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Sample records for living conditions

  1. Living conditions and health promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, P J

    2001-03-01

    The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.

  2. Changing living conditions, life style and health.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation as well as life style changes. The paper further illustrates the relationship between the rapid socio-cultural and economic change and the health of the population. Psychosocial stress is reflected in problems such as alcohol abuse, violence and suicide, and these factors have been shown in studies on migration and transitions in health to be connected to changes in lifestyle and living conditions.

  3. APOLLO 10: Improvments in Living Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Living conditions were superior on this flight to any previously. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  4. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  5. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  7. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... livestock living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Year-round access for all animals to the outdoors, shade, shelter, exercise areas, fresh air, clean... the environment: Except, that, animals may be temporarily denied access to the outdoors in accordance...

  8. [The living conditions of older people in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Tanschus, N M

    2012-07-01

    Gerontology is not yet part of education or research in Tanzania. Descriptive analyses are valuable to determine the status quo of the living conditions of elderly people and thereby the basis for prospective gerontological discussions. The purpose of this article was to inquire about available data to describe the living conditions of old people in Tanzania, their problems, and potentials. Thereby, age definitions and the demographic development are examined and data sources from the Tanzanian statistical coverage, the SAGE pilot study as well as data from various research projects are discussed. The article closes with recommendations for a more extensive scientific analysis of the topic "Aging in Tanzania" as well as references for its implementation.

  9. Promoting health by addressing living conditions in Norwegian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Susanne; Torp, Steffen; Helgesen, Marit; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2016-07-10

    Worldwide, inequalities in health are increasing, even in well-developed welfare states such as Norway, which in 2012, saw a new public health act take effect that enshrined equity in health as national policy and devolved to municipalities' responsibility to act on the social determinants of health. The act deems governance structures and "Health in All Policies" approaches as important steering mechanisms for local health promotion. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Norway's municipalities address living conditions - economic circumstances, housing, employment and educational factors - in local health promotion, and what factors are associated with doing so. All Norway's municipalities (n= 428) were included in this cross-sectional study, and both register and survey data were used and were subjected to descriptive and bi- and multivariate regression analyses. Eighty-two percent of the municipalities reported that they were capable of reducing inequalities in health. Forty percent of the municipalities defined living conditions as a main challenge in their local public health promotion, while 48% cited it as a main health promotion priority. Our study shows that defining living conditions as a main challenge is positively associated with size of municipality, and also its assessment of its own capability in reducing inequalities in health. The latter factor was also associated with actually prioritizing living conditions in health promotion, as was having established cross-sectorial working groups or inter-municipal collaboration related to local health promotion. This study underlines the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration to promote health and well-being.

  10. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa) can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea). We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp.) new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen. PMID:20370908

  11. Living under a democracy: participation and its impact on the living conditions of the poor.

    PubMed

    Avritzer, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian democratization took place between 1985 and 1988. In 1985, the authoritarian power holders transferred political power to civilians, and in 1988, a new democratic constitution was enacted, thus finalizing the transition. The end of the transition triggered processes of participation in different Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro. However, only in Porto Alegre could the political context in the postdemocratization period generate a process of reverting priorities, that is to say, of inverting the pattern of democratic participation and the pattern of public investment at the urban level. In this article, I show the social conditions of the poor in the city of Porto Alegre in 1985, explain the emergence of participatory budgeting in the city, and show how democracy made a difference in the living conditions of the urban poor in the city of Porto Alegre. In the second part of the article, I analyze the recent expansion of participatory budgeting in Brazil and its recent expansion to midsize cities. In the final part of the article, I show how new participatory institutions are being introduced at the federal level of government. Participation at the local and national levels is making a difference in the living conditions of the Brazilian poor.

  12. [Children and adolescents: unequal living conditions, unequal health opportunities].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Richter, M; Klocke, A

    2006-02-01

    Today, children and young people represent the age group that is most frequently threatened by poverty in Germany. Poverty during childhood means a bad start to life and often has long-term effects on an adolescent's social and health development. Health problems are more frequent among preschool-age children from socially disadvantaged families. They are also more often affected by accidents and dental problems. In adolescence, links can be established between the social situation and psychosocial well-being, pain incidence and health behaviour. However, poverty does not inevitably go hand-in-hand with health problems. A stable and supporting social environment -- particularly in families, peer groups and schools -- promotes the development of a positive self-image and social skills, thus empowering the child to deal with demanding living conditions. Measures of social and health policy aimed at lessening the effects of poverty on health must start here.

  13. [Living conditions of aging and old people in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tesch-Römer, C; Wurm, S

    2006-06-01

    This contribution aims to convey a general overview of the living conditions of aging and old people in Germany. It introduces a series of contributions devoted to the topic "health in old age" and focuses on older people as a very heterogeneous group in society. Who exactly are these older people? We start by discussing the definition of "old age" as a stage of life and the distinction between a "third" and "fourth" age. This is followed by a presentation of some facts describing demographic change at the population level. The main body of the contribution looks at households and housing, family relations and social integration, income, life satisfaction and the health of older people. The two waves of the German Aging Survey, a representative study of persons in the second half of life undertaken in 1996 and 2000, provide the empirical base for the paper.

  14. [Concept of living conditions or social strata?--which approach is more suitable for describing unhealthy living circumstances of mothers?].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, S; Geyer, S

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify living conditions associated with elevated health risks for mothers. Following up the debate on appropriate characterisation of social structure in modern societies, two different approaches, namely the 'social strata concept' and the 'concept of living conditions', were considered. Of particular interest was the question if the concept of living conditions, which is based on a broader definition of social status, allowed a more precise description of health-related living circumstances. The study was based on clinical data from 6,094 inpatients in Mother-Child rehabilitation centres in Germany. Taking socioeconomic status, household characteristics and psychosocial stressors into account seven typical living conditions of mothers could be identified by cluster analysis. Social status was measured by the Winkler Index. A moderate health-related gradient of increasing health risks with decreasing social position could be found for psychological and bodily disabilities. The approach of living conditions revealed that two living circumstances of mothers could be identified as being related to extremely poor health. These are i) dissatisfied single mothers with high degrees of psychosocial distress and lack of social support, and ii) married mothers with conflicts within the family and self-perceived lack of appreciation. Different from these findings, a pronounced social gradient could be found for overweight and smoking. Here the concept of social strata revealed in part excessive risks compared to the concept of living conditions. Overall, the integration of further social determinants allowed a more detailed insight into health-related living conditions, which are not solely determined by socioeconomic position. A global answer about the adequacy of the 'social strata concept' versus 'concept of living conditions' for identifying unhealthy living conditions could not be given because the relevance of both conceptual frameworks

  15. Neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S

    2014-08-29

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 4 different populations of dogs. The number of N. caninum positive samples were: 51 (36.9%, 95% CI = ± 3.09) of 138 dogs from dairies, 31 (10.5%, 95% CI = ± 6.38) of 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, disorders, 22 (28.9%, 95% CI = ± 6.70) of 76 pet dogs with neurological signs, and 37 (40.2%, 95% CI = ± 2.83) of 92 stray dogs. Seropositivity to N. caninum in dogs from dairies was associated with a high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the cattle. At the 3 dairies where no dogs were present, the seroprevalence to N. caninum in the cattle was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the 21 dairies where dogs were present. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male dogs (97 of 366; 26.5%, 95% CI = ± 3.40) than in female dogs (44 of 234; 18.8%, 95% CI = ± 5.65). Seroprevalence in dogs increased with age suggesting postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection however, this increase was not significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a

  16. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  17. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Access to the... clean, dry bedding. If the bedding is typically consumed by the animal species, it must comply with the... behaviors, and opportunity to exercise; (ii) Temperature level, ventilation, and air circulation suitable to...

  18. [Current situation of the research on living conditions and health status of elderly people in Spain].

    PubMed

    Machón-Sobrado, Mónica; Vergara-Mitxeltorena, Itziar; Dorronsoro-Iraeta, Miren; Larrañaga-Larrañaga, Nerea; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Larrañaga-Padilla, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the dimensions studied with respect to living and health conditions of the non-institutionalised elderly in the scientific literature in Spain. A content analysis based on secondary sources was carried out by literature searches in Pubmed and Embase in Spanish and English. The search strategies combined terms related to older people, health and/or living conditions and with Spain. All studies assessing living and/or health conditions of elderly in Spain were included. Studies analyzing a specific aspect of living or health conditions and those based on institutionalized population were excluded. A total of 14 studies were considered in the content analysis. The studies are usually local, cross-sectional and data collection is done by direct interview. Variability was observed in the aspects analysed about living and health conditions. All studies included: sociodemographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle habits. Issues related to the status of the out-of home environment are poorly analysed. This work allows knowing the dimensions prioritised in the studies carried out to date about health and living conditions in Spain. It also provides key elements for the development of future research aiming to integrate both living and health conditions of elderly population, both aspects closely related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age in eleven Western European countries. It combines the influence of individual conditions, for example housing and family background, with country characteristics in the decade of birth. Using pooled data from the second and third wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, multilevel models show that early life living conditions have an influence on life satisfaction in old age. Furthermore, interaction effects between current and past living conditions show that adverse living conditions strengthen the effect of early life on life satisfaction in later life and therefore are an indication of cumulative inequality over the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  1. Atomic force microscopy study of living diatoms in ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gebeshuber, I C; Kindt, J H; Thompson, J B; Del Amo, Y; Stachelberger, H; Brzezinski, M A; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2003-12-01

    We present the first in vivo study of diatoms using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three chain-forming, benthic freshwater species -Eunotia sudetica, Navicula seminulum and a yet unidentified species - are directly imaged while growing on glass slides. Using the AFM, we imaged the topography of the diatom frustules at the nanometre range scale and we determined the thickness of the organic case enveloping the siliceous skeleton of the cell (10 nm). Imaging proved to be stable for several hours, thereby offering the possibility to study long-term dynamic changes, such as biomineralization or cell movement, as they occur. We also focused on the natural adhesives produced by these unicellular organisms to adhere to other cells or the substratum. Most man-made adhesives fail in wet conditions, owing to chemical modification of the adhesive or its substrate. Diatoms produce adhesives that are extremely strong and robust both in fresh- and in seawater environments. Our phase-imaging and force-pulling experiments reveal the characteristics of these natural adhesives that might be of use in designing man-made analogues that function in wet environments. Engineering stable underwater adhesives currently poses a major technical challenge.

  2. Assessing Living Conditions in Iraq’s Anbar Province in 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessing Living Conditions in Iraq’s Anbar Province...ensure that they meet high standards for re- search quality and objectivity. NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Assessing Living Conditions in Iraq’s

  3. Associations between poor living conditions and multi-morbidity among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. Methods: A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. Results: The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. Conclusion: The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. PMID:27402635

  4. Representing Residence, Living Situation, and Living Conditions: An Evaluation of Terminologies, Standards, Guidelines, and Measures/Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Winden, Tamara J.; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in diagnosis, prevention, health outcomes, and quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine existing standards, vocabularies, and terminologies for items related to Residence, Living Situation, and Living Conditions and to synthesize them into model representations. Sources were identified through literature and keyword searches, and an examination of commonly used resources. Each source was systematically analyzed by two reviewers, mapped to topic area(s), and further mapped to a model representation. A total of 27 sources were identified and reviewed. Seven of the sources had no items, i.e. concepts, elements, or values, related to the three topic areas while SNOMED-CT had the most items at 436 followed by the US Census at 174. While none of the identified sources encompassed a complete representation for documenting the three topic areas, their synthesis together results overall in more comprehensive representations. PMID:28269967

  5. Unraveling fabrication and calibration of wearable gas monitor for use under free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Yue Deng; Cheng Chen; Tsow, Francis; Xiaojun Xian; Forzani, Erica

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals that have high vapor pressure at regular conditions. Some VOC could be dangerous to human health, therefore it is important to determine real-time indoor and outdoor personal exposures to VOC. To achieve this goal, our group has developed a wearable gas monitor with a complete sensor fabrication and calibration protocol for free-living conditions. Correction factors for calibrating the sensors, including sensitivity, aging effect, and temperature effect are implemented into a Quick Response Code (QR code), so that the pre-calibrated quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensor can be used with the wearable monitor under free-living conditions.

  6. Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; de Melo, Cláudia Moura; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue. PMID:25741650

  7. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  8. Invasive home mechanical ventilation: living conditions and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Huttmann, Sophie Emilia; Windisch, Wolfram; Storre, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with invasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) following unsuccessful weaning is steadily increasing, but little is known about the living conditions and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in these patients. To establish detailed information on living conditions and HRQL in patients with invasive HMV. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) was used to measure specific HRQL aspects in addition to patient interviews on individual living conditions during home visits. Thirty-two patients with lung disease, most prominently COPD (n = 18), and neuromuscular disorders (n = 14) were included. The overall mean SRI summary scale score (range 0-100) was 53 ± 16, with a broad range amongst individuals (23-86). Neuromuscular patients were younger than those with lung diseases (49 ± 18 vs. 67 ± 11 years; p < 0.005), and although they had a higher nursing dependency and fewer comorbidities, they tended to have higher (better) SRI summary scale scores (58 ± 16 vs. 48 ± 15; p = 0.092). Living in a private home compared to living in nursing facilities did not influence the SRI scores. Patients undergoing invasive HMV primarily following unsuccessful weaning reported an individual HRQL which, when taken together, was highly heterogeneous and ranged from very good to extremely bad. Older patients with COPD and more comorbidities are likely to have a worse HRQL than neuromuscular patients, while the living situation does not influence the HRQL. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.102 Condition of... rights” requirements at § 482.13, the transplant center must protect and promote each transplant patient's and living donor's rights. (a) Standard: Informed consent for transplant patients. Transplant...

  10. Comparison of Reports by Relatives and Staff on Living Conditions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, Oie; Sonnander, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Proxies typically serve as information providers in studies of persons with intellectual disabilities. However, little is known about the concordance between different proxy categories and how proxy characteristics influence the information provided. We compared 89 pairs of relative and staff reports on the living conditions of persons with…

  11. Quality of Life and Quality of Living Conditions in Rural Areas: Distinctively Perceived and Quantitatively Distinguished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostini, Luiz R.; Fantini, Alfredo C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, large amount of effort and resources have been spent in projects and programs aiming to develop rural communities. The ultimate goal of such projects is supposed to be the improvement of the "Quality of Life" (QOL) of these communities. Although improving the "Quality of the Living Conditions" (QLC) is an acceptable strategy…

  12. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  13. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  14. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  15. Living Conditions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities from a Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, O.; Sonnander, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The role of gender has been a neglected issue in research on intellectual disability (ID). People with ID are generally treated as a homogenous group that are largely categorized by their level of ID. This study compared living conditions of women and men with ID and related the results to similarities and differences among the general…

  16. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  17. Health status of returnees to Kosovo: do living conditions during asylum make a difference?

