously age dated using tritium-helium. Wells were selected based on the following criteria: the uppermost screen is situated just below the average groundwater level, which is not deeper than 3 meters, the well is in an agricultural field where rainwater infiltrates avoiding areas adjacent to ditches or streams, the groundwater quality is known for several years and the age of the extracted water is known to be young (<25 yrs.). Twenty-two antibiotics used in in intensive livestock farming were analyzed belonging to the following groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and in addition nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. The samples were analyzed for antibiotics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB cartridge). Five out of 22 antibiotics were detected: sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, chloramphenicol in concentration ranges of 0.2 to 18 ng/l. Sulfamethazine was most frequently found, and shows a continuous concentration-depth profile in 3 out of 4 multi-level wells. Sulfonamides were found in groundwater up to 20 m. depth and in water aged between 1 and 25 years old. The study shows that sulfonamides are omnipresent in groundwater up to 25 years old, which corresponds with the known history of the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.

  6. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Global agriculture is at a critical juncture when competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. Livestock production, especially ruminant livestock is central to this debate. Ruminants make an important contribution to global food security by converting feed that is unsuitable for human consumption to high value protein, demand for which is currently increasing at an unprecedented rate. Sustainable intensification of ruminant livestock production may be applied to pastoral grazing, mixed-cropping, feedlot and housed production systems. All these systems have associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, such as reduced animal fertility, health and welfare, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. Further, in many societies livestock represent a resource far greater than just food, e.g. fibre, draught, fertiliser, fuel, bank and social. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice, e.g. temperate grassland. The North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) was established during 2010 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland temperate grasslands. Following construction, a typical beef and sheep system based on permanent pasture receiving chemical fertilisers on first grade pasture (>60% perennial ryegrass) was implemented across the 67.2 ha farm platform in order to obtain baseline

  7. Grazing intensity differentially regulates ANPP response to precipitation in North American semiarid grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grazing intensity elicits changes in the composition of plant functional groups in both short-grass steppe (SGS) and northern mixed-grass prairie (NMP) in North America. How these grazing intensity-induced changes control aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responses to precipitation remains a...

  8. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prior to the end of ten years, or it will be in the best interest of sound land management to specify a... make National Forest System lands and improvements available to the association for grazing in...

  9. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prior to the end of ten years, or it will be in the best interest of sound land management to specify a... make National Forest System lands and improvements available to the association for grazing in...

  10. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prior to the end of ten years, or it will be in the best interest of sound land management to specify a... make National Forest System lands and improvements available to the association for grazing in...

  11. Mapping the spatial impact of livestock grazing activity in Pico Island (Azores, Portugal) in a 15-year period (1998-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Artur; Fonseca, Catarina; Benedicto-Royuela, José

    2017-04-01

    This study describes a land use / land cover change (LULCC) detection approach aiming to identify and map spatial changes in Pico Island (Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal) directly or indirectly due to livestock grazing activity, in a 15-year period (1998-2013). These LULCC mapping and assessment procedures were developed by using a GIS-based procedure supported by airborne remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution (orthophotomaps) and field work. All relevant land use / land cover trade-offs and their respective drivers were also identified and characterized. Livestock grazing activity is proven to be a major driver of LULC change in Pico Island.

  12. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    PubMed

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  13. Grazing intensity affects the environmental impact of dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Larson, R

    2017-08-01

    Dairy products are major components of the human diet but are also important contributors to global environmental impacts. This study evaluated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy intensity (NEI), and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. A Wisconsin farm was modeled to represent practices adopted by dairy operations in a humid continental climate typical in the Great Lakes region and other climates that have large differences in seasonal temperatures. Five grazing scenarios (all of which contained some portion of confinement) were modeled based on different concentrations of dry matter intake from pasture and feed supplementation from corn grain, corn silage, and soybean meal. Scenarios that incorporate grazing consisted of 5 mo of pasture feeding from May to September and 7 mo of confined feeding from October to April. Environmental impacts were compared within the 5 scenarios that incorporate grazing and across 2 entirely confined scenarios with and without on-farm electricity production through anaerobic digestion (AD). To conduct a fair comparison, all scenarios were evaluated based on the same total amount of milk produced per day where resource inputs were adjusted according to the characteristics of each scenario. A cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment evaluated the environmental burdens that were partitioned by allocation between milk and meat and by system expansion when biogas-based electricity was produced. Overall, results for all scenarios were comparable. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process. For the confined scenario without AD, GHG emissions were 0.87 kg of CO2 equivalents, NEI was 1.59 MJ, and land use was 1.59 m(2)/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Anaerobic digestion significantly reduced emissions to 0.28 kg of CO2 equivalents/kg of FPCM and reduced NEI to -1.26 MJ/kg of FPCM, indicating a

  14. Grazing intensity differentially regulates ANPP response to precipitation in North American semiarid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Irisarri, J Gonzalo N; Derner, Justin D; Porensky, Lauren M; Augustine, David J; Reeves, Justin L; Mueller, Kevin E

    2016-07-01

    Grazing intensity elicits changes in the composition of plant functional groups in both shortgrass steppe (SGS) and northern mixed-grass prairie (NMP) in North America. How these grazing intensity-induced changes control aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responses to precipitation remains a central open question, especially in light of predicted climate changes. Here, we evaluated effects of four levels (none, light, moderate, and heavy) of long-term (>30 yr) grazing intensity in SGS and NMP on: (1) ANPP; (2) precipitation-use efficiency (PUE, ANPP : precipitation); and (3) precipitation marginal response (PMR; slope of a linear regression model between ANPP and precipitation). We advance prior work by examining: (1) the consequences of a range of grazing intensities (more grazed vs. ungrazed); and (2) how grazing-induced changes in ANPP and PUE are related both to shifts in functional group composition and physiological responses within each functional group. Spring (April-June) precipitation, the primary determinant of ANPP, was only 12% higher in NMP than in SGS, yet ANPP and PUE were 25% higher. Doubling grazing intensity in SGS and nearly doubling it in NMP reduced ANPP and PUE by only 24% and 33%, respectively. Increased grazing intensity reduced C3 graminoid biomass and increased C4 grass biomass in both grasslands. Functional group shifts affected PUE through biomass reductions, as PUE was positively associated with the relative abundance of C3 species and negatively with C4 species across both grasslands. At the community level, PMR was similar between grasslands and unaffected by grazing intensity. However, PMR of C3 graminoids in SGS was eightfold higher in the ungrazed treatment than under any grazed level. In NMP, PMR of C3 graminoids was only reduced under heavy grazing intensity. Knowing the ecological consequences of grazing intensity provides valuable information for mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to predicted climate

  15. The impact of livestock grazing on plant diversity: an analysis across dryland ecosystems and scales in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wiebke; Böhner, Jürgen; Dreber, Niels; Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Wesuls, Dirk; Dengler, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    A general understanding of grazing effects on plant diversity in drylands is still missing, despite an extensive theoretical background. Cross-biome syntheses are hindered by the fact that the outcomes of disturbance studies are strongly affected by the choice of diversity measures, and the spatial and temporal scales of measurements. The aim of this study is to overcome these weaknesses by applying a wide range of diversity measures to a data set derived from identical sampling in three distinct ecosystems. We analyzed three fence-line contrasts (heavier vs. lighter grazing intensity), representing different degrees of aridity (from arid to semiarid) and precipitation regimes (summer rain vs. winter rain) in southern Africa. We tested the impact of grazing intensity on multiple aspects of plant diversity (species and functional group level, richness and evenness components, alpha and beta diversity, and composition) at two spatial scales, and for both 5-yr means and interannual variability. Heavier grazing reduced total plant cover and substantially altered the species and functional composition at all sites. However, a significant decrease in species alpha diversity was detected at only one of the three sites. By contrast, alpha diversity of plant functional groups responded consistently across ecosystems and scales, with a significant decrease at heavier grazing intensity. The cover-based measures of functional group diversity responded more sensitively and more consistently than functional group richness. Beta diversity of species and functional types increased under heavier grazing, showing that at larger scales, the heterogeneity of the community composition and the functional structure were increased. Heavier grazing mostly increased interannual variability of alpha diversity, while effects on beta diversity and cover were inconsistent. Our results suggest that species diversity alone may not adequately reflect the shifts in vegetation structure that occur

  16. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and livestock grazing on western riparian bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Black, A.E.; Nur, N.; Saab, V.A.; Logan, B.D.; Dobkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Deciduous vegetation along streams and rivers provides breeding habitat to more bird species than any other plant community in the West, yet many riparian areas are heavily grazed by cattle and surrounded by increasingly developed landscapes. The combination of cattle grazing and landscape alteration (habitat loss and fragmentation) are thought to be critical factors affecting the richness and composition of breeding bird communities. Here, we examine the influence of land use and cattle grazing on deciduous riparian bird communities across seven riparian systems in five western states: Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. These riparian systems are embedded in landscapes ranging from nearly pristine to almost completely agricultural. We conducted landscape analysis at two spatial scales: local landscapes (all land within 500 m of each survey location) and regional landscapes (all land within 5 km of each survey location). Despite the large differences among riparian systems, we found a number of consistent effects of landscape change and grazing. Of the 87 species with at least 15 detections on two or more rivers, 44 species were less common in grazed sites, in heavily settled or agricultural landscapes, or in areas with little deciduous riparian habitat. The Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), and American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) were all less common under at least three of these conditions. In contrast, 33 species were significantly more common in one or more of these conditions. Sites surrounded by greater deciduous habitat had higher overall avian abundance and 22 species had significantly higher individual abundances in areas with more deciduous habitat. Yet, areas with more agriculture at the regional scale also had higher total avian abundance, due in large part to greater abundance of European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), American Robin

  17. Grazing and Rangeland Development for Livestock Production. A Handbook for Volunteers. Agriculture Technology for Developing Countries. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Howard B.; And Others

    This handbook, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers, reviews the basic principles that underlie sound grazing land management and indicates the application of these principles for livestock production in the tropics and subtropics. The handbook is made up of three technical series bulletins. The first bulletin covers management of…

  18. EFFECTS OF INTENSE, SHORT-DURATION GRAZING ON MICROTOPOGRAPHY IN A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT GRASSLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured the effects of short-term intense grazing by domestic cattle on the microtopography of a black-grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) dominated desert grassland. Plots were grazed during winter or summer for 24-36 hours by 20-40 yearlings in 1995 and 1996. Soil microtopogra...

  19. EFFECTS OF INTENSE, SHORT-DURATION GRAZING ON MICROTOPOGRAPHY IN A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT GRASSLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured the effects of short-term intense grazing by domestic cattle on the microtopography of a black-grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) dominated desert grassland. Plots were grazed during winter or summer for 24-36 hours by 20-40 yearlings in 1995 and 1996. Soil microtopogra...

  20. Geospatial methods and data analysis for assessing distribution of grazing livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-ranging livestock research must begin with a well conceived problem statement and employ appropriate data acquisition tools and analytical techniques to accomplish the research objective. These requirements are especially critical in addressing animal distribution. Tools and statistics used t...

  1. Increasing native, but not exotic, biodiversity increases aboveground productivity in ungrazed and intensely grazed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Forest I; Wilsey, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    Species-rich native grasslands are frequently converted to species-poor exotic grasslands or pastures; however, the consequences of these changes for ecosystem functioning remain unclear. Cattle grazing (ungrazed or intensely grazed once), plant species origin (native or exotic), and species richness (4-species mixture or monoculture) treatments were fully crossed and randomly assigned to plots of grassland plants. We tested whether (1) native and exotic plots exhibited different responses to grazing for six ecosystem functions (i.e., aboveground productivity, light interception, fine root biomass, tracer nitrogen uptake, biomass consumption, and aboveground biomass recovery), and (2) biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships depended on grazing or species origin. We found that native and exotic species exhibited different responses to grazing for three of the ecosystem functions we considered. Intense grazing decreased fine root biomass by 53% in exotic plots, but had no effect on fine root biomass in native plots. The proportion of standing biomass consumed by cattle was 16% less in exotic than in native grazed plots. Aboveground biomass recovery was 30% less in native than in exotic plots. Intense grazing decreased aboveground productivity by 25%, light interception by 14%, and tracer nitrogen uptake by 54%, and these effects were similar in native and exotic plots. Increasing species richness from one to four species increased aboveground productivity by 42%, and light interception by 44%, in both ungrazed and intensely grazed native plots. In contrast, increasing species richness did not influence biomass production or resource uptake in ungrazed or intensely grazed exotic plots. These results suggest that converting native grasslands to exotic grasslands or pastures changes ecosystem structure and processes, and the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  2. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  3. Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.; Phillips, S.L.; Urban, F.E.; Goldstein, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Large sediment fluxes can have significant impacts on ecosystems. We measured incoming and outgoing sediment across a gradient of soil disturbance (livestock grazing, plowing) and annual plant invasion for 9 years. Our sites included two currently ungrazed sites: one never grazed by livestock and dominated by perennial grasses/well-developed biocrusts and one not grazed since 1974 and dominated by annual weeds with little biocrusts. We used two currently grazed sites: one dominated by annual weeds and the other dominated by perennial plants, both with little biocrusts. Precipitation was highly variable, with years of average, above-average, and extremely low precipitation. During years with average and above-average precipitation, the disturbed sites consistently produced 2.8 times more sediment than the currently undisturbed sites. The never grazed site always produced the least sediment of all the sites. During the drought years, we observed a 5600-fold increase in sediment production from the most disturbed site (dominated by annual grasses, plowed about 50 years previously and currently grazed by livestock) relative to the never grazed site dominated by perennial grasses and well-developed biocrusts, indicating a non-linear, synergistic response to increasing disturbance types and levels. Comparing sediment losses among the sites, biocrusts were most important in predicting site stability, followed by perennial plant cover. Incoming sediment was similar among the sites, and while inputs were up to 9-fold higher at the most heavily disturbed site during drought years compared to average years, the change during the drought conditions was small relative to the large change seen in the sediment outputs. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belnap, Jayne; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Phillips, Susan L.; Urban, Frank E.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    Large sediment fluxes can have significant impacts on ecosystems. We measured incoming and outgoing sediment across a gradient of soil disturbance (livestock grazing, plowing) and annual plant invasion for 9 years. Our sites included two currently ungrazed sites: one never grazed by livestock and dominated by perennial grasses/well-developed biocrusts and one not grazed since 1974 and dominated by annual weeds with little biocrusts. We used two currently grazed sites: one dominated by annual weeds and the other dominated by perennial plants, both with little biocrusts. Precipitation was highly variable, with years of average, above-average, and extremely low precipitation. During years with average and above-average precipitation, the disturbed sites consistently produced 2.8 times more sediment than the currently undisturbed sites. The never grazed site always produced the least sediment of all the sites. During the drought years, we observed a 5600-fold increase in sediment production from the most disturbed site (dominated by annual grasses, plowed about 50 years previously and currently grazed by livestock) relative to the never grazed site dominated by perennial grasses and well-developed biocrusts, indicating a non-linear, synergistic response to increasing disturbance types and levels. Comparing sediment losses among the sites, biocrusts were most important in predicting site stability, followed by perennial plant cover. Incoming sediment was similar among the sites, and while inputs were up to 9-fold higher at the most heavily disturbed site during drought years compared to average years, the change during the drought conditions was small relative to the large change seen in the sediment outputs.

  5. Soil degradation in semi-arid grasslands due to intensive grazing in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2012-04-01

    Degradation of semi-arid grasslands is a global environmental problem, particularly in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, where up to 70% of the total area is classified as degraded steppe. The main cause of grassland degradation in Northern China is overgrazing as a result of increasing stocking rates and a static grazing management during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intensive grazing on the stabilization processes, the amount and the spatial distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. Within the Xilin River Catchment, intensively grazed sites were compared with ungrazed experimental sites at different spatial and temporal scales. In order to determine short-term effects of intensive grazing, a controlled grazing experiment was established in 2005. Topsoil samples were taken in 2005 and again in 2008 from ungrazed (UG05), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed plots (HG) and analyzed for chemical and physical soil properties. The effects of long-term grazing were investigated in detail at continuously grazed sites (CG) and compared to adjacent ungrazed sites that were fenced in 1979 (UG79). To elucidate the spatial structure of selected topsoil parameters at the field scale, 100 grid points with spacings of 5 m and 15 m were sampled. For detection of small-scale variability at the plant scale, 40 randomly selected points were sampled inside areas of 2 m × 2 m at each plot. Semivariances were calculated for the determined soil properties. To quantify the contribution of single soil fractions to total SOC stocks, a combined density and particle size fractionation was applied. Carbon mineralization was determined in an incubation experiment for a period of one month for UG79 and CG sites. Grazing exclusion led to a significant decrease of SOC in the topsoil already three years after grazing exclusion and resulted in 25-30% lower amounts after 30 years. This decrease was related to lower

  6. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season fescue/legume pastures: I. System development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, W.R.; Carlson, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co.`s ({open_quotes}P&M{close_quotes}) Midway Mine lies 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas, straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. P&M actively mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres of surface mined land were topsoiled and revegetated to cool season fescue/legume pasture. Various pasture management methods are being utilized to meet reclamation success standards and achieve final bond release. The effectiveness and costs of various cool season fescue/legume pasture management methods are evaluated and contrasted. These methods include sharecropping, bush hogging, burning and livestock grazing. It presents guidelines used to develop a site specific rotational livestock grazing programs with land owners or contractors, and local, state and federal agencies. Rotational grazing uses both cow/calf or feeder livestock operations. Key managerial elements used to control grazing activities, either by the landowner or a contractor, are reviewed. Methods used to determine stocking levels for successful rotational grazing on this type of pasture are presented. Rotational grazing of livestock has proven to be the most effective method for managing established cool season fescue/legume pastures at this site. Initial stocking rates of 1 A.U.M. per 5 acres have been modified to a current stocking rate of 1 A.U.M. per 2.5 acres. Supporting physical and chemical data are presented and discussed.

  7. The influence of intensively managed rotational grazing, traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing on bulk tank milk quality and udder health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J J; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W; Kunkel, J R; Howard, D B; Murphy, B M

    1992-01-01

    Monthly bulk tank milk samples and veterinary records were analyzed for 1 yr on 15 Vermont dairy farms. Data were evaluated using ANOVA to compare effects of grazing management systems on milk quality and udder health. Systems evaluated were intensively managed rotational grazing, traditional continuous grazing, and confinement housing. Bulk tank samples were evaluated for standard plate count, bacterial type counts on tryptose-blood-esculin agar, and SCC. Veterinary records were evaluated for incidence of clinical mastitis, udder edema, and teat injuries. Within- and between-treatment group analyses were conducted by season, herd size, and udder sanitation systems. Mean standard plate counts were lower in rotationally grazed herds than counts of confined herds during the grazing season. Similarly, rotationally grazed herds with fewer than 60 cows had lower standard plate counts than confined herds of similar size. Mean bulk tank counts of streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae during the grazing season differed among treatments. The lowest counts occurred in rotationally grazed herds. Among herd using predip products recognized as efficacious, fewer streptococci other than S. agalactiae were isolated from bulk tank milk of rotationally grazed herds than confined herds. Rotationally grazed herds using postdips recognized as efficacious had lower SCC than those using unrecognized postdips. No udder health differences were observed among grazing treatments.

  8. Universal DNA-based methods for assessing the diet of grazing livestock and wildlife from feces.

    PubMed

    Pegard, Anthony; Miquel, Christian; Valentini, Alice; Coissac, Eric; Bouvier, Frédéric; François, Dominique; Taberlet, Pierre; Engel, Erwan; Pompanon, François

    2009-07-08

    Because of the demand for controlling livestock diets, two methods that characterize the DNA of plants present in feces were developed. After DNA extraction from fecal samples, a short fragment of the chloroplastic trnL intron was amplified by PCR using a universal primer pair for plants. The first method generates a signature that is the electrophoretic migration pattern of the PCR product. The second method consists of sequencing several hundred DNA fragments from the PCR product through pyrosequencing. These methods were validated with a blind analysis of feces from concentrate- and pasture-fed lambs. The signature method allowed differentiation of the two diets and confirmed the presence of concentrate in one of them. The pyrosequencing method allowed the identification of up to 25 taxa in a diet. These methods are complementary to the chemical methods already used. They could be applied to the control of diets and the study of food preferences.

  9. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  10. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  11. Effect of livestock grazing in the partitions of a semiarid plant-plant spatial signed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-08-01

    In recent times, network theory has become a useful tool to study the structure of the interactions in ecological communities. However, typically, these approaches focus on a particular kind of interaction while neglecting other possible interactions present in the ecosystem. Here, we present an ecological network for plant communities that consider simultaneously positive and negative interactions, which were derived from the spatial association and segregation between plant species. We employed this network to study the structure and the association strategies in a semiarid plant community of Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, SE Spain, and how they changed in 4 sites that differed in stocking rate. Association strategies were obtained from the partitions of the network, built based on a relaxed structural balance criterion. We found that grazing simplified the structure of the plant community. With increasing stocking rate species with no significant associations became dominant and the number of partitions decreased in the plant community. Independently of stocking rate, many species presented an associative strategy in the plant community because they benefit from the association to certain ‘nurse’ plants. These ‘nurses’ together with species that developed a segregating strategy, intervened in most of the interactions in the community. Ecological networks that combine links with different signs provide a new insight to analyze the structure of natural communities and identify the species which play a central role in them.

  12. [Growth and resource allocation pattern of Artemisia frigida under different grazing and clipping intensities].

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Li, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenguo

    2004-03-01

    In order to understand the degradation process and its mechanism of typical steppe in Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the growth and resource allocation pattern of Artimisia frigida under different grazing and clipping intensities(no grazing, light grazing 1.33 sheep.hm-2, moderate grazing 4.00 sheep.hm-2, heavy grazing 6.67 sheep.hm-2, proportional clipping and stubble clipping), which was conducted at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences(43 degrees 26'-44 degrees 08' N, 116 degrees 04'-117 degrees 05' E). The results showed that the regrowth ability of A. frigida under proportional clipping was superior to that under stubble clipping, and light clipping (1/4 proportional clipping or 10 cm stubble clipping) was superior to no clipping. In early growth season, the net regrowth of A. frigida was higher under no clipping than under light clipping, but reversed in late growth season (after mid-August). The biomass allocation pattern of A. frigida was roots > leaves > stems. Grazing or clipping affected biomass allocation significantly, especially for the allocation of leaves and flowers. The biomass allocation of leaves was significantly higher under 3/4 proportional clipping or 4 cm stubble clipping than under other treatments, and reverse trend was true for the biomass allocation of flowers. There were no significant differences in biomass allocation of roots and stems among treatments. Sexual reproductive allocation decreased with increasing grazing or clipping intensities, and reproductive mode of A. frigida changed under heavy grazing. The changes in priority of biomass allocation from sexual reproductive organs to clonal growth to sustain and propagate population were important ecological strategies of the species to heavy grazing.

  13. Effects of Livestock Grazing and Well Construction on Prairie Vegetation Structure Surrounding Shallow Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, N.; Molloy, K.; Leston, L.; Yoo, J.

    2014-11-01

    Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms.

  14. Quantification of uncertainties in global grazing systems assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzel, T.; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kastner, T.; Kroisleitner, C.; Rolinski, S.; Searchinger, T.; Van Bodegom, P. M.; Wirsenius, S.; Erb, K.-H.

    2017-07-01

    Livestock systems play a key role in global sustainability challenges like food security and climate change, yet many unknowns and large uncertainties prevail. We present a systematic, spatially explicit assessment of uncertainties related to grazing intensity (GI), a key metric for assessing ecological impacts of grazing, by combining existing data sets on (a) grazing feed intake, (b) the spatial distribution of livestock, (c) the extent of grazing land, and (d) its net primary productivity (NPP). An analysis of the resulting 96 maps implies that on average 15% of the grazing land NPP is consumed by livestock. GI is low in most of the world's grazing lands, but hotspots of very high GI prevail in 1% of the total grazing area. The agreement between GI maps is good on one fifth of the world's grazing area, while on the remainder, it is low to very low. Largest uncertainties are found in global drylands and where grazing land bears trees (e.g., the Amazon basin or the Taiga belt). In some regions like India or Western Europe, massive uncertainties even result in GI > 100% estimates. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that the input data for NPP, animal distribution, and grazing area contribute about equally to the total variability in GI maps, while grazing feed intake is a less critical variable. We argue that a general improvement in quality of the available global level data sets is a precondition for improving the understanding of the role of livestock systems in the context of global environmental change or food security.