    PubMed

    Toscani, Letizia; Deroo, Lisa A; Eytan, Ariel; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Avramovski, Vlatko; Loutan, Louis; Bovier, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From August 1999 to July 2001, asylum seekers who had come to Switzerland from Kosovo were repatriated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between living conditions during asylum in Switzerland and health status among returnees. Cross-sectional survey of 319 ethnic Albanian families in Kosovo, selected from a list of 12900 heads of households who had received repatriation aid. Consenting household members aged 16 years or more who had received asylum in Switzerland were interviewed during the autumn of 2001. Questions explored living conditions during asylum, present socio-economic conditions (World Bank Kosovo Poverty Assessment Survey), subjective physical and mental health [Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)], traumatic events (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Ninety-four per cent of selected households were located. Among the 580 participants, 25.5% suffered from PTSD and 65% lived in extreme poverty. Subjective health scores, measured by SF-36, were low, particularly for those affected by PTSD. Among living conditions in the host country, duration of stay longer than 26 weeks was associated with lower mental health scores, particularly among people with PTSD. Two years after the conflict, returnees had low health scores. The association between duration of stay and lower mental health scores may reflect the stress of adapting to asylum or the consequence of compulsory repatriation. This study has implications for the emerging healthcare system in Kosovo and for policies of asylum in host countries.

  18. Participation and Well-Being among Older Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaby, Dana; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Jarus, Tal; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the unique contribution of participation (daily activities and social roles) in explaining well-being of older adults living with chronic conditions and examined which aspect of participation (accomplishment of participation or satisfaction with participation) was more important in describing their well-being. Two hundred older…

  19. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  20. Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

    2001-01-01

    Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults.

  1. The road to independence: lived experiences of youth with chronic conditions and their parents compared.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Mariëlle A C; Hilberink, Sander R; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the development of young persons with chronic conditions towards independence by comparing their lived experiences to those of their parents. Semi-structured interviews were held with 16 young persons (7 males, 9 females; 15-22 years) and one of their parents (n=16), asking about the young persons' daily lives and their development towards adulthood. Themes were deductively derived from the Skills for Growing Up framework, i.e. agency, living and daily activities, social and intimate relationships, education, work, leisure activities, transportation, and healthcare. Parents also reflected on how they dealt with the child's chronic condition. A paired thematic analysis was conducted. Parents were often less convinced that their children could act independently than the young persons themselves. They were concerned about them and tended to interfere with their daily lives, often to the annoyance of their children. Also, parents often perceived more barriers in social participation, while young persons were more positive. The perceptions of young persons and their parents clashed on living independently, intimate relationships, leisure activities, and healthcare. Young people might benefit from professional support in these domains to help them strengthen their autonomy and to prevent child-parent conflict and negative outcomes.

  2. Tuberculosis Mortality and Living Conditions in Bern, Switzerland, 1856-1950.

    PubMed

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rieder, Hans L; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty-related disease that is associated with poor living conditions. We studied TB mortality and living conditions in Bern between 1856 and 1950. We analysed cause-specific mortality based on mortality registers certified by autopsies, and public health reports 1856 to 1950 from the city council of Bern. TB mortality was higher in the Black Quarter (550 per 100,000) and in the city centre (327 per 100,000), compared to the outskirts (209 per 100,000 in 1911-1915). TB mortality correlated positively with the number of persons per room (r = 0.69, p = 0.026), the percentage of rooms without sunlight (r = 0.72, p = 0.020), and negatively with the number of windows per apartment (r = -0.79, p = 0.007). TB mortality decreased 10-fold from 330 per 100,000 in 1856 to 33 per 100,000 in 1950, as housing conditions improved, indoor crowding decreased, and open-air schools, sanatoria, systematic tuberculin skin testing of school children and chest radiography screening were introduced. Improved living conditions and public health measures may have contributed to the massive decline of the TB epidemic in the city of Bern even before effective antibiotic treatment became finally available in the 1950s.

  3. Tuberculosis Mortality and Living Conditions in Bern, Switzerland, 1856-1950

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty-related disease that is associated with poor living conditions. We studied TB mortality and living conditions in Bern between 1856 and 1950. Methods We analysed cause-specific mortality based on mortality registers certified by autopsies, and public health reports 1856 to 1950 from the city council of Bern. Results TB mortality was higher in the Black Quarter (550 per 100,000) and in the city centre (327 per 100,000), compared to the outskirts (209 per 100,000 in 1911–1915). TB mortality correlated positively with the number of persons per room (r = 0.69, p = 0.026), the percentage of rooms without sunlight (r = 0.72, p = 0.020), and negatively with the number of windows per apartment (r = -0.79, p = 0.007). TB mortality decreased 10-fold from 330 per 100,000 in 1856 to 33 per 100,000 in 1950, as housing conditions improved, indoor crowding decreased, and open-air schools, sanatoria, systematic tuberculin skin testing of school children and chest radiography screening were introduced. Conclusions Improved living conditions and public health measures may have contributed to the massive decline of the TB epidemic in the city of Bern even before effective antibiotic treatment became finally available in the 1950s. PMID:26881850

  4. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  5. Influence of cell growth conditions and medium composition on EGFP photostability in live cells.

    PubMed

    Mamontova, Anastasia V; Bogdanov, Alexey M; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2015-05-01

    Photostability is a key characteristic of fluorescent proteins. It was recently demonstrated that green fluorescent protein (GFP) photobleaching in live cells can be suppressed by changes in medium composition. Here we show that Ham's F12 medium provides very high enhanced GFP (EGFP) photostability during fluorescence microscopy of live cells. This property of Ham's F12 medium is associated with decreased concentrations of riboflavin and pyridoxine, and increased concentrations of FeSO4, cyanocobalamine, lipoic acid, hypoxanthine, and thymidine compared with DMEM. We also found that the rate of EGFP photobleaching strongly depends on cell growth conditions such as cell density and the concentration of serum. We conclude that both imaging medium composition and the physiological state of the cells can strongly affect the photostability of fluorescent proteins. Thus, accurate comparison of the photostabilities of fluorescent proteins should be performed only in side-by-side analysis in identical cell growth conditions and media.

  6. Biofilm formation enables free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Xu, Anming; Elmerich, Claudine; Ma, Luyan Z

    2017-07-01

    The multicellular communities of microorganisms known as biofilms are of high significance in agricultural setting, yet it is largely unknown about the biofilm formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here we report the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a free-living rhizospheric bacterium, capable of fixing nitrogen under microaerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. P. stutzeri A1501 tended to form biofilm in minimal media, especially under nitrogen depletion condition. Under such growth condition, the biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (termed as pellicles) and the colony biofilms on agar plates exhibited nitrogenase activity in air. The two kinds of biofilms both contained large ovoid shape 'cells' that were multiple living bacteria embedded in a sac of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). We proposed to name such large 'cells' as A1501 cyst. Our results suggest that the EPS, especially exopolysaccharides enabled the encased bacteria to fix nitrogen while grown under aerobic condition. The formation of A1501 cysts was reversible in response to the changes of carbon or nitrogen source status. A1501 cyst formation depended on nitrogen-limiting signaling and the presence of sufficient carbon sources, yet was independent of an active nitrogenase. The pellicles formed by Azospirillum brasilense, another free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium, which also exhibited nitrogenase activity and contained the large EPS-encapsuled A1501 cyst-like 'cells'. Our data imply that free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria could convert the easy-used carbon sources to exopolysaccharides in order to enable nitrogen fixation in a natural aerobic environment.

  7. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  8. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  9. Relationship between self-esteem and living conditions among stroke survivors at home.

    PubMed

    Shida, Junko; Sugawara, Kyoko; Goto, Junko; Sekito, Yoshiko

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between self-esteem of stroke survivors at home and their living conditions. Study participants were stroke survivors who lived at home and commuted to one of two medical facilities in the Tohoku region of Japan. Stroke survivors were recruited for the present study when they came to the hospital for a routine visit. The researcher or research assistant explained the study objective and methods to the stroke survivor, and the questionnaire survey was conducted. Survey contents included the Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and questions designed to assess living conditions. A total of 65 participants with complete RSE data were included in the analysis. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 70.9 years (± 11.1), with a mean RSE score of 32.12 (± 8.32). Only a minor decrease in participant self-esteem was observed, even after having experienced a stroke. Factors associated with self-esteem, including "independent bathing" (standardized partial regression coefficient, β = 0.405, P < 0.001), "being needed by family members" (β = 0.389, P < 0.001), "independent grooming" (β = 0.292, P = 0.009), and "sleep satisfaction" (β = 0.237, P = 0.017), were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficient adjusted for the degrees of freedom was 0.738 (P < 0.001). Our analysis revealed that the maintenance of activities of daily living, and the presence of a suitable environment that enhances physical function recovery and promotes activity and participation, are necessary to improve self-esteem in stroke survivors living at home. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Potentially Unsafe Activities and Living Conditions in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Halima; Roth, David L.; Samus, Quincy M.; Yasar, Sevil; Wolff, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of dementia in the absence of a reported dementia diagnosis and whether potentially unsafe activities and living conditions vary as a function of dementia diagnosis status in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Community. Participants 7,609 Medicare beneficiaries age ≥ 65 enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Measurements Participants were classified into four groups based on self-report of dementia diagnosis, proxy screening interview, and cognitive testing: 1) probable dementia with reported dementia diagnosis (n=457), 2) probable dementia without reported dementia diagnosis (n=581), 3) possible dementia (n=996), or 4) no dementia (n=5,575). We examined potentially unsafe activities (driving, preparing hot meals, managing finances or medications, attending doctor visits alone) and living conditions (falls, living alone, and unmet needs) by dementia status subgroups in stratified analyses and multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, medical comorbidities, and physical capacity. Results The prevalence of driving (22.9%), preparing hot meals (31%), managing finances (21.9%), managing medications (36.6%), and attending doctor visits alone (20.6%) was lowest in persons with probable dementia. However, among persons with probable dementia, the covariate-adjusted rates of driving, preparing hot meals, managing finances, managing medications, and attending doctor visits alone were significantly higher in those without reported dementia diagnosis than for those with reported diagnosis (all odds ratios ≥ 2.00, p's < 0.01). Conclusion Older adults with probable dementia who are not aware of a dementia diagnosis are more likely to report engaging in potentially unsafe behaviors. Understanding the prevalence of potentially unsafe activities and living conditions can help clinicians focus safety screening and counseling in older adults with

  11. [Living conditions of prostitutes: consequences for the prevention of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Serre, A; Schutz-Samson, M; Cabral, C; Martin, F; Hardy, R; DeAquino, O; Vinsonneau, P; Arnaudies, M; Fierro, F; Mathieu, L; Pryen, S; Welzer-Lang, D; DeVincenzi, I

    1996-10-01

    Since 1990, several community-based interventions have been set up for populations of prostitutes in France with the principal objective of preventing HIV infection in prostitutes and their sexual partners. Field workers have suggested that extremely precarious living conditions are a major obstacle for the diffusion of prevention messages. A multidisciplinary working group thus set up a study in order to determine which living conditions could affect the adoption of behaviour at low risk for HIV infection. In May 1995, six of the seven teams conducting prevention actions among prostitutes in France used a short standardised questionnaire to collect information including type of housing, health insurance cover, physical aggressions, drug use. It was planned to collect data from all persons attending the drop-in centres. A total of 355 questionnaires were completed (sampling was exhaustive for 3 of the 6 teams). The population comprised women, men and transvestites. The median age was 28 years. Only 39% (135/348) of the subjects had access to health insurance. Approximately 50% (160/324) of the persons lived in precarious accommodation (hotel or no fixed address) and 33% (119/355) had been victims of physical aggressions during the 5 months preceding the study. Transvestites and young people had the most precarious living conditions. Despite the limits of this study due to the difficulty in carrying out a survey in this very marginalised population, the unique information collected may enable community health action strategies to be suitably adapted. In particular, it is important to improve partnership between field workers and existing social and health services, to improve access to better accommodation, health care and physical security while disseminating prevention messages and distributing condoms.

  12. Potentially Unsafe Activities and Living Conditions of Older Adults with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Halima; Roth, David L; Samus, Quincy M; Yasar, Sevil; Wolff, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    To examine the prevalence of dementia in the absence of a reported dementia diagnosis and whether potentially unsafe activities and living conditions vary as a function of dementia diagnosis status in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Observational cohort study. Community. Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 7,609). Participants were classified into four groups based on self-report of dementia diagnosis, proxy screening interview, and cognitive testing: probable dementia with reported dementia diagnosis (n = 457), probable dementia without reported dementia diagnosis (n = 581), possible dementia (n = 996), or no dementia (n = 5,575). Potentially unsafe activities (driving, preparing hot meals, managing finances or medications, attending doctor visits alone) and living conditions (falls, living alone, and unmet needs) were examined according to dementia status subgroups in stratified analyses and multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, medical comorbidities, and physical capacity. The prevalence of driving (22.9%), preparing hot meals (31.0%), managing finances (21.9%), managing medications (36.6%), and attending doctor visits alone (20.6%) was lowest in persons with probable dementia; however, but in persons with probable dementia, the covariate-adjusted rates of driving, preparing hot meals, managing finances, managing medications, and attending doctor visits alone were significantly higher in those without reported dementia diagnosis than in those with reported diagnosis (all odds ratios ≥2.00, all P < .01). Older adults with probable dementia who are not aware of a dementia diagnosis are more likely to report engaging in potentially unsafe behaviors. Understanding the prevalence of potentially unsafe activities and living conditions can help clinicians focus safety screening and counseling in older adults with diagnosed or suspected dementia.

  13. Rearing conditions have long-term consequences for stress responsiveness in free-living great tits.

    PubMed

    Landys, Mėta M; Goymann, Wolfgang; Slagsvold, Tore

    2011-11-01

    In captivity, the adrenocortical stress response can be permanently altered by events that occur during early life. Free-living animals have rarely been examined in this regard. To examine whether early-life events impact the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the natural setting, we evaluated the stress response of free-living interspecifically cross-fostered great tits (Parus major). Cross-fostered birds may show a long-term potentiation of the adrenocortical stress response because species-specific nutritional requirements may not be met in the nest and/or cross-fostered birds may experience psychosocial stress while being raised by heterospecifics. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that in the natural setting, programmed changes in HPA function would be eclipsed by reactive responses to the immediate environment. Thus, we predicted that adult cross-fostered great tits and controls would show no differences in their adrenocortical stress response. Contrary to predictions, we found that stress responsiveness (i.e., the rate of the corticosterone increase associated with capture and handling) was significantly higher in cross-fostered great tits than in controls. Further, stress responsiveness was not significantly different between mature adults and first-year juveniles. Thus, data indicate significant effects of early rearing conditions on adrenocortical reactivity in the natural setting and also suggest that effects of rearing conditions in free-living animals can last into adulthood.