  15. Bacterial and Fungal Community Structures in Loess Plateau Grasslands with Different Grazing Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Huhe; Chen, Xianjiang; Hou, Fujiang; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-01-01

    The Loess Plateau of China is one of the most fragile ecosystems worldwide; thus, human production activities need to be conducted very cautiously. In this study, MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was applied to assess the relationship between bacterial and fungal community structures and changes in vegetation and soil physical and chemical properties induced by grazing, in four grasslands with different levels of grazing intensity (0, 2.67, 5.33, and 8.67 sheep/ha) in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau. The relative abundances of the bacterial community in the grasslands with 2.67 and 5.33 sheep/ha were significantly higher than those in grasslands with 0 and 8.67 sheep/ha, and the fungal diversity was significantly lower for grasslands with 2.67 sheep/ha than for the other grasslands. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that plant biomass, nitrate, and total nitrogen have significant effects on bacterial community structure, whereas nitrate and total nitrogen also significantly affect fungal community structure. Variation partitioning showed that soil and plant characteristics influence the bacterial and fungal community structures; these characteristics explained 51.9 and 52.9% of the variation, respectively. Thus, bacterial and fungal community structures are very sensitive to grazing activity and change to different extents with different grazing intensities. Based on our findings, a grazing intensity of about 2.67 sheep/ha is considered the most appropriate in semiarid grassland of the Loess Plateau. PMID:28439265

  16. Bacterial and Fungal Community Structures in Loess Plateau Grasslands with Different Grazing Intensities.

    PubMed

    Huhe; Chen, Xianjiang; Hou, Fujiang; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-01-01

    The Loess Plateau of China is one of the most fragile ecosystems worldwide; thus, human production activities need to be conducted very cautiously. In this study, MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was applied to assess the relationship between bacterial and fungal community structures and changes in vegetation and soil physical and chemical properties induced by grazing, in four grasslands with different levels of grazing intensity (0, 2.67, 5.33, and 8.67 sheep/ha) in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau. The relative abundances of the bacterial community in the grasslands with 2.67 and 5.33 sheep/ha were significantly higher than those in grasslands with 0 and 8.67 sheep/ha, and the fungal diversity was significantly lower for grasslands with 2.67 sheep/ha than for the other grasslands. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that plant biomass, nitrate, and total nitrogen have significant effects on bacterial community structure, whereas nitrate and total nitrogen also significantly affect fungal community structure. Variation partitioning showed that soil and plant characteristics influence the bacterial and fungal community structures; these characteristics explained 51.9 and 52.9% of the variation, respectively. Thus, bacterial and fungal community structures are very sensitive to grazing activity and change to different extents with different grazing intensities. Based on our findings, a grazing intensity of about 2.67 sheep/ha is considered the most appropriate in semiarid grassland of the Loess Plateau.

  17. Intensive cattle grazing affects pasture litter-fall: an unrecognized nitrous oxide source.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pranoy; Clough, Tim J; Kelliher, Francis M; van Koten, Chikako; Sherlock, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    The rationale for this study came from observing grazing dairy cattle dropping freshly harvested plant material onto the soil surface, hereafter called litter-fall. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines include NO emissions during pasture renewal but do not consider NO emissions that may result from litter-fall. The objectives of this study were to determine litter-fall rates and to assess indicative NO emission factors (EFs) for the dominant pasture species (perennial ryegrass [ L.] and white clover [ L.]). Herbage was vacuumed from intensively managed dairy pastures before and after 30 different grazing events when cows (84 cows ha) grazed for 24 h according to a rotational system; the interval between grazing events ranged from 21 to 30 d. A laboratory incubation study was performed to assess potential EF values for the pasture species at two soil moisture contents. Finely ground pasture material was incubated under controlled laboratory conditions with soil, and the NO emissions were measured until rates returned to control levels. On average, pre- and postgrazing dry matter yields per grazing event were 2516 ± 636 and 1167 ± 265 kg DM ha (±SD), respectively. Pregrazing litter was absent, whereas postgrazing fresh and senesced litter-fall rates were 53 ± 24 and 19 ± 18 kg DM ha, respectively. Annually, the rotational grazing system resulted in 12 grazing events where fresh litter-fall equaed to 16 kg N ha yr to the soil. Emission factors in the laboratory experiment indicated that the EF for perennial ryegrass and white clover ranged from 0.7 to 3.1%. If such EF values should also occur under field conditions, then we estimate that litter-fall induces an NO emission rate of 0.3 kg NO ha yr. Litter-fall as a source of NO in grazed pastures requires further assessment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Genetic analysis of dairy cattle production traits in a management intensive rotational grazing environment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, K A; Kriegl, T; Pohlman, A L

    1999-01-01

    Management intensive rotational grazing is a low input form of dairy herd management that is practiced by an increasing number of US dairy producers. However, concerns exist regarding the predictability of progeny performance in a grazing environment because most US dairy sires are progeny tested under conventional conditions of herd management. Lactation data from 27 Wisconsin dairy herds that have practiced management intensive rotational grazing for at least 4 yr were analyzed, as were data from three randomly chosen groups of control herds. Coefficients of regression of progeny milk, fat, and protein yields on USDA sire PTA values were 0.99, 0.76, and 0.96, respectively, from the grazing herds. In the control herds, regression coefficients for milk, fat, and protein yields averaged 0.95, 0.98, and 0.88, respectively. Therefore, progeny performance of grazing herds was predicted adequately by national sire PTA values that were derived primarily from conventionally managed herds. Heritability estimates for milk, fat, and protein yields were 0.23, 0.17, and 0.26, respectively, in the grazing herds and 0.24, 0.27, and 0.27, respectively, in a pooled data set containing all control herds. Estimated genetic correlations between production traits in the grazing environment and in the control environment were 0.92, 0.88, and 0.99 for milk, fat, and protein yields, respectively. These correlations, as well as the regression coefficients, indicate that interaction of genotype by environment is not important for these management systems, and nearly optimal genetic progress can be achieved by selecting AI sires progeny tested under traditional management conditions.

  19. Response of carbon dioxide exchange to grazing intensity over typical steppes in a semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Bernhofer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The eddy covariance technique was used to measure the CO2 flux over four differently grazed Leymus chinensis steppe ecosystems (ungrazed since 1979 (UG79), winter grazed (WG), continuously grazed (CG), and heavily grazed (HG) sites) during four growing seasons (May to September) from 2005 to 2008, to investigate the response of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over grassland ecosystems to meteorological factors and grazing intensity. At UG79, the optimal air temperature for the half-hourly NEE occurred between 17 and 20 °C, which was relatively low for semi-arid grasslands. The saturated NEE (NEEsat) and temperature sensitivity coefficient ( Q 10) of ecosystem respiration (RE) exhibited clear seasonal and interannual variations, which increased with canopy development and the soil water content (SWC, at 5 cm). The total NEE values for the growing seasons from 2005 to 2008 were -32.0, -41.5, -66.1, and -89.8 g C m-2, respectively. Both the amounts and distribution of precipitation during the growing season affected the NEE. The effects of grazing on the CO2 flux increased with the grazing intensity. During the peak growth stage, heavy grazing and winter grazing decreased NEEsat and gross primary production (45 % for HG and 34 % for WG) due to leaf area removal. Both RE and Q 10 were clearly reduced by heavy grazing. Heavy grazing changed the ecosystem from a CO2 sink into a CO2 source, and winter grazing reduced the total CO2 uptake by 79 %. In the early growing season, there was no difference in the NEE between CG and UG79. In addition to the grazing intensity, the effects of grazing on the CO2 flux also varied with the vegetation growth stages and SWC.

  20. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha(-1); light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha(-1); moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha(-1), and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha(-1). Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) under different grazing intensities. However, the SLOC including particulate organic carbon (POC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) content at a depth of 0-15 cm decreased with the increasing grazing intensity among LG, MG and HG. The SLOC content at depths of 15-30 cm under the NG and LG were significantly higher than that under the MG and the HG. The TOC and SLOC content decreased with increasing depths of soil horizons, but SIC content increased. The variation trend of the density of different soil carbon fractions and the ratio of individual SLOC fractions to TOC were similar to that of the soil carbon content of corresponding fractions. These results indicated that MG and HG treatments caused C loss at 0-30 cm; and SLOC was more sensitive than TOC in response to different grazing intensities.

  1. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  2. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  3. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically-based grasshopper management strategy must necessari...

  4. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing... residency on the New Lands Range Unit of permit issue, and (4) Own livestock which graze on the range unit...

  5. Streambank response to simulated grazing

    Treesearch

    Warren P. Clary; John W. Kinney

    2000-01-01

    Simulated grazing techniques were used to investigate livestock impacts on structural characteristics of streambanks. The treatments consisted of no grazing, moderate early summer grazing, moderate mid summer grazing, and heavy season-long grazing. The heavy season-long treatment resulted in a 11.5 cm depression of the streambank surface, while the moderate treatments...

  6. Sustainable intensive livestock production demands manure and exhaust air treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melse, Roland W; Timmerman, Maikel

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including discharges to soils and surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere. In areas with a high livestock density the low availability of nearby arable land, together with the preferred use of chemical fertilizer by arable farmers, results in high off-farm disposal costs for manure. Furthermore, ammonia abatement technologies, such as treatment of exhaust air, are important as ammonia emissions may account up to a quarter of the total nitrogen flux. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the development of manure treatment in the Netherlands since the 1970's. Manure treatment processes that result in products that compete with and replace the use of chemical fertilizers can (partly) close the nutrient cycle again. From this point of view aerobic treatment of manure (nitrification/denitrification) can not be considered sustainable as nitrogen is taken out of the cycle at high environmental costs. Secondly, the state-of-the-art of techniques for treatment of exhaust air is presented. Besides ammonia, application of air treatment may also reduce environmental emissions of odour and particulate matter (dust). Both manure treatment and treatment of exhaust air are considered essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with a high livestock density.

  7. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matthew J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Eckard, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. While the climatic and edaphic characteristics of a location may impact on the emissions from a grazing system, management to efficiently use pasture can reduce emissions per unit product. Abstract A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentationand nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity

  8. The impact of grazing intensity on soil characteristics of Stipa grandis and Stipa bungeana steppe in northern China (autonomous region of Ningxia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yingzhong; Wittig, Rüdiger

    2004-05-01

    The effects of grazing intensity on selected soil characteristics in the feather-grass steppes of the autonomous region of Ningxia (northern China) were investigated by a comparison of non-grazed areas (grazing intensity 0), slightly grazed areas (grazing intensity I), moderately grazed areas (II), intensively grazed areas (III) and over-grazed areas (IV). Even in areas used only minimally for grazing activities (I), a serious increase (doubling) in soil hardness was apparent in the upper soil layer. A continual decrease in organic matter in the surface soil can be correlated directly to soil compaction. The content of organic matter in soil of degree IV amounts to only a third of the organic matter found in non-grazed areas. This decrease can be attributed partly to the poor living conditions for soil organisms in compacted soils, but also to a significant reduction in litter. This is because intensive grazing causes reduced vegetation cover leading to litter being blown away by wind or washed away by heavy rainfall. Thus in level III hardly any plant litter remained to be incorporated into the soil as humus. Likewise root density also suffered its largest decrease in areas with a grazing intensity level III. With regard to the content of nitrogen and phosphorous (total and available) hardly any difference between soils of grazing intensity 0 and I was observed, whereas a noticeable decrease was apparent between levels I and II. Available Potassium was similar for all grazing levels. The pH-value of the soil solution is not significantly affected by grazing. We did not observe differences in the soils of the two main types of steppe vegetation ( Stipa grandis and Stipa bungeana steppe) in response to grazing. Only the amount of litter in the S. grandis-steppe in non-grazed or slightly grazed areas is noticeably higher than in the S. bungeana steppe.

  9. Comparison of soil greenhouse gas fluxes from extensive and intensive grazing in a temperate maritime climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Drewer, J.; Helfter, C.; Anderson, M.; Dinsmore, K.; McKenzie, R.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from a seminatural, extensively sheep grazed drained moorland and intensively sheep grazed fertilised grassland in SE Scotland were compared over 4 yr (2007-2010). Nitrous oxide and CH4 fluxes were measured by static chambers, respiration from soil including ground vegetation by a flow through chamber and the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 by eddy covariance. All GHG fluxes displayed high temporal and interannual variability. Temperature, radiation, water table height and precipitation could explain a significant percentage of seasonal and interannual variations. Greenhouse gas fluxes were dominated by the net ecosystem exchange of CO2, emissions of N2O from the grazed grassland (384 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) and emissions of CH4 from ruminant fermentation (147 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1). Methane emissions from the moorland were small (6.7 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1). Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and respiration were much larger on the productive fertilised grassland (-1624 and +7157 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively) than the seminatural moorland (-338 and +2554 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively). Large CH4 and N2O losses from the grazed grassland counteracted the CO2 uptake by 35%, whereas the small N2O and CH4 emissions from the moorland did only impact the NEE by 2%.The 4 yr average GHG budget for the grazed grassland was 1006 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 and 331 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 for the moorland.

  10. Discrete vortex model of a Helmholtz resonator subjected to high-intensity sound and grazing flow.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to study the acoustical response of a Helmholtz resonator as a duct-branched acoustic absorber subjected to both high-intensity sound and grazing flow. The present model is comprised of a discrete vortex model in combination with a one-dimensional duct sound propagation model. The present work is to study the overall effect of incident sound interacting with grazing flow but putting emphasis on the nonlinear or intermediate regime where the sound intensity has a marked or non-negligible influence on the acoustic behavior of the Helmholtz resonator. The numerical results reveal that the flow field around the orifice is dominated by the evolution of the vortex sheet and the flow pattern is influenced by the ratio of the orifice flow velocity to the grazing flow velocity. When the incident sound pressure is high or the resonance occurs, the resonator shows nonlinearity, i.e., the acoustic impedance and absorption coefficient vary not only with duct flow Mach number buy also with incident frequency and incident sound pressure level.

  11. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  12. Impacts of Grazing Intensity and Plant Community Composition on Soil Bacterial Community Diversity in a Steppe Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Tong-bao; Du, Wei-chao; Yuan, Xia; Yang, Zhi-ming; Liu, Dong-bo; Wang, De-li; Yu, Li-jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in the ecological and evolutionary responses of agricultural ecosystems. Domestic herbivore grazing is known to influence soil bacterial community. However, the effects of grazing and its major driving factors on soil bacterial community remain unknown for different plant community compositions under increasing grazing intensity. Thus, to investigate soil bacterial community diversity under five plant community compositions (Grass; Leymus chinensis; Forb; L. chinensis & Forb; and Legume), we performed a four-year field experiment with different grazing intensity treatments (no grazing; light grazing, 4 sheep·ha−1; and heavy grazing, 6 sheep·ha−1) in a grassland in China. Total DNA was obtained from soil samples collected from the plots in August, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting were used to investigate soil bacterial community. The results showed that light grazing significantly increased indices of soil bacterial community diversity for the Forb and Legume groups but not the Grass and L. chinensis groups. Heavy grazing significantly reduced these soil bacterial diversity indices, except for the Pielou evenness index in the Legume group. Further analyses revealed that the soil N/P ratio, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and pH were the major environmental factors affecting the soil bacterial community. Our study suggests that the soil bacterial community diversity was influenced by grazing intensity and plant community composition in a meadow steppe. The present study provides a baseline assessment of the soil bacterial community diversity in a temperate meadow steppe. PMID:27467221

  13. Impacts of Grazing Intensity and Plant Community Composition on Soil Bacterial Community Diversity in a Steppe Grassland.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tong-Bao; Du, Wei-Chao; Yuan, Xia; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Dong-Bo; Wang, De-Li; Yu, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in the ecological and evolutionary responses of agricultural ecosystems. Domestic herbivore grazing is known to influence soil bacterial community. However, the effects of grazing and its major driving factors on soil bacterial community remain unknown for different plant community compositions under increasing grazing intensity. Thus, to investigate soil bacterial community diversity under five plant community compositions (Grass; Leymus chinensis; Forb; L. chinensis & Forb; and Legume), we performed a four-year field experiment with different grazing intensity treatments (no grazing; light grazing, 4 sheep·ha-1; and heavy grazing, 6 sheep·ha-1) in a grassland in China. Total DNA was obtained from soil samples collected from the plots in August, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting were used to investigate soil bacterial community. The results showed that light grazing significantly increased indices of soil bacterial community diversity for the Forb and Legume groups but not the Grass and L. chinensis groups. Heavy grazing significantly reduced these soil bacterial diversity indices, except for the Pielou evenness index in the Legume group. Further analyses revealed that the soil N/P ratio, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and pH were the major environmental factors affecting the soil bacterial community. Our study suggests that the soil bacterial community diversity was influenced by grazing intensity and plant community composition in a meadow steppe. The present study provides a baseline assessment of the soil bacterial community diversity in a temperate meadow steppe.

  14. Environmental vulnerability, assessment, and monitoring of grazing systems under index-based livestock insurance programs in East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal is to characterize and monitor feedbacks between innovative insurance products and ecosystem services in resource poor environments. Our team is integrating longitudinal field-based measurements and monitoring protocols to quantify grazing animal impact related to the implementation of an ...

  15. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  16. Comparison of soil greenhouse gas fluxes from extensive and intensive grazing in a temperate maritime climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Drewer, J.; Helfter, C.; Anderson, M.; Dinsmore, K.; McKenzie, R.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from a seminatural, extensively sheep-grazed drained moorland and intensively sheep-grazed fertilised grassland in South East (SE) Scotland were compared over 4 yr (2007-2010). Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured by static chambers, respiration from soil plus ground vegetation by a flow-through chamber, and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) by eddy-covariance. All GHG fluxes displayed high temporal and interannual variability. Temperature, radiation, water table height and precipitation could explain a significant percentage of seasonal and interannual variations. Greenhouse gas fluxes were dominated by the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 at both sites. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and respiration was much larger on the productive fertilised grassland (-1567 and 7157 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively) than on the seminatural moorland (-267 and 2554 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1, respectively). Large ruminant CH4 (147 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) and soil N2O (384 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) losses from the grazed grassland counteracted the CO2 uptake by 34%, whereas the small N2O (0.8 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) and CH4 (7 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1) emissions from the moorland only impacted the NEE flux by 3%. The 4-yr average GHG budget for the grazed grassland was -1034 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 and -260 g CO2eq m-2 yr-1 for the moorland.

  17. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b)...

  18. Livestock Grazing Shapes the Vegetation Structure and Subsequent Habitat Use by the Endangered Skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Marschalek, Daniel A; Faulkner, David K; Deutschman, Douglas H

    2017-06-01

    Many species adapted to alpine and montane meadow ecosystems are at risk of extinction. The skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott is a mountaintop butterfly restricted to San Diego County, CA, a federally listed endangered species, and is in imminent risk of extinction. Historically, P. r. lagunae was found in the Laguna and Palomar mountains. We did not detect the skipper in the Laguna Mountains, and the species has likely been extirpated from this area, which represents half of its historical range and is the type locality. We studied three populations on Palomar Mountain. Skippers primarily occupied areas close to creeks or in adjacent ravines at two nongrazed sites. The third site is grazed by cattle, and skippers were found close to the forest edge. At nongrazed locations, creek areas had higher cover of intermediate-height vegetation, more bare ground, and more flowers compared with unoccupied areas of the same meadow. The vegetation at occupied and unoccupied areas within the grazed meadow were similar. Even so, skippers occupied areas with more bare ground as well as greater species richness of flowering plants. A grazing exclosure was previously installed in an attempt to protect and enhance skipper habitat, but skippers did not use the dense grasslands that developed inside the exclosures. Contrary to the prevailing theory, protection from grazing did not improve skipper habitat. This illustrates how management based on inadequate biological information can hinder well-intentioned conservation efforts. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Quantifying drylands' drought resistance and recovery: the importance of drought intensity, dominant life history and grazing regime.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Jan C; Harmoney, Keith; Henkin, Zalmen; Snyman, Hennie A; Sternberg, Marcelo; Willms, Walter; Linstädter, Anja

    2015-03-01

    Projected global change will increase the level of land-use and environmental stressors such as drought and grazing, particularly in drylands. Still, combined effects of drought and grazing on plant production are poorly understood, thus hampering adequate projections and development of mitigation strategies. We used a large, cross-continental database consisting of 174 long-term datasets from >30 dryland regions to quantify ecosystem responses to drought and grazing with the ultimate goal to increase functional understanding in these responses. Two key aspects of ecosystem stability, resistance to and recovery after a drought, were evaluated based on standardized and normalized aboveground net primary production (ANPP) data. Drought intensity was quantified using the standardized precipitation index. We tested effects of drought intensity, grazing regime (grazed, ungrazed), biome (grassland, shrubland, savanna) or dominant life history (annual, perennial) of the herbaceous layer to assess the relative importance of these factors for ecosystem stability, and to identify predictable relationships between drought intensity and ecosystem resistance and recovery. We found that both components of ecosystem stability were better explained by dominant herbaceous life history than by biome. Increasing drought intensity (quasi-) linearly reduced ecosystem resistance. Even though annual and perennial systems showed the same response rate to increasing drought intensity, they differed in their general magnitude of resistance, with annual systems being ca. 27% less resistant. In contrast, systems with an herbaceous layer dominated by annuals had substantially higher postdrought recovery, particularly when grazed. Combined effects of drought and grazing were not merely additive but modulated by dominant life history of the herbaceous layer. To the best of our knowledge, our study established the first predictive, cross-continental model between drought intensity and drought

  20. Effects of Grazing Intensity and Environmental Factors on Species Composition and Diversity in Typical Steppe of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haiyan; Schönbach, Philipp; Wan, Hongwei; Gierus, Martin; Taube, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we aim to analyze the effect of grazing, precipitation and temperature on plant species dynamics in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. By uncoupling biotic and abiotic factors, we provide essential information on the main drivers determining species composition and species diversity. Effects of grazing by sheep were studied in a controlled experiment along a gradient of seven grazing intensities (from ungrazed to very heavily grazed) during six consecutive years (2005–2010). The results show that plant species composition and diversity varied among years but were little affected by grazing intensity, since the experimental years were much dryer than the long term average, the abiotic constraints may have overridden any grazing effect. Among-year differences were predominantly determined by the abiotic factors of precipitation and temperature. Most of the variation in species dynamics and coexistence between C3 and C4 species was explained by seasonal weather conditions, i.e. precipitation and temperature regime during the early-season (March-June) were most important in determining vegetation dynamics. The dominant C3 species Stipa grandis was highly competitive in March-June, when the temperature levels were low and rainfall level was high. In contrast, the most common C4 species Cleistogenes squarrosa benefited from high early-season temperature levels and low early-season rainfall. However, biomass of Stipa grandis was positively correlated with temperature in March, when effective mean temperature ranges from 0 to 5°C and thus promotes vernalization and vegetative sprouting. Our results suggest that, over a six-year term, it is temporal variability in precipitation and temperature rather than grazing that determines vegetation dynamics and species co-existence of grazed steppe ecosystems. Furthermore, our data support that the variability in the biomass of dominant species, rather than diversity, determine ecosystem

  1. Advances in grazing distribution practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grazing distribution management practices are intended to improve livestock production efficiency while conserving or enhancing environmental conditions, and sustaining or promoting other ecosystem services on grazed lands. Ancient practices such as herding, fencing, vegetation treatment (e.g., fi...

  2. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... livestock upon, allowing livestock to drift and graze on, or driving livestock across lands that are subject... the public land and other property of the United States and shall make a demand for payment upon the...

  3. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... livestock upon, allowing livestock to drift and graze on, or driving livestock across lands that are subject... the public land and other property of the United States and shall make a demand for payment upon the...

  4. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... livestock upon, allowing livestock to drift and graze on, or driving livestock across lands that are subject... the public land and other property of the United States and shall make a demand for payment upon the...

  5. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... livestock upon, allowing livestock to drift and graze on, or driving livestock across lands that are subject... the public land and other property of the United States and shall make a demand for payment upon the...

  6. The influence of grazing intensity on soil properties and degradation processes in Mediterranean rangelands (Extremadura, SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Rangelands cover vast extensions of land in Spain (>90,000 km2), where a total amount of 13 millions of domestic animals graze extensively their pastures. By clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and by cultivation, these rangelands were created from former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed by holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber) as tree species, Nowadays this land system is exploited economically in large farms (>100 ha), most of them held on private ownership (80% of total) and dedicated to extensive ranching. Overgrazing is common and the excessive stocking rates may deteriorate soil quality, causing economic losses and environmental damage. Many studies have been developed on the effects of livestock grazing over soil properties and degradation processes, most of them by only comparing extreme cases (e.g. ungrazed vs. grazed or overgrazed areas). The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding on how animal grazing affects soil properties and degradation processes. The study is particularly focused on soil compaction and sheet erosion as related to the reduction of vegetation cover by defoliation. Soil properties were analysed from 119 environmental units selected from 56 farms distributed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain). The units are representative of different rangeland types, i.e. scrublands of Retama sphaerocarpa, dehesas (wooded rangelands) and treeless grasslands. Soil surface cover was determined along transects in September 2010 (antecedent rainfall: 413-923 mm) considering the following classes: bare ground, grasses, mosses, litter, stones (<2 mm) and rock outcrops. Farmer interviews were also conducted in order to quantify stocking rates and to assess land management in 12 out of 56 farms. In the farms where transects and farmer interviews could not be carried out, bare soil surface and livestock densities were estimated. Bare soil surface was determined by classifying

  7. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing...

  8. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing...

  9. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing...

  10. Spatio-temporal modelling of biomass of intensively grazed perennial dairy pastures using multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edirisinghe, Asoka; Clark, Dave; Waugh, Deanne

    2012-06-01

    Pasture biomass is a vital input for management of dairy systems in New Zealand. An accurate estimate of pasture biomass information is required for the calculation of feed budget, on which decisions are made for farm practices such as conservation, nitrogen use, rotational lengths and supplementary feeding leading to profitability and sustainable use of pasture resources. The traditional field based methods of measuring pasture biomass such as using rising plate metres (RPM) are largely inefficient in providing the timely information at the spatial extent and temporal frequency demanded by commercial environments. In recent times remote sensing has emerged as an alternative tool. In this paper we have examined the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from medium resolution imagery of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellite sensors to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures. In the space and time domain analysis we have found a significant dependency of time over the season and no dependency of space across the scene at a given time for the relationship between NDVI and field based pasture biomass. We have established a positive correlation (81%) between the two variables in a pixel scale analysis. The application of the model on 2 selected farms over 3 images and aggregation of the predicted biomass to paddock scale has produced paddock average pasture biomass values with a coefficient of determination of 0.71 and a standard error of 260 kg DM ha-1 in the field observed range between 1500 and 3500 kg DM ha-1. This result indicates a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures.

  11. Competitiveness of management-intensive grazing dairies in the mid-Atlantic region from 1995 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J C; Johnson, D M; Lichtenberg, E; Minegishi, K

    2013-03-01

    This paper used farm income tax returns (Schedule F) data from 62 dairy farmers who milked 200 cows or fewer in western and central Maryland and southwestern Pennsylvania (hereafter, the mid-Atlantic region) to assess the relative financial performance of management-intensive grazing (MIG) and confinement dairy operations over the 15-yr period from 1995 through 2009. Data were not available from all farmers in all years; on average, the sample analyzed contained 11 MIG farms and 26 confinement farms. Management-intensive grazing operators were more profitable on a per hundredweight, per cow, and per acre basis, and no less profitable on a whole-farm basis. Even though the confinement operators had higher gross income than MIG operators, their expenses exceeded those of MIG operators. Profits of MIG operations were less variable as well, so that MIG operators faced less income risk. Increased reliance on grazing has other benefits as well. Grazing seems to be a much healthier practice for dairy cows. Veterinary, breeding, and medicine costs per cow are much less for cows that are pastured than those raised in confinement systems. Because they are healthier, cows that are grazed can be milked longer (or culled less frequently). As a result, MIG operators have a larger number of higher quality animals for sale (e.g., bred heifers). Management-intensive operations are also less labor intensive. Reductions in crop production and in the time cows spend in the barn led to significant reductions in field work and cleaning operations in the barn. Costs of hired labor were thus substantially lower in MIG operations than in confinement operations. Land requirements likely impose the principal limitation on the size of intensive grazing operations. In the mid-Atlantic, for instance, grazing operations need 1.5 to 2.0 acres of pasture for every dairy cow/calf equivalent to provide sufficient grass to support a dairy operation. Pasture land for MIG operators must be contiguous

  12. Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh Ramesh; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Mishra, Charudutt

    2010-02-01

    Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse-dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium-sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantified through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is

  13. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe.

    PubMed

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-06-01

    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities <4 m(-2). Two years after treatments were applied, vegetation structure differed among grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system.

  14. Transcriptome responses in alfalfa associated with tolerance to intensive animal grazing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yan; Ray, Ian; Song, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to animal grazing varies widely within the species. However, the molecular mechanisms influencing the grazing tolerant phenotype remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes and pathways that control grazing response in alfalfa. We analyzed whole-plant de novo transcriptomes from grazing tolerant and intolerant populations of M. sativa ssp. falcata subjected to grazing by sheep. Among the Gene Ontology terms which were identified as grazing responsive in the tolerant plants and differentially enriched between the tolerant and intolerant populations (both grazed), most were associated with the ribosome and translation-related activities, cell wall processes, and response to oxygen levels. Twenty-one grazing responsive pathways were identified that also exhibited differential expression between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These pathways were associated with secondary metabolite production, primary carbohydrate metabolic pathways, shikimate derivative dependent pathways, ribosomal subunit composition, hormone signaling, wound response, cell wall formation, and anti-oxidant defense. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among several differentially expressed homologous transcripts between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These differentially responsive genes and pathways constitute potential response mechanisms for grazing tolerance in alfalfa. They also provide potential targets for molecular breeding efforts to develop grazing-tolerant cultivars of alfalfa. PMID:26763747

  15. Nitrate contamination of water resources in a small catchment with intensive livestock facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, N.

    2003-04-01

    The study area is a small catchment developed along a stream, Hwabong-chun, running toward north, with a length of about 4 km. Because of gentle slopes of the area, land is utilized for various agricultural activities in different scales including paddy fields, grape vineyards, and intensive livestock facilities of swine, cow and poultry. In this area, groundwater is the main source of domestic and agricultural water-supply, and appears to be under severe risk of contamination from various potential sources. Therefore, this study was initiated to identify the extent and sources of groundwater contamination by nitrate. A total of 49 groundwater and surface-water samples were collected in February and April 2002, and concentrations of dissolved constituents and nitrogen-isotope ratio of nitrate were analyzed. Little change of concentrations of dissolved ions in samples of Feb. and Apr. implies that spring discharge of groundwater might not occur yet. About 77% of groundwater samples have NO3-N concentrations of greater than 3 mg/L, indicating their origins from anthropogenic sources at surface. About 37% of samples detected NO3-N levels higher than 10 mg/L, Korean Drinking Water Guidelines. Although groundwater is being used for domestic uses during the winter season, nitrate levels show no significant changes between February and April. This implies that the sources would be large enough to continuously discharge nitrate into the groundwater system. Correlation matrix shows Na, Ca, Cl, NO3-N, SO4 moving together in the groundwater system. Results of Principal Component Analysis(PCA) indicate these constituents are the most dominant factor controlling groundwater quality in the area. Seepages from a swine farm and a poultry farm were analyzed and show significantly elevated concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Cl, NH4, PO4, SO4. Considering low mobility of K and PO4 and transformation of NH4 to NO3 in the shallow subsurface environments, those water-quality controlling

  16. Occurrence and distribution of livestock concentration areas on intensively managed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock frequently congregate at feeders, shades, or other sites on pastures creating point sources of nutrient runoff. Our objective was to determine the spatial distribution of soil nutrients in livestock concentration areas on pastures and quantify the relationships among the soil nutrient grad...

  17. Large manipulative experiments revealed variations of insect abundance and trophic levels in response to the cumulative effects of sheep grazing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingchuan; Huang, Xunbing; Qin, Xinghu; Ding, Yong; Hong, Jun; Du, Guilin; Li, Xinyi; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoran; Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-09-12

    Livestock grazing can affect insects by altering habitat quality; however, the effects of grazing years and intensities on insect abundance and trophic level during manipulative sheep grazing are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated these effects in a large manipulative experiment from 2014 to 2016 in the eastern Eurasian steppe, China. Insect abundance decreased as sheep grazing intensities increased, with a significant cumulative effect occurring during grazing years. The largest families, Acrididae and Cicadellidae, were susceptible to sheep grazing, but Formicidae was tolerant. Trophic primary and secondary consumer insects were negatively impacted by increased grazing intensities, while secondary consumers were limited by the decreased primary consumers. Poor vegetation conditions caused by heavy sheep grazing were detrimental to the existence of Acrididae, Cicadellidae, primary and secondary consumer insects, but were beneficial to Formicidae. This study revealed variations in insect abundance and trophic level in response to continuous sheep grazing in steppe grasslands. Overall, our results indicate that continuous years of heavy- and over- sheep grazing should be eliminated. Moreover, our findings highlight the importance of more flexible sheep grazing management and will be useful for developing guidelines to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  18. Quantifying vegetation response to grazing intensity and precipitation on Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland using remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed H.

    High spatial resolution satellite imagery is a promising data source for studying vegetation dynamics. The overall goal for this study was to use QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery to develop methods for vegetation analysis and tracking livestock distribution. I hypothesized that using these technologies would create appropriate new management tool that provides spatial, temporal, and current information for extensive rangeland pastures. This research was conducted on four large scale pastures at the Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC) in south central New Mexico. Two QuickBird ortho-ready standard satellite images (DigitalGlobe Inc., Longmont, Colorado, USA) were acquired for the study area in May of 2006 and 2009. The image covered an area of 4381 ha and had a 60 cm panchromatic resolution and 2.4 m multispectral resolution. A 4-band pan-sharpened image with spatial resolution of 60 cm was produced for each QuickBird image. Per-pixel spectral based classification algorithms were used to classify the two images and map the primary vegetation types in the study area. Post-classification change detection was conducted between the May 2006 image and the May 2009 image. GPS collars were used to track 2 cows in each pasture for 10 weeks during the winter of 2010. Forage production for the primary perennial grasses was estimated from 40 permanent vegetation plots across the study area in May 2009. Spectral-based classification techniques were very effective in classifying QuickBird satellite imagery. Overall accuracy of the classified map ranged from 89 to 95 %. Increasing honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) canopy cover corresponded to lower perennial grass forage production. Improvement in range condition in terms of declining shrub cover and bare ground and increased grass-mix vegetation was noted in conservatively grazed (35% utilization) pastures. However, only slight changes were observed in lightly grazed pastures. Grazing

  19. Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and Grazing Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, Alan S.; Tam, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Two significant advances have been made in the application of computational aeroacoustics methodology to acoustic liner technology. The first is that temperature effects for discrete sound are not the same as for broadband noise. For discrete sound, the normalized resistance appears to be insensitive to temperature except at high SPL. However, reactance is lower, significantly lower in absolute value, at high temperature. The second is the numerical investigation the acoustic performance of a liner by direct numerical simulation. Liner impedance is affected by the non-uniformity of the incident sound waves. This identifies the importance of pressure gradient. Preliminary design one and two-dimensional impedance models were developed to design sound absorbing liners in the presence of intense sound and grazing flow. The two-dimensional model offers the potential to empirically determine incident sound pressure face-plate distance from resonator orifices. This represents an important initial step in improving our understanding of how to effectively use the Dean Two-Microphone impedance measurement method.

  20. Ecosystem-scale measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes for an intensely grazed, fertilized grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Todd M.; Kiely, Ger

    2003-08-01

    An eddy covariance (EC) system with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer was used in a field setting in Ireland to measure N2O emissions on a continuous basis over an eight-month period, spanning a range of seasonal conditions. Intensely-grazed grassland fields within the footprint area of the EC sensors were subject to chemical fertilizer and slurry applications in order to boost grassland yield, and the amounts of these applications were documented by the farmers on a monthly basis. Three major emission events, covering a timeframe of 16 days (6.6% of the measurement period) contributed to over half (51.1%) of the observed cumulative flux. Two of these events occurred during the summer, while the third occurred during the winter, with vastly different soil moisture and soil temperature conditions associated with these times of the year. The type of N applications (fertilizer vs. slurry), soil moisture and temperature status had implications for controlling the short-term rates of N2O emissions. Cumulative N2O emissions, however, were driven by fertilizer and slurry N applications, as the emission factor of approximately 3.0% displayed consistency throughout the eight-month period.

  1. Soil intake of lactating dairy cows in intensive strip grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Feidt, C; Pérez-Prieto, L A; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Rychen, G; Delagarde, R

    2012-08-01

    Involuntary soil intake by cows on pasture can be a potential route of entry for pollutants into the food chain. Therefore, it appears necessary to know and quantify factors affecting soil intake in order to ensure the food safety in outside rearing systems. Thus, soil intake was determined in two Latin square trials with 24 and 12 lactating dairy cows. In Trial 1, the effect of pasture allowance (20 v. 35 kg dry matter (DM) above ground level/cow daily) was studied for two sward types (pure perennial ryegrass v. mixed perennial ryegrass-white clover) in spring. In Trial 2, the effect of pasture allowance (40 v. 65 kg DM above ground level/cow daily) was studied at two supplementation levels (0 or 8 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement) in autumn. Soil intake was determined by the method based on acid-insoluble ash used as an internal marker. The daily dry soil intake ranged, between treatments, from 0.17 to 0.83 kg per cow in Trial 1 and from 0.15 to 0.85 kg per cow in Trial 2, reaching up to 1.3 kg during some periods. In both trials, soil intake increased with decreasing pasture allowance, by 0.46 and 0.15 kg in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 1, this pasture allowance effect was greater on mixed swards than on pure ryegrass swards (0.66 v. 0.26 kg reduction of daily soil intake between medium and low pasture allowance, respectively). In Trial 2, the pasture allowance effect was similar at both supplementation levels. In Trial 2, supplemented cows ate much less soil than unsupplemented cows (0.20 v. 0.75 kg/day, respectively). Differences in soil intake between trials and treatments can be related to grazing conditions, particularly pre-grazing and post-grazing sward height, determining at least in part the time spent grazing close to the ground. A post-grazing sward height lower than 50 mm can be considered as a critical threshold. Finally, a dietary supplement and a low grazing pressure, that is, high pasture allowance increasing post-grazing sward

  2. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  3. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  4. The effects of timing of grazing on plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy C; Burkle, Laura A; Cross, Wyatt F; Cutting, Kyle A

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season.

  5. The Effects of Timing of Grazing on Plant and Arthropod Communities in High-Elevation Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stacy C.; Burkle, Laura A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Cutting, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season. PMID:25338008

  6. Intensive rotational grazing assists control of gastrointestinal nematodosis of sheep in a cool temperate environment with summer-dominant rainfall.

    PubMed

    Colvin, A F; Walkden-Brown, S W; Knox, M R; Scott, J M

    2008-05-06

    While rotational grazing methods have an accepted role in the management of gastrointestinal nematodosis (GIN) of small ruminants in humid tropical regions, their efficacy and application in cool temperate regions is more controversial. This study evaluated GIN over 2 years in three classes of fine wool Merino sheep (lambs, hoggets and ewes) under three different sheep management systems in a cool tableland environment near Armidale NSW Australia (950m altitude, 30 degrees 31'S, 151 degrees 39'E). The management systems were High input (HI) with high fertiliser inputs, a target of 100% sown pasture, high stocking rate (13.4 dry sheep equivalents/ha) and relatively long grazing periods; Typical (TYP) New England management system with moderate fertiliser inputs and stocking rate (9.3DSE/ha) and relatively long grazing periods; and Intensive rotational grazing (IRG) with moderate fertiliser inputs and stocking rate (8.8DSE/ha) but very short (mean 5 days) grazing periods and long (mean 103 days) rest periods. Twenty sheep of each class in each management treatment were sampled monthly for faecal worm egg counts (WEC, followed by larval differentiation), and body weights with a blood sample taken for haematology every second month. The proportion of sheep with WEC above zero did not differ between management systems but the magnitude of WEC did, with sheep under IRG displaying lower mean WEC than those on the other treatments (IRG: 326, HI: 594, TYP: 536, eggs/g P<0.0001). This was despite a significantly longer mean interval between anthelmintic treatments (IRG: 144 days, HI: 77 days, TYP: 78 days, P<0.0001). The IRG management system also influenced the composition of the infections with sheep on this treatment having a significantly lower proportion of Haemonchus contortus in their faecal cultures (IRG: 59.7%, HI: 79.4%, TYP: 80.9%, P<0.05) and a significantly higher proportion of Trichostrongylus spp. Sheep on the IRG treatment also had a significantly higher

  7. Do shrubs reduce the adverse effects of grazing on soil properties?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, David J.; Beecham, Genevieve; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in the density of woody plants are a global phenomenon in drylands, and large aggregations of shrubs, in particular, are regarded as being indicative of dysfunctional ecosystems. There is increasing evidence that overgrazing by livestock reduces ecosystem functions in shrublands, but that shrubs may buffer the negative effects of increasing grazing. We examined changes in water infiltration and nutrient concentrations in soils under shrubs and in their interspaces in shrublands in eastern Australia that varied in the intensity of livestock grazing. We used structural equation modelling to test whether shrubs might reduce the negative effects of overgrazing on infiltration and soil carbon and nitrogen (henceforth ‘soil nutrients’). Soils under shrubs and subject to low levels of grazing were more stable and had greater levels of soil nutrients. Shrubs had a direct positive effect on soil nutrients; but, grazing negatively affected nutrients by increasing soil bulk density. Structural equation modelling showed that shrubs had a direct positive effect on water flow under ponded conditions but also enhanced water flow, indirectly, through increased litter cover. Any positive effects of shrubs on water flow under low levels of grazing waned at high levels of grazing. Our results indicate that shrubs may reduce the adverse effects of grazing on soil properties. Specifically, shrubs could restrict access to livestock and therefore protect soils and plants beneath their canopies. Low levels of grazing are likely to ensure the retention of soil water and soil carbon and nitrogen in shrubland soils.

  8. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Marcinko, Sarah E; Goewert, Ann E; Mitchell, Charles E

    2008-07-15

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ("CAFO") lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH(3)), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km(2) grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH(3) yr(-1), 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water

  9. Mammal-induced trophic cascades in invertebrate food webs are modulated by grazing intensity in subalpine grassland.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Schütz, Martin; de Schaetzen, Frederic; Risch, Anita C

    2017-08-16

    1. Even though mammalian herbivores can exert strong indirect effects on other animals by altering the vegetation, the study of trophic cascades retains a focus on apex predators and their top-down forces. Bottom-up trophic interaction chains induced by mammalian herbivores, particularly in invertebrate food webs, remain largely unexplored. 2. We tested whether effects of mammalian herbivores on the vegetation ricochet back up several trophic levels of the invertebrate food web. We further tested two alternative hypotheses: the strength of herbivore-induced indirect interactions either increases with plant productivity because of a concurrent higher grazing intensity, or it decreases because of a higher plant tolerance to grazing. 3. We progressively excluded large, medium, and small herbivorous mammals from replicated plots of 6 m(2) in productive, intensively grazed short-grass vegetation and less productive, less intensively grazed tall-grass vegetation of subalpine grasslands. We measured vegetation quantity, quality, structure, and composition, and determined the abundance of invertebrate herbivores, detritivores, omnivores, and predators. We used Structural Equation Modelling to test vegetation-mediated cascading effects of the different mammalian herbivores across different trophic groups of invertebrates. 4. In the short-grass vegetation, mammals caused changes in vegetation quantity and thickness. These changes directly affected detritivorous and predatory invertebrate abundance, yet indirectly affected predatory and omnivorous invertebrates through a bottom-up trophic cascade via changes in herbivorous invertebrate abundance. In the tall-grass vegetation, mammal-induced changes in vegetation quality and composition affected detritivorous invertebrates and in turn omnivorous invertebrates, but these cascading effects were weaker than those in the short-grass vegetation. Smaller mammals were at least as important as large mammals in structuring the

  10. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  11. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  12. Low Spatial and Inter-Annual Variability in Evaporation from an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture System in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronger, J.; Campbell, D.; Clearwater, M.; Rutledge, S.; Wall, A.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem scale measurements of evaporation (E) from intensively managed pasture systems are scarce and are important for informing water resource decision making, drought forecasting, and validation of Earth system models and remote sensing. We measured E from intensively grazed, unirrigated, ryegrass and clover pasture in New Zealand using eddy covariance (EC) for three years (2012 - 2014). Spatial variation in E was less than 3% during the initial study period when up to three sites were operating simultaneously. Inter-annual variability was also less than 3% over the three consecutive years (710 - 730 mm) at one site. The absence of spatial and inter-annul variation largely occurred because E was strongly controlled by net radiation (daytime half-hourly data r2 = 0.83, p < 0.01) which was relatively consistent between sites and years. However, soil moisture decreased surface conductance during seasonal drought constraining E relative to net radiation. Variation in drought severity between years caused variation in seasonal E between years, for example, a relatively severe autumn drought in 2013 reduced E over autumn by 13% compared to 2012. Coincidentally, two unusually large spring and early summer rainfall events during warm conditions later in 2013 increased summer E by 12% compared to 2012 and therefore similar annual totals were measured between years. The FAO56 Penman-Monteith model was able to accurately predict daily E over an annual cycle (r2 = 0.81) to within 5 % of measured cumulative E with a crop factor of 0.96 (determined under non water-limiting conditions) and a water stress coefficient to account for soil moisture restrictions. Intensive grazing events, that remove a large fraction of standing pasture biomass, were found to have no effect on evaporation. The absence of a grazing effect suggests that leaf area was not an important control of E, likely because increases in soil E were able to compensate for decreased transpiration.

  13. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  14. Comparison of Grazing Intensity & Diets of Native and Invasive Amphipods in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, J. P.; Francouer, S. N.

    2005-05-01

    Echinogammarus ischnus, an invasive amphipod originating from the Ponto Caspian Basin, was first discovered in the Detroit River in 1995 and has migrated through the lower Great Lakes displacing the native amphipod, Gammarus fasciatus. Both amphipods seek food and refuge by inhabiting substrata encrusted with zebra mussels and/or filamentous macro-algae. The filamentous green alga Cladophora, along with its epiphytic communities, are an important food source and refuge from predators and physical stresses. We examined the gut content of both amphipod species to determine their preferred food in their natural habitats, and conducted a laboratory experiment to determine each amphipod's grazing effects on algal biomass. Gut analysis was completed by taking grab samples from 4 study sites located along the western shore of Lake Erie every two weeks July through September, 2004. Amphipods were separated by species and preserved in 90% alcohol for later dissection. Algal taxa from amphipod guts were identified and enumerated using brightfield microscopy. In the lab experiment, algal biomass prior to and after two weeks of amphipod grazing was determined using ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll-a. Preliminary results indicate that E. ischnus and G. fasciatus exert approximately equal grazing pressure on the Great Lakes food web.

  15. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2013-10-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~ 1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 m and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  16. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple-plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2014-05-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  17. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  18. [Discussion on reduction potential of CH4 emission intensity for early off-take practice of grazing yak].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Ping; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Ya-Yun; Bai, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The case study preliminarily compared the CH4 reduction potential and CH4 emission intensity of 7 year-old and 4 year-old grazing yak after early off-take practice based on the 2006 IPCC GHG inventory guidelines and under the premise of equal herbage consumption. Our results showed that the total CH4 emission was greater by about 86.3 kg for 2.1 4-year yaks compared with 7 years old yak during their life assuming that their total herbage consumption was the same, because total herbage consumption for a 7-year yak was equal to that of 2.1 4-year yaks. However, CH4 emission per unit body weight (1.374 kg x kg(-1)) for a 7-year yak (i. e. emission intensity) was higher than that of 2.1 4-year yaks (0.973 kg x kg(-1)) because total body weight of 2.1 4-year yaks was higher by 192 kg than that of a 7-year yak. According to CH4 emission intensity, change of the early off-take practice from 7-year to 4-year yak could reduce 77 kg CH4 if producing 192 kg body weight through 2.1 4-year yaks compared with a 7-year yak, i. e. reduction potential was about 1 600 kg CO2 equivalent under the same consuming forage. Therefore, for grassland-based animal husbandry, early off-take practice for grazing animals had a great reduction potential in the intensity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions per unit output rather than total emissions of GHGs.

  19. Grazing intensity and driving factors affect soil nitrous oxide fluxes during the growing seasons in the Hulunber meadow steppe of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruirui; Tang, Huajun; Xin, Xiaoping; Chen, Baorui; Murray, Philip J.; Yan, Yunchun; Wang, Xu; Yang, Guixia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effects of cattle grazing intensity on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were examined in the Hulunber meadow steppe of north-eastern China. Six stocking-rate treatments (0, 0.23, 0.34, 0.46, 0.69, and 0.92 AU ha-1) with three replicates were established, and observations were conducted from 2010 to 2014. Our results showed that substantial temporal fluctuations in N2O flux occurred amongst the different grazing intensities, with peak N2O fluxes after natural rainfall. Grazing had a long-term effect on the soil N2O flux in the grasslands. After 4-5 years of grazing, the N2O fluxes under increased levels of grazing intensity began to decrease significantly by 31.4%-60.2% in 2013 and 32.5%-50.5% in 2014 compared to the non-grazing treatment. We observed a significant negative linear relationship between the soil N2O fluxes and grazing intensity for the five-year mean. The soil N2O flux was significantly affected each year in all of the treatments. Over the five years, the temporal coefficient of variation (CVs) of the soil N2O flux generally declined significantly with increasing grazing intensity. The soil N2O emission rate was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture (SM), soil available phosphorus (SAP), soil {{{{NH}}}4}+-N, soil {{{{NO}}}3}--N, above-ground biomass (AGB), plant ground cover and height and was negatively correlated with total soil nitrogen (TN). Stepwise regressions showed that the N2O flux was primarily explained by SM, plant height, TN, soil pH, and soil {{{{NH}}}4}+-N. Using structural equation modelling, we show that grazing significantly directly influenced the plant community and the soil environment, which then influenced the soil N2O fluxes. Our findings provide an important reference for better understanding of the mechanisms and identifying the pathways of grazing effects on soil N2O emission rates, and the key drivers plant community and soil environment within the nitrogen cycle that are mostly likely to

  20. Role of host and environment in mediating reduced gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep due to intensive rotational grazing.