  14. The impact of childhood living conditions on illness and mortality in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, O

    1993-04-01

    The aim was to explore the relationships between indicators of economic and social problems in childhood on the one hand and illness and mortality in adulthood on the other. In 1968 a representative sample of the Swedish population born 1906-1951 were interviewed about their childhood living conditions, among other things. Four indicators of adverse childhood living conditions were included. Two of these reflect economic circumstances (economic hardship; a large family, defined as four or more siblings), and two reflect social conditions (broken family; conflicts in the family). In 1981, 13 years later, this sample was re-interviewed. This allows for illness in 1981 to be related to reports of childhood conditions given in 1968. A follow-up of mortality for the period 1981-1984 was also conducted. When one controls for age, sex and father's social class, those exposed to economic as well as social problems during childhood are found to have a considerably higher risk of being ill as adults. Of the four factors analysed, conflicts in the family during upbringing is that most strongly related to illness later in life, as well as with mortality. Having a broken family, and, to some extent, economic hardship during childhood, are also clearly associated with illness later in life. These results also hold true when all four factors are included simultaneously in the model, and remain relatively unchanged when controlling for mental illness in 1968.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sarah L.; Nicol, Christine J.; Harris, Patricia A.; Rands, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS ≥ 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals. PMID:25937683

  16. Regional variations in living conditions during the North Korean food crisis of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In the 1990s, North Korea experienced one of the severest famines in modern history. Considering the level of food deprivation during famines in totalitarian states, substantial debate exists over how differently the crisis affected households and regions. Here, the authors investigate regional differences in socioeconomic living conditions by comparing height-for-age z scores (HAZs) of 9934 preschool children living in 11 administrative provinces. Data are based on 2 UN/DPRK anthropometric surveys performed in North Korea representing cohorts born from 1991 to 2002. Through regression of pooled HAZs on a set of province dummies, the authors find that children born in Pyongyang are more healthy, providing evidence that elites residing in the capital seemingly possess comparative advantages in food supply. When controlling for further variables, they find that boys and older children suffered more during the crisis, although cohorts born before the onset of the famine were significantly better-off.

  17. [Social support and living conditions in poor elderly people in urban Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Treviño-Siller, Sandra; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the misconception that the needs of the elderly are the individual family's responsibility rather than a collaborative effort by society.

  18. Children's experience of living with a craniofacial condition: perspectives of children and parents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Shute, Rosalyn

    2011-07-01

    This is the first study to examine the range of experiences of children living with a wide range of craniofacial anomalies (CFAs), from the perspectives of children and parents. We interviewed 26 young people and 28 parents about both stressors and positive aspects for young people of living with a CFA. Thematic analysis revealed four major stress-related themes (self-acceptance, responses of others, disabilities and impairments, and treatment). Positive themes included personal qualities and support. Psychological theories often applied to those with CFAs relate to attractiveness, stigma and teasing, but the present findings suggest that these are not as useful as the conceptualization of CFAs as chronic conditions which influence adaptive tasks. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them.

  20. Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin; Lundberg, Olle

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.

  1. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  2. [Morphofunctional characteristics of the placenta of women living in extreme conditions of the Aral cost line].

    PubMed

    Ataniiazova, O A; Ezhova, L S; Kondrikov, N I

    1994-01-01

    Morphologic examination of the placenta from 41 puerperants living near the Aral sea revealed an increase of its mass and changes in other parameters. The detected pathologic processes: hemodynamic disorders and dystrophic changes--are not specific and contribute to the development of placental insufficiency. The majority (85.6%) of newborns were born in asphyxia. Morphofunctional features of the placentas of multiparous women and the status of their children permit regarding this population as the best adapted to pregnancy and delivery of viable children under the said extreme conditions.

  3. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  4. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    PubMed

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (P<.05) than for cows assigned a BCS of 3 through 8. Even though U.S. Utility carcasses from BCS-8 cows produced the least (P<.05) valuable subprimal cuts from the chuck, loin, and round, the gross and net values of BCS-8 cows were greater (P<.05) than those of BCS-3, 4, 5, and 6. Within the grade of U.S. Cutter, carcasses from BCS-6 cows had the highest (P<.05), and BCS-2 cows had the lowest (P<.05), gross and net values. Across the U.S. Utility/Cutter mix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P<.05) gross and net values than cows assigned a BCS of 6, or lower. Live value increased linearly (P = .0002) from a low of $76.10/100 kg for BCS-2 cows to a high of $90.84/100 kg for BCS-7 cows. Carcasses from BCS-6 cows were relatively lean (8.4 mm of fat opposite of the longissimus muscle), and approximately 73% of the carcasses achieved a quality grade of U.S. Utility. Moreover, carcasses from BCS-6 cows had the highest total carcass values and live values comparable (P

  6. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  7. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  8. A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Live Donor Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Michael L; Pattenden, Clare J; Barlow, Adam D; Hunter, James P; Lee, Gwyn; Hosgood, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Ischemic conditioning involves the delivery of short cycles of reversible ischemic injury in order to induce protection against subsequent more prolonged ischemia. This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RC) in live donor kidney transplantation.This prospective randomized clinical trial, 80 patients undergoing live donor kidney transplantation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either RC or to a control group. RC consisted of cycles of lower limb ischemia induced by an arterial tourniquet cuff placed around the patient's thigh. In the RC treatment group, the cuff was inflated to 200 mm Hg or systolic pressure +25 mm Hg for 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion. In the control group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 25 mm Hg. Patients and medical staff were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary end-point was renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 and 3 months posttransplant.Donor and recipient demographics were similar in both groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in eGFR at 1 month (control 52 ± 14 vs RC 54 ± 17 mL/min; P = 0.686) or 3 months (control 50 ± 14 vs RC 49 ± 18 mL/min; P = 0.678) between the control and RC treatment groups. The RC technique did not cause any serious adverse effects.RC, using the protocol described here, did not improve renal function after live donor kidney transplantation.

  9. [A perspective on living conditions: child and adolescent mortality in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Cruz Neto, Otavio; Sucena, Luiz Fernando Mazzei

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Mortality Information System, this paper investigates the deaths of children and adolescents in the Manguinhos neighborhood from 1996 to 2000, to determine the main characteristics and associate key mortality aspects with local living conditions. An outlying working-class or "suburban" neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro where the main campus of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is located, Manguinhos consists of 12 "communities" characterized by poverty, social exclusion, drug traffic, and structural violence. In light of these factors and the cultural, social, and economic potential of the Manguinhos population, the authors begin with the theoretical/ practical premise that living conditions played a major role in the deaths of these young citizens. The study of these fatal events may therefore lead to the elucidation of issues and problems that must be included on the agendas and in forums involving both health promotion projects and the Municipal, State, and Federal governments so that they can be appropriately addressed in the scope of public policies.

  10. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; d'Houtaud, Alphonse; Mur, Jean-Marie; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI 1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT>or=7), and significant ORs>or=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  11. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities.

  12. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Annie E.; Dybala, Kristen E.; Botsford, Louis W.; Eadie, John M.; Bradley, Russell W.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment–species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt’s cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt’s cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  13. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    PubMed

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  14. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    PubMed

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-12-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  15. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; van de Pol, Martijn; Nielsen, Jan T; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Møller, Anders P

    2015-05-01

    Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in the year of hatching of female goshawks Accipiter gentilis (L.) affects age-specific variation in demographic traits and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). LRS decreased with increasing temperature in April in the year of hatching, due to lower breeding frequency and shorter reproductive life span. In contrast, the probability for a female to successfully breed was higher in years with a warm April, but lower LRS of the offspring in these years generated a negative covariance among fecundity rates among generations. The mechanism by which climatic conditions generated cohort effects was likely through influencing the quality of the breeding segment of the population in a given year, as the proportion of pigeons in the diet during the breeding period was positively related to annual and LRS, and the diet of adult females that hatched in warm years contained fewer pigeons. Climatic conditions experienced during different stages of individual life histories caused complex patterns of environmental covariance among demographic traits even across generations. Such environmental covariances may either buffer or amplify impacts of climate change on population growth, emphasizing the importance of considering demographic changes during the complete life history of individuals when predicting the effect of climatic change on population dynamics of long-lived species. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  16. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  17. Long-term health conditions and Disability Living Allowance: exploring ethnic differences and similarities in access.

    PubMed

    Salway, Sarah; Platt, Lucinda; Harriss, Kaveri; Chowbey, Punita

    2007-09-01

    Long-term health conditions affect a substantial proportion of working-age adults, often reducing their employment chances and their incomes. As a result, welfare benefits including those intended to off-set additional expenditure (primarily Disability Living Allowance [DLA]) can make an essential contribution towards maintaining living standards. Given the differences in rates of long-term health conditions for different ethnic groups, issues of access to relevant benefits may be particularly salient for certain communities. We lack, however, detailed examination of the factors that influence take-up of DLA across ethnic groups. In this paper, secondary analysis of Labour Force Survey data is combined with detailed new qualitative work, to examine patterns of receipt and issues of access to DLA across four ethnic groups. DLA receipt among individuals reporting long-term health conditions is low; but Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Black African individuals have significantly lower levels of receipt than White British respondents with comparable health and socioeconomic characteristics. Common factors that appeared to discourage DLA claims across the ethnic groups considered included: a desire to conceal impairment and a reluctance to assume a 'disabled' identity; limited benefit knowledge or specialist support; perceptions that the benefits system is complex and stressful; and concerns about the legitimacy of claiming. But our findings also suggest differences between the groups. For example, 'being' Ghanaian appeared to place particular constraints upon the assumption of a disabled identity. Ethnic identity also implied processes of inclusion and exclusion in social networks resulting in differential access to information and 'know-how' in relation to the benefits system. Policy clearly has a role in legitimising claiming and improving accurate information flows and thereby improving take-up of benefit among those in great need.

  18. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  19. Living with a long-term condition: Understanding well-being for individuals with thrombophilia or asthma

    PubMed Central

    Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol; Galvin, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    A range of literature has explored the experience of living with a long-term condition (LTC), and frequently treats such experiences and conditions as problematic. In contrast, other research has demonstrated that it may be possible to adapt and achieve well-being, even when living with such a condition. This tends to focus on meaning and the qualitative experience of living with an LTC, and offers alternative perspectives, often of the same or similar conditions. As a result of these conflicting views, this study chose to consider two conditions which, though they may lead to life-threatening illness on occasion, do not appear to impact significantly the lives of all those affected on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of two long-term, potentially life-threatening health conditions, namely, thrombophilia and asthma. In doing so, it specifically considered the contribution made by information about the condition. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted; this enabled the generation of a theory regarding how people make sense of their LTC, whilst acknowledging the social circumstances in which this was situated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants who had given consent to take part in the research. The findings demonstrate that participants undergo a two-stage process—gaining knowledge and living with a long-term condition. The theory based on these findings indicates that those who are knowledgeable about their condition, making informed decisions in relation to it, and accept their condition are able to live with it, whilst those who do not accept their condition do not fully adapt to it or integrate it into their lives. PMID:27534945

  20. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life.

  1. Social Resources and Disordered Living Conditions: Evidence from a National Sample of Community-Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Erin York

    2015-01-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement – but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. While socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as co-residential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this paper, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions, as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a co-resident partner, more non-residential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well being in later life. PMID:25651314

  2. Concurrent Validity of Wearable Activity Trackers Under Free-Living Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Skyler M; An, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Noble, John M; Berg, Kris E; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Brooke, SM, An, H-S, Kang, S-K, Noble, JM, Berg, KE, and Lee, J-M. Concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers under free-living conditions. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1097-1106, 2017-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers in energy expenditure (EE) and sleep period time (SPT) under free-living conditions. Ninety-five (28.5 ± 9.8 years) healthy men (n = 34) and women (n = 61) participated in this study. The total EE and SPT were measured using 8 monitors: Nike+ FuelBand SE (NFB), Garmin VivoFit (VF), Misfit Shine (MF), Fitbit Flex (FF), Jawbone UP (JU), Polar Loop (PL), Fitbit Charge HR (FC), and SenseWear Armband Mini (SWA) (criterion measures: SWA for EE and a sleep log for SPT). The mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for EE was 13.0, 15.2, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2, 22.8, and 24.5% for PL, MF, FF, NFB, FC, JU, and VF, respectively. Mean absolute percent errors were calculated for SPT to be 4.0, 8.8, 10.2, 11.5, 12.9, 13.6, 17.5, and 21.61% for VF, FF, JU, FC, MF, SWA laying down, PL, and SWA, respectively. Concurrent validity was examined using equivalence testing on EE (equivalence zone: 2,889.7-3,531.9 kcal); 2 trackers fell short of falling in the zone: PL (2,714.4-3,164.8 kcal) and FC (2,473.8-3,066.5 kcal). For SPT (equivalence zone: 420.6-514.0 minutes), several monitors fell in the zone: PL (448.3-485.6 minutes), MS (442.8-492.2 minutes), and FF (427.7-486.7 minutes). This study suggests that the PL and FC provide a reasonable estimate of EE under free-living conditions. The PL, FC, and MF were the most valid monitors used for measuring SPT.

  3. Living conditions, quality of life, adherence and treatment outcome in Greenlandic HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Karin; Andersson, Mikael; Koch, Anders; Rendal, Thomas; Rydbacken, Millie

    2012-05-23

    Despite a high level of sexually transmitted infections, HIV incidence has remained quite stable in Greenland with 5-6 new cases per year (approximately 10 per 100,000). However, disease control is suboptimal and mortality is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to determine associations between adherence to treatment and treatment outcome, living conditions and quality of life among HIV patients in Greenland. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based cohort study of HIV patients in Greenland during 2008-2009. Data regarding treatment, viral load, CD4 count, etc. were obtained from a central HIV-database. Forty-six persons, 17 women and 29 men, of the 60 registered HIV-positive patients (77%) were included. Eighty percent were heterosexually infected and 17% by men having sex with men (MSM) activity. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 48 years (range 20-63). Eighty-nine percent received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sixty-seven percent were adherent as defined by a combination of adherence to appointments and to treatment. Ninety-seven percent of adherent and 17% non-adherent patients on HAART had HIV-RNA less than 200 copies per ml (RR=24.2, p<0.0001). Poor adherence was associated with younger age (<50 years) (adjusted RR=7.95, p=0.005) and living in remote areas with no direct contact with skilled personnel (adjusted RR=6.75, p=0.01). Unsafe sex was also more frequent among non-adherent patients (RR=4.12, p=0.026), but due to few answers this topic was not included in the multivariate model. The HIV population in Greenland is peculiar since most patients are heterosexually infected and middle-aged at diagnosis. A relatively poor adherence and consequently inferior treatment outcome is related to young age and living in remote areas.