    PubMed

    Colvin, A F; Walkden-Brown, S W; Knox, M R

    2012-03-23

    We have previously reported marked reductions in faecal worm egg counts (WECs) and drenching frequency in sheep on an intensive rotational grazing system (IRG) in a cool temperate environment with summer-dominant rainfall. These experiments were designed to determine the role of the host and environmental factors in mediating this. The role of host factors was investigated by administering a fixed larval challenge in each of the 4 seasons of the year to groups of 20 young sheep on three different management systems, including IRG. This comprised a mixed larval challenge containing infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis 7 days after short-acting anthelmintic treatment. A range of measurements was then made up to day 35 post-challenge. The role of environmental factors was determined by assessing pasture infectivity in four seasons using faecal worm egg counts (WECs) and pooled faecal culture of worm-free tracer sheep. The management systems were high input (HI) with high fertiliser inputs high stocking rate and relatively long grazing periods; typical New England management system (TYP) with moderate fertiliser inputs and stocking rate and relatively long grazing periods and; Intensive rotational grazing (IRG) with moderate fertiliser inputs and stocking rate but very short (mean 5 days) grazing periods and long (mean 103 days) rest periods. IRG sheep had higher mean WEC at 28 and 35 days after fixed larval challenge than HI and TYP sheep in spring (IRG: 9500 ± 1000; HI: 4000 ± 1000; TYP: 7200 ± 1000 eggs/g, P<0.01) and summer (IRG: 8400 ± 750; HI: 5300 ± 800; TYP: 4400 ± 700 eggs/g; P<0.001) and also had lower live weights during these seasons. There was no difference in WEC after the autumn challenge (IRG: 5100 ± 450 HI: 4500 ± 450; TYP: 4200 ± 450 eggs/g; P ≈ 0.36) but IRG had lower WEC than TYP following the winter challenge (IRG: 2900 ± 400; HI: 2300 ± 400; TYP: 4300 ± 400 eggs/g, P<0.01). The tracer sheep

  1. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bellarby, Jessica; Tirado, Reyes; Leip, Adrian; Weiss, Franz; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also reviewed available mitigation options and estimated their potential. The focus of this review is on the beef and dairy sector since these contribute 60% of all livestock production emissions. Particular attention is paid to the role of land use and land use change (LULUC) and carbon sequestration in grasslands. GHG emissions of all livestock products amount to between 630 and 863 Mt CO2 e, or 12-17% of total EU27 GHG emissions in 2007. The highest emissions aside from production, originate from LULUC, followed by emissions from wasted food. The total GHG mitigation potential from the livestock sector in Europe is between 101 and 377 Mt CO2 e equivalent to between 12 and 61% of total EU27 livestock sector emissions in 2007. A reduction in food waste and consumption of livestock products linked with reduced production, are the most effective mitigation options, and if encouraged, would also deliver environmental and human health benefits. Production of beef and dairy on grassland, as opposed to intensive grain fed production, can be associated with a reduction in GHG emissions depending on actual LULUC emissions. This could be promoted on rough grazing land where appropriate. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  3. Livestock and elk grazing effects on stream morphology, brown trout population dynamics, movement, and growth rate, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate grazing in riparian areas has been shown to detrimentally impact stream morphology and fish populations. Goals of this research were to assess changes in stream morphology and responses of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to exclusion of cattle (Bos taurus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) from riparian...

  4. Preweaning productivity of suckling goats and sheep in Guadeloupe (FWI) under intensive reproductive rate and grazing management.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, E; Alexandre, G; Arquet, R; Mahieu, M; Xandé, A

    2005-02-01

    In Guadeloupe, small ruminants are reared for meat production under pasture conditions. Intensive rotative grazing systems (irrigated, fertilized and high-stocked tropical pastures) allow satisfactory levels of production but generate high post-grazing residues. Experiments were designed to control these. A system in which residuals were mown (RM) was tested in comparison to the control system (residuals remained, RR). The same design was carried out over two years with Creole goats and Martinik sheep. An accelerated reproductive rate (3 parturitions over 2 years) was carried out. Systems were compared at three parturition seasons per year (dry, intermediate and rainy seasons). Each group was composed of 20 goats (36.0+/-2.5 kg) or 20 ewes (46.8+/-2.4 kg). The systems exhibited high levels of productivity in both species compared to other results in the tropics: more than 50 and 30 offspring born alive per hectare and per reproductive season for the goat and ewe flocks, respectively. The annual production at birth was 110 kg kids/ha per year and 133 kg lambs/ha per year (i.e. 21% more). Corresponding values at weaning were 630 kg kids/ha per year and 785 kg lambs/ha per year (i.e. 25% more). The RM system produced 10% more than the RR system in Creole goats, while it produced 35% more in Martinik sheep. Seasonal effects and other factors of variation are discussed.

  5. Relationship Between Forage Allowance and Grazing Efficiency in the Great Plains: Implications for Managing Rangelands for Both Livestock Production and Desired Ecosystem Goods and Services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emergence of desired ecosystem goods and services from rangelands as a societal benefit and a potential income source for land managers has implications regarding the management of plant communities traditionally used primarily for livestock production. Contemporary decision-making on rangelands in ...

  6. Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late-twenty-first century climate

    Treesearch

    Justin Derner; David Briske; Matt Reeves; Tami Brown-Brandl; Miranda Meehan; Dana Blumenthal; William Travis; David Augustine; Hailey Wilmer; Derek Scasta; John Hendrickson; Jerry Volesky; Laura Edwards; Dannele Peck

    2017-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region of the USA - which comprises Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska - is a largely rural area that provides numerous ecosystem services, including livestock products, cultural services, and conservation of biological diversity. The region contains 25% of the Nation's beef cattle and approximately...

  7. Optimal temperature and light intensity for improved mixotrophic metabolism of Chlorella sorokiniana treating livestock wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hun; Jang, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2017-09-05

    Mixotrophic microalgal growth gives a great premise for wastewater treatment based on photoautotrophic nutrient utilization and heterotrophic organic removal while producing renewable biomass. There remains a need for a control strategy to enrich them in a photobioreactor. This study performed a series of batch experiments using a mixotroph, Chlorella sorokiniana, to characterize optimal guidelines of mixotrophic growth based on the statistical design of experiment. Using a central composite design, this study evaluated how temperature and light irradiance is associated with the CO₂ capture and organic carbon respiration through biomass production and ammonia removal kinetics. By conducting regressions on the experimental data, response surfaces were created to suggest proper ranges of temperature and light irradiance that mixotrophs can beneficially use two types of energy sources. The results identified that efficient mixotrophic metabolism of Chlorella sorokiniana for organics and inorganics occurs at the temperature of 30~40 °C and diurnal light condition of 150~200 mol E/m²/s. Optimal specific growth rate and ammonia removal rate were recorded as 0.51 d⁻¹ and 0.56 h⁻¹ on average, respectively, and the confirmation test verified that the organic removal rate was 105 mg COD/L/d. These results support developing a viable option for sustainable treatment and effluent quality management of problematic livestock wastewater.

  8. Life strategy and grazing intensity responses of Brachionus calyciflorus fed on different concentrations of microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ye; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Xinglan; Su, Yuqi; Yang, Jiaxin

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of Microcystis blooms is a worldwide concern due to the numerous adverse effects on zooplankton. We therefore hypothesized that the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is harmful to rotifer growth. Population and individual experiments were conducted with the same proportional volumes of Chlorella and Microcystis for given food densities. Life-table parameters, life-history traits, and the grazing intensity of Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated after they had fed on microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis, both alone and combined with an edible alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), at concentrations of 1 × 105, 1 × 106, and 1 × 107 cells mL−1. The results showed that the interactive effects of food density and type appeared to be synergistic on generation time (T), net reproduction rate (R0), body length, swimming speed, and reproduction time. In contrast, these effects appeared to be antagonistic on intrinsic growth rate (r), finite rate of increase (λ), time to first brood, post-reproductive time and total offspring per female. The grazing rate of rotifers decreased with grazing time. Although the toxins released after grazing on M. aeruginosa had negative effects on rotifer growth and reproduction, B. calyciflorus changed its life strategy and grazing intensity in response to eutrophic conditions. PMID:28230067

  9. Life strategy and grazing intensity responses of Brachionus calyciflorus fed on different concentrations of microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ye; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Xinglan; Su, Yuqi; Yang, Jiaxin

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of Microcystis blooms is a worldwide concern due to the numerous adverse effects on zooplankton. We therefore hypothesized that the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is harmful to rotifer growth. Population and individual experiments were conducted with the same proportional volumes of Chlorella and Microcystis for given food densities. Life-table parameters, life-history traits, and the grazing intensity of Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated after they had fed on microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis, both alone and combined with an edible alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), at concentrations of 1 × 105, 1 × 106, and 1 × 107 cells mL-1. The results showed that the interactive effects of food density and type appeared to be synergistic on generation time (T), net reproduction rate (R0), body length, swimming speed, and reproduction time. In contrast, these effects appeared to be antagonistic on intrinsic growth rate (r), finite rate of increase (λ), time to first brood, post-reproductive time and total offspring per female. The grazing rate of rotifers decreased with grazing time. Although the toxins released after grazing on M. aeruginosa had negative effects on rotifer growth and reproduction, B. calyciflorus changed its life strategy and grazing intensity in response to eutrophic conditions.

  10. Sheep grazing wheat summer fallow and the impact on soil nitrogen, moisture, and crop yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When incorporating targeted grazing into farming systems, livestock producers and farm operators need assurance that the benefits from their activities are worth their investments. Cropping systems were once integrated with livestock production: livestock gained forage value from crop aftermath, c...

  11. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: a comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior and intensity metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchg...

  12. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  13. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  14. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  15. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  16. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  17. The influence of tillage on N2O fluxes from an intensively managed grazed grassland in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas J.; Levy, Peter E.; Famulari, Daniela; Anderson, Margaret; Drewer, Julia; Carozzi, Marco; Reay, David S.; Skiba, Ute M.

    2016-08-01

    Intensively managed grass production in high-rainfall temperate climate zones is a globally important source of N2O. Many of these grasslands are occasionally tilled to rejuvenate the sward, and this can lead to increased N2O emissions. This was investigated by comparing N2O fluxes from two adjacent intensively managed grazed grasslands in Scotland, one of which was tilled. A combination of eddy covariance, high-resolution dynamic chamber and static chamber methods was used. N2O emissions from the tilled field increased significantly for several days immediately after ploughing and remained elevated for approximately 2 months after the tillage event contributing to an estimated increase in N2O fluxes of 0.85 ± 0.11 kg N2O-N ha-1. However, any influence on N2O emissions after this period appears to be minimal. The cumulative N2O emissions associated with the tillage event and a fertiliser application of 70 kg N ammonia nitrate from one field were not significantly different from the adjacent untilled field, in which two fertiliser applications of 70 kg N ammonia nitrate occurred during the same period. Total cumulative fluxes calculated for the tilled and untilled fields over the entire 175-day measurement period were 2.14 ± 0.18 and 1.65 ± 1.02 kg N2O-N ha-1, respectively.

  18. Influence of stream characteristics and grazing intensity on stream temperatures in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    S.B. Maloney; A.R. Tiedemann; D.A. Higgins; T.M. Quigley; D.B. Marx

    1999-01-01

    Stream temperatures were measured during summer months, 1978 to 1984, at 12 forested watersheds near John Day, Oregon, to determine temperature characteristics and assess effects of three range management strategies of increasing intensity. Maximum temperatures in streams of the 12 watersheds ranged from 12.5 to 27.8 oC. Maximum stream temperatures on four watersheds...

  19. Winter grazing can reduce wildfire size, intensity, and behavior in a shrub-grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. An increase in mega-fires and wildfires in general is a global issue that is expected to become worse with climate change. Fuel treatments are often recommended to decrease the risk, size, intensity, and severity of wildfires; however, the extensive nature of rangelands limits the use of many po...

  20. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Mattia; Verdú, José R; Zunino, Mario E

    2017-01-01

    Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity-related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming-is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant) than the main effects (each factor separately) for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and the rational use

  1. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Mattia; Zunino, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant) than the main effects (each factor separately) for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and the rational

  2. Effects of Yak grazing on plant community characteristics of meadow grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Linrong; Hou, Fujiang; Bowatte, Saman; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is an important part of the global terrestrial ecosystem that provides many ecological roles such as biodiversity protection, upper watersheds for large rivers, circulation of materials, energy balance and provision of forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife. Approximately 40% of the QTP is alpine meadow grasslands and yak farming is one of the dominant land use activities. In recent years, the rapid increase in the number of yaks grazing on meadow grasslands has raised concerns about grassland degradation. In this study we examined the effects of yak grazing on the grassland community characteristics to evaluate the degradation potential of alpine meadow in the QTP. The experiment was carried out on three farms, in close proximity to each other, that were operating at different grazing intensities in Maqu county (N35°58', E101°53', altitude 3650m) of the QTP in the Gansu province in China. We tested 4 levels of yak grazing intensities; control (no grazing), light (2.6yak/ha), moderate (3.5yak/ha) and high (6.5yak/ha ). We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would significantly impact the plant community characteristics through trampling effects above and below ground. We found grazing significantly (P<0.05) impacted the above and below ground biomass. Above ground biomass was highest in the non grazed area and lowest in the high grazing farm. In contrast, below ground biomass was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the moderate grazing farm compared to the non grazed area. The plant community density and the proportion of edible grass biomass were not significantly affected by the grazing treatments. The species richness was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the moderate and high intensity grazing farms compared to the non grazed area. The soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth was significantly lower at the high grazing intensity farm compared to the non grazed area and in contrast soil temperature was significantly

  3. 25 CFR 161.302 - What restrictions are placed on grazing permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What restrictions are placed on grazing permits? 161.302... PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Permit Requirements § 161.302 What restrictions are placed on grazing permits? Only a grazing permit issued under this part authorizes the grazing of livestock within...

  4. Trends in the Northeast dairy industry: large-scale modern confinement feeding and management-intensive grazing.

    PubMed

    Winsten, J R; Kerchner, C D; Richardson, A; Lichau, A; Hyman, J M

    2010-04-01

    This paper provides a summary of results from a recent survey of 987 dairy farmers in 4 northeastern US states. The survey results provide descriptive characteristics of the current state of dairy farming in the region, as well as farmer satisfaction levels, concerns, and plans for the future of their farming operations. The paper analyses characteristics of two increasingly important dairy production systems used in the Northeast. Averages from across the survey states (Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont) show that approximately 13% of dairy producers use management-intensive or rotational grazing and 7% use large, modern confinement systems with more than 300 cows. These more specialized production systems show many significant differences in farm and farmer characteristics, satisfaction levels, and plans for the future compared with farms using more traditional production systems. The changing structure of the dairy industry has potentially important implications for environmental quality, rural communities, and the food system. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    PubMed

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  6. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  7. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... association may hold a grazing permit to benefit its members according to the rules of the association constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand...

  8. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... association may hold a grazing permit to benefit its members according to the rules of the association constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand...

  9. Grazing Occultations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Doug; Hlynialuk, John

    1983-01-01

    A "grazing occultation" occurs when a star or other astronomical body is covered up by the extreme northern or southern limb of the moon in its easterly motion about the earth. Graze phenomena, organizing a graze expedition, and the scientific/educational value of observing grazes are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  10. 36 CFR 262.10 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized livestock. 262.10 Section 262.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock or livestock in excess of those authorized by a grazing permit... officer determines that such livestock use is occurring, has definite knowledge of the kind of...

  11. Viewpoint: needed research on domestic and recreational livestock in wilderness

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    1989-01-01

    The issue of domestic livestock grazing will become more controversial as wilderness areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management are added to the system. Many of these areas are likely to have little recreational use, leaving livestock grazing as the most serious potential threat to wilderness values. My intent is to point out the importance of...

  12. Density and success of bird nests relative to grazing on western Montana grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Ball, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Grassland birds are declining at a faster rate than any other group of North American bird species. Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of grasslands in the western United States, but the effects of this use on distribution and productivity of grassland birds are unclear. We examined nest density and success of ground-nesting birds on grazed and ungrazed grasslands in western Montana. In comparison to grazed plots, ungrazed plots had reduced forb cover, increased litter cover, increased litter depth, and increased visual obstruction readings (VOR) of vegetation. Nest density among 10 of 11 common bird species was most strongly correlated with VOR of plots, and greatest nest density for each species occurred where mean VOR of the plot was similar to mean VOR at nests. Additionally, all bird species were relatively consistent in their choice of VOR at nests despite substantial differences in VOR among plots. We suggest that birds selected plots based in part on availability of suitable nest sites and that variation in nest density relative to grazing reflected the effect of grazing on availability of nest sites. Nest success was similar between grazed plots and ungrazed plots for two species but was lower for nests on grazed plots than on ungrazed plots for two other species because of increased rates of predation, trampling, or parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Other species nested almost exclusively on ungrazed plots (six species) or grazed plots (one species), precluding evaluation of the effects of grazing on nest success. We demonstrate that each species in a diverse suite of ground-nesting birds preferentially used certain habitats for nesting and that grazing altered availability of preferred nesting habitats through changes in vegetation structure and plant species composition. We also show that grazing directly or indirectly predisposed some bird species to increased nesting mortality. Management alternatives that avoid

  13. Targeted grazing: Applying the research to the land

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The discipline of range science is in part based on the observation that vegetation on rangelands changes in response to livestock grazing. For much of the history of range science, livestock grazing was considered to affect range plants and ecological condition negatively. Thus range plants were cl...

  14. Soil organic carbon responses to grazing and woody plant encroachment in a semi-desert grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, H. L.; Archer, S. R.; McClaran, M.; Ojima, D.; Keough, C.; Parton, W.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of carbon (C) in grassland and savanna ecosystems is belowground. Recent estimates suggest the historic and ongoing proliferation of woody plants in these systems may account for a significant fraction of the Northern Hemisphere carbon (C) sink. A large degree of uncertainty in the direction and magnitude of soil C pool response to woody encroachment exists, however. Soil organic C (SOC) response to woody encroachment may be modified by current and historical land management patterns, but the nature of these relationships is poorly understood. We used CENTURY, a process-based ecosystem model, to explore historical patterns and project future changes in SOC in response to Prosopis velutina encroachment and livestock grazing in a southern Arizona semi-desert grassland. We parameterized and adapted CENTURY for our study site using woody and herbaceous biomass data and P. velutina growth rate estimates. Modeled contemporary SOC levels were +/- 15% of measured levels. Simulations of historical grazing management suggest that grassland SOC dropped nearly 50% (from 1020 to 530 g C m-2) in response to heavy, continuous livestock grazing initiated around 1850. SOC recovery varied with the degree of relaxation of grazing intensity, with nearly full recovery occurring in areas where grazing was excluded between 1903 and 2005 (modeled SOC = 930 g C m-2 in 2005). Woody encroachment, beginning around 1900, had a strong positive influence on modeled SOC, with the greatest accumulations associated with plants greater than 60 years old. Grazing mediated this response, such that sub-canopy SOC in grazed areas was 200-300 g C m-2 less than that in ungrazed areas. Forward simulations suggest that SOC will continue to increase until woody plant stands reach ca. 130 years of age, at which point SOC will stabilize around 3300 g C m^{- 2} for grazed sites and 3000 g C m-2 for ungrazed sites. Results indicate that woody plant encroachment has strong positive influence on SOC

  15. The Fundamentals of a Managed Grazing Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The underlying principle of a managed grazing program is to manage livestock in a manner that controls the timing and extent of grazing of forage plants so that the pasture provides a reliable source of forage of the appropriate quality throughout the growing season. Control of when, how often, and...

  16. Prevalence of Eimeria leuckarti (Flesch, 1883) and intensity of faecal oocyst output in a herd of horses during a summer grazing season.

    PubMed

    Bauer, C

    1988-11-01

    The prevalence of Eimeria leuckarti infection and the intensity of faecal oocyst output were determined in a herd of 14 mares and their foals in northwest Germany using a sedimentation technique at weekly intervals during a summer grazing season from May to September. None of the mares, but all foals shed oocysts on at least one occasion. The patent periods lasted up to 16 weeks. The mean intensity of oocyst output (0.1-33 o.p.g.) was very low. No clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorder were noticed in any of the foals during this study.

  17. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  18. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    PubMed

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  19. Managing grazing of riparian areas in the Intermountain Region

    Treesearch

    Warren P. Clary; Bert F. Webster

    1989-01-01

    Concern about livestock grazing in riparian habitats and its effect upon riparian-dependent resources has resulted in numerous controversies about the appropriate management approach. This document provides guidance for grazing of riparian areas in a manner that should reduce both nonpoint source pollution and potential grazing impacts on other riparian-dependent...

  20. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing... environmental values when exercising the grazing use authorized by the permit. (7) Modify the terms and conditions of a permit to conform to current situations brought about by changes in law, regulation...

  1. 43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority for grazing privileges. 4200.1 Section 4200.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges....

  2. Ammonia emissions of a rotational grazing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglmeier, Karl; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus; Ammann, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agricultural livestock production is the main source of air pollution by ammonia (NH3). Grazing is considered to reduce emissions significantly. However, ammonia emissions measurements on pastures are very rare and most emission models base their emissions factors for grazing on studies from the 1990s, which report a large emission range from 2.7% to 13.6% of the applied total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). We present first results of the Posieux pasture experiment in 2016 where NH3 concentration and fluxes were measured during the grazing season. The applied methods include an eddy covariance system with a two channel reactive nitrogen (Nr) converter measuring in parallel the sum of oxidized Nr species and the sum of the total Nr species. The difference of the two channels corresponds to the sum of reduced Nr species. Furthermore four MiniDOAS instruments for line integrated concentration measurements without an inlet system were used. The fluxes were estimated by applying a backward Lagrangian stochastic model (bLS) to the concentration difference of paired MiniDOAS up- and downwind of a sub-plot of the field. Monitoring of dung (visual survey) and urine patch locations (with soil electrical conductivity sensor) was carried out after each grazing rotation on selected sub-plots. It helped to compute statistics of the dung/urine patch distribution on the pasture. The experimental setup and the environmental conditions resulted in high temporal and spatial dynamics of NH3 concentrations and fluxes. The calculated fluxes were used to estimate the total net emission during the grazing period. Based on the average dung/urine patch distribution on the field an emission factor for the pasture was computed and compared to results from the literature. We discuss the applicability and limitations of the two measurement systems, reconsider the main emission drivers and explain differences in the results.

  3. Light-intensity grazing improves alpine meadow productivity and adaption to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yangjian; Xu, Mingjie; Zhu, Juntao; Wimberly, Michael C; Yu, Guirui; Niu, Shuli; Xi, Yi; Zhang, Xianzhou; Wang, Jingsheng

    2015-10-30

    To explore grazing effects on carbon fluxes in alpine meadow ecosystems, we used a paired eddy-covariance (EC) system to measure carbon fluxes in adjacent fenced (FM) and grazed (GM) meadows on the Tibetan plateau. Gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) were greater at GM than FM for the first two years of fencing. In the third year, the productivity at FM increased to a level similar to the GM site. The higher productivity at GM was mainly caused by its higher photosynthetic capacity. Grazing exclusion did not increase carbon sequestration capacity for this alpine grassland system. The higher optimal photosynthetic temperature and the weakened ecosystem response to climatic factors at GM may help to facilitate the adaption of alpine meadow ecosystems to changing climate.

  4. Light-intensity grazing improves alpine meadow productivity and adaption to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yangjian; Xu, Mingjie; Zhu, Juntao; Wimberly, Michael C.; Yu, Guirui; Niu, Shuli; Xi, Yi; Zhang, Xianzhou; Wang, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    To explore grazing effects on carbon fluxes in alpine meadow ecosystems, we used a paired eddy-covariance (EC) system to measure carbon fluxes in adjacent fenced (FM) and grazed (GM) meadows on the Tibetan plateau. Gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) were greater at GM than FM for the first two years of fencing. In the third year, the productivity at FM increased to a level similar to the GM site. The higher productivity at GM was mainly caused by its higher photosynthetic capacity. Grazing exclusion did not increase carbon sequestration capacity for this alpine grassland system. The higher optimal photosynthetic temperature and the weakened ecosystem response to climatic factors at GM may help to facilitate the adaption of alpine meadow ecosystems to changing climate. PMID:26515954

  5. Light-intensity grazing improves alpine meadow productivity and adaption to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yangjian; Xu, Mingjie; Zhu, Juntao; Wimberly, Michael C.; Yu, Guirui; Niu, Shuli; Xi, Yi; Zhang, Xianzhou; Wang, Jingsheng

    2015-10-01

    To explore grazing effects on carbon fluxes in alpine meadow ecosystems, we used a paired eddy-covariance (EC) system to measure carbon fluxes in adjacent fenced (FM) and grazed (GM) meadows on the Tibetan plateau. Gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) were greater at GM than FM for the first two years of fencing. In the third year, the productivity at FM increased to a level similar to the GM site. The higher productivity at GM was mainly caused by its higher photosynthetic capacity. Grazing exclusion did not increase carbon sequestration capacity for this alpine grassland system. The higher optimal photosynthetic temperature and the weakened ecosystem response to climatic factors at GM may help to facilitate the adaption of alpine meadow ecosystems to changing climate.