  4. Place, not race: disparities dissipate in southwest Baltimore when blacks and whites live under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas; Pollack, Keshia; Thorpe, Roland; Fesahazion, Ruth; Gaskin, Darrell

    2011-10-01

    Much of the current health disparities literature fails to account for the fact that the nation is largely segregated, leaving racial groups exposed to different health risks and with variable access to health services based on where they live. We sought to determine if racial health disparities typically reported in national studies remain the same when black and white Americans live in integrated settings. Focusing on a racially integrated, low-income neighborhood of Southwest Baltimore, Maryland, we found that nationally reported disparities in hypertension, diabetes, obesity among women, and use of health services either vanished or substantially narrowed. The sole exception was smoking: We found that white residents were more likely than black residents to smoke, underscoring the higher rates of ill health in whites in the Baltimore sample than seen in national data. As a result, we concluded that racial differences in social environments explain a meaningful portion of disparities typically found in national data. We further concluded that when social factors are equalized, racial disparities are minimized. Policies aimed solely at health behavior change, biological differences among racial groups, or increased access to health care are limited in their ability to close racial disparities in health. Such policies must address the differing resources of neighborhoods and must aim to improve the underlying conditions of health for all.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of a single living cell in environmentally stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gajendra P.; Creely, Caitriona; Volpe, Giovanni; Grotsch, Helga; Petrov, Dmitri

    2005-08-01

    Living cells initiate a stress response in order to survive environmentally stressful conditions. We monitored changes in the Raman spectra of an optically trapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell under normal and hyperosmotic stress conditions. When the yeast cells were challenged with a high concentration of glucose so as to exert hyperosmotic stress, it was shown that two chemical substances - glycerol and ethanol - could be monitored in real time in a single cell. The volume of the detection area of our confocal microspectrometer is approximately 1 fL. The average quantities of detected glycerol and ethanol are about 300 attomol and 700 attomol respectively. This amounts to the detection of approximately 108 glycerol molecules and 4 X 108 ethanol molecules after 36 min of hyper osmotic stress. Besides this, we also optically trapped a single yeast cell for up to three hours under normal conditions and monitored the changes in the Raman spectra during the lag phase of its growth and the G1 phase of its cell cycle. During the lag phase the cell synthesises new proteins and the observed behavior of the peaks corresponding to these proteins as well as those of RNA served as a sensitive indicator of the adaptation of the cell to its changed environment. The changes observed in the Raman spectra of a trapped yeast cell in the late G1 phase or the beginning of S phase corresponded to the growth of a bud.

  6. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  7. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  8. [(Dis)satisfaction with the municipal infrastructure. How do senior citizens evaluate their living conditions?].

    PubMed

    Piorkowsky, M-B

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the perceived living conditions, i.e., satisfaction with the scope and quality of municipal infrastructure, from a senior citizen's perspective, a questionnaire, differentiating six areas and 39 sub-areas and the corresponding testing scales for satisfaction with the quality of life, was developed analogous to the grading system used in the German school system. This questionnaire is suitable for evaluative city walks and comparative analyses of the municipal infrastructure to gain indications of the quality and to identify or shape future infrastructure actions. In 2007/2008, the questionnaire was used by the local senior citizen's representatives in the federal states of Germany. The data obtained were condensed into indices of citizen satisfaction and factor analysis was performed. As a result, the 39 sub-areas could be reduced to 11 independent dimensions, which disclose general patterns of perceiving and evaluating the quality of municipal life.

  9. Size at birth and resilience to effects of poor living conditions in adult life: longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, D J P; Forsén, T; Uutela, A; Osmond, C; Eriksson, J G

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether men who grew slowly in utero or during infancy are more vulnerable to the later effects of poor living conditions on coronary heart disease. Design Follow up study of men for whom there were data on body size at birth and growth and social class during childhood, educational level, and social class and income in adult life. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants 3676 men who were born during 1934-44, attended child welfare clinics in Helsinki, were still resident in Finland in 1971, and for whom data from the 1980 census were available. Main outcome measures Hospital admission for or death from coronary heart disease. Results Men who had low social class or low household income in adult life had increased rates of coronary heart disease. The hazard ratio among men with the lowest annual income (<£8400) was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.48) compared with 1.00 in men with incomes above £15 700. These effects were stronger in men who were thin at birth (ponderal index <26 kg/m3): hazard ratio 2.58 (1.45 to 4.60) for men with lowest annual income. Among the men who were thin at birth the effects of low social class were greater in those who had accelerated weight gain between ages 1 and 12 years. Low social class in childhood further increased risk of disease, partly because it was associated with poor growth during infancy. Low educational attainment was associated with increased risk, and low income had no effect once this was taken into account. Conclusion Men who grow slowly in utero remain biologically different to other men. They are more vulnerable to the effects of low socioeconomic status and low income on coronary heart disease. What is already known on this topicPeople who grow slowly in utero and during infancy remain biologically different through their livesSuch people are at increased risk of coronary heart diseaseWhat this study addsAmong men who were thin at birth the risk of coronary heart disease is

  10. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  11. Charting the Territory: Children and families living with progressive life-threatening conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siden, Harold; Steele, Rose

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the topic of paediatric palliative care among practicing physicians in Canada by exploring the impact of a child’s neurological or rare genetic life-threatening condition on the affected child and his/her parents. METHODS: Cross-sectional, baseline results from an observational, longitudinal study, Charting the Territory, which followed 275 children and 390 parents from 258 families. Parents completed multiple surveys, for themselves and their child. RESULTS: These children had a high symptom burden. The three most common symptoms were pain, sleep problems and feeding difficulties; on average, they had 3.2 symptoms of concern. Despite analgesic use, the frequency of pain episodes and distress were invariant over time, suggesting that treatments were not successful. Parents experienced anxiety, depression and burden; at the same time they also reported positive life change and a high degree of spirituality. The child’s condition resulted in parental changes in living arrangements, work status and hours devoted to caregiving. Nearly two-thirds of families were involved with a palliative care team; the size of the community in which a family resided did not make a significant difference in such involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These families experience many challenges, for the patient, other individual members and the family as a whole. At least some of these challenges may be alleviated by early and organized palliative care. Effective interventions are needed to enhance symptom management for the ill child and to alleviate the various negative impacts on the family. PMID:25914572

  12. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles.

  13. Live imaging of endogenous PSD-95 using ENABLED: a conditional strategy to fluorescently label endogenous proteins.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Dale A; Tillo, Shane E; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V; Guo, Caiying; Mao, Tianyi; Zhong, Haining

    2014-12-10

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416698-15$15.00/0.

  14. Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Dale A.; Tillo, Shane E.; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B.; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V.; Guo, Caiying

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. PMID:25505322

  15. Living under stressful conditions: Fish life history strategies across environmental gradients in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Nils; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2017-03-01

    The life history strategies of fishes can be defined by specific combinations of demographic traits that influence species performances depending on environmental features. Hence, the constraints imposed by the local conditions restrict the range of successful strategies by excluding species poorly adapted. In the present study, we compared the demographic strategies of fish caught in 47 estuaries of the North East Atlantic coast, aiming to determine the specific attributes of resident species and test for changes in trait associations along the environmental gradients. Eight demographic traits were considered to project our findings within a conceptual triangular model, composed on three endpoint strategies: (i) periodic (large size, long generation time, high fecundity); (ii) opportunistic (small size, short generation time, high reproductive effort); and (iii) equilibrium (low fecundity, large egg size, parental care). We demonstrated that various life history strategies co-exist in estuaries, but equilibrium species were scarce and restricted to euhaline open-water. Resident species form a specialised assemblage adapted to high spatiotemporal variability of estuarine conditions, i.e. opportunistic attributes associated with parental care. Even with these singular attributes, our findings revealed changes in distribution of resident species across the estuarine gradients linked to their life history traits. Among other patterns, the diversity of life history strategies significantly decreased from euhaline to oligohaline areas and along gradient of human disturbances. These trends were associated with a convergence of species traits toward short generation times, suggesting that long-lived species with late maturation are more severely impacted by disturbance and environmental stress.

  16. Development of a direct isolation procedure for free-living diazotrophs under controlled hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2012-08-01

    Free-living diazotrophs are diverse and ubiquitous in soil, contributing the nitrogen pool in natural ecosystems. The isolation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms has relied on semisolid nitrogen-free medium enrichment, followed by multiple subculturing steps. These procedures limit the diversity of recovered isolates. In the current study, we investigated three different isolation strategies for free-living diazotrophs using a soil sample from the Amazon forest. The methods were (i) direct plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, (ii) enrichment in semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under 2% O(2), and (iii) enrichment followed by subculturing in the semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on nitrogen containing medium under a 21% O(2) concentration. A total of 794 isolates were differentiated by their genomic fingerprinting patterns, and strains with unique profiles were identified on the basis of sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. Isolates belonged to four bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The novel strategy of combining a solid N-free medium and hypoxic conditions showed an increase of 62.6% in the diversity of diazotrophs in comparison to that obtained by the conventional semisolid medium-based methods. All isolates grew on the nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, 78% of them showed the presence of the nifH gene, and 39% tested positive for acetylene reduction activity. Our results suggest that direct plating of soil dilutions on nitrogen-free solid medium under a 2% O(2) concentration is a useful strategy for the isolation of the diverse diazotrophic communities.

  17. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  18. Measures to combat H7N9 virus infection in China: live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Xu, Lingzhong; Huang, Yong; Yao, Linong; Tang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    From March 31 to May 31, 2013, 132 cases of humans were infected with the H7N9 avian influenza virus, 39 of which resulted in death in China, which sparked global concerns about public health. Fortunately, no new case was reported in China since May 8, which seems like to make it step into a stable stage, and the emergency response to the event launched by Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, and Hu'nan of China have been terminated currently. However, on July 20 and August 10, two new cases were reported from two provinces--Hebei and Guangdong--where no case was reported during the period of spring of 2013. The emerged two new cases rung an alarm bell, thus, the continued public health response cannot let down its guard. Based on our before studies, we found that live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to H7N9 virus contaminated environments in China. Due to the difficulty in changing live poultry purchasing habits and in thoroughly removing or closing live poultry markets in China, we suggest that enhanced regulation of poultry markets would be a more feasible and effective strategy to fight against H7N9 virus infection in China. Moreover, in view of the fact that frequent and inevitable contact between rural residents and poultry where rural residents lived also exists due to poultry handling and living conditions, the enhanced regulations on environmental health are also needed for free-range poultry, especially in rural areas.

  19. [The relation between work, health and living conditions: Negativity and positivity in nursing work at a teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Elias, Marisa Aparecida; Navarro, Vera Lúcia

    2006-01-01

    This article results from a research carried out among nursing professionals at the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (MG), located in Uberlândia (MG), Brazil, and aimed to examine the relations between these professionals' work, health and living conditions. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and observations in the work environment. The results indicate the common occurrence of physical and mental health problems, mainly resulting from stress and exhaustion provoked by work conditions, which cause interferences in their living conditions. Paradoxically, the results show that these workers do not realize their health treatments systematically. The analysis of their work, in combination with the gender issue and the specific nature of nursing work, contributed to a better understanding of this professional group's work, living and health conditions.

  20. [Health conditions among fishermen living in the Minamata disease prevalent area].

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, A

    1994-05-01

    More than thirty years have elapsed since the major outbreak of Minamata disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the current health conditions among fishermen living along the coastal area of Yatsushiro Sea which received high exposure to methylmercury contamination. From 1988 to 1990 an interview survey was conducted on a random sample of 215 fishermen in two adjoining areas classified as contaminated: Minamata City of Kumamoto Prefecture and Izumi City of Kagoshima Prefecture. Completed responses were collected from 181 (129 males and 52 females). Health conditions were measured by four indicators: activities of daily living, presence of chronic diseases, subjective symptoms, and depressive symptoms. The associations between each health indicator and estimated intake levels of fish and/or shellfish during the heavy contamination period were examined. Residents in areas designated as contaminated can be categorized into three groups: 1) persons who are officially recognized as patients with Minamata disease, 2) persons applying for recognition as having Minamata disease but who have not been officially recognized, and 3) persons who have not applied for official recognition. In the analysis this recognition-related status was used as one of the controlling factors. Findings may be summarized as follows: 1. In both areas, a significant relationship was observed between subjective symptoms and estimated fish intake levels after controlling for sex and age. Judging from subjective symptoms, it appeared that the health level of recognized patients was lowest among the three recognition-related groups; and the health level of non-recognized persons was lower than that of the non-applicants. 2. Among Minamata City fishermen, the significant effect of fish intake levels on subjective symptoms disappeared after controlling for sex, age and recognition-related status. On the other hand, among Izumi City fishermen, a significant relationship between subjective

  1. [Spatial analysis of dengue occurrence and living conditions in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana Pires; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo

    2009-05-01

    The reemergence, spread, and persistence of dengue are currently challenging the Brazilian health system. Factors related to living conditions have been addressed to understand different health outcomes. This study examines the occurrence of dengue and its relationship to living conditions in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, from 1996 to 2004. Data on dengue occurrence were obtained from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (SINAN). A composite indicator of socioeconomic and urban infrastructure variables was created to characterize the prevailing living conditions, using 2000 census data. Operations between layers were used to identify spatial associations between the composite indicator and dengue incidence by neighborhood. The results do not show a linear relationship between poor living conditions and disease occurrence, but the spatial patterns indicated greater susceptibility of areas with inequalities in living conditions and behind highway access routes. The results also suggest that such inequalities can influence the dengue time trend. Thus, models that consider the interaction between socioeconomic variables (and not only the quantification of social indicators) can be useful for dengue surveillance.

  2. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors, and Health Conditions of Dominican Adults Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Tamez, Martha; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-08-14

    Dominicans are the largest migrant community in Puerto Rico, yet understudied. We compared risk factors and health conditions of Dominicans versus Puerto Ricans (PRs). Cross-sectional survey of Dominicans (n = 55) and PRs (n = 310) aged 30-75 years, assessed with validated questionnaires and standardized anthropometric measurements. Significantly, more Dominicans than PRs had attained <8th grade education (37.7 vs. 8.0%), reported household income ≤$10,000 (76.1 vs. 56.9%), lacked health insurance (19.6 vs. 5.5%), and reported food insecurity (24.5 vs. 12.1%). They spent fewer hours/day watching television (2.9 vs. 3.8), and were less likely to smoke (7.6 vs. 19.6%). Medically-diagnosed depression was lower among Dominicans than PRs (9.6 vs. 23.0%); questionnaire-based high depressive symptomatology was similar (47.9 vs. 52.8%). Dominicans living in Puerto Rico had more socioeconomic risk factors but healthier lifestyle behaviors and lower prevalence of medically-diagnosed depression than PRs. Tailored approaches are needed to ameliorate disparities in each ethnic group.

  3. Scour around a submerged cylinder and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device in live-bed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Volpe, Michael; Krane, Michael; Fontaine, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are presented to explore how sediment scour around a single Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine varies with flow speed. Three Reynolds numbers, based on support structure diameter were used to induce live-bed scour conditions. Based on results from previous studies on submerged cylinders, differences in scour patterns between a single cylinder and MHK device can be determined. In the case of MHK energy, many devices are submerged in the flow. Thus, it is important to analyze the impact of both the support structure and the addition of the rotating blades. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility at Bucknell University. For each test case, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiment, scour depth measurements at the front face of the cylindrical support structure were taken to estimate the scour rate. Measurements of the bed form were taken across the width of the test section. Results show that the scour hole dimensions increase in the presence of the MHK device. These dimensions also increase with increasing Reynolds number.

  4. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-04-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations.

  5. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations. PMID:26594267

  6. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  7. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jeannel, D; Hubert, A; de Vathaire, F; Ellouz, R; Camoun, M; Ben Salem, M; Sancho-Garnier, H; de-Thé, G

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tunisia, on diet, dietary patterns and life style, the characteristics of which had been defined by an anthropological study. Eighty incident cases, diagnosed in Tunisia between November 1986 and November 1987, were each matched for sex, age and place of residence to 2 controls. The subjects were asked for dietary data referring to the year preceding the diagnosis of NPC and, with help of their families, during childhood and after weaning. After adjustment for an empirical living conditions score, the following food items were found to be associated with an increased risk for NPC: preserved spiced meat (quaddid), basic stewing preparation (mixture of red and black pepper, garlic, oil, caraway and coriander), and harissa (red pepper, olive oil, garlic, caraway, salt) taken with bread as a snack during childhood and youth. Moreover, subjects who had been directly weaned from mother's milk on to an adult diet were found to be at higher risk for NPC.

  8. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; López-López, J Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

  9. Comparison of total energy expenditure assessed by two devices in controlled and free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Sylvie; Fardet, Anthony; Lacomme, Philippe; Normand, Sylvie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of total energy expenditure (TEE) provided by Actiheart and Armband. Normal-weight adult volunteers wore both devices either for 17 hours in a calorimetric chamber (CC, n = 49) or for 10 days in free-living conditions (FLC) outside the laboratory (n = 41). The two devices and indirect calorimetry or doubly labelled water, respectively, were used to estimate TEE in the CC group and FLC group. In the CC, the relative value of TEE error was not significant (p > 0.05) for Actiheart but significantly different from zero for Armband, showing TEE underestimation (-4.9%, p < 0.0001). However, the mean absolute values of errors were significantly different between Actiheart and Armband: 8.6% and 6.7%, respectively (p = 0.05). Armband was more accurate for estimating TEE during sleeping, rest, recovery periods and sitting-standing. Actiheart provided better estimation during step and walking. In FLC, no significant error in relative value was detected. Nevertheless, Armband produced smaller errors in absolute value than Actiheart (8.6% vs. 12.8%). The distributions of differences were more scattered around the means, suggesting a higher inter-individual variability in TEE estimated by Actiheart than by Armband. Our results show that both monitors are appropriate for estimating TEE. Armband is more effective than Actiheart at the individual level for daily light-intensity activities.

  10. Comparison of wrist-worn and hip-worn activity monitors under free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Trent A; Deyarmin, Kayla N; Snyder, Kelsey M; Mihalik, Allison G; Sharpe, Lauren E

    2017-04-01

    Current recommendations state that individuals engage in 150 min of moderate or 75 min of vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) each week. Commercial PA monitors are becoming popular for everyday use. The accuracy of these devices, however, is not well understood. We sought to examine the accuracy of two commercial devices, one wrist and one hip-worn, under free-living conditions. Twenty-two subjects wore two commercially available devices and one ActiGraph (AG) for seven consecutive days under normal activity. Mean steps per day between all three devices differed significantly. No differences were found in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MPVA). Daily energy expenditure (EE) also differed significantly between the AG and the commercial devices. Bland-Altman analysis found poor agreement between the AG and the commercial devices with regards to steps and EE, but good agreement in MVPA. Results suggest that the commercial devices are less accurate in estimating steps and EE. These devices did show good agreement with regards to MVPA, suggesting that they may provide useful feedback for individuals seeking to achieve the current PA guidelines for MVPA. Improvements are needed with regards to steps and EE estimation.

  11. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan CY; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15312.001 PMID:27205882

  12. Diets and living conditions of Asian boys in Coventry with and without signs of rickets.

    PubMed

    O'Hara-May, J; Widdowson, E M

    1976-07-01

    1. The diets and living conditions of nin Asian boys with biochemical, and in most instances also radiological, signs of rickets were compared with those of nine other boys who appeared to be normal. The groups were matched according to age, religion, place of father's origin and boy's own place of birth. 2. There were no outstanding differences between the diets of the boys with, and of those without signs of rickets. All had adequate to high calcium intakes. Most of the boys had low intakes of vitamin D, and those withsigns of rickets generally had lower intakes than the normal boys. The food tables used for making the calculations of vitamin D intakes report the amount of the vitamin in the lipid fraction of milk. If it proves to be true that most of the vitamin D activity of milk is in the aqueous fraction, the boys would have been getting considerably more vitamin D than the results suggested, and their average intake may have been about 3-5mug/d. 3. It was not possible to make any quantitative measure of the exposure of the boys to sunlight. All Asian boys studied appeared to have their bodies more completely covered than British or West Indian boys. 4. The problem of why nine boys had signs of rickets and nine had none has not been solved. It is suggested that those with signs of rickets may have had higher requirements for vitamin D than others. When the intake of vitamin D is low and exposure to sunlight is minimal, those with high requirements will be the ones to develop signs of rickets.

  13. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Bargain, A.; Pairaud, I.; Pedel, L.; Taupier-Letage, I.

    2017-03-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provided by videos and photos acquired in 2013. An area investigated at 515 m depth harbored a high density of small colonies of M. oculata. The water column structure of the area was described by using a CTD transect deployed along the axis of the canyon. High resolution (10 m and 2 m) bathymetric data were collected in the Cassidaigne canyon in 2010 and 2014. Seafloor characteristics were derived from the 10 m resolution bathymetric data. Data on local hydrodynamic conditions in the first 10 m above the seafloor were produced by applying the MARS3D hydrodynamic model in the Cassidaigne canyon at a horizontal resolution of 80 m (CASCANS model configuration). These environmental datasets combined with the geographic coordinates of the known occurrences of dense M. oculata colonies in the canyon allowed establishing a model using the MaxEnt software package to predict the habitat distribution in terms of probability of occurrence. According to the water mass analysis, M. oculata habitats are mainly located in the layer of the Intermediate waters originating from the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. A high concentration of suspended sediment due to the bauxite residues expelled into the canyon was observed in the axis of the canyon where we measured 1 NTU (2.5 mg/l) at 100 m above the bottom while concentrations were even higher (2 NTU; 5 mg/l) closer to the bottom. The habitat suitability model indicates that the living conditions of M. oculata can be found in areas of the Cassidaigne canyon

  14. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed.

  15. The Condition and Needs of the Live Professional Theatre in America. Phase I Report: Data Collection and Analysis. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert J.; And Others

    This report presents a summary of the results of the first phase of a two-phase study of the condition and needs of the live professional theatre in America since the mid-1960s. Data contained in the report were collected and analyzed on the following aspects of the theatre: activity, audience, earnings, employment, facilities, finances, labor…

  16. Striving to live a normal life: a review of children and young people's experience of feeling different when living with a long term condition.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of findings from qualitative studies on children's experience of feeling different when living with the long term conditions; diabetes, epilepsy and asthma. Following electronic database and hand searches of reference lists of identified papers, eighteen studies were selected for inclusion in the review. These studies revealed three common themes; participation in everyday life-restrictions and adjustments; treatment regimens-constraining and enabling; and communication-disclosure, stigma and support. Across these themes it was evident that children felt different physically and socially and they grappled constantly with balancing the dilemma of feeling and acting normal or feeling, being and revealing difference.

  17. Aging With HIV in the Era of Antiretroviral Treatment: Living Conditions and the Quality of Life of People Aged Above 50 Living With HIV/AIDS in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Nideröst, Sibylle; Imhof, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the living conditions and the quality of life of people aged more than 50 who were living with HIV in Switzerland. Participants were consecutively sampled through different HIV-specific sites. Seventy-two HIV-positive persons filled in an anonymous standardized questionnaire, either paper-pencil or online. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Quality of life was rated quite high (M = 14.9, SD = 4.14). The multivariate regression analyses showed that mental and physical health problems, long-term living with HIV, having a high degree of needed support, and financial problems decreased quality of life, and perceived available social support was an important predictor in maintaining quality of life. In addition to current offers to support mental health and social networks, efforts to integrate people of working age into the labor market and efforts to reduce stigma and the social marginalization of older HIV-positive people should be fostered.

  18. Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

    PubMed Central

    du Prel, Xianming; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Oppermann, Hanna; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education and health indicators were examined. Methods All boys and girls entering elementary school and living in predefined areas of East and West Germany were invited to participate in a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2000. Data of 28,888 German children with information on parental education were included in the analysis. Information about educational level of the parents, individual living conditions, symptoms and diagnoses of infectious diseases and allergies were taken from questionnaire. At the day of investigation, atopic eczema was diagnosed by dermatologists, blood was taken for the determination of allergen-specific immuno-globulin E, height and weight was measured and lung function tests were done in subgroups. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between the health indicators and parental educational level as well as the child's living conditions. Gender, urban/rural residency and year of survey were used to control for confounding. Results Average response was 83% in East Germany and 71% in West Germany. Strong associations between health indicators and parental education were observed. Higher educated parents reported more diagnoses and symptoms than less educated. Children of higher educated parents were also more often sensitized against grass pollen or house dust mites, but had higher birth weights, lower airway resistance and were less overweight at the age of six. Furthermore, most of the health indicators were significantly associated with one or more living conditions such

  19. Novel microchip for in situ TEM imaging of living organisms and bio-reactions in aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Chien-Chen; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Chang, Pin; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2008-11-01

    A novel and disposable microchip (K-kit) with SiO(2) nano-membranes was developed and used as a specimen kit for in situ imaging of living organisms in an aqueous condition using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) without equipment modification. This K-kit enabled the successful TEM observation of living Escherichia coli cells and the tellurite reduction process in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The K. pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can stay alive in K-kit after continuous TEM imaging for up to 14 s and 42 s, respectively. Besides, different tellurite reduction profiles in cells grown in aerobic and anaerobic environments can be clearly revealed. These results demonstrate that the K-kit developed in this paper can be useful for observing living organisms and monitoring biological processes in situ.

  20. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives a... candidate on its waiting list, the candidate's medical record must contain documentation that the candidate... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient...

  1. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives a... candidate on its waiting list, the candidate's medical record must contain documentation that the candidate... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient...

  2. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives a... candidate on its waiting list, the candidate's medical record must contain documentation that the candidate... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient...

  3. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives a... candidate on its waiting list, the candidate's medical record must contain documentation that the candidate... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient...

  4. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives a... candidate on its waiting list, the candidate's medical record must contain documentation that the candidate... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient...

  5. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  6. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  7. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  8. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  9. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  10. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  11. Do Residential Conditions Explain the Relationship between Living Arrangements and Adolescent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Kyle; Teachman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Persistent effects of childhood living arrangements and family change on adolescent outcomes have often been attributed to differences in socialization and intrafamily processes. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to assess an alternative explanation: that neighborhood context and residential mobility represent a central set of…

  12. Living in the Community: Persons with Mental Retardation and Allied Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaepe, Paris A.; Hayden, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    The review summarizes research (1978-1989) on the medical needs of persons with mental retardation living in institutional and community settings. Specifically it addresses six questions: (1) do mentally retarded persons in institutions have more serious medical needs than their community counterparts? (2) when people with mental retardation are…

  13. Fecal Bacterial Composition of the Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoises Living Under Captive and Semi-natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoling; Ruan, Rui; McLaughlin, Richard William; Hao, Yujiang; Zheng, Jinsong; Wang, Ding

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal microbiota is essential to the health and physiology of host animals. We undertook the first microbiological study of the fecal bacterial composition from critically endangered (CR) Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis; YFPs) living under captive and semi-natural conditions using both high-throughput sequencing method and 16S rRNA gene clone library method. As determined by high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, semi-natural samples harbored 30 and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which was more than the 22 and 27 OTUs detected from YFPs living in captivity. In captive YFPs Firmicutes was the predominant phylum, whereas this was Proteobacteria for YFPs living in semi-nature conditions. This suggests habitat-specific fecal bacterial composition of YFPs. Plesiomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were identified in all the feces. Bacterial diversity from one porpoise living in captivity was also determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library and only 1 phylum was identified. High-throughput sequencing was more effective at determining the bacterial diversity compared to the 16S rRNA gene clone library. This study provides important information for the management and conservation of the CR YFPs.

  14. Different biosorption mechanisms of Uranium(VI) by live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieshan; Zheng, Xinyan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lu, Xia; Shen, Yanghao

    2017-02-01

    Uranium adsorption mechanisms of live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different pH values and biomass concentrations were studied under environmentally relevant conditions. Compared with live cells, the adsorption capacity of heat-killed cells is almost one order of magnitude higher in low biomass concentration and highly acidic pH conditions. To explore the mesoscopic surface interactions between uranium and cells, the characteristic of uranium deposition was investigated by SEM-EDX, XPS and FTIR. Biosorption process of live cells was considered to be metabolism-dependent. Under stimulation by uranyl ions, live cells could gradually release phosphorus and reduce uranium from U(VI) to U(IV) to alleviate uranium toxicity. The uranyl-phosphate complexes were formed in scale-like shapes on cell surface. The metabolic detoxification mechanisms such as reduction and "self-protection" are of significance to the migration of radionuclides. In the metabolism-independent biosorption process of heat-killed cells: the cells cytomembrane was damaged by autoclaving which led to the free diffusion of phosphorous from intracellular, and the rough surface and nano-holes indicated that the dead cells provided larger contact area to precipitate U(VI) as spherical nano-particles. The high biosorption capacity of heat-killed cells makes it become a suitable biological adsorbent for uranium removal.

  15. Age and living conditions as related to perceptions of ambiguous figures.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Beer, J; Markley, R P; Camp, C J

    1989-06-01

    For ambiguous figures, reversing and embedded/hidden subfigures, data were obtained from four groups of 20 subjects each varying in age (young or elderly) and living environments (in college, in the community, and in nursing homes or confined to an institution). 10 men and 10 women were tested in each of the four groups. Dependent measures were the number of reversals passively reported for the Necker cube, the Mach book, the Schroeder staircase within 90 sec. on each task, and the number of embedded/hidden figures located. Younger subjects generally saw more reversals and found more embedded figures than elderly ones. The subjects' living situation, education, and verbal ability also were correlated with perceptual performance. These results suggest generalization of age associations with scores in 90 sec. must be tempered by consideration of other factors which affect intactness, basic competence, and how competence is measured.

  16. Condition of live fire-scarred ponderosa pine eleven years after removing partial cross-sections

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Steven J. McKay

    2008-01-01

    Our objective is to report mortality rates for ponderosa pine trees in Oregon ten to eleven years after removing a fire-scarred partial cross-section from them, and five years after an initial survey of post-sampling mortality. We surveyed 138 live trees from which we removed fire-scarred partial crosssections in 1994/95 and 387 similarly sized, unsampled neighbor...

  17. Condition for the appearance of a live magnetic layer on paramagnetic pure transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrani, A.; Demangeat, C.; Dreyssé, H.

    1990-12-01

    Self-consistent real-space calculations in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian are performed for slabs of metallic systems with unfilled d shells in order to investigate a possible appearance of a live magnetic surface plane on paramagnetic bulk. These results can also be obtained qualitatively within a flat-band model, which gives a simple relation between the appearance of magnetism and the coordination number. Within this model, vanadium is shown to have a ferromagnetic surface plane, as observed experimentally.