  6. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  7. Performance by heifers grazing sod-seeded cool-season annuals seeded on different dates using two tillage intensities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 120 Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred heifers (552'2.5 lb initial BW) grazed pastures of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] overseeded with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for a 3-year study to compare the effect of seeding dates and till...

  8. Influence of livestock density on the amount and structure of soil microbial communities in rangelands of SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, Manuel; Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Lavado-Contador, Francisco; Ortega, Raul; Soriano, Miguel; Miralles, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Rangelands (namely dehesas and montados) occupy more than 90,000 km2 of land in SW Iberian Peninsula. Their natural pastures are permanently grazed by 13 millions of domestic animals. The persistence of soils of high quality is a key factor for keeping their environmental and economic sustainability. The role of soil microbial communities in the biodegradation processes of organic compounds is essential to ensure soil fertility in this kind of human-induced ecosystems. Nevertheless, there are few studies dealing the effects of livestock grazing on soil microbial communities. The main goal of this study is therefore to assess the amount and structure of soil microbial communities in rangelands of SW Spain by comparing different grazing intensities. The study was carried out in 4 fenced areas (sampling sites) belonging to privately-owned farms under different grazing intensities: low, moderate and high. One area excluded to grazing for more than 40 years (located in the Monfragüe National Park, Extremadura) was used as reference sampling site. A total number of 30 soil samples (6 each site) were collected in comparable areas with the same lithology and very similar topographical features. Commercial kit to extract DNA from these soil samples was used for metagenomic analysis. We conducted a sequencing of the amplicons V4-V5 of the 16S rRNA gene with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Illumina MiSeq platform and a relative quantity of bacteria and fungi were accomplished by quantitative qPCR of rRNA 16S and ITS1-5.8S, respectively. The results showed that soils with a high livestock density had the highest content of bacteria per gram of soil (4.77E+09), followed by soils with moderate (3.32E+09) and low livestock density (2.80E+09). The lowest content of microorganisms was found in soils excluded to grazing (2.38E+09). However, soils with moderate and low livestock density showed the greatest amount of fungi per gram of soil (2.31E+10 and 2.22E+10, respectively) and

  9. Willow establishment in relation to cattle grazing on an eastern Oregon stream

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Warren P. Clary

    1996-01-01

    Natural regeneration and growth of coyote willow (Salix exigua Nutt. ssp. exigua) and whiplash willow (S. lasiandra Bemth. var. caudata [Nutt.] Sudw.) were monitored from 1987 to 1993 on a low-elevation eastern Oregon stream degraded by more than a century of heavy livestock grazing. Treatments were no grazing, moderate spring grazing, moderate fall grazing, and...

  10. Patterns of livestock activity on heterogeneous subalpine pastures reveal distinct responses to spatial autocorrelation, environment and management.

    PubMed

    Homburger, Hermel; Lüscher, Andreas; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schneider, Manuel K

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of grazing livestock on pasture ecosystems, it is essential to quantify pasture use intensity at a fine spatial scale and the factors influencing its distribution. The observation and analysis of animal activity is greatly facilitated by remote tracking technology and new statistical frameworks allowing for rapid inference on spatially correlated data. We used these advances to study activity patterns of GPS-tracked cows in six summer-grazing areas in the Swiss Alps that differed in environmental conditions as well as livestock management. Recorded GPS positions were assigned to the activities of grazing, resting, and walking, and were discretized on a regular grid. Regression models with spatially structured effects were fitted to the spatial activity patterns using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. They indicated that terrain slope, forage quality, and stocking rate were the primary factors determining cow activity in the six study areas. Terrain slope significantly reduced livestock activity in five of the six areas and sparse forage availability significantly reduced grazing in all areas. In three areas, grazing pressure imposed by the pasture rotation was observable in the grazing pattern. Insolation, distance to the shed, and distance to water were less important for cow activity. In addition to the main factors identified across all study areas, we found effects operating only in individual areas, which were partly explained by specific environmental and management characteristics. In study areas with few paddocks, environmental variables exerted a stronger control on livestock activity than in areas with a short stocking period per paddock. The data demonstrated that a strict pasture rotation with short stocking periods is necessary to influence livestock activity, and hence potential effects on ecosystem processes. Without grazing management, livestock activity is primarily determined by the environment. Such

  11. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management.

    PubMed

    Oles, Kristin M; Weixelman, Dave A; Lile, David F; Tate, Kenneth W; Snell, Laura K; Roche, Leslie M

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  12. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  13. CO2 balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture during pasture renewal via cultivation or direct drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Susanna; Mudge, Paul; Wall, Aaron; Campbell, Dave; Schipper, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The management practice of pasture renewal (PR, also referred to as 'restoration') of permanent pastures offers the opportunity to replace low producing pasture, remove weeds and pests, improve drainage, and introduce improved pasture varieties, thereby increasing pasture production. PR can consist of a range of practices including spraying existing pasture with herbicide, followed by direct drilling or full cultivation (ploughing). Although PR is common in some farming systems, little is known about the impact of PR of permanent pastures on soil C and CO2 dynamics. Here we report on the CO2 balance following four PR events of intensively grazed permanent pastures in temperate New Zealand. Three events of PR followed the same method which included two herbicide sprays and a full cultivation (CULT). PR events took place in either spring or autumn, which meant soil moisture conditions varied greatly between PR events. For the fourth PR event, pasture was sprayed only once, and was not cultivated but instead seeds were directly drilled (DD) into the sprayed-off pasture. Chambers and the eddy covariance technique were used to measure the CO2 exchange before, during and after PR. In addition to the direct loss of CO2 measured during the PR events, we also quantified the 'net impact of PR' which we defined as the difference between net CO2 exchange of the pasture that underwent PR and that of an undisturbed pasture which served as a control. This way, we also accounted for the temporary lack of photosynthetic carbon inputs when plants were absent during the PR events. Both the rate of direct CO2 respiratory losses and the 'net impact of PR' appeared highly dependent on soil moisture status, with the lowest rate of loss measured under severe drought conditions and the highest rate of loss measured in spring when ample moisture was present. Because the rate of CO2 loss did not decrease over time during PR, the longer the soil was bare, the more CO2 was lost. The duration

  14. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; Spruijt, Ineke T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E.; Maassen, Catharina B. M.; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20–72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0–9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  15. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Freidl, Gudrun S; Spruijt, Ineke T; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A M; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Heederik, Dick J J; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20-72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0-9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non-infectious agents

  16. Sheep performance under intensive continuous grazing of native grasslands of Paspalum notatum and Axonopus compressus in the subtropical region of the Highlands of Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Nova, F; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Castelán-Ortega, O A; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2008-10-01

    Liveweight gain was evaluated in tropical Dorper X Pelibuey lambs under intensive continuous grazing of native grasslands dominated by Paspalum notatum (PN) or Axonopus compressus (AC) in the subtropics of Central Mexico. Two trials were undertaken. Trial 1 lasted 12 weeks with 10 lambs (initial weight 18 +/- 2.57 kg, 3 months old) per treatment in 2002, and Trial 2 for 13 weeks with 8 lambs (initial weight 24.0 +/- 2.0 kg, 4 months old) per treatment. Lambs were weighed once per week, and liveweight change was estimated by linear regression over day of the experiment, using individual regression coefficients as unbiased estimates of daily liveweight change; analysed in a random block design. Lambs on Trial 1 gained 0.061 kg/lamb/day on PN and 0.047 kg/lamb/day on AC (P > 0.05) at an overall mean stocking rate of 25 lambs/ha. In Trial 2, liveweight gain was significantly larger in PN (0.060 kg/lamb/day) than on AC (0.043 kg/lamb/day) (P < 0.05), at a mean stocking rate of 21.5 lambs/ha. It is concluded that intensive continuous grazing of native grasslands in the subtropics of the highlands of Central Mexico enables moderate liveweight gains for weaned lambs during the rainy season; with better results in grasslands dominated by Paspalum notatum.

  17. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  18. Integrated Response of Grassland Biomass Along Co-varying Gradients of Climate and Grazing Management Using an Eco-hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. J.; Tague, N.; Kruger, C. E.; Johnson, K.; Adam, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Grasses in rangeland ecosystems cover a large portion of the contiguous United States and are used to support the production of livestock. These grasslands experience a wide range of precipitation and temperature regimes, as well as management activities like grazing. Assessing the coupled response of biomass to both climatic change and human activities is important to decision makers to ensure the sustainable management of their lands. The objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity of biomass under co-varying conditions of climate and grazing management. For this, we used the Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a physically-based model that simulates coupled water and biogeochemical processes. We selected representative grassland sites using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and information on major grass species. Historical data on precipitation, temperature, and grazing patterns (intensity, frequency, duration) were incrementally perturbed to simulate climatic change and possible changes in management. To visualize this multi-dimensional parameter space, we created surface response plots of varying climate and grazing factors for the mean and variance of both aboveground and belowground biomass, as well as the ratio between the two. Mean biomass generally increased with warmer temperatures and decreased with more intense grazing. The sensitivity of biomass (i.e. variance) increased with more extreme perturbations in climate and intense types of grazing management. However, co-varying climate conditions with either grazing intensity, frequency, or duration revealed different biomass responses and tradeoffs. For example, some changes in grazing duration could be reversed by changes in climate. Effects of high intensity grazing could be buffered depending on the timing of grazing (i.e. start/end date). Using simple perturbations with process-based modeling provides useful information for land managers for future planning.

  19. Impact of grazing intensity on seasonal variations in soil organic carbon and soil CO2 efflux in two semiarid grasslands in southern Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important source of organic carbon, and affect a range of ecosystem functions in arid and semiarid environments. Yet the impact of grazing disturbance on crust properties and soil CO2 efflux remain poorly studied, particularly in African ecosystems. The effects of burial under wind-blown sand, disaggregation and removal of BSCs on seasonal variations in soil CO2 efflux, soil organic carbon, chlorophyll a and scytonemin were investigated at two sites in the Kalahari of southern Botswana. Field experiments were employed to isolate CO2 efflux originating from BSCs in order to estimate the C exchange within the crust. Organic carbon was not evenly distributed through the soil profile but concentrated in the BSC. Soil CO2 efflux was higher in Kalahari Sand than in calcrete soils, but rates varied significantly with seasonal changes in moisture and temperature. BSCs at both sites were a small net sink of C to the soil. Soil CO2 efflux was significantly higher in sand soils where the BSC was removed, and on calcrete where the BSC was buried under sand. The BSC removal and burial under sand also significantly reduced chlorophyll a, organic carbon and scytonemin. Disaggregation of the soil crust, however, led to increases in chlorophyll a and organic carbon. The data confirm the importance of BSCs for C cycling in drylands and indicate intensive grazing, which destroys BSCs through trampling and burial, will adversely affect C sequestration and storage. Managed grazing, where soil surfaces are only lightly disturbed, would help maintain a positive carbon balance in African drylands. PMID:23045706

  20. Impact of grazing intensity on seasonal variations in soil organic carbon and soil CO2 efflux in two semiarid grasslands in southern Botswana.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew D

    2012-11-19

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important source of organic carbon, and affect a range of ecosystem functions in arid and semiarid environments. Yet the impact of grazing disturbance on crust properties and soil CO(2) efflux remain poorly studied, particularly in African ecosystems. The effects of burial under wind-blown sand, disaggregation and removal of BSCs on seasonal variations in soil CO(2) efflux, soil organic carbon, chlorophyll a and scytonemin were investigated at two sites in the Kalahari of southern Botswana. Field experiments were employed to isolate CO(2) efflux originating from BSCs in order to estimate the C exchange within the crust. Organic carbon was not evenly distributed through the soil profile but concentrated in the BSC. Soil CO(2) efflux was higher in Kalahari Sand than in calcrete soils, but rates varied significantly with seasonal changes in moisture and temperature. BSCs at both sites were a small net sink of C to the soil. Soil CO(2) efflux was significantly higher in sand soils where the BSC was removed, and on calcrete where the BSC was buried under sand. The BSC removal and burial under sand also significantly reduced chlorophyll a, organic carbon and scytonemin. Disaggregation of the soil crust, however, led to increases in chlorophyll a and organic carbon. The data confirm the importance of BSCs for C cycling in drylands and indicate intensive grazing, which destroys BSCs through trampling and burial, will adversely affect C sequestration and storage. Managed grazing, where soil surfaces are only lightly disturbed, would help maintain a positive carbon balance in African drylands.

  1. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  2. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  3. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  4. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  5. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  6. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  7. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  8. Can Managed Grazing be Part of Healthy Agroecosystems? Impacts of Various Systems on Soil Water and other Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Basche, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the vast extent of grazing lands, value of grassland ecosystems, and environmental impacts of the agricultural sector, it is becoming increasingly important to understand to what extent managed grazing can be part of healthy agroecosystems. For example, grazing systems can degrade soils, pollute water, and result in substantial direct and indirect animal emissions. On the other hand, well-managed grasslands can store more carbon, support more biodiversity, and require fewer inputs than croplands or other land uses. Systems analyses are needed to evaluate how much grazing management (e.g., altering stocking rate intensity or regime, integrating versus separating crops and livestock, adopting silvopasture techniques) can affect agroecosystem properties and farm viability. As a result of climate change and likely increases to rainfall variability, the effects of grazing systems on soil water properties are particularly important. The primary goal of this study is to use meta-analytic techniques to better understand how changes to grazing systems affect soil water properties, focusing on soil water infiltration rates. Another goal is to conduct a literature survey to assess how similar changes to grazing have influenced other ecosystem services (e.g., soil carbon, farm profitability) and to identify gaps in knowledge. To date, our meta-analysis includes over 100 paired comparisons (>30 studies) related to grazing. The analysis is a subset of a broader study of agroecological practices that to date includes >350 paired observations. Preliminary results point to significant variability, but suggest that integrating livestock into croplands decreases infiltration (12%), whereas other changings to grazing (decreasing stocking rates, moving from continuous to rotational grazing, or converting to a silvopasture system) can improve infiltration (by an average of 223% including all practices). Findings also suggest that removing livestock tends to increase infiltration

  9. 43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK... have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance...

  10. 43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK... have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance...

  11. 43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK... have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance...

  12. Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds of uncultivated upland grasslands of the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The principal use of uncultivated upland grasslands in the northern Great Plains is for livestock production. However, on lands set aside for wildlife or for scientific or recreational use, grazing by livestock may be used as a management measure to enhance populations of game species or to create conditions that increase the diversity of plant or animal species. To determine the effects of grazing on the avifauna of various types of Great Plains grasslands, we conducted bird censuses and plant surveys during 1974-78 on 615 plots of lightly, moderately, or heavily grazed native rangeland.Numbers of horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys), and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 65-75% of the total bird population, regardless of grazing intensity. For the entire area sampled (600,000 km2), horned lark, western meadowlark, and chestnut-collared longspur were the dominant birds. Major differences in composition of the dominant species and species richness occurred among the major soils. Increased mean annual soil temperature seemingly had a greater negative influence on avian species richness than did decreased soil moisture or organic matter content. Differences in total bird density were not significant among soils and among grazing intensities within most soils. For the area as a whole, light or moderate grazing resulted in increased species richness. Of the 29 species studied, 2 responded significantly to grazing for the area as a whole and 6 others to grazing on the soil in which peak densities occurred. Response of several other species to grazing effects evidently varied among strata.A list of plants with mean cover values of more than 1% in any of the 18 combinations of soils and grazing intensities contained less than 25 species, attesting to the relative simplicity of the grassland vegetation in the northern Great Plains. Agropyron spp. and Bouteloua gracilis

  13. Spatial relationship with the grazing pressure and alpine grassland degradation base on the GPS tracing experiment: a case study in the source region of Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    It is hard to distinguish the affects from the human activities and climate change on the grassland degradation, especially to quantification the human activities. Grazing is the main kind of human activities on the alpine grassland. To investigate the relationship of the grazing activities and grassland degradation will help the understanding of the effects of human impacts. A GPS tracing experiment was designed to tracing the activities of the Yaks. The spatial distribution of the grazing pressure was simulated under Geographic Information System. The biomass distribution and grazing pressure was compared to judge the distribution of overgrazing. The main research results are: (1) The tracing experiment could record the track of the Yaks very well, and it could be a good tool for the quantification research of grazing pressure. (2) The grazing activities have good relationship with vegetation, residents and landform. The worse vegetation is, the grazing time is longer and the radius is bigger. The closer to the residents, the grazing intensive is higher. The grazing route is influenced by the landform. Usually the herds would like to choose the least cost way. And the grazing intensive is higher in sunny slope. (3) The grazing probability is higher while the elevation is lower and the vegetation is better. The numbers of livestock of different villages determine the spatial distribution of the grazing pressure but it has very big heterogeneity in the same village. It seems the forage is enough in the research area since the available biomass is about 1190058t and the total demand is only 603700t. But because of the heterogeneity of the grazing pressure, there are still overgrazing in some villages. The area of overgrazing is 6 percent in the winter rangeland and 11 percent in summer rangeland. It is important to take care of the spatial heterogeneity of the grazing pressure and grass production in the management of the grassland ecosystem. It should improve the

  14. Quantifying livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a single growing season

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Working grassland systems provide important habitat for native biodiversity and forage for livestock, with proper livestock grazing playing an important role for sustainable ecosystem function. Traditional in-field techniques to monitor the effects of grazing on vegetation are costly and limited to ...

  15. Forage kochia (Kochia Prostrata) increases nutritional value, carrying capacity, and livestock performance on semiarid rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extending the grazing season into the fall and winter increases the sustainability of livestock production by reducing winter feed costs. However, without exception, stockpiled range grasses do not meet nutritional requirements for ruminant livestock. This study compared fall/winter grazing of tra...

  16. Acoustic monitoring system to quantify ingestive behavior of free-grazing cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods to estimate intake in grazing livestock include using markers, visual observation, mechanical sensors that respond to jaw movement and acoustic recording. In most of the acoustic monitoring studies, the microphone is inverted on the forehead of the grazing livestock and the skull is utilize...

  17. Evidence targeted grazing benefits to invaded rangelands can increase over extended time frames

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prescribed grazing uses livestock to address rangeland management issues such as woody plant encroachment, accumulations of flammable biomass and exotic weed invasions. Invasive weed responses to prescribed grazing have proven variable. For instance, a given livestock species can sharply reduce ab...

  18. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14... after consultation with District Grazing Committees shall issue regulations covering the buying...

  19. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matthew J; Cullen, Brendan R; Eckard, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  20. Consequences of ignoring geologic variation in evaluating grazing impacts

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina

    2006-01-01

    The geologic diversity of landforms in the Southwest complicates efforts to evaluate impacts of land uses such as livestock grazing. We examined a research study that evaluated relationships between trout biomass and stream habitat in the White Mountains of east-central Arizona. That study interpreted results of stepwise regressions and a nonparametric test of “grazed...

  1. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations concerning the development of allotment management plans and the utilization of range betterment....11 Section 222.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a...

  2. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations concerning the development of allotment management plans and the utilization of range betterment....11 Section 222.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a...

  3. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing... permit back to the United States. (iv) Fails to restock the allotted range after full extent of approved..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs. (8...

  4. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recommendations concerning the development of allotment management plans and the utilization of range betterment....11 Section 222.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a...

  5. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing... permit back to the United States. (iv) Fails to restock the allotted range after full extent of approved..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs. (8...

  6. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing... permit back to the United States. (iv) Fails to restock the allotted range after full extent of approved..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs. (8...

  7. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances.

  8. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    PubMed

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  9. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the normal...

  10. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the normal...

  11. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the normal...

  12. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the normal...

  13. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the normal...

  14. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  15. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  16. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  17. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  18. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who...

  19. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  20. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  1. 43 CFR 2711.1-3 - Sales requiring grazing permit or lease cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sales requiring grazing permit or lease... POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.1-3 Sales requiring grazing permit or lease cancellations. When lands are identified for disposal and such disposal will preclude livestock grazing,...

  2. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  3. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  4. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  5. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  6. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  7. 25 CFR 167.17 - Construction near permanent livestock water developments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction near permanent livestock water developments... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.17 Construction near permanent livestock water developments. (a) The... within one-half mile of Government or Navajo Tribal developed permanent livestock waters such as...

  8. 25 CFR 166.807 - When will we impound unauthorized livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we impound unauthorized livestock or other... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 166.807 When will we impound unauthorized livestock or other property? We will impound unauthorized livestock or other property under the following conditions:...

  9. 25 CFR 166.810 - How do I redeem my impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I redeem my impounded livestock or other property... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 166.810 How do I redeem my impounded livestock or other property? You may redeem impounded livestock or other property by submitting proof of ownership and paying...

  10. 25 CFR 161.710 - How can impounded livestock or other property be redeemed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can impounded livestock or other property be redeemed... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.710 How can impounded livestock or other property be redeemed? Impounded livestock or other property may be redeemed by submitting proof...

  11. Restoring Native California Oaks on Grazed Rangelands

    Treesearch

    Douglas D. McCreary; Jerry Tecklin

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to regenerate oaks on California’s oak woodlands often must address how to establish seedlings in areas grazed by livestock. Research indicates that damage to young oak seedlings from cattle varies by season, with less damage during the winter when deciduous oaks do not have leaves. While exclusion of cattle from planted areas does result in reduced damage, the...

  12. The impact of buffer strips and stream-side grazing on small mammals in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The practice of continuously grazing cattle along streams has caused extensive degradation of riparian habitats. Buffer strips and managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) have been proposed to protect and restore stream ecosystems in Wisconsin. However, the ecological implications of a switch from traditional livestock management to MIRG or buffer strip establishment have not been investigated. Differences in small mammal communities associated with riparian areas on continuously grazed and MIRG pastures, as well as vegetative buffer strips adjacent to row crops, were investigated in southwestern Wisconsin during May-September 1997 and 1998. More species (mean of 6-7) were found on the buffer sites than on the pasture sites (mean of 2-5). Total small mammal abundance on buffer sites was greater than on the pastures as well: there were 3-5 times as many animals on the buffer sites compared to the pasture sites, depending on year. There were no differences in species richness or total abundance between MIRG and continuously grazed pastures in either year. Total small mammal abundance was greater near the stream than away from the stream, regardless of farm management practice but there were no differences in species richness. Buffer strips appear to support a particularly rich and abundant small mammal community. Although results did not detect a difference in small mammal use between pasture types, farm-wide implications of a conversion from continuous to MIRG styles of grazing may benefit small mammals indirectly by causing an increase in the prevalence of pasture in the agricultural landscape.

  13. Global perspectives on nematode parasite control in ruminant livestock: the need to adopt alternatives to chemotherapy, with emphasis on biological control.

    PubMed

    Waller, Peter J

    2003-06-01

    Effective, sustainable control of nematode parasites of grazing livestock is becoming evermore challenging and difficult. This is largely due to two contrasting issues. One is the rapid escalation of resistance to anthelmintic drugs, which is arguably the greatest problem now facing the small ruminant industries worldwide. Secondly, there is the increasing trend towards organic farming, in which there is prohibition of the prophylactic use of all chemical compounds. Livestock producers urgently need non-chemotherapeutic alternatives in parasite control. Researchers have responded to this challenge and a variety of quite different approaches have been the subject of intense investigation in many countries for several decades now. These vary in relation to their stage of development for on-farm use, their utility, and their applicability across the spectrum of grazing livestock enterprises throughout the world. One relatively recent innovation is the biological control approach to nematode parasites. This has now reached the stage of commercialization. This review focuses on these issues and provides an overview of the possible ways in which the biological control of nematode parasites could be employed in grazing ruminant livestock systems worldwide.

  14. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  15. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  16. Nutritional and host effects on methanogenesis in the grazing ruminant.

    PubMed

    Clark, H

    2013-03-01

    Concentrations of methane (CH(4)) in the atmosphere have almost doubled since the mid 1700s, and it is estimated that ~30% of the global warming experienced by the planet in the last century and a half can be attributed to CH(4). Between 25% and 40% of anthropogenic CH(4), emissions are estimated to arise from livestock farming. Mitigating absolute emissions from livestock is extremely challenging technically and is made more difficult because of the need to increase food production to meet the demands of a burgeoning world population. Opportunities for manipulating the diet of intensively managed ruminant to reduce absolute CH(4) exist, but in grazing livestock the opportunities are constrained practically and economically. Mitigating emissions per unit of product is more tractable, especially in the short term. Although the formation of CH(4) is an anaerobic microbiological process, the host animal does seem to exert an influence, as animals differ in the quantity of CH(4) they emit when fed the same diet. The reasons for this are not yet clear, but evidence is accumulating that these differences are consistent and have a genetic basis. Exploiting these between animal differences by animal breeding is an attractive mitigation option as it is potentially applicable to all animals and is open to continuous improvement. However, identifying the desired phenotype poses severe practical constraints. Vaccinating the host animal to produce antibodies that can modulate the activities of the organisms responsible for CH(4) formation also presents a novel mitigation option.

  17. Effects of rotational and continuous grazing on herbage quality, feed intake and performance of sheep on a semi-arid grassland steppe.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jun; Dickhoefer, Uta; Lin, Lijun; Müller, Katrin; Glindemann, Thomas; Schönbach, Philipp; Schiborra, Anne; Wang, Chengjie; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Compared to continuous grazing (CG), rotational grazing (RG) increases herbage production and thereby the resilience of grasslands to intensive grazing. Results on feed intake and animal performance, however, are contradictory. Hence, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of RG and CG on herbage mass, digestibility of ingested organic matter (dOM), organic matter intake (OMI) and live weight gain (LWG) of sheep in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China. During June-September 2005-2008, two 2-ha plots were used for each grazing system. In RG, plots were divided into four 0.5-ha paddocks that were grazed for 10 days each at a moderate stocking rate. Instead, CG sheep grazed the whole plots throughout the entire grazing season. At the beginning of every month, dOM was estimated from faecal crude protein concentration. Faeces excretion was determined using titanium dioxide in six sheep per plot. The animals were weighed every month to determine their LWG. Across the years, herbage mass did not differ between systems (p = 0.820). However, dOM, OMI and LWG were lower in RG than in CG (p ≤ 0.005). Thus, our study showed that RG does not improve herbage growth, feed intake and performance of sheep and suggests that stocking rates rather than management system determine the ecological sustainability of pastoral livestock systems in semi-arid environments.

  18. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    Middle Eastern Mediterranean grasslands have evolved 8000-9000 years before present (BP). These grasslands were prehistorically subject to persistent pressure from grazing domesticated animals. Grazing and competition are the central factors affecting grassland communities, linking their maintenance, productivity, and management to biodiversity and livestock production. Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean grassland is a rich source of valuable forages for grazing livestock production systems in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. Competition treatments (absence/presence of neighbors) were combined with three defoliation ( as surrogate to grazing) intensities (0%, 30% and 60%) in a factorial design. Relative interaction index (RII) was used to measure competition intensity. RII standardizes the reduction in growth of one species due to presence of neighbor species. Competition reduced grass biomass by approximately 10-15% for final and cumulative biomass. Competition role was eliminated under heavy defoliation or under harsh environmental conditions. Defoliation showed variable results on final and cumulative biomass. While heavy defoliation (60% clipping intensity) greatly reduced final grass biomass, light-moderate defoliation (30%) has increased cumulative biomass. Results showed that competition may limit the direct effect of defoliation on dominant grass species. Further, competition effect on dominant annual grasses showed positive and negative effects in relation to site productivity and best explained by a sinusoidal model. This hypothesized sinusoidal model suggests that facilitation and competition are alternatively affecting grassland communities along productivity gradient. The nature of interaction changes with changing community productivity revealing a cyclic pattern. The reflection points where interaction switches from facilitation to competition may explain the mechanism of maintaining high species diversity at intermediate level of

  19. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-12-24

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss.

  20. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

  1. Effect of Grazing on Plant Attributes and Hydrological Properties in the Sloping Lands of the East African Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddese, Girma; Saleem, M. A. Mohamed; Astatke, Abyie; Ayaleneh, Wagnew

    2002-09-01

    Extending livestock grazing to the steep slopes has led to unstable grazing systems in the East African Highlands, and new solutions and approaches are needed to ameliorate the current situation. This work was aimed at studying the effect of livestock grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2000 at the International Livestock Research Institute at Debre Ziet Research Station. Two sites were selected: one at 0-4% slope, and the other at 4-8% slope. The treatments were: (1) no grazing (control); (2) light grazing, 0.6 animal unit months per hectare (aum/ha); (3) moderate grazing, 1.8 aum/ha; (4) heavy grazing, 3.0 aum/ha; (5) very heavy grazing, 4.2 aum/ha; (6) initially plowed and continuously very heavily grazed, 4.2 aum/ha. The result showed that species richness, infiltration rate, bare ground, and soil loss significantly varied with grazing pressure. Species richness was higher in grazed plots compared to nongrazed plots. Biomass yield improved on heavily grazed plots as cow dung accumulated over years. Cynodon dactylon plant species persisted with livestock grazing pressure in both sites. Infiltration rate improved and soil erosion declined in all treatments after the first year.

  2. Effect of grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties in the sloping lands of the East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Taddese, Girma; Saleem, M A Mohamed; Astatke, Abyie; Ayaleneh, Wagnew

    2002-09-01

    Extending livestock grazing to the steep slopes has led to unstable grazing systems in the East African Highlands, and new solutions and approaches are needed to ameliorate the current situation. This work was aimed at studying the effect of livestock grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2000 at the International Livestock Research Institute at Debre Ziet Research Station. Two sites were selected: one at 0-4% slope, and the other at 4-8% slope. The treatments were: (1) no grazing (control); (2) light grazing, 0.6 animal unit months per hectare (aum/ha); (3) moderate grazing, 1.8 aum/ha; (4) heavy grazing, 3.0 aum/ha; (5) very heavy grazing, 4.2 aum/ha; (6) initially plowed and continuously very heavily grazed, 4.2 aum/ha. The result showed that species richness, infiltration rate, bare ground, and soil loss significantly varied with grazing pressure. Species richness was higher in grazed plots compared to nongrazed plots. Biomass yield improved on heavily grazed plots as cow dung accumulated over years. Cynodon dactylon plant species persisted with livestock grazing pressure in both sites. Infiltration rate improved and soil erosion declined in all treatments after the first year.

  3. The role of grazing land on the buffalo population dynamics in Brebes regency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumanto

    2017-04-01

    Brebes District is one of the centre of grazing buffalo in Indonesia that involve thousands of rearers usually kept as a family savings. This paper highlighted the availability of land and the role of the grazing land for the durability of the maintenance of buffalo in Brebes Regency. The information obtained is from interviewed the livestock facilitators in the sub-district (primary data) and from statistic of agriculture in Brebes Regency 2014 (secondary data). Generally the buffalo kept semi-intensively and commonly the buffaloes graze in the fields that are not used from morning until evening and during nights buffaloes are placed in the stalls. Rearers chose the semi-intensive system in rearing the buffalo because it is considered easy to manage and they do not need to provide fresh money to prepare the roughage for feed, because commonly the grazing buffalo are shepherd by herdman that will receive buffalo as their payment. The population density is very high (1.056 heads/km2), the buffalo ownership is between 2-4 head/households; generally the location of the grazing land is in the forest, rice fields fallow, and sleeping land, and estimated that greenfeed stock is still available abunandtly, on the other hand the urban land is less capacity of feed. The spread of buffalo is only in 125 villages from 297 villages in Brebes. The acceptance of buffalo business is around IDR 3.5 million to IDR 7.5 million/family/year. The availability of grazing land strongly influence the maintaining of buffalo farming by rearers.

  4. Cattle Grazing and Conservation of a Meadow-Dependent Amphibian Species in the Sierra Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Leslie M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Eastburn, Danny J.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus) grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus). However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July–mid September) grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this working

  5. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Roche, Leslie M; Latimer, Andrew M; Eastburn, Danny J; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus) grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus). However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September) grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this working landscape.

  6. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    was found: 97% of this increase was attributed to the rise in CO2, -3% to climate trends and 15% to trends in nitrogen fertilization and deposition. When compared with statistical data, ORCHIDEE-GM captures well the observed phase of climate-driven interannual variability in grassland production well, whereas the magnitude of the interannual variability in modeled productivity is larger than the statistical data. Regional grass-fed livestock numbers can be reproduced by ORCHIDEE-GM based on its simple assumptions and parameterization about productivity being the only limiting factor to define the sustainable number of animals per unit area. Causes for regional model-data misfits are discussed, including uncertainties in farming practices (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer application, and mowing and grazing intensity) and in ruminant diet composition, as well as uncertainties in the statistical data and in model parameter values.

  7. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  8. Northern/Intermountain Regions' fish habitat inventory: Grazed, rested, and ungrazed reference stream reaches, Silver King Creek, California

    Treesearch

    C. Kerry Overton; Gwynne L. Chandler; Janice A. Pisano

    1994-01-01

    Stream reaches that have been rested from livestock grazing appear to have stable banks and more bank undercuts than grazed stream sections. Ungrazed reference streams that are similar in parent geology, precipitation, channel type, habitat types, drainage area, and stream width had greater bank stability values and lower width-todepth ratios than those of grazed and...

  9. Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, P.; Fensholt, R.

    2015-07-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurements. From a long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the influence of extensive grazing (and changes in grazing pressure) on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses the time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI metrics by comparing it with data from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. Field data include grazing intensity, end of season standing biomass (ESSB) and species composition from sizeable areas suitable for comparison with moderate - coarse resolution satellite imagery. It is shown that sampling plots excluded from grazing have a different species composition characterized by a longer growth cycle as compared to plots under controlled grazing or communal grazing. Also substantially higher ESSB is observed for grazing exclosures as compared to grazed areas, substantially exceeding the amount of biomass expected to be ingested by livestock for this area. The seasonal integrated NDVI (NDVI small integral; capturing only the signal inherent to the growing season recurrent vegetation), derived using absolute thresholds to estimate start and end of growing seasons, is identified as the metric most strongly related to ESSB for all grazing regimes. However plot-pixel comparisons demonstrate how the NDVI/ESSB relationship changes due to grazing-induced variation in annual plant species composition and the NDVI values for grazed plots are only slightly lower than the values observed for the ungrazed plots. Hence, average ESSB in ungrazed plots since 2000 was 0.93 t ha-1, compared to 0.51 t ha-1 for

  10. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-03-22

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  11. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Adrian; Aldridge, Cameron; Assal, Timothy J.; Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  12. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change.

    PubMed

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions.

  13. Effects of Grazing on the Hydrology and Biology of the Badger Wash Basin in Western Colorado, 1953-66

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusby, Gregg C.; Knipe, O.D.

    1971-01-01

    An intensive study of the effect of grazing on the hydrologic and biotic characteristics of small drainage basins on the Colorado Plateau was begun in the fall of 1953. This report presents data obtained during the first 13 years of the proposed 20-year study. For the period of record 1954-66, runoff from grazed watersheds has averaged about 33 acre-feet per square mile per year. Runoff from ungrazed watersheds averaged from 71 to 76 percent of that from grazed watersheds. During the last 6 years of the period, however, ungrazed watersheds produced 69 to 71 percent as much runoff as grazed watersheds. The sediment yield frown grazed watersheds during the same period was about 3 acre-feet per square mile per year. Sediment yield from ungrazed watersheds ranged from 51 to 75 percent of that from grazed watersheds and averaged 66 percent. The largest change in these relations occurred about 2 years after livestock were excluded from certain watersheds. The causative factors for changes in the runoff and sediment yield relations are not entirely clear. At the end of 13 years, a significant change had occurred in the amount of bare soil and rock. in the ground-cover index, and in the litter and moss on the grazed watersheds. These items remained essentially unchanged on ungrazed watersheds. The changes in ground-cover factors were not of large magnitude and did not occur at the same rate as the changes in runoff and sediment yield. A large part of the difference appears to have been caused by a change in the structure of surface soil. which was brought about by the elimination of trampling by livestock. Deer mice were the most common rodent present on the experimental watersheds, but even their population was not great enough to affect the composition of range vegetation. Deer mice populations remained comparable on grazed and ungrazed watersheds during the study. Other rodents were not present in sufficient numbers to allow their comparison on grazed and ungrazed range

  14. Soil Characteristic Comparison of Fenced and Grazed Riparian Floodplain Wetlands in the Typical Steppe Region of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixin; Liu, Huamin; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Jianwei; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Liang, Cunzhu

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, degradation of ecosystem in the steppe region of the Inner Mongolia Plateau, especially in riparian floodplain wetlands, has become a significant ecological crisis. Not uncommonly, with the increasing of livestock in the Inner Mongolian steppe region, a riparian floodplain wetland is becoming a hotspot area of grazing for local herdsmen. Hence, it is essential to understand degradation mechanisms of riparian floodplain wetland ecosystems caused by extensive grazing. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil compaction, salinity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, and microbial biomass C and N were investigated. The results showed that grazing led to an increase in soil compaction and soil surface salinity, which significantly lowered levels of total N, P, and TOC in the soil surface. Grazing decreased soil microbial biomass C and N concentration in the lower riparian floodplain wetland, whereas it significantly increased soil microbial biomass C and N concentration in the higher riparian floodplain wetland. Elevation differences in the riparian floodplain wetland increased spatial heterogeneity in the soil and thus resulted in different influence of grazing on wetland soils and ecosystem. Therefore, elevation differences and grazing intensity were the main factors controlling soil characteristics in the riparian floodplain wetland of this region. PMID:24959627

  15. The new era of the livestock production in Mongolia: Consequences on streams of the Great Lakes Depression.

    PubMed

    Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon

    2011-10-15

    Mongolia, a landlocked country of the Central Asian plateau, is experiencing a significant modification of herding practices coupled with an increase in livestock numbers. These modifications lead to increasing impacts of grazing on the Mongolian steppes with major consequences on the waterbodies. We researched the impacts of grazing intensity on the streams of the Great Lakes Depression in northwestern Mongolia. We assessed the level of watershed and stream bank erosion and the type of vegetation structure. We calculated the livestock densities per watershed and linked them to the stream water discharge through a new metric (I(CU)). I(CU) was created as a function of cattle unit density and water discharge, having water discharge at a stream section reflecting its location in the drainage and therefore accounting for the surface area drained upstream. We measured also the major nutrients in the stream water and researched the causalities between the grazing and the impairment of watersheds and streams. Our results suggest that the increase of livestock numbers is reaching beyond the grassland and affecting the stream ecosystem. Two major impacts were highlighted by this study, 1) the extensive watershed and stream bank erosion and 2) the increase in concentration of suspended particles and orthophosphate in stream systems. When compared with past values from literature, our results show recent eutrophication of the streams compared to the pre-liberalization of the herding activity in Mongolia (before 1991). Consequently the continued uncontrolled increase of livestock numbers could threaten the conservation of the Mongolian waterbodies, with notable consequences on the life of the nomadic population of the Central Asian Plateau. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J; Ellis, Roger P; Grant, Cornelia C; Kruger, Fred J; Kruger, Laurence M; Moxley, Courtney; Owen-Smith, Norman; Peel, Mike J S; Smit, Izak P J; Vickers, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    benefits that grazer populations derive from having access to grazing lawns. The effects of grazing lawns can extend well beyond their borders, due to their influence on grazer densities, behaviour and movements as well as fire spread, intensity and frequency. Variation in the area and proportion of a landscape that is grazing lawn can thus have a profound impact on system dynamics. We provide a conceptual model that summarises grazing lawn dynamics, and identify a rainfall range where we predict grazing lawns to be most prevalent. We also examine the biodiversity associated with grazing lawn systems, and consider their functional contribution to the conservation of this biodiversity. Finally, we assess the utility of grazing lawns as a resource in a rangeland context.

  17. Insect herbivory and vertebrate grazing impact food limitation and grasshopper populations during a severe outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interspecific competition between distantly related herbivores, as well as between large vertebrate herbivores and phytophagous insects, has received little attention. Livestock grazing is the dominant land use in western North American grasslands, where phytophagous insects can be the dominant herb...

  18. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native peren...

  19. Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection. PMID:20436867

  20. Forage nutritive value and steer responses to grazing intensity and seed-head suppression of endophyte-free tall fescue in mixed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted with 8- to 10-mo old steers on pastures of endophyte-free tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) in mixture with other grasses to assess the effect of seed head suppression (SHS) of fescue on steer performance and forage nutritive values. With and without SHS were...

  1. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native peren...

  2. Alternatives to anthelmintics for the control of nematodes in livestock.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Doligalska, M; Donskow-Schmelter, K

    2007-02-01

    Efficient and welfare-friendly livestock production demands the control of nematode infection. Current control measures rely upon anthelmintic treatment but are threatened by the widespread evolution of drug-resistance in parasite populations. Several methods have been advocated to control nematodes without relying on effective anthelmintics. These include grazing management, biological control, nutritional supplementation, vaccination, and genetic approaches. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. There are several grazing management schemes that can reduce the severity of infection but they are insufficient on their own to control infection. Biological control includes the use of predatory fungi to control nematode populations and the use of pasture species that can reduce the intensity of infection. Fungi can control nematodes but the current requirement for daily feeding means that this approach will be most useful for animals that are handled daily. Feeding supplementary protein can control nematode infection. The method is simple but can be expensive and may not be cost-effective for some marginal enterprises. Genetic approaches include the use of resistant breeds and selective breeding. Some breeds will thrive in conditions that kill animals from other breeds but substitution of resistant breeds is not always feasible. Selective breeding is effective and inexpensive but requires a high level of expertise. The most appropriate method or set of methods to minimize the adverse consequences of nematode infection may vary among farms.

  3. Phosphorus and potassium cycling in a long-term no-till integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities in subtropics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term crop-livestock integration enables constant and high nutrient cycling because animal, pasture and crop residues release nutrients at different rates. Therefore, appropriate management of these systems is needed to maximize the benefits of nutrient cycling. The objective of this study was t...

  4. Effects of cattle grazing during the dormant season on soil surface hydrology and physical quality in a moist-temperate region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock grazing in paddocks of temperate regions during the dormant season adversely affects soil quality. The adverse effects stem from trampling action under wet soil conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of livestock grazing on soil quality, with sp...

  5. The effects of burning and sheep-grazing on water table depth and soil water quality in a upland peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Armstrong, A.; Adamson, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryRotational burning of heather to improve grazing and grouse breeding is a common management practice for upland catchments in the UK. However, the effects of such practices on hydrology and water quality are not well understood because the timescale of burning rotation is typically between 7 and 20 years thus requiring long-term experiments in order to resolve the effects. Furthermore, land management, such as changes in burning or grazing practices, has been proposed as a possible strategy for the remediation of the widespread increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed across the northern hemisphere. This study is based on a long-term experiment on the effect of different rotational burning cycles and grazing intensities on upland vegetation and aims to understand the effects of these management strategies on hydrology and water quality. The main outcomes are: The depth to water table in the soil showed significant differences between different burning rotations and grazing intensities. Depth to water table was greatest on plots where burning did not occur or for longer burning cycles where livestock had been excluded. The pH and conductivity of sampled soil water showed no significant difference between grazing treatments, with the presence of burning being the most important factor (frequency of the burning cycle was not important). The DOC content showed no significant difference between grazing treatments but showed a significant decrease with the presence of burning, though no direct relationship with the depth to water table could be found. Burn management explains only a small proportion of the variance in the composition of the DOC, rather the variation is dominated by the differences between days of sampling and seasonal variation. Therefore, this study suggests that land management controls hydrology and water quality through controlling the development of vegetation.

  6. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  7. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  8. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  9. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  10. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  11. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  12. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  13. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  14. Using Social Media to Discover Public Values, Interests, and Perceptions about Cattle Grazing on Park Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Sheila J.

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, FlickrTM that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  15. How does targeted grazing with small ruminants influence subsequent patch use by mule deer and cattle?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Targeted grazing with small ruminants has been suggested as a means to control one-seed juniper encroachment (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg) and enhance habitat for livestock and wildlife. We determined the short term influence of a localized targeted grazing treatment with goats and sheep cond...

  16. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  17. The importance of federal grazing allotments to central Sierran oak woodland permittees: a first approximation

    Treesearch

    Adriana Sulak; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    The interlinkage of privately owned foothill oak woodlands and federal grazing permits in the central Sierra Nevada is examined. Knowledge of the viability of the range livestock industry is important to large-scale conservation of hardwood rangelands in the Sierran foothills. Because ranches in the Sierra often use USDA Forest Service grazing allotments, efforts at...

  18. Semiarid rangeland is resilient to summer fire and post-fire grazing utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Most wildfires occur during summer in the northern hemisphere, the area burned annually is increasing, and fire effects during this season are least understood. Livestock grazing is a primary use of rangelands affected by wildfire, but post-fire grazing management is not well-supported with dat...

  19. Soil water response to slope aspect and grazing in silvopasture during drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silvopasture is receiving increasing attention as a robust management system for production of forage for livestock grazing on the diverse landscapes of the Appalachian region. Little knowledge about soil water response to slope aspect and grazing pressure in silvopasture systems of the Region is a...

  20. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock grazing has context-dependent impacts on grassland plant and animal communities. In grassland ecosystems that have evolved with large herbivores, such as the North American Great Plains with bison (Bison bison), responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, th...

  1. Grazing Land Management Strongly Controls Water Quality, Sediment and Channel Dynamics in Tallgrass Prairie Headwater Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, B. G.; Daniels, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the prairie remnants of North America, watershed sediment regimes are heavily influenced by livestock grazing practices. Despite dramatic declines in stream water quality and ecosystem function concomitant with increasing gazing pressures, there have been no studies to quantitatively assess the relationship between various grazing treatments and sediment production in natural grassland ecosystems. In this study, we evaluate suspended sediment transport and channel morphology in the Flint Hills physiographic province using a paired whole-watershed approach, including 2 replicates of high density cattle grazing, 2 replicates of low density cattle grazing, 3 replicates of bison grazing and 3 replicates of no grazing. As expected, results demonstrate that cattle grazing operations increase e-coli, sediment concentrations and increase channel width. However, no significant differences in e-coli, suspended sediment dynamics or channel geomorphology were found between bison grazed and ungrazed watersheds.

  2. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  3. Non-grazing and gophers lower bulk density and acidity in annual-plant soil

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Stanley E. Westfall

    1971-01-01

    The effects of non-grazing on Ahwahnee coarse sandy loam were studied at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in central California. An exclosure, on which there had been no livestock grazing for 34 years, had a lower surface bulk density and lower acidity than an adjacent range that had been grazed. Bulk density averaged 1.08 gm./cc. on the ungrazed range, and 1.43 gm./...

  4. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  5. Grazing effect on woody plant recruitment in a Sonoran Desert grassland across space and time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock grazing is a commonly cited factor contributing to shrub encroachment in savannas and grasslands. Patterns of woody plant proliferation are known to influence rates of erosion and spread of disturbance and are of practical importance to livestock management with regard to forage distribut...

  6. Grazing in an uncertain environment: Modeling the trade-off between production and robustness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concern with the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the post-WWII model of agricultural intensification has led to renewed interest in grazing as a feeding strategy for temperate livestock farming systems. Putting the culture and utilization of grass at the core of livestock feeding not ...

  7. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    PubMed

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  8. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  9. Effects of livestock management on Southwestern riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    David J. Krueper

    1996-01-01

    Riparian habitats historically constituted 1% of the land mass in western North America. Within the past 100 years, an estimated 95% of this habitat has been altered, degraded or destroyed due to a wide variety of land use practices such as river channelization, clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, water impoundments and urbanization. Many authors now concur...

  10. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  11. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  12. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  13. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  14. Grazed grass was estimated via satellite images better then mowed grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koncz, Péter; Gubányi, András; Gecse, Bernadett; Tolnai, Márton; Pintér, Krisztina; Kertész, Péter; Fóti, Szilvia; Balogh, János; Nagy, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Precise livestock management requires objective alert system about the potential threats of overgrazing and intensive mowing. This kind of system could be based on the estimation of the amount of grazed and mowed biomass by remote sensing of vegetation indices. In our study we used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat 7 and 8 satellites to establish a regression between the vegetation index and the biomass (cut from ten, 40× 40 cm plots, during 52 measurement campaigns, 2011-2013) in a semi-arid grassland of Hungary, Bugac. Based on the regression time series of NDVI data were converted into biomass data in case of grazed and mowed areas (2011?2016). Biomass changes, inferred from NDVI data, were compared to the estimated grazed (based on daily dry matter uptake of cattle) and measured mowed (weighted) biomass. We found significant correlation between the NDVI and the total biomass (r2=0.6, p<0.05, n=52, RMSE=52.8 g m-2) and a stronger one between the NDVI and the green biomass (r2=0.75, p<0.05, n=52, RMSE=36.8 g m-2). We found that the amount of grazed biomass based on dry matter uptake was in close agreement with the biomass changes inferred from NDVI data (r2=0.42, p=0.11, n=7, RMSE=25.2 g m-2). However, there was no correlation between the biomass of the measured hay and the biomass inferred from NDVI data (r2=0.16, p=0.49, n=5, RMSE=67.4 g m-2). This was most probably due to the fact that mowing is a sudden, while grazing is a prolonged event, hence satellite data are less likely to be available before and after the mowing events (i.e. within days) compared to the grazing periods which usually lasts for months (only 12±2 satellite images were suitable per year). Therefore, NDVI changes are more accurately captured when grazing is observed than when mowing. We concluded that NDVI data from satellite images could be used to estimate the amount of grazed biomass, however to estimate the amount of mowed hay more frequent data

  15. Does Vegetation Parameterization from EO NDVI Data Capture Grazing induced Variations in Species Composition and Biomass in Semi-Arid Grassland Savanna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, P.; Fensholt, R.