  18. An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna

    Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

  19. Living conditions and emotional profiles of Cambodian, Central American, and Québécois youth.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Drapeau, A; Platt, R

    2000-12-01

    To compare Cambodian and Central American adolescent refugees to Quebec with their Quebec-born peers in regard to emotional and behavioural problems, feelings of competence, and risk-behaviour profiles, and to examine relations between emotional variables and living conditions in the 3 groups. The sample consisted of 76 Cambodian, 82 Central American and 67 Québécois youth living in the Montreal area. The teenagers' internalization and externalization symptoms were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR); the YSR also provided a measure of their feelings of competence. Risk behaviour was reported by the teenagers. The socioeconomic status of the teenagers' households was taken into account in multiple regression analyses conducted for each group. The level of emotional and behavioural problems reported by teenagers was lowest in Central Americans and highest in Québécois; the latter group also reported more risk behaviours than did either refugee group. The socioeconomic status of the Cambodian and Central American refugee households was lower than that of the Québécois. Living conditions were not a major determinant of emotional distress in young Cambodians, but low annual income was associated with internalizing symptoms among Central American youth. The most powerful predictor of externalizing symptoms among the Québécois youth was having a single-parent household. This study underscores the contrast between the living conditions of young Cambodian and Central American refugees to Quebec and those of Quebec-born youth. These refugees' precarious socioeconomic status is not accompanied by an increase in adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems.

  20. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  1. Application of the Perovskite Ceramics to Conditioning of the Long-Lived Fraction of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavskaya, N. E.; Chizhevskaya, S. V.; Ochkin, A. V.

    2002-02-25

    High level waste (HLW) partitioning concept includes separation of a long-lived fraction following by its immobilization in ceramics. Improved process flow sheet suggested for implementation at PA ''Mayak'' implies production of a long-lived HLW fraction with rare earth elements (REE) as major components, Am and Cm as minor constituents, and only traces of U, Pu, and corrosion products (iron group elements). Because most of the elements occurred are trivalent, one of the most promising host phase is supposed to be REE aluminate or ferrate with perovskite structure. Major advantages of the perovskite are incorporation of trivalent REEs and actinides, simultaneous incorporation of residual corrosion products, flexibility of perovskite structure allowing accommodation of traces of tetravalent actinides (U, Pu), high chemical durability, and high HLW volume reduction. High melting points of the perovskites makes problematic melting route, therefore, cold pressing and sintering method is more preferable. In order to reduce sintering temperature pre-treatment of ceramic batches with high mechanical energy has been studied.

  2. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  3. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  4. Study the live weight and live weight gain of black bengal and jamunapari goat breeds by fitting the linear regression under semi-intensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K I; Naznin, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the live weight gain of goats under semi-intensive conditions of Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the period of July, 2012 to January, 2013. Data were collected from 72 black Bengal and 32 Jamunapari goats and the kids birth weight and their subsequent live weight at weekly intervals up to age and weight of weaning at sexual maturity was recorded. The weight gains from birth to sexual maturity of two different breeds under 2 different farms were studied. Average birth weight of male and female black Bengal goats kids were 1.22 +/- 0.15, 1.01 +/- 0.14, 1.42 +/- 0.10 and 1.12 +/- 0.27 kg, respectively for farm 1 and 2. For Jamunapari goat's kid birth weight were 1.51 +/- 0.07 and 1.42 +/- 0.09 kg, for male and females, respectively in the farm 2. The average weaning age was 4 months and the average weaning weight of male and female black Bengal goats were 5.19 +/- 0.358, 5.05 +/- 0.28, 5.63 +/- 0.61 and 5.54 +/- 0.41 kg, in the farm 1 and 2, respectively. However, the average weaning weight of male and female Jamunapari was 6.59 +/- 0.69 and 6.79 +/- 0.31 kg, respectively in farm 2 which was higher than black Bengal. The average age at sexual maturity of black Bengal goat was 8 months. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female black Bengal goats were 9.82 +/- 0.75 and 9.52 +/- 0.62 kg, respectively in farm 1 and 9.65 +/- 0.75 and 9.138 +/- 0.70 kg, respectively in farm 2. The average age at sexual maturity was 9 months for Jamunapari goat. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female Jamunapari goats was 13.2 +/- 0.75 and 14.1 +/- 0.82 kg, respectively. The average daily body weight gain from birth to weaning for male and female black Bengal goat was 33.70, 35.11 g day(-1) and was 35.67 and 45.94 g day(-1), respectively in farm 1 and 2 and for Jamunapari goat was 42.97 and 45.47 g day(-1), respectively. The males were grew faster than the females. The predicted live weight gains for both

  5. [Living conditions and life experiences of working-class groups in Rio de Janeiro: rethinking dengue control and popular mobilization].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R M; Valla, V V

    2001-01-01

    Using narratives of an experience with popular mobilization during the 1986-91 dengue epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the authors discuss the scientific research and technical counseling involving basic sanitation conditions for vulnerable social groups. They present research results on water distribution in the slums from the Leopoldina area of the city. The research stemmed from demands by community leaders at local forums discussing health conditions. Gathering, systematizing, and analyzing the data were based on what they call "shared knowledge construction", resulting by crossing accumulated scientific knowledge with popular knowledge produced as a result of living conditions and life experiences among working-class groups. Finally, the authors comment on the need for local health professionals to be aware of relationships between epidemic and endemic processes and protection of life.

  6. Assessment of hygienic conditions of live bird markets on avian influenza in Chittagong metro, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Md Abu; Smallwood, Casey; Imam, Tasneem; Mahmud, Rashed; Hasan, Rubyath Binte; Hasan, Mahmudul; Anwer, M Sawkat; Rashid, Md Harun; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2017-07-01

    Live Bird Markets (LBMs) in Asian countries are considered as hubs for the spread and maintenance of different infectious diseases. In Bangladesh, LBMs are the major source of live and dressed poultry to consumers and until now only a few studies have been conducted targeting infectious agent status such as avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence of LBMs in Bangladesh. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted using all 40 LBMs within the Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA) of Bangladesh targeting demographic information and hygienic status of LBMs in concurrence with AIV prevalence and its subtype distribution, as well as the associated risk factors for AIV. Pooled environmental swab samples were collected from 2 to 9 different sites per stall, with epidemiological data being obtained from a total of 290 stalls across 40 LBMs. The samples were evaluated by Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. The prevalence of AIV was 40% (95% CI: 20-60%; N=40) at a LBM level followed by 20.3% (CI: 10-30%, N=290) at a stall level. Specifically, the prevalence of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes at stall level were 2.8% (95% CI: 1-5%), 0% (CI: 0-1.3%) and 3.1% (CI: 1-6%), respectively. Generalized Estimating Equation model identified that the type of species sold (OR=2.5: Chicken and non-duck species versus Duck with other species), bird holding areas (OR=1.9: Cage versus Floor) and Hygienic score (OR=3.1: Score 3 or more versus score less than 3) as potential risk factors for the detection of AIV at stall level. These results suggest that housing chickens and ducks together in the stalls, birds kept on floors, and lack of adequate hygienic measures of the stall were the crucial factors for spreading AIV. This research outcome could be used to develop a proof-based program concerning environmental sanitation along with development of an effective surveillance system to reduce the AIV transmission through LBMs in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  10. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... impact the patient's ability to receive a transplant should an organ become available, and what... HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.102 Condition of...

  11. Validation of a Talking Pedometer for Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Free-Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Porretta, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Because school-aged individuals with visual impairments are less physically active than peers without visual impairments, they are at greater risk for developing health-related conditions. One instrument that provides an objective, cost-effective measure of physical activity by counting the total number of steps taken is the pedometer (Albright…

  12. Nutritional condition and serum biochemistry for free-living Swainson's Hawks wintering in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sarasola, José Hernán; Negro, Juan José; Travaini, Alejandro

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the nutritional condition and established reference values for serum chemistry parameters in a long distance migrant bird of prey, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), wintering in central Argentina. We analyzed serum concentration of urea, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides and assessed age and sex related differences in these parameters. A body condition index was obtained from the resultant residuals of the regression of body mass and a morphometric measure. No statistical differences were observed among sex and age groups for urea, uric acid and triglyceride serum concentration. However, cholesterol concentration differed among male and female hawks, which could be related to the gain of body mass in wintering grounds at differential rates. The mean values of the four parameters were in the range of those recorded in the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), indicating good nutritional condition of the population we studied. Forearm length was the morphometric variable that better correlated with body mass. The resultant body condition index was only correlated with triglyceride concentration, suggesting that this index could be valuable in future work dealing with the assessment of body fat storage in wintering and breeding hawks, as well as in stopover points on the migratory route.

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  14. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  15. Men living with long-term conditions: exploring gender and improving social care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, David; Jepson, Marcus; Hastie, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Disabled men have traditionally been seen as incomplete men or as entirely gender-less. Research which has looked at the intersection of disability and male gender has largely treated disabled men as a homogeneous group with little reference to, for example, impairment-related differences. The ongoing move towards self-directed, personalised social care in England suggests that support needs relating to gender may be taken more seriously. A qualitative study with 20 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in England in 2013 explored the men's experiences of the organisation and delivery of social care as it pertained to their sense of being men. Our main finding was that social care in its broadest sense did little to support a positive sense of masculinity or male gender. More often than not the organisation and delivery of social care people de-gendered or emasculated many of the men who took part in the study. Our paper speaks to the need to explore impairment-specific issues for disabled men; to deliver a more person-centred approach to social care which recognises the importance of the social and sexual lives of disabled men; and to create ways in which men can support and empower each other to assert essential human rights relating to independence, dignity and liberty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Citalopram amplifies the influence of living conditions on mood in depressed patients enrolled in the STAR*D study.

    PubMed

    Chiarotti, F; Viglione, A; Giuliani, A; Branchi, I

    2017-03-21

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs, have a variable and incomplete efficacy. In order to better understand SSRI action, we explored the hypothesis that SSRIs do not affect mood per se but amplify the influence of the living conditions on mood. To this aim, we exploited the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) data set, selected a subpopulation of 591 patients with an overlapping clinical history and analyzed treatment outcome according to dosage -20 or 40 mg per day of citalopram. We found that sociodemographic characteristics affected treatment response in the same direction in the two dose groups, but these effects reached statistical significance only in the 40 mg per day dose group. In the latter, higher improvement rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0219), longer education (P=0.0053), high income (P=0.01) or a private insurance (P=0.0031), and the higher remission rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0326) or longer education (P=0.0484). Moreover, the magnitude of the effect of the sociodemographic characteristics on mood, measured as the percent of patients showing a positive outcome when exposed to favorable living conditions, was much greater-up to 37-fold-in the 40 compared to the 20 mg per day dose group. Overall, our results indicate that citalopram amplifies the influence of the living conditions on mood in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provide a potential explanation for the variable efficacy of SSRIs and might lead to the development of personalized strategies aimed at enhancing their efficacy.

  17. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  18. Developing biographies: the experiences of children, young people and their parents of living with a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; Kirk, Sue; Callery, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This article reports on data from a qualitative interview study that sought to understand the experiences, choices and actions of children and young people undergoing surgery for a long-term condition and that of their parents. Using the concept of biography the article examines how the biographies of children, young people and their parents can be influenced by surgery and the ongoing management of a long-term continence condition. This article challenges previous work that characterises the presence of a condition from birth as a continuous and normal part of the illness experiences of these patients. Although this may be the case in some instances, children, young people and their parents can experience diverse and changing experiences associated with ongoing condition management as well as surgery. Biographical continuity, enrichment and disruption are all relevant concepts for such patients living with a long-term continence condition. These can be influenced by their previous experiences of their condition, their expectations, and dynamics with parents, including changes associated with development and the increasing independence of young people.

  19. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    PubMed

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  20. Effect of BMI on pedometers in early adolescents under free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Tyo, Brian M; Bassett, David R; Coe, Dawn P; Feito, Yuri; Thompson, Dixie L

    2013-03-01

    Pedometers may provide valuable information regarding the ambulatory patterns of adolescents, but the effects of body mass index (BMI) on pedometer accuracy in this population are unknown.The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine whether the New Lifestyles NL-2000 (NL) and the Digi-Walker SW-200 (DW) (New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit, MO) yield similar step counts as compared with an ankle-mounted criterion, StepWatch 3, when worn by early adolescents in a free-living environment and 2) to study whether BMI percentile affects the accuracy of waist-mounted pedometers in adolescents. Seventy-four early adolescents (13.0 ± 1.1 yr) wore the devices during one weekday. The study population included 33 normal weight, 21 overweight, and 20 obese participants. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine whether the BMI and the device were related to the number of steps per day and percentage of actual steps. The NL and DW recorded fewer steps than the StepWatch 3 in each BMI category (P < 0.05). In the obese group, the DW underestimated the steps more than the NL (P < 0.001). For the normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, the NL counted 89.1%, 89.1%, and 91.6% of the steps, respectively, whereas the DW counted 86.7%, 84.6%, and 72.7%, respectively. Researchers must be cognizant of the limitations of waist-mounted pedometers and carefully choose a device that suits the needs of their investigations. Because of the inaccuracies of the DW when measuring steps in obese adolescents, careful consideration must be given before choosing this device for research and interventions. The NL is a better device for assessment of adolescents' steps than the DW, especially for those who are obese.

  1. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Leenders, N Y; Sherman, W M; Nagaraja, H N; Kien, C L

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods of measuring physical activity (PA) in women by the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Thirteen subjects participated in a 7-d protocol during which total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured with DLW. Body composition, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and peak oxygen consumption were also measured. Physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) was then calculated by subtracting measured BMR and the estimated thermic effect of food from TDEE. Simultaneously, over the 7 d, PA was assessed via a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (PAR), and subjects wore secured at the waist, a Tritrac-R3D (Madison, WI), a Computer Science Application Inc. activity monitor (CSA; Shalimar, FL), and a Yamax Digi Walker-500 (Tokyo, Japan). Pearson-product moment correlations were calculated to determine the relationships among the different methods for estimating PAEE. Paired t-tests with appropriate adjustments were used to compare the different methods with DLW-PAEE. There was no significant difference between PAEE determined from PAR and DLW. The differences between the two methods ranged from -633 to 280 kcal.d(-1). Compared with DLW, PAEE determined from CSA, Tritrac, and Yamax was significantly underestimated by 59% (-495 kcal.d(-1)), 35% (-320 kcal.d(-1)) and 59% (-497 kcal.d(-1)), respectively. VO2peak explained 43% of the variation in DLW-PAEE. Although the group average for PAR-PAEE agreed with DLW-PAEE, there were differences in the methods among the subjects. PAEE determined by Tritrac, CSA, and Yamax significantly underestimate free-living PAEE in women.