    2014-11-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery, due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurement. From long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. The greening appears highly related to a general increase in rainfall following the severe droughts of the 1970s and 80s. In the same time period the region has experienced a drastic population boom and a resulting increase in numbers of livestock. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the extensive influence of grazing on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses time series of parameterized Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data by comparison with data from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. Field data include grazing intensity, vegetation productivity, and species composition from sizeable areas suitable for comparison with moderate - coarse resolution satellite imagery. It is established that sampling plots excluded from grazing have higher Net Primary Production (NPP) and different species composition as compared to plots under controlled grazing or communal grazing. The seasonal small integrated NDVI, derived using absolute thresholds to estimate start and end of growing seasons, is identified as the parameter most strongly related to vegetation productivity for all grazing regimes. However plot-pixel comparisons demonstrates how the NDVI/biomass relationship changes due to grazing induced variation in annual plant species composition and the NDVI values for grazed plots are only slightly lower than the values observed for the ungrazed plots. Hence, average biomass in ungrazed plots since 2000 was 0.93 t ha-1, compared to 0.51 t ha-1 for plots subjected to controlled grazing and 0.49 t

  16. Large animal grazing and temporal patterns in ecosystem services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shortgrass steppe ecosystem has a long evolutionary history of large animal grazing by bison, which were replaced by domesticated livestock in the mid 1800s. In addition, this ecosystem is characterized by a semi-arid environment with low annual precipitation amounts, but high inter- and intra-a...

  17. Distribution of cattle grazing in a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock grazing of a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture was monitored using high-frequency GPS tracking of cattle and high-resolution aerial photography. Tracking collars recorded positions, velocity, date, and time at 1-sec intervals. Areas where animals rested and moved were identified and re...

  18. Challenges to Predicting Productivity of Grazing Ruminants. Where to now?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Fourth Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference was convened at Estes Park July 9 and 10.There were over 28 poster presentations and 12 conference papers presented. The papers were organized in 6 topical sessions ranging from microbiology to supplementation. The first session covered the potential...

  19. Floristic composition, biomass, and aboveground net plant production in grazed and protected sites in a mountain grassland of central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucheta, Eduardo; Cabido, Marcelo; Díaz, Sandra; Funes, Guillermo

    1998-04-01

    Changes in plant community composition, diversity, aboveground biomass, and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of different plant growth-forms were assessed in sites protected from livestock grazing for 2, 4, and 15 years, and in a heavily-grazed site. Species richness was maximum at the grazed site and decreased significantly after 4 years of protection. Diversity decreased significantly only after 15 years of protection. No alien or weedy species were found at grazed or protected sites. Grazing exclusion produced a shift from grazing-tolerant or grazing-avoiding species with a graminoid or prostrate growth-form to taller species with a tall tussock growth-form. Grazing produced a 33% decrease in standing biomass but little change in ANPP when compared to the site protected from grazing for 2 years, but important changes in both biomass and ANPP respect to the sites protected for 4 and 15 years. Consumption was near 35% of ANPP.

  20. Effect of gender on meat quality in lamb from extensive and intensive grazing systems when slaughtered at the end of the growing season.

    PubMed

    Lind, Vibeke; Berg, Jan; Eilertsen, Svein Morten; Hersleth, Margrethe; Eik, Lars Olav

    2011-06-01

    In Norway, most lambs are slaughtered at the end of the grazing season in September. An increased demand for fresh meat during the off-season may change this pattern. Castration of male lambs is not permitted, and off-season slaughtering may affect the acceptability of the meat. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gender and the interaction between gender and diet on meat quality from Norwegian White Sheep lambs slaughtered in September. In two different experiments, 22 and 29 males compared with 22 and 46 female lambs, respectively, were used. Loin samples of M. Longissimus dorsi were analysed for sensory profile and fatty acid composition. Meat from male lambs in Experiment 2 had higher scores for cloying and rancid flavour, and lower scores for sour and sweet taste compared to meat from female lambs. It is concluded that even at the normal slaughtering time in September, significant differences between genders may occur.

  1. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge.

  2. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock. PMID:27014509

  3. Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.C.

    1985-06-01

    Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on livestock are from whole body gamma doses near the LD 50/60 level. However, grazing livestock would be subjected to added beta exposure from ingested and skin retained radioactive particles. Results of attempts to simulate exposure of the Hereford cattle at Alamogardo, NM show that cattle are more sensitive to ingested fallout radiation than other species. Poultry LD 50/60 for gamma exposure is about twice the level for mammals, and swine appear to have the most efficient repair system being able to withstand the most chronic gamma exposure. Productivity of most livestock surviving an LD 50/60 exposure is temporarily reduced and longterm effects are small. Livestock are good screeners against undesirables in our diet and with the exception of radiosotopes of iodine in milk, very little fission product radioactivity would be expected to be transferred through the food chain in livestock products for humans. Feeding of stored feed or moving livestock to uncontaminated pastures would be the best protective action to follow. 29 references.

  4. Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Reynolds, R.L.; Belnap, J.; Lamothe, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many soils in southeastern Utah are protected from surface disturbance by biological soil crusts that stabilize soils and reduce erosion by wind and water. When these crusts are disturbed by land use, soils become susceptible to erosion. In this study, we compare a never-grazed grassland in Canyonlands National Park with two historically grazed sites with similar geologic, geomorphic, and geochemical characteristics that were grazed from the late 1800s until 1974. We show that, despite almost 30 years without livestock grazing, surface soils in the historically grazed sites have 38-43% less silt, as well as 14-51% less total elemental soil Mg, Na, P, and Mn content relative to soils never exposed to livestock disturbances. Using magnetic measurement of soil magnetite content (a proxy for the stabilization of far-traveled eolian dust) we suggest that the differences in Mg, Na, P, and Mn are related to wind erosion of soil fine particles after the historical disturbance by livestock grazing. Historical grazing may also lead to changes in soil organic matter content including declines of 60-70% in surface soil C and N relative to the never-grazed sites. Collectively, the differences in soil C and N content and the evidence for substantial rock-derived nutrient loss to wind erosion implies that livestock grazing could have long-lasting effects on the soil fertility of native grasslands in this part of southeastern Utah. This study suggests that nutrient loss due to wind erosion of soils should be a consideration for management decisions related to the long-term sustainability of grazing operations in arid environments.

  5. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  6. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  7. 75 FR 22617 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Domestic Sheep Grazing on the Dog...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Grazing on the Dog Creek and Green Creek Allotments, Mono County, CA, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment... intends to prepare an EA that will evaluate a range of alternatives for grazing domestic sheep on the Dog... livestock, would not conform to the Bishop RMP, and would therefore require a plan amendment. The Dog Creek...

  8. Managing forage and grazing lands for multiple ecosystem services: possibilities, progress, and research needs for the eastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage and grazing lands occupy nearly 81 million ha in the eastern USA (east of the 98th meridian) and form the backbone of the ruminant livestock industry. The traditional ecosystem functions of forage and grazing lands have been the capture of solar energy via plants and the efficient cycling of ...

  9. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  10. The impact of grazing on plant fractal architecture and fitness of a mediterranean shrub (Anthyllis cytisoidesL.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escos, J.; Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    1. We examined natural grazing by livestock (sheep and goats) on Albaida Anthyllis cytisoides L. with the aim of determining whether variation in the allometric relationships between plant parts provides a sensitive indicator of the impact of grazing.2. The intra-individual variation in translatory symmetry with scale and increased complexity of fractal structures reflect environmental disturbance under heavy grazing pressure and lack of grazing.3. Fitness consequences of grazing were also investigated. Grazing promotes growth and adult survival, and a drop in seed production as a consequence of consumption. In spite of that, total inclusive fitness (population rate of change) tends to increase with grazing.4. Moderate grazing, while promoting growth, also enhances stability of vegetative structures. The favourable effect of moderate levels of herbivory on A. cytisoides is reflected in the homeostatic maintenance of its translatory symmetry and in the increased complexity of its fractal structures.

  11. Livestock grazing in a changing climate: Implications for adaptive management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions that global population will reach nine billion persons by the mid-21st century, combined with the rising middle class in Asia, increases the demand for animal protein production. Concurrent with the increasing human population is the continued directional rise in atmospheric carbon diox...

  12. Dutchwoman Butte revisited: Examining paradigms for livestock grazing exclusion

    Treesearch

    Jim Sprinkle; Mick Holder; Chas Erickson; Al Medina; Dan Robinett; George Ruyle; Jim Maynard; Sabrina Tuttle; John Hays; Walt Meyer; Scott Stratton; Alix Rogstad; Kevin Eldredge; Joe Harris; Larry Howery; Wesley Sprinkle

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, a collaborative range-monitoring program, "Reading the Range," was established with the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension in Gila County, the Gila County Cattle Growers, and the Tonto National Forest with the assistance of the US Department of Agriculture Renewable Resources Extension Act grant program. Funding for Reading the Range has...

  13. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  14. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  15. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  16. An assessment of GHG emissions from small ruminants in comparison with GHG emissions from large ruminants and monogastric livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, G.; Tsiplakou, E.

    2012-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to cause global warming which results in extreme weather changes that could affect crop yields and productivity, food supplies and food prices. It is also expected that climate change will have an impact on animal metabolism and health, reproduction and productivity. On the other hand, the expected increased demand of animal origin products in the coming years will increase the reared animal numbers and consequently GHG emissions. This paper outlines the main GHGs emitted from livestock which are CO2, CH4 and N2O, coming from respiration, enteric fermentation and manure management respectively, with CH4 and N2O having the highest global warming potential. Ruminant livestock has the highest contribution to these GHG emissions with small ruminants share being 12.25% of the total GHG emissions from livestock's enteric and manure CH4, and manure N2O in CO2 equivalent, producing 9.45 kg CO2 equivalent per kg body weight with the respective values for cattle, pigs and poultry being 5.45, 3.97 and 3.25. Since the production systems significantly affect the GHG emissions, the grazing, livestock crop complex, and intensive ones account for 30.5%, 67.29% and 5.51% for total CH4 emission (from enteric fermentation and manure management) and 24.32%, 68.11% and 7.57% for N2O respectively. Taking into account the positive and negative impacts of small ruminant livestock production systems to the environmental aspects in general, it is recommended that a number of potentially effective measures should be taken and the appropriate mitigation technologies should be applied in order to reduce effectively and essentially the GHG emissions to the atmosphere, with no adverse effects on intensification and increased productivity of small ruminants production systems.

  17. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) on cattle, sheep, and other livestock in Minnesota currently is a minor problem except to a few individual farmers. Indices to the seriousness of the problem are available only from recent years, so historical trends cannot be detected. From 1976 through 1980 the number of farms in the wolf range suffering verified losses to wolves ranged from 9 to 19 (mean of x = 13) per year out of about 12,230. From 1977 through 1980, the highest cattle losses claimed by farmers were 0.45 per 1,000 cattle available in 1979; the highest sheep losses claimed were 1.18 per 1,000 available in 1980. Many claims of losses (especially of calves) are based on missing animals, and few wolves are involved in the verified losses. Most losses occur in summer when livestock are released to graze in open and wooded pasture. Herd management practices, such as calving in forested or brushy pastures and disposal of carcasses in or near pastures, are responsible for many instances of wolf depredation. Failure to distinguish wolves from coyotes (Canis latrans) has contributed to an exaggerated view of the importance of wolves as livestock predators. Recently the number of wolves killed in depredation control has declined, whereas the number of livestock killed has remained fairly stable. Results of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's depredation- control program in 1979 and 1980 suggest that highly restricted trapping, coupled with other management methods, has potential for reducing both livestock losses and the number of wolves that need to be killed.

  18. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant

    PubMed Central

    Mozdzer, Thomas; Angelini, Christine; Brundage, Jennifer E.; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Gedan, Keryn B.; van de Koppel, Johan; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity and incur costs exceeding billions of US$. Eradication efforts, however, are nearly always unsuccessful. Throughout much of North America, land managers have used expensive, and ultimately ineffective, techniques to combat invasive Phragmites australis in marshes. Here, we reveal that Phragmites may potentially be controlled by employing an affordable measure from its native European range: livestock grazing. Experimental field tests demonstrate that rotational goat grazing (where goats have no choice but to graze Phragmites) can reduce Phragmites cover from 100 to 20% and that cows and horses also readily consume this plant. These results, combined with the fact that Europeans have suppressed Phragmites through seasonal livestock grazing for 6,000 years, suggest Phragmites management can shift to include more economical and effective top-down control strategies. More generally, these findings support an emerging paradigm shift in conservation from high-cost eradication to economically sustainable control of dominant invasive species. PMID:25276502

  19. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Brian R; Mozdzer, Thomas; Angelini, Christine; Brundage, Jennifer E; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P; Gedan, Keryn B; van de Koppel, Johan; Baldwin, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity and incur costs exceeding billions of US$. Eradication efforts, however, are nearly always unsuccessful. Throughout much of North America, land managers have used expensive, and ultimately ineffective, techniques to combat invasive Phragmites australis in marshes. Here, we reveal that Phragmites may potentially be controlled by employing an affordable measure from its native European range: livestock grazing. Experimental field tests demonstrate that rotational goat grazing (where goats have no choice but to graze Phragmites) can reduce Phragmites cover from 100 to 20% and that cows and horses also readily consume this plant. These results, combined with the fact that Europeans have suppressed Phragmites through seasonal livestock grazing for 6,000 years, suggest Phragmites management can shift to include more economical and effective top-down control strategies. More generally, these findings support an emerging paradigm shift in conservation from high-cost eradication to economically sustainable control of dominant invasive species.

  20. [Effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry or Songnen plain].

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-05-01

    Based on the current special position that grassland under protective plantation is one of the most important grazing spaces of the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in Songnen plain, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation. The results showed that no-grazing grassland in the grassland under protective plantation was seriously degenerated, but light and moderate grazing could stimulate the growth of grass and the product and quality of grassland. The index of grassland quality (IGQ) of no-grazing grassland was the lowest (15.51), attributing to serious degradation, while that of light grazing grassland was the highest (86.41), and the IGQ was decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Therefore, in order to stimulate the grass growth of the grassland, fully utilize the leaves of poplar, and increase the available forage resources, light and moderate grazing intensity should be advocated, but no-grazing and extreme grazing should be avoided.

  1. Responses of plant communities to grazing in the southwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Milchunas

    2006-01-01

    Grazing by wild and domestic mammals can have small to large effects on plant communities, depending on characteristics of the particular community and of the type and intensity of grazing. The broad objective of this report was to extensively review literature on the effects of grazing on 25 plant communities of the southwestern U.S. in terms of plant species...

  2. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  3. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    %) per decade was found: 97% of this increase was attributed to the rise in CO2, -3% to climate trends and 15% to trends in nitrogen fertilization and deposition. When compared with statistical data, ORCHIDEE-GM captures well the observed phase of climate-driven interannual variability in grassland production well, whereas the magnitude of the interannual variability in modeled productivity is larger than the statistical data. Regional grass-fed livestock numbers can be reproduced by ORCHIDEE-GM based on its simple assumptions and parameterization about productivity being the only limiting factor to define the sustainable number of animals per unit area. Causes for regional model-data misfits are discussed, including uncertainties in farming practices (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer application, and mowing and grazing intensity) and in ruminant diet composition, as well as uncertainties in the statistical data and in model parameter values. PMID:26018186

  4. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  5. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  6. Interactions of grazing history, cattle removal and time since rain drive divergent short-term responses by desert biota.

    PubMed

    Frank, Anke S K; Dickman, Chris R; Wardle, Glenda M; Greenville, Aaron C

    2013-01-01

    Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota

  7. Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota

  8. Plant compensation to grazing and soil carbon dynamics in a tropical grassland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of grazing on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, particularly in the tropics, are still poorly understood. Plant compensation to grazing, whereby plants maintain leaf area (C input capacity) despite consumption (C removal) by grazers, has been demonstrated in tropical grasslands but its influence on SOC is largely unexplored. Here, the effect of grazing on plant leaf area index (LAI) was measured in a field experiment in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. LAI changed little for grazing intensities up to 70%. The response curve of LAI versus grazing intensity was used in a mass balance model, called SNAP, of SOC dynamics based on previous data from the Serengeti. The model predicted SOC to increase at intermediate grazing intensity, but then to decline rapidly at the highest grazing intensities. The SNAP model predictions were compared with observed SOC stocks in the 24 grazed plots of a 10-year grazing exclosure experiment at eight sites across the park that varied in mean annual rainfall, soil texture, grazing intensity and plant lignin and cellulose. The model predicted current SOC stocks very well (R2 > 0.75), and suggests that compensatory plant responses to grazing are an important means of how herbivores might maintain or increase SOC in tropical grasslands. PMID:24498573

  9. Fodder Resource Uses and Assessment of Nitrogen Flows on Livestock Farming with Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahase, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    With understanding the livestock farming on cattle breeding practiced increasing of self-production of fodders by the farmland's operation as “Livestock Farming with crop production”, we investigated the utilizations of actual fodder resources and farmland for two selected different types of livestock farming systems: “Multiple Type” which practices cattle raising with fodder cultivation, and “Grazing Type” which practices grazing and fodder cultivation with similar feed self-sufficiency rates. We also prepared and compared material and nitrogen flow of both livestock farming systems. The amount of nitrogen flow is clearly different between the two types though feed self-sufficiency rates are at similar level. Moreover, we defined “Internal Nitrogen Rate (INR)” which indicates the rate of internal nitrogen use to total nitrogen use in cattle raising, “Internal Nitrogen Circulation Rate (NCR)” which indicates the ratio of nitrogen amount in internal circulation to the nitrogen amount introduced from outside, and Nitrogen Outflow Potential (Op), which is the balance of nitrogen amount between input to farmlands and uptake by plants, and analyzed the balance of the amounts of nitrogen flows in both livestock farming type. It is suggested that “Grazing type”, which had the values of relatively high NCR and absolutely low Op, was the livestock farming type with high rates of nitrogen procurement from the interregional farming and low risk of nitrogen outflow.

  10. Satellite and ground-based study on the spatial characteristic of grazing step terracettes in semiarid grassland of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Tanaka, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Mongolia is located in northeastern Asia, and approximately 75% of its total land area consists of cold, semiarid grassland that is subjected to grazing throughout the year. The flights of closely spaced terracettes marked on the steeper hillslopes (20° <) are common feature throughout the sloping grasslands in Mongolia. These landforms, known as grazing step terracettes, may be erosive trails made by livestock tramping. In this study, satellite and ground-based survey were conducted to investigate the spatial characteristic of grazing step terracettes in the Kherlen River Basin. The analysis of Cs-137 inventories in surface soil within two small grass watersheds with different grazing conditions indicated that net soil loss has occurred on the hillslope with grazing step terracettes. Transect survey of critical slope gradient of grazing step terracettes indicated that grazing step terracettes distributed on the steep slopes (20° <) in the moderately-grazed site, whereas those in the overgrazed-site were found on the gentler slopes (10° <). Furthermore, a satellite approach for estimating the spatial distribution of grazing step terracettes was developed and implemented to the Kherlen River Basin to assess the critical slope gradient of grazing step terracettes. These results suggested that the spatial pattern of grazing step terracettes may help to identify geomorphological indicator of overgrazing and associated soil erosion on the grazing grasslands.

  11. Combining Livestock Production Information in a Process-Based Vegetation Model to Reconstruct the History of Grassland Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; hide

    2016-01-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5deg by 0.5deg. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 19012012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, risingCO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 x 10(exp 6) km(exp 2) in 1901 to 12.3 x 10(exp 6) kmI(exp 2) in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and inter-annual variability of grassland productivity at global

  12. The biological selenium status of livestock in Britain as indicated by sheep erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P H; Berrett, S; Patterson, D S

    1979-03-17

    The reliability of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity as an indicator of selenium status in livestock is discussed. Based on this measurement, a survey is described of the biological selenium status of sheep on each of 329 farms in Britain. Results showed that 47 per cent of these farms were probably unable to provide grazing livestock with sufficient selenium to maintain blood levels greater than 0.075 microgram per ml. Increased selenium deficiency from the increasing use of home grown feeds as a major constituent of livestock rations may be causally related to the increase of white muscle disease and other selenium responsive diseases in Britain.

  13. The effects of burning and grazing on survival, home range, and prey dynamics of the Texas horned lizard in a thornscrub ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Anna L. Burrow; Richard T. Kazmaier; Eric C. Hellgren; Donald C. Ruthven, III

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of rotational livestock grazing and prescribed winter burning on the state threatened Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum, by comparing home range sizes, survival estimates and prey abundance across burning and grazing treatments in southern Texas. Adult lizards were fitted with backpacks carrying radio transmitters and...

  14. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  15. Mitigating climate change: the role of domestic livestock.

    PubMed

    Gill, M; Smith, P; Wilkinson, J M

    2010-03-01

    Livestock contribute directly (i.e. as methane and nitrous oxide (N2O)) to about 9% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and around 3% of UK emissions. If all parts of the livestock production lifecycle are included (fossil fuels used to produce mineral fertilizers used in feed production and N2O emissions from fertilizer use; methane release from the breakdown of fertilizers and from animal manure; land-use changes for feed production and for grazing; land degradation; fossil fuel use during feed and animal production; fossil fuel use in production and transport of processed and refrigerated animal products), livestock are estimated to account for 18% of global anthropogenic emissions, but less than 8% in the UK. In terms of GHG emissions per unit of livestock product, monogastric livestock are more efficient than ruminants; thus in the UK, while sheep and cattle accounted for 32% of meat production in 2006, they accounted for 48% of GHG emissions associated with meat production. More efficient management of grazing lands and of manure can have a direct impact in decreasing emissions. Improving efficiency of livestock production through better breeding, health interventions or improving fertility can also decrease GHG emissions through decreasing the number of livestock required per unit product. Increasing the energy density of the diet has a dual effect, decreasing both direct emissions and the numbers of livestock per unit product, but, as the demands for food increase in response to increasing human population and a better diet in some developing countries, there is increasing competition for land for food v. energy-dense feed crops. Recalculating efficiencies of energy and protein production on the basis of human-edible food produced per unit of human-edible feed consumed gave higher efficiencies for ruminants than for monogastric animals. The policy community thus have difficult decisions to make in balancing the negative contribution of

  16. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities. PMID:27635323

  17. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chan; Shuai, Ling-Ying; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities.

  18. Effects of grazing on nesting by upland sandpipers in southcentral North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Bonnie S.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    1993-01-01

    Grazing by livestock is often used to reduce litter, improve plant vigor, and alter plant species composition, but additional information is needed on the effects of these management practices on upland-nesting birds. Thus, we conducted an experimental study of the effect of grazing on nest density and nest success of upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda) in southcentral North Dakota from 1981 to 1987. Our experimental design consisted of 4 treatments and 1 control, each applied to 1 field in each of 3 study areas. The treatments represented options available to grassland managers: spring grazing, autumn grazing, autumn-and-spring grazing, season-long grazing, and control (ungrazed during the study). Nests (n = 342) were found by searching study areas with a cable-chain drag. Nest density was lower (P = 0.006) for treatments where cattle were present (spring, autumn-and-spring, and season-long) than where cattle were not present (autumn and control) during the nesting season. We concluded that grazing during the nesting season reduced the nest density of upland sandpipers. Nest success varied among years (P = 0.01) and was low in the first year of grazing and higher at the end of the study period. We found little evidence that the grazing treatment influenced nest success. We recommend that public lands with breeding populations of upland sandpipers include a complex of fields under various management practices, including fields undisturbed during the nesting season.

  19. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: St Anthony's fire in livestock: causes mechanisms and potential solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following a brief history of ergot alkaloids and ergotism, this review focuses on the metabolism and mechanisms of action of the ergot alkaloids under complex animal-plant/endophyte-environmental interactions to provide models of how these alkaloids afflict grazing livestock. A brief discussion the...

  20. Use of ecological sites in managing wildlife and livestock: An example with prairie dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prairie dogs are a native rodent found in the mixed grass prairie of the northern Great Plains. Prairie dogs can have an adverse impact on the amount of forages available for grazing livestock. In the Native American community, prairie dogs are often valued as a cultural resource and as an importan...

  1. Sources of variability in livestock water quality over 5 years in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mineral content of livestock water grazing rangelands can be a source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate yearly variation in water mineral concentrations, 11 indicators of quality were measured (Ca, Cl, Fe, Fl, Mg, Mn, Na, NO3-N, pH, SO4, total dissolved solids (TDS) and temp...

  2. Potential of forage brassicas for use in pasture-based livestock systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicas (Brassica spp.) are gaining popularity as high-quality forage for pasture-based livestock producers due to their use to extend the fall grazing season and during the summer forage slump. However, inclusion of brassicas in the diet can be limited by the presence of glucosinolates (a class o...

  3. Procedures for estimation of the livestock ecological footprint of US drylands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Washington-Allen; John E. Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The ecological condition and trend of the United States' 3,902,000 of Drylands and the extent to which human management actions contribute to degradation are unknown at the national spatial scale. (Washington-Allen et al. 2006). Our research seeks to develop procedures for determining the impact or ecological footprint of livestock grazing on the productive...

  4. Social, cultural, and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests

    Treesearch

    Alice M. McSweeney; Carol Raish

    2012-01-01

    We examined the cultural, social, and economic aspects of livestock operations of ranchers who have Federal grazing permits (called permittees) on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests of northern New Mexico. This study was an expansion of the 2003 pilot study and was designed to provide much-needed information concerning the culture and economic practices of the...

  5. 25 CFR 161.709 - What happens after unauthorized livestock or other property are impounded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens after unauthorized livestock or other property are impounded? 161.709 Section 161.709 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.709 What happens...

  6. 25 CFR 700.727 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 700.727 Section 700.727 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.727 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized...

  7. Soil phosphorus compounds in integrated crop-livestock systems of subtropical Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil phosphorus (P) utilization and loss mechanisms may be affected by agricultural complexity, in particular when combining annual and perennial crops and livestock grazing on the same land area and at overlapping time periods. Our objectives were to (i) qualify and quantify soil organic and inorga...

  8. Estimation of livestock appropriation of net primary productivity in Texas Drylands

    Treesearch

    Robert Washington-Allen; Jody Fitzgerald; Stephanie Grounds; Faisar Jihadi; John Kretzschmar; Kathryn Ramirez; John Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The ecological state of US Drylands is unknown. This research is developing procedures to determine the impact of the ecological footprint of grazing livestock on the productive capacity of US Drylands. A pilot geodatabase was developed for the state of Texas that includes 2002 data for county boundaries, net primary productivity (NPP) derived from the Moderate...

  9. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seastedt, T. R.; Dyer, M. I.; Turner, Clarence L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables.

  10. Positive short-term effects of sheep grazing on the alpine avifauna.

    PubMed

    Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Stien, Audun; Steen, Harald; Evans, Darren M; Austrheim, Gunnar

    2007-02-22

    Grazing by large herbivores may negatively affect bird populations. This is of great conservation concern in areas with intensive sheep grazing. Sheep management varies substantially between regions, but no study has been performed in less intensively grazed systems. In a fully replicated, landscape scale experiment with three levels of sheep grazing, we tested whether the abundance and diversity of an assemblage of mountain birds were negatively affected by grazing or if grazing facilitated the bird assemblage. Density of birds was higher at high sheep density compared with low sheep density or no sheep by the fourth grazing season, while there was no clear effect on bird diversity. Thus, agricultural traditions and land use politics determining sheep density may change the density of avifauna in either positive or negative directions.

  11. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1991, Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was published with the objective of ‘developing a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals.’ During the XVIII International Grassland Congress, held in Canada in 1997, a new Terminology working group was formed ...

  12. Orbivirus of livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Unit (ABADRU) mission is to solve major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock. The ABADRU has four 5-year project plans under two ARS National Research Programs; Animal Health NP103 and Veterinary, Medical, and Urban Entomolog...

  13. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  14. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  15. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  16. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  17. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  18. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  19. Enhanced backscattering at grazing angles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zu-Han; Fuks, I M; Ciftan, Mikael

    2002-12-02

    Backscattering signals at small grazing angles are important for space vehicle atmospheric reentrance and subsurface radar sensing applications. They are also useful in Fourier-transform infrared grazing-angle microscopy. Recently we performed an experimental study of far-field scattering at small grazing angles, in particular, of enhanced backscattering at grazing angles. For a randomly weak rough dielectric film upon a reflecting metal substrate, a large enhanced backscattering peak was measured. Experimental results are compared with small perturbation theoretical predictions.

  20. Cool-season grass sward structure influences intake of grazing cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cool-season grasses differ in sward structure, such as canopy height and the distribution of leaves and stems throughout the canopy, that may influence intake by grazing livestock. We determined the relationship between the sward structure of four grasses (meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, an...

  1. Grazing impacts on infiltration rates at Vernal Pools in the Modoc Plateau

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vernal pools are depressions of land that are seasonally inundated with water. They host rare and endemic plant and animal species and are sensitive to livestock grazing management and climate change impacts on hydrology and vegetation. Climate change forecasts predicting a hotter, drier climate sug...

  2. Cattle grazing in semiarid forestlands: Habitat selection during periods of drought

    Treesearch

    C. L. Roever; T. DelCurto; M. Rowland; M. Vavra; M. Wisdom

    2015-01-01

    Climate change models are predicting increased frequency and severity of droughts in arid and semiarid environments, and these areas are responsible for much of the world’s livestock production. Because cattle (Bos Taurus) grazing can impact the abundance, distribution, and ecological function of native plant and animal communities, it is important...

  3. Impacts of corn residue grazing and baling on wind erosion potential in a semiarid environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Implications of corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing and baling on wind erosion in integrated crop-livestock systems are not well understood. We studied: 1) soil properties affecting wind erosion potential including dry aggregate-size distribution, geometric mean diameter (GMDA), geometric standard de...

  4. Habitat and Grazing Influence on Terrestrial Ants in Subtropical Grasslands and Savannas of Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The maintenance of species diversity in modified and natural habitats is a central focus of conservation biology. The Iberá Nature Reserve (INR) protects highly diverse ecosystems in northeastern Argentina, including one of the largest freshwater wetlands in South America. Livestock grazing is one o...

  5. Comparing Alternative Management Strategies Of Fire, Grazing, And Weed Control Using Spatial Modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modeling can be used to resolve controversies generated by differing opinions about the effects of livestock grazing, fire management, and herbicide application on western public lands. We used spatial simulations of 10 vegetation types to compare 6 management scenarios over 20 years in a 141,853 he...

  6. Importance of early season conditions and grazing on carbon dioxide fluxes in Colorado shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of environmental and management drivers on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for optimizing carbon (C) uptake and storage in livestock production systems. Herein, using 15 treatment-years (two three-year experiments, one with three grazing treatments, the other ...

  7. Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Cattaruzza, Renate; Cattaruzza, Marco; Fischer, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Observations of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in Romania's Carpathian Mountains were collected using photographs of the slopes from vantage points. We mapped the rooted areas and then used GIS software to estimate the relative proportions of the total grazing areas visible in the photographs that were damaged by wild boar. The amounts of damage from our two demonstration pastures were 11.2 and 13.5 %. Pastures are rented for summer grazing with grazing density monitored. Wild boar damage essentially decreases the economic benefit received for the cost of the grazing rights. This paper appears to be the first documentation of the very direct costs to livestock owners from significant wild boar rooting within rented pastures. The photographic method we present provides a quick and efficient means to quantify damage to alpine grazing pastures and may have broad application for mountainous areas where swine damage (or other disturbance) occurs and there is sufficient visibility of the damaged habitat.

  8. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  9. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees eligible to receive grazing permits is kept... individuals eligible for New Lands grazing permits who: (1) Have a current HPL grazing permit, or have had...

  10. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees eligible to receive grazing permits is kept... individuals eligible for New Lands grazing permits who: (1) Have a current HPL grazing permit, or have had...

  11. Grazing in central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin; Harold Scholten

    1989-01-01

    Woodland grazing is a major forestry and land management problem in parts of the central hardwood region. Most forest grazing is by cattle and, to a lesser extent, hogs in woodlands adjacent to pastures or feedlots. The practice is particularly common in the cattle producing areas of the Corn Belt where often 50 percent or more of the upland forest is grazed. Woodland...

  12. Reducing Livestock Effects on Public Lands in the Western United States as the Climate Changes: A Reply to Svejcar et al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Donahue, Debra L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Karr, James R.; O'Brien, Mary H.; Fleischner, Thomas L.; Williams, Cindy Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Svejcar et al. (Environ Manage, 2014) offered several perspectives regarding Beschta et al. (Environ Manage 51:474-491, 2013)—a publication that addressed the interacting ecological effects of climate change and domestic, wild, and feral ungulates on public lands in the western United States (US)—by largely focusing on three livestock grazing issues: (1) legacy versus current day impacts; (2) grazing as a fire reduction tool; and (3) the complexity of grazing. Regarding these issues, we indicate that (1) legacy effects to western ecosystems were indeed significant and contemporary livestock use on public lands generally maintains or exacerbates many of those effects; (2) livestock grazing has been a major factor affecting fire frequency, fire severity, and ecosystem trajectories in the western US for over a century; and (3) the removal or reduction of grazing impacts in these altered ecosystems is the most effective means of initiating ecological recovery. Svejcar et al. (Environ Manage, 2014) offer no evidence that livestock use is consistent with the timely recovery of grazing-degraded uplands, riparian areas, or stream systems. We thus conclude that public-land ecosystems can best persist or cope with a changing climate by significantly reducing ungulate grazing and related impacts.

  13. Reducing livestock effects on public lands in the western United States as the climate changes: a reply to Svejcar et al.

    PubMed

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Williams, Cindy Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Svejcar et al. (Environ Manage, 2014) offered several perspectives regarding Beschta et al. (Environ Manage 51:474-491, 2013)--a publication that addressed the interacting ecological effects of climate change and domestic, wild, and feral ungulates on public lands in the western United States (US)--by largely focusing on three livestock grazing issues: (1) legacy versus current day impacts; (2) grazing as a fire reduction tool; and (3) the complexity of grazing. Regarding these issues, we indicate that (1) legacy effects to western ecosystems were indeed significant and contemporary livestock use on public lands generally maintains or exacerbates many of those effects; (2) livestock grazing has been a major factor affecting fire frequency, fire severity, and ecosystem trajectories in the western US for over a century; and (3) the removal or reduction of grazing impacts in these altered ecosystems is the most effective means of initiating ecological recovery. Svejcar et al. (Environ Manage, 2014) offer no evidence that livestock use is consistent with the timely recovery of grazing-degraded uplands, riparian areas, or stream systems. We thus conclude that public-land ecosystems can best persist or cope with a changing climate by significantly reducing ungulate grazing and related impacts.

  14. Grazing: the whole picture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

  15. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    PubMed

    Török, Péter; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i) How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii) What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii) Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands) was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable livestock type.

  16. Traditional Cattle Grazing in a Mosaic Alkali Landscape: Effects on Grassland Biodiversity along a Moisture Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Török, Péter; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i) How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii) What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii) Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands) was sampled from 2006–2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable livestock type

  17. Climate-driven tipping-points could lead to sudden, high-intensity parasite outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Naomi J.; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S.; White, Piran C. L.; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes represent one of the most pervasive and significant challenges to grazing livestock, and their intensity and distribution are strongly influenced by climate. Parasite levels and species composition have already shifted under climate change, with nematode parasite intensity frequently low in newly colonized areas, but sudden large-scale outbreaks are becoming increasingly common. These outbreaks compromise both food security and animal welfare, yet there is a paucity of predictions on how climate change will influence livestock parasites. This study aims to assess how climate change can affect parasite risk. Using a process-based approach, we determine how changes in temperature-sensitive elements of outbreaks influence parasite dynamics, to explore the potential for climate change to influence livestock helminth infections. We show that changes in temperate-sensitive parameters can result in nonlinear responses in outbreak dynamics, leading to distinct ‘tipping-points’ in nematode parasite burdens. Through applying two mechanistic models, of varying complexity, our approach demonstrates that these nonlinear responses are robust to the inclusion of a number of realistic processes that are present in livestock systems. Our study demonstrates that small changes in climatic conditions around critical thresholds may result in dramatic changes in parasite burdens. PMID:26064647

  18. Climate-driven tipping-points could lead to sudden, high-intensity parasite outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic nematodes represent one of the most pervasive and significant challenges to grazing livestock, and their intensity and distribution are strongly influenced by climate. Parasite levels and species composition have already shifted under climate change, with nematode parasite intensity frequently low in newly colonized areas, but sudden large-scale outbreaks are becoming increasingly common. These outbreaks compromise both food security and animal welfare, yet there is a paucity of predictions on how climate change will influence livestock parasites. This study aims to assess how climate change can affect parasite risk. Using a process-based approach, we determine how changes in temperature-sensitive elements of outbreaks influence parasite dynamics, to explore the potential for climate change to influence livestock helminth infections. We show that changes in temperate-sensitive parameters can result in nonlinear responses in outbreak dynamics, leading to distinct 'tipping-points' in nematode parasite burdens. Through applying two mechanistic models, of varying complexity, our approach demonstrates that these nonlinear responses are robust to the inclusion of a number of realistic processes that are present in livestock systems. Our study demonstrates that small changes in climatic conditions around critical thresholds may result in dramatic changes in parasite burdens.

  19. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T; Bedunah, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  20. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard B.; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  1. [Grazing resistance of rangeland plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiping

    2004-03-01

    Grazing resistance is the relative ability of plants to survive and grow in grazed systems, which can be divided into avoidance and tolerance components, based on the general mechanisms conferring resistance. The studies of resistance and tolerance thresholds will explain the reasons and mechanisms of grazing succession of plant communities. The difference of species resistant and tolerant thresholds depends on their grazing resistance strategies. Although both mechanisms are known to occur, the predominant mechanism or relative combination of mechanisms remains unknown for most species combinations and plant communities. Recognition of grazing avoidance or tolerance as the predominant resistance strategy inducing species composition shifts has important implications for grassland and pasture management.

  2. [Microbial community structure of the alpine meadow under different grazing styles in Naqu prefecture of Tibet].

    PubMed

    Niu, Lei; Liu, Ying-hui; Li, Yue; Ouyang, Sheng-nan

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the effects of grazing styles on the soil microbial community in the alpine meadow, we explored the changes of soil microbial community structure in the alpine meadow located in Naqu district of Tibet Autonomous Region by analyzing the soil chemical properties and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The results showed that the contents of soil total organic carbon, total phosphate and nitrate nitrogen under the different grazing styles followed the trend of 7-year rest grazing > free grazing > grazing prohibition. Except for the ratio of fungal PLFAs/bacterial PLFAs, total PLFAs, the bacterial PLFAs, the fungal PLFAs, the gram negative bacterial and the gram positive bacterial PLFAs over the different grazing types were in the order of 7-year rest grazing > 5-year grazing prohibition > 7-year and 9-year grazing prohibition. The principal component analysis (PCA) presented that the first principal component (PC1 = 74.6%) was mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids, and the second principal component (PC2 = 13.2%) was mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and some monounsaturated fatty acids. Total PLFAs content was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon content. Compared with grazing prohibition, fallow grazing was best for the alpine meadow in Naqu district, and free grazing with light intensity was good for the alpine meadow.

  3. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  4. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  5. Indicators of grazing impact in Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Breuer, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    The DFG research group 536 MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate) investigates the influence of grazing intensity on matter and water cycles in grazed steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia. This Sino-German co-operation applies an interdisciplinary approach to investigate major ecosystem functions and how they are affected by grazing and overgrazing. Within the research group an indicator system is developed to systemize the feedback of ecosystem parameters to the influence of grazing and to analyse, which parameter or parameter group reacts most sensitively. Parameters were measured at up to five different grazing intensities (from ungrazed to heavy grazed) and are related to four thematic indicator groups (plant productivity, atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere). The parameters were scaled to allow assessing the influence of grazing intensity between different sets of parameters. For this the average value of a parameter at the lowest grazing intensity (ungrazed) was set 100%, so that the values at the other intensities could be scaled scaled adequately. Then the difference between highest and lowest grazing intensity was determined. According to this difference the influence of grazing was characterized as weak (< 20% difference), medium (20-40%), strong (40-60%) and very strong (> 60%). Impact of grazing on the parameters will be marked as weak (w), medium (m), strong (s) and very strong (vs) in the text. The group plant productivity includes the vegetation parameters aboveground biomass and belowground biomass. Belowground biomass (s) was significantly different between grazing treatments with the highest value at the ungrazed site (399.00 g m-2 a-1) and the lowest at the heavy grazed site (208.00 g m-2 a-1). Aboveground biomass (m) ranged between 91.33-131.67 g m-2 a-1 and differed significantly between the ungrazed and the heavy grazed site, again with higher values at the ungrazed site (Gao et al. 2008). The group

  6. Earth atmosphere grazing meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, P.

    2017-06-01

    An overview of described in literature earth atmosphere grazing meteors observed with optic methods is proposed. Results of observations of such a meteor detected in Kyiv on 23 September 2003 with super-isocon TV cameras are described. Kinematic parameters of the meteor trajectory in earth atmosphere and its heliocentric orbit elements are given. The comparative analysis of other meteor catalogues for presence in them and a number of such anomalous meteors is carried out.

  7. Livestock-generated nitrogen exports from a pastoral wetland.

    PubMed

    McKergow, Lucy A; Rutherford, J C; Timpany, Graham C

    2012-01-01

    When wetlands are disturbed by cattle, pulses of contaminants may be released. We studied nitrogen exports from a small pastoral wetland (1725 m) in the Lake Taupo Catchment, New Zealand, to which cattle and sheep had periodic access. Flow, turbidity, and water quality samples were collected at the wetland outlet over 2 yr. Turbidity was used to trigger sampling during livestock grazing and as a surrogate for organic N (OrgN) and total N (TN) in flux estimation. The wetland flowed throughout the study (median 0.285 L s) and was baseflow dominated (73%) but responded to rainfall (peak storm flow 166 L s). Organic N was the dominant N form exported (median OrgN:TN ratio 0.86). During cattle grazing periods, concentrations and fluxes of all forms of nitrogen at the outlet were elevated compared with storm and baseflow conditions during nongrazed periods. The TN fluxes were nine times greater when cattle grazed the wetland (306 g d) than under nongrazed baseflow conditions (32 g d). Cattle grazing occurred 9% of the time but accounted for 34% of TN export over 11 mo. Excluding cattle from small wetlands is likely to have immediate water quality benefits.

  8. Testing the limits of resistance: a 19-year study of Mediterranean grassland response to grazing regimes.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Marcelo; Golodets, Carly; Gutman, Mario; Perevolotsky, Avi; Ungar, Eugene D; Kigel, Jaime; Henkin, Zalmen

    2015-05-01

    A synthesis of a long-term (19 years) study assessing the effects of cattle grazing on the structure and composition of a Mediterranean grassland in north-eastern Israel is presented, with new insights into the response of the vegetation to grazing management and rainfall. We hypothesized that the plant community studied would be resistant to high grazing intensities and rainfall variability considering the combined long history of land-use and unpredictable climatic conditions where this community evolved. Treatments included manipulations of stocking densities (moderate, heavy, and very heavy) and of grazing regimes (continuous vs. seasonal), in a factorial design. The effect of interannual rainfall variation on the expression of grazing impacts on the plant community was minor. The main effects of grazing on relative cover of plant functional groups were related to early vs. late seasonal grazing. Species diversity and equitability were remarkably stable across all grazing treatments. A reduction in tall grass cover at higher stocking densities was correlated with increased cover of less palatable groups such as annual and perennial thistles, as well as shorter and prostrate groups such as short annual grasses. This long-term study shows that interannual fluctuations in plant functional group composition could be partly accounted for by grazing pressure and timing, but not by the measured rainfall variables. Grazing affected the dominance of tall annual grasses. However, the persistence of tall grasses and more palatable species over time, despite large differences in grazing pressure and timing, supports the idea that Mediterranean grasslands are highly resistant to prolonged grazing. Indeed, even under the most extreme grazing conditions applied, there were no signs of deterioration or collapse of the ecosystem. This high resistance to grazing intensity and interannual fluctuation in climatic conditions should favor the persistence of the plant community under

  9. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India

    PubMed Central

    Tamis, W. L. M.; van ‘t Zelfde, M.; Persoon, G. A.; de Iongh, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India. PMID:28379997

  10. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  11. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  12. Grazing and abandonment determine different tree dynamics in wood-pastures.

    PubMed

    Oldén, Anna; Komonen, Atte; Tervonen, Kaisa; Halme, Panu

    2017-03-01

    Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing. In abandoned sites, deciduous trees and spruces regenerated abundantly. In the long term, both grazing and abandonment lead to changes in tree species compositions and low diversity wood-pastures. Landscape scale planning and disturbance dynamics are needed for the creation of new wood-pastures and the maintenance of all pasture types within the landscape.

  13. Streamlined Livestock Trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Bull Nose livestock trailer, manufactured by American Trailer, Inc. is one of a line of highway transport vehicles manufactured by American Trailers, Inc. The slant side front end is a streamlining feature based on a NASA Research Program which investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of trailer/tractor combinations and suggested ways of reducing air resistance. Application of NASA's aerodynamic research technology to the bull nose design resulted in a 10 percent reduction in air drag, which translates into annual fuel savings of several hundred dollars.

  14. Board-invited review: St. Anthony's Fire in livestock: causes, mechanisms, and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Matthews, J C; Rosenkrans, C F; Flythe, M D; Brown, K R

    2011-05-01

    After a brief history of ergot alkaloids and ergotism, this review focuses on the metabolism and mechanisms of action of the ergot alkaloids. The authors provide models of how these alkaloids afflict grazing livestock under complex animal-plant/endophyte-environmental interactions. Alkaloid chemistry is presented to orient the reader to the structure-function relationships that are known to exist. Where appropriate, the medical literature is used to aid interpretation of livestock research and to provide insight into potential modes of action and alkaloid metabolism where these are not known for livestock. In closing the paper, we discuss management of ergot alkaloid intoxication in livestock and future research needs for this field of study.

  15. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing fees. Grazing fees shall not be charged at this time. 1 1 Grazing Committees were organized in May...

  16. Consequences of prescribed fire and grazing on grassland ant communities.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Christian, Caroline E

    2009-04-01

    Prescribed fire and livestock grazing are used for the management and restoration of native grasslands the world over; however, the effects of these management techniques on ant communities are unclear. We examined the response of ants to these disturbances in grasslands in northern California. Twenty-four 30 by 30 m plots were established across two sites that received one of four treatments: grazing, fire, grazing and fire, or no treatment. Ants were censused using 240 pitfall traps with one preburn and two postburn samples (14 d and 1 yr after burning). We analyzed ant abundance using broadly defined groups based on feeding habit and/or habitat use and detected no grazing effect but a significant fire effect that differed by group. Immediate postfire sampling showed an increase in cryptic species (particularly Brachymyrmex depilis). One year after the fire, no response was detected for cryptic species, but burned plots had greater abundance of seed harvesters. Analysis of vegetation showed burned plots had significantly greater forb cover, which might have provided greater food resources, and also lower biomass, which might have facilitated foraging. Understanding the effects of these management tools on ant abundance complements our understanding of their effect on vegetation and assists conservation practitioners effectively manage grassland ecosystems both in California and beyond.

  17. Implementing Rotational Partial Rest/Patch-Burn Grazing in the Flint Hills, Kansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    stocking (IES) of cattle . Annual burning and IES is often more profitable than traditional grazing methods in the Flint Hills, but reduces the...burning and intensive early stocking (IES). Soon after the new growth emerges from a spring burn, stocker cattle are introduced at a density roughly...twice that of full-season grazing. After about 90 days – half the typical grazing season – cattle are shipped off to feedlots. Assuming adequate

  18. Economic, social, and cultural aspects of livestock ranching on the Española and Canjilon Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests: a pilot study

    Treesearch

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2003-01-01

    The ranches of northern New Mexico, composed of land and livestock, are integral components of family and community life. This pilot study examines current economic, social, and cultural aspects of livestock operations owned by ranchers with Federal grazing permits (permittees) on the Canjilon and Española Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe and Carson National...

  19. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cumulative effects of wild ungulate and livestock herbivory on riparian willows.

    PubMed

    Brookshire, Jack E; Kauffman, Boone J; Lytjen, Danna; Otting, Nick

    2002-08-01

    flower. The number of catkins produced per plant was significantly associated with willow height and plants <70 cm in height did not flower, thus suggesting a size threshold for reproduction in these species. Our results suggest that even relatively light levels of domestic livestock grazing, when coupled with intense wild ungulate browsing, can strongly affect plant structure and limit reproduction of riparian willows.