  2. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  3. Activity of Daily Living Staging, Chronic Health Conditions, and Perceived Lack of Home Accessibility Features for Elderly People Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Xie, Dawei; Pan, Qiang; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Saliba, Debra; Streim, Joel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the cross-sectional associations between activity of daily living (ADL) limitation stage and specific physical and mental conditions, global perceived health, and unmet needs for home accessibility features of community-dwelling adults aged 70 and older. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Nine thousand four hundred forty-seven community-dwelling persons interviewed through the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA II). MEASUREMENTS Six ADLs organized into five stages ranging from no difficulty (0) to unable (IV). RESULTS ADL stage showed strong ordered associations with perceived health, dementia severe enough to require proxy use, and history of stroke. For example, the relative risks (RRs) defined as risk of being at Stages I, II, III, or IV divided by risk of being at Stage 0 for those with dementia ranged from 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4–4.4) to 41.9 (95% CI = 19.6–89.6) times the RRs for those without dementia. The RR ratios (RRR) comparing respondents who perceived unmet need for accessibility features in the home to those without these perceptions peaked at Stage III (RRR = 17.8, 95% CI = 13.0–24.5) and then declined at Stage IV. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and race. CONCLUSIONS ADL stages showed clinically logical associations with other health-related concepts, supporting external validity. Findings suggest that specificity of chronic conditions will be important in developing strategies for disability reduction. People with partial rather than complete ADL limitation appeared most vulnerable to unmet needs for home accessibility features. PMID:21361881

  4. Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Thomas, Jai; Webb, Jonathan K; Pearson, David J; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of 2 sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ("goannas," Varanus panoptes). One set of trials (described in this paper) exposed recently-captured lizards to sausages made from cane toad flesh, laced with a nausea-inducing chemical (lithium chloride) to reinforce the aversion response. The other trials (in a recently-published paper, reviewed herein) exposed free-ranging lizards to live juvenile cane toads. The effectiveness of the training was judged by how long a lizard survived in the wild before it was killed (fatally poisoned) by a cane toad. Both stimuli elicited rapid aversion to live toads, but the CTA response did not enhance survival rates of the sausage-trained goannas after they were released into the wild. In contrast, the goannas exposed to live juvenile toads exhibited higher long-term survival rates than did untrained conspecifics. Our results suggest that although it is relatively easy to elicit short-term aversion to toad cues in goannas, a biologically realistic stimulus (live toads, encountered by free-ranging predators) is most effective at buffering these reptiles from the impact of invasive toxic prey. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  6. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-11-30

    Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities.Therefore, developing and implementing health programs to tackle

  7. Palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning: Views of people living with HIV and other chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Webel, Allison; Daly, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) who survive to older adulthood risk developing multiple chronic medical conditions. Health policymakers recognize the role of early palliative care and advance care planning in improving health quality for at-risk populations, but misperceptions about palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning are common. Before testing a program of early palliative care for PLWH and other chronic conditions, we conducted focus groups to elicit perceptions of palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning in our target population. Overall, participants were unfamiliar with the term palliative care, confused concepts of palliative care and hospice, and/or associated hospice care with dying. Participants misunderstood advance care planning, but valued communication about health care preferences. Accepting palliative care was contingent on distinguishing it from hospice and historical memories of HIV and dying. Provision of high-quality, comprehensive care will require changing public perceptions and individuals’ views in this high-risk population. PMID:27053406

  8. Local Actors' Frames of the Role of Living Conditions in Shaping Hypertension Risk and Disparities in a Colombian Municipality.

    PubMed

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the social and physical environment influence population health and risk for CVD, including hypertension. These environmental conditions are influenced by the decisions of public officials, community leaders, and service providers. Examining the frames that local decision makers bring to understanding hypertension can provide important insights into the decisions that they make about strategies for addressing this problem in their jurisdiction. The goal of this study was to examine the frames that local decision makers in Quibdó, Colombia, bring to understanding hypertension risk, and in particular, whether and how they use frames that encompass associations between living conditions and hypertension risk. Data for this qualitative study were collected using a stratified sampling strategy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 local decision makers and analyzed using a framework approach. Participants linked the structural conditions experienced in Quibdó, including displacement, limited economic opportunities, and the infrastructure of the city, to hypertension risk through multiple pathways, including behavioral risk factors for hypertension and physiologic responses to stress. They described the social patterning of these factors across socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender hierarchies. Although several conditions associated with hypertension risk are widely distributed in the city's population, social processes of marginalization and stratification create additional disadvantages for those on the lower rungs of the social hierarchy.

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  11. Occupational hazards, living conditions, and physical assault of sugar cane workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Salie, F; Gwagwa, T

    1998-09-01

    To characterise the occupational hazards and living conditions of sugar cane workers in KwaZulu-Natal. Based on information provided by shop stewards, a survey instrument (questionnaire) was constructed for administration to union members. Seven sugar cane farms and estates owned by one large corporation in late 1993. Members of the South African Farm and Allied Workers Union (SAFAWU). Of the 632 participants, 50% were permanent workers, 22.3% were seasonal workers and 27.7% were casual workers. Mean daily pay ranged from R5 to R35 per worker. The majority of participants reported substandard housing both during the growing season and during the off-season. Percentages reporting health problems in the last 12 months believed by the respondent to be caused or made worse by work included 79% with eye problems, 78% with upper respiratory problems, 88% with lower respiratory problems, 93% with musculoskeletal problems, and 81% with an acute traumatic injury. More than half the participants reported fainting, collapsing or illness from working on hot or sunny days. Fourteen per cent reported being struck with the fist or hand, or being pushed, shoved or kicked by a farm owner, member of the owner's family, manager or supervisor; 9% reported being struck with an object, whipped, or attacked or threatened with a knife or gun by one of these same individuals. Sugar cane workers employed by a large corporation in KwaZulu-Natal appear to face severe threats to their physical and psychological well-being including: (i) inadequate pay to meet basic living needs; (ii) substandard living conditions; (iii) significant occupational hazards resulting in high reported levels of occupational illness and injury; and (iv) physical and psychological abuse and intimidation by farm owners and their agents.

  12. Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic - the SLiCA study.

    PubMed

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2012-03-19

    The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Population-based cross-sectional survey. Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables.

  13. Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic – the SLiCA study

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Study design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Methods Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Results A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Conclusions Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables. PMID:22456042

  14. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Habitual Physical Activity Above Lactate Threshold Under Free-living Conditions: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, M; Kumahara, H; Morimura, K; Tanaka, H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of an exercise-based intervention on the daily physical activity (PA) above the lactate threshold under free-living conditions. A total of 81 middle-aged to older males (51±7 years) were randomly assigned into one of 2 groups. The subjects' body weight, visceral fat area, lactate threshold (LT), and PA levels were measured before and after the 8-week lifestyle intervention. The PA levels were assessed using a pedometer with a uni-axial accelerometer (Lifecorder, Kenz, Nagoya). During the intervention, 300 min/week of exercise at LT was targeted in the exercise group. The LT was determined by the log-log transformation method. The subjects in the control group were instructed to maintain their usual lifestyles. In the exercise group, the body weight, visceral fat area and LT significantly improved after the intervention. In contrast, the duration of PA at an intensity of LT, >3 METs and >6 METs did not differ significantly. The present investigation did not find significant changes in the PA at LT under free-living conditions as a result of an 8-week exercise-based intervention, although the participants successfully improved their aerobic capacity and body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. [Living conditions of the rural population in France. Situation in 1974 and evolution from 1967 to 1974 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Paillat, P

    1977-04-01

    A survey of the living conditions of aged people in rural regions of France in 1974 and a comparison with the previous surveys of 1967/68 in 302 rural vallages are analysed. Of the 4,800 persons in 1967/68, by 1974 1,609 were dead (35%). After questioning the 2,191 living persons (1,275 farmers and 916 non farmers) an increased number of widowed people appeared in those 7 years. For men in 1967/68: 20%, now 28%; for women in 1967/68: 61%, now 72%. In the age group 75-79 three times more women lost their husbands than men lost their wives. 2/3 of the households remained identical, 1/5 became smaller, 1/8 increased. The comparison (excluding the dead persons) showed no significant differences in the health conditions. Detailed questions were asked regarding social relationships but it is very difficult to analyse the date due to the great number of dead persons. The difference between farmers (whose number decreases) and non farmers (whose number increases) is especially mentioned and specific problems are treated separately. In France ageing in rural areas is increasing rapidly: in 1968, 393 rural counties contained 20% of people aged 65 or more.

  16. Preferences for Medical Marijuana over Prescription Medications Among Persons Living with Chronic Conditions: Alternative, Complementary, and Tapering Uses.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Brady, John P; Foster, Elissa; Shattell, Mona

    2017-09-25

    Despite expanded legalization and utilization of medical cannabis (MC) internationally, there is a lack of patient-centered data on how MC is used by persons living with chronic conditions in tandem with or instead of prescription medications. This study describes approaches to use of MC vis-à-vis prescription medications in the treatment of selected chronic conditions. Participants completed semistructured telephone interviews with open-ended questions. Content analysis of qualitative data identified themes and subthemes relating to patient approaches to using MC products. Thirty persons (mean age = 44.6 years) living with a range of chronic conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, spinal cord injury/disease, and cancer) who had qualified for and used MC in Illinois. Participants described a range of approaches to using MC, including (1) as alternatives to using prescription or over-the-counter medications; (2) complementary use with prescription medications; and (3) as a means for tapering off prescription medications. Motives reported for reducing or eliminating prescription medications included concerns regarding toxicity, dependence, and tolerance, and perceptions that MC improves management of certain symptoms and has quicker action and longer lasting effects. MC appears to serve as both a complementary method for symptom management and treatment of medication side-effects associated with certain chronic conditions, and as an alternative method for treatment of pain, seizures, and inflammation in this population. Additional patient-centered research is needed to identify specific dosing patterns of MC products associated with symptom alleviation and produce longitudinal data assessing chronic disease outcomes with MC use.

  17. [Health, life style and living conditions in Greenland. The 1993-1994 Greenland health survey].

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Senderovitz, F; Christensen, U; Pars, T

    1999-03-15

    Existing knowledge about the disease pattern in Greenland does not include the Greenlanders' own perception of their health. Consequently, the Greenland Home Rule Government initiated a countrywide health interview survey which was carried out during 1993-1994. A total of 1728 adults were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Self-rated health varied with age, gender and socioeconomic conditions. Only few of those bothered by symptoms had contacted the health care services. Musculoskeletal diseases were by far the most frequent cause of symptoms. Suicidal thoughts were frequent; 48% had experienced the suicide of a relative or friend. The life style is characterized by a high consumption of marine mammals and fish, a decreasing but still high alcohol consumption and an 80% prevalence of smoking among both men and women. The health care services are often staffed by Danish physicians and nurses. Occasionally this gives rise to communication problems and dissatisfaction.

  18. [Prognostication of reproductive disorders in women living under different ecologic conditions].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, M V

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of females to environmental hazards is known to increase extremely during pregnancy. The harmful effects could appear not only in mother, but also in fetus. Thus, special importance is associated with materials about effects of environmental hazards in industrial agglomeration on female reproductivity. The authors demonstrate relationships of incidence and severity of female reproductive disorders, neonatal health with actual jeopardy of ecological hazards characteristic for industrial agglomeration of Volgograd region. The data obtained help to consider reproductive and neonatal health parameters which are highly prone to anthropogenous factors and to use those parameters for forecasting the pathologic conditions dependent on ecologic matters. The results could serve as a base for prognosis on demographic situation in Volgograd region by the beginning of XXI century.

  19. Development of free-living stages of Strongyloides ratti under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maki; Uga, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the Strongyloides species have two different developmental courses-direct and indirect development-and selection of these courses is affected by various environmental factors. This study examined the effect of temperature on the development of first-stage larvae (L1s) of Strongyloides ratti, to clarify how larvae adapt and survive at unsuitable temperatures. It was revealed that L1s cultured at 4 or 10 °C for 120 h could not develop because of growth arrest or delay. However, L1s could develop after transfer to culture at 25 °C for 48 h. Although larvae cultured at 25 °C take indirect development, larvae subjected to low-temperature stimulation (at 4 or 10 °C) take direct development into infective third-stage larvae (L3s), and only 1 min of low-temperature stimulation was sufficient to induce direct development. Morphological study of low-temperature-stimulated L3s revealed that those stimulated at 4 °C (L3-4) showed less development, but those stimulated at 10 °C (L3-10) developed as well as the control (no low-temperature stimulation). Furthermore, we revealed that L3-10 showed similar infectivity to the control when they were injected subcutaneously into rats as the final host, which indicated that L3-10 grew normally. We conclude that S. ratti has a survival strategy of growth arrest or delay if excreted in cold conditions. Moreover, even if they start development after transfer to suitable conditions, they memorize low-temperature stimulation, which leads them to direct development thereafter so that they can immediately infect the final host.

  20. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  1. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a

  2. Apical structures of "mitochondria-rich" alpha and beta cells in euryhaline fish gill: their behaviour in various living conditions.

    PubMed

    Pisam, M; Le Moal, C; Auperin, B; Prunet, P; Rambourg, A

    1995-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of the two types (alpha and beta) of "mitochondria-rich" (chloride) cells in the gill epithelium of freshwater fishes is the presence in their apical region of tubulovesicular structures. A further analysis of the ultrastructural features of these apical elements as well as that of their modifications under various living conditions should help to understand better the respective rôle of both alpha and beta cells in these conditions. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) maintained in fresh water as well as tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained either in fresh water or in deionized water or in 20% saltwater were examined. Measurements of surface areas of apical structures in the various living conditions were also performed. In the alpha cells of freshwater fishes, the apical structures consisted of isolated vesicles containing a filamentous material resembling that coating the apical surface. They were closely related to the apical plasma membrane and did not penetrate the region containing the tubular system. When fishes were transferred to deionized water, the number of the apical membrane folds increased significantly, as did the number and size of apical structures which became elongated. In saltwater-adapted fishes, the apical structures showed a tendency to collapse and took the appearance of flattened and slightly curved elements. These observations tended to indicate that in alpha cells the apical structures were extensions of the apical plasma membrane and thereby might be implicated in sodium uptake when fishes are placed in fresh or deionized water and in chloride excretion when they are transferred to salt water. In beta cells, the apical structures were usually separated from the apical plasma membrane by a zone rich in cytoskeleton elements. They penetrated deeply into the supranuclear region, where they intermingled with the elements of the tubular system. They consisted mainly of tubular elements that contained a

  3. Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shiff, C; Checkley, W; Winch, P; Premji, Z; Minjas, J; Lubega, P

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on weight gain and haematocrit in Tanzanian children aged 6-40 months following a malaria control scheme which combined insecticide-impregnated bed nets with chloroquine chemotherapy on demand. Data from 7 villages (3 intervention and 4 control) were collected before, and one year after, the implementation of the programme. Initially, 82% of the children were parasitaemic, 78% were anaemic (i.e., packed cell volume < 33%) and 38% were underweight (i.e., 2 standard deviations below their weight-for-age Z score). One year after implementation of the programme, children not protected by the bed nets grew 286 g less (95% confidence interval [CI] 171-402 g) in a 5 months period and were twice as likely to be anaemic (95% CI 1.4-2.7) than were children not using impregnated bed nets. Our results indicated that, under holoendemic conditions, P. falciparum infection has a marked effect on both weight gain and anaemia.

  4. Socio-economic characteristics, living conditions and diet quality are associated with food insecurity in France.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Vieux, Florent; Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) in France and to describe its associations with socio-economic factors, health behaviours, diet quality and cost (estimated using mean food prices). Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. FI was assessed using an adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Insufficiency Indicator; dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d open-ended food record; and individual demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Individuals experiencing FI were compared with food-secure individuals, the latter being divided into four categories according to quartiles of their income per consumption unit (FS1 to FS4). Differences among categories were analysed using χ² tests, ANOVA and tests for trend. Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Adults aged 18-79 years (n 2624). Individuals experiencing FI represented 12·2% of the population. They were on average younger, more frequently women and single parents with children compared with those in the other four categories. Their mean income per consumption unit was higher than that in the FS1 category, but they reported poorer material and housing conditions. The prevalence of smoking and the mean daily time spent watching television were also higher in the FI category. No significant difference among categories was found for energy intake, but mean intakes of fruits, vegetables and fish were lower, and diet quality was slightly but significantly poorer in the FI category. Daily diet cost was also lower in the FI category. France is not spared by FI. FI should be routinely monitored at the national level and research should be promoted to identify effective strategies to reduce nutrition inequalities in France.

  5. Meaningful conversations in living with and treating chronic conditions: development of the ICAN discussion aid.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, Kasey R; Hargraves, Ian G; Allen, Summer V; Matthews, Marc R; Maher, Christina; Montori, Victor M

    2016-09-23

    The needs of the growing population of complex patients with multiple chronic conditions calls for a different approach to care. Clinical teams need to acknowledge, respect, and support the work that patients do and the capacity they mobilize to enact this work, and to adapt and self-manage. Tools that enable this approach to care are needed. Using user-centered design principles, we set out to create a discussion aid for use by patients, clinicians, and other health professionals during clinical encounters. We observed clinical encounters, visited patient homes, and dialogued with patient support groups. We then developed and tested prototypes in routine clinical practice. Then we refined a final prototype with extensive stakeholder feedback. From this process resulted the ICAN Discussion Aid, a tool completed by the patient and reviewed during the consultation in which patients classified domains that contribute to capacity as sources of burden or satisfaction; clinical demands were also classified as sources of help or burden. The clinical review facilitated by ICAN generates hypotheses regarding why some treatment plans may be problematic and may not be enacted in the patient's situation. We successfully created a discussion aid to elucidate and share insights about the capacity patients have to enact the treatment plan and hypotheses as to why this plan may or may not be enacted. Next steps involve the evaluation of the impact of the ICAN Discussion Aid on clinical encounters with a variety of health professionals and the impact of ICAN-informed treatment plans on patient-important outcomes.

  6. [Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in a group of pre-school and school children, living in conditions of poverty].

    PubMed

    Winocur, Daniel; Ceriani Cernadas, José M; Imach, Eduardo; Otasso, Juan C; Morales, Patricia; Gards, Armando

    2004-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common during the first years of life. Yet, there is a paucity of data on scholar children. Our main objective was to estimate the prevalence of ferropenic anemia in children 3 to 12 years of age living under conditions of poverty. A total of 323 children were included, 171 attended to a day care institution (group A) and 152 were from the same community but not attended in the day care institution (group B). Hemoglobin (Hb), medium corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured in all children. In those with Hb < or = 11 g/dl and/or MCV < or = 73 fl and/or SF < or = 15 microg/l, transferrin saturation (TS) and soluble transferrin receptors (sTR) were also measured. Iron deficiency was defined as SF < or = 15 mg/l and ferropenic anemia was defined as Hb < or = 11 g/dl or MCV < or = 73 fl with sTR > or = 38 mmol/l and SF < or = 10 microg/l or TS < or = 10%. There were no differences between the groups regarding age, weight, height, education, gender and housing conditions. Mean hemoglobin level was 12.6 g/dl (group A: 12.4 g/dl vs. group B: 12.7 g/dl; p=0.012), and mean SF was 45 mg/l, without significant differences between groups. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 2.5% (8/323) and iron deficiency was 4.4% (14/317), without significant differences between groups. These results persisted after controlling for confounding variables. In this group of children living under conditions of poverty in Argentina, iron deficiency anemia was uncommon. We attribute this phenomenon to local affordability of some inexpensive cuts of red meat.

  7. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  9. Physical Activity Assessment Between Consumer- and Research-Grade Accelerometers: A Comparative Study in Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Winfree, Kyle N; Pohlig, Ryan T; Papas, Mia A

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity monitors such as Fitbit enable users to track various attributes of their physical activity (PA) over time and have the potential to be used in research to promote and measure PA behavior. However, the measurement accuracy of Fitbit in absolute free-living conditions is largely unknown. Objective To examine the measurement congruence between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph GT3X for quantifying steps, metabolic equivalent tasks (METs), and proportion of time in sedentary activity and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA in healthy adults in free-living conditions. Methods A convenience sample of 19 participants (4 men and 15 women), aged 18-37 years, concurrently wore the Fitbit Flex (wrist) and ActiGraph GT3X (waist) for 1- or 2-week observation periods (n=3 and n=16, respectively) that included self-reported bouts of daily exercise. Data were examined for daily activity, averaged over 14 days and for minutes of reported exercise. Average day-level data included steps, METs, and proportion of time in different intensity levels. Minute-level data included steps, METs, and mean intensity score (0 = sedentary, 3 = vigorous) for overall reported exercise bouts (N=120) and by exercise type (walking, n=16; run or sports, n=44; cardio machine, n=20). Results Measures of steps were similar between devices for average day- and minute-level observations (all P values > .05). Fitbit significantly overestimated METs for average daily activity, for overall minutes of reported exercise bouts, and for walking and run or sports exercises (mean difference 0.70, 1.80, 3.16, and 2.00 METs, respectively; all P values < .001). For average daily activity, Fitbit significantly underestimated the proportion of time in sedentary and light intensity by 20% and 34%, respectively, and overestimated time by 3% in both moderate and vigorous intensity (all P values < .001). Mean intensity scores were not different for overall minutes of exercise or for run or

  10. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  11. [Effect of working conditions and various social and living factors of the incidence of nervous system diseases with temporary disability among farmers].

    PubMed

    Kuptsov, V V

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out that working and living conditions have essential impact on the incidence of nervous diseases causing temporary disability among farmers. The above conclusion has great practical significance since the necessity of carrying out a set of measures aimed at the sanitation of working and living conditions of farmers has been scientifically approved in order to reduce work losses due to nervous diseases.

  12. Optimal conditions for visualizing water-conducting pathways in a living tree by the dye injection method.

    PubMed

    Umebayashi, Toshihiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Koga, Shinya; Inoue, Susumu; Shiiba, Yasuki; Arakawa, Keita; Matsumura, Junji; Oda, Kazuyuki

    2007-07-01

    To elucidate the water-conducting pathways in living trees by the dye injection method, suitable sample preparation procedures are needed. We evaluated quantitatively the properties and concentrations of three dyes (acid fuchsin, basic fuchsin and safranin) widely used for this purpose, and determined the optimal conditions required to avoid artifacts after dye injection into the sap stream of Pieris japonica D. Don. Among the dyes tested, an aqueous solution of acid fuchsin at a concentration of 0.1% or more was the most useful for delineating water movement. In non-transpiring stem segments, the vertical movement of acid fuchsin by capillarity and diffusion from the dye injection site was limited. However, acid fuchsin moved rapidly in the horizontal direction by capillarity and diffusion, and most xylem cells were stained within 2 h. A delay of more than 2 h between dye injection and examination of the tissues greatly reduces the precision of the method. Use of the dye injection method without appropriate, well-defined experimental procedures may give rise to misleading information about the functional water-conducting pathway in living trees.

  13. The 'magic button question' for those with a mood disorder--would they wish to re-live their condition?

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Fletcher, Kathryn; Blanch, Bianca; Graham, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    To determine any positive aspects of living with a clinical mood disorder, and indirectly address the question--"If you could live your life again, would you press the 'magic button' to experience life without a mood disorder?" Patients referred to a tertiary mood disorder facility were asked to complete a series of questionnaires pursuing detailed historical information about their mood disorder, including its 'best' and 'worst' aspects. Of the 884 patients surveyed, 335 (38%) returned data on their mood disorder's advantages and/or disadvantages. Of these, 62.2% of the bipolar and 22.4% of the unipolar patients stated that having their condition had advantages, with the most commonly nominated consequences being increased empathy and self-awareness, enhanced relationships, a heightened appreciation of life and increased creativity. The qualitative design disallows any inferences as to the exact cause of benefits described in this study, so that we cannot conclude that the patients perceived these benefits as attributable to depression or bipolar disorder alone. While some respondents may well have focussed on transient benefits associated with bipolar 'highs', analyses indicated that a distinct sub-set of both unipolar and bipolar patients experienced some benefits, arguing for introducing the principles of positive psychology into management of wellbeing plans. In essence, while mood disorders are--by definition--disabling, they may also have enabling consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity of activity monitors worn at multiple nontraditional locations under controlled and free-living conditions in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kumahara, Hideaki; Ayabe, Makoto; Ichibakase, Misato; Tashima, Akari; Chiwata, Maiko; Takashi, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of counting steps and computing indices of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using miniature activity monitors with 3-D technology worn at various locations under controlled (CON) and free-living conditions (FL). Kenz e-style2, Tanita Calorism Smart, and Omron Calori Scan HJA-306 activity monitors were assessed. Nine and 31 young adult women were assigned to the CON and FL studies, respectively. While walking or jogging on a treadmill at 5 different speeds, the subjects simultaneously carried the 3 different monitors in a pants pocket (PP), a chest shirt pocket, and a shoulder bag (B). Under the FL condition, the 3 monitors were placed only at the PP and B locations for practical reasons. Significant effects of monitor location and walking/jogging speed on the step count measured by the 3 monitors were evaluated under the CON condition. Monitors placed at both PP and B tended to underestimate the number of steps; however, there were no significant differences between the values obtained with the Kenz monitor and those obtained with a criterion accelerometer under the FL condition. Moreover, strong correlations were observed between steps measured by monitors placed at PP and steps measured by the criterion accelerometer. The amount of MVPA for the PP location and the non-carrying duration of the bag for the B location were considered to be important determinants of the accuracy of step counting under the FL condition. In conclusion, monitors placed at the PP location, especially the Kenz monitor, showed acceptable accuracy for young adult women in real-life settings. In contrast, MVPA indices assessed using these monitors showed limited validity.

  15. Clinical characteristics and objective living conditions in relation to quality of life among community-based individuals of schizophrenia in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Frederick Ka Ching; Chan, Sunny Ho Wan

    2006-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained importance as an outcome measure for people with schizophrenia living in the community following deinstitutionalization. This study aims at exploring the effects of clinical characteristics and objective living conditions on QOL. In this study, 201 community-based individuals with schizophrenia were recruited from five different types of objective living conditions comprising long stay care home, halfway house, supported hostel/housing, living with family, and living alone. Clinical characteristics including cognitive abilities, symptom levels, and community/social functioning were assessed by the Allen Cognitive Level Screen, the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and Positive Symptoms, and the Chinese version of the Multnomah Community Ability Scale respectively. The outcome measure of QOL was measured by the Chinese version of the WHO Quality of Life Measure. Analysis of covariance showed significant differences in community/social functioning, cognitive abilities, and negative symptoms; but not in QOL under different objective living conditions. Further simultaneous multiple regressions found out that community/social functioning was the robust significant predictor of QOL. Yet caution should be noted in making the conclusion with the objective living condition of long stay care home, as it provides a protective element for the perseverance of QOL.

  16. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  17. Understanding how self-management interventions work for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Susan L; Pumarino, Javiera; Clark, Nancy; Carroll, Simon; Dennis, Sarah; Koehn, Sharon; Yu, Tricia; Davis, Connie; Fong, Maylene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-management programmes are complex interventions aimed at improving the way individuals self-manage chronic conditions, but there are questions about the overall impact of these programmes on disadvantaged populations, in terms of their capacity to engage with and receive the benefits from these initiatives. Given the increased resources being directed towards self-management initiatives, clinicians and policy makers need knowledge on how self-management interventions work for these populations. Most systematic reviews of self-management interventions do not consider the complex interactions between implementation contexts, intervention strategies, and mechanisms that influence how self-management interventions work in real life for disadvantaged groups. Methods To address the need for better understanding of these mechanisms and to create context-relevant knowledge, we are conducting a realist synthesis of evidence on self-management interventions for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions. The primary research question is: What are the key mechanisms operating in chronic condition self-management interventions among disadvantaged populations? In this protocol, we outline the steps we will take to identify the programme theory for self-management interventions and candidate middle-range theories; to search for evidence in academic and grey literature; to appraise and extract the collected evidence; to synthesise and interpret the findings to generate key context-mechanism-outcome configurations and to disseminate results to relevant stakeholder and to peer-review publications. Dissemination Understandings of how chronic conditions self-management interventions work among disadvantaged populations is essential knowledge for clinicians and other decision makers who need to know which programmes they should implement for which groups. Results will also benefit medical researchers who want to direct effort towards current gaps in

  18. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region.

  19. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

    PubMed

    Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

    1997-12-01

    Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

  20. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.

  1. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Bond, Carol S; Ahmed, Osman Hassan

    2016-11-10

    Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as "personal health text", a specific type of research data in its own right. Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: 'Information Sharing from Experience' and 'Signposting Other Sources of Information'.Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field.With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  2. The influence of genotype, market live weight, transportation, and holding conditions prior to slaughter on broiler breast meat color.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Cavani, C

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of genotype, market live weight, transportation time, holding time, and temperature on broiler breast fillet color under commercial processing in Italy. Color was evaluated using a Minolta Chroma Meter (Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300, Minolta Italia S.p.A., Milano, Italy) on a total of 6,997 broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major muscle) from 79 different flocks chosen at random during a 6-mo period. The flocks were represented by Ross 508 and Cobb 500 genotypes of both genders, processed at different ages, and subjected to different antemortem conditions during transport and holding. Ross 508 broilers exhibited a lower hue angle (H*) than did Cobb 500 (45.12 vs. 48.52; P < 0.01). With regard to the market live weight of broilers, the heavier birds (>3.3 kg) produced a darker breast meat (L* = 51.67) than did the lighter birds (<3.0 and 3.0 to 3.3 kg; L* = 52.63 and 52.84, respectively) (P < 0.001). The breast fillets from birds transported for the shortest distance (<40 km) exhibited a higher (P < 0.01) breast meat redness (a*; 3.59) when compared with transport distances of 40 to 210 or >210 km (a* = 3.28 and 3.04, respectively). The shortest holding time (<6 h) produced the highest (P < 0.05) L* values (52.84) compared with holding periods of 6 to 9 h and >9 h (L* = 52.12 and 52.04, respectively). Furthermore, an increase of both meat a* and saturation (C*) was observed with the advance in holding time. The holding temperature significantly affected the meat color. Breast fillets from birds held at <12 degrees C was darker (L* = 51.32) than fillets from birds held at 12 to 18 degrees C (L* = 52.85) or >18 degrees C (L* = 53.11) (P < 0.001). Moreover, the increase in holding temperature (<12 degrees C vs. 12 to 18 degrees C vs. >18 degrees C) also determined a lower breast meat a* (3.77 vs. 3.12 vs. 2.72, respectively; P < 0.001), b* (3.72 vs. 3.41 vs. 3.37, respectively; P < 0.05), C*, and H*. In conclusion, the

  3. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; Benedict, Christian; Lehnert, Hendrik; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Short sleep duration is correlated with an increased risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of energy homeostasis toward weight gain. In 15 healthy, normal-weight men, spontaneous physical activity was registered by accelerometry during the entire experiment, and food intake as well as relevant hormones were assessed during a 15-h daytime period after 2 nights of regular sleep (bed time: 2245-0700) and after 2 nights of restricted sleep (bed time: 0245-0700). Experiments were performed in a crossover design. Sleep restriction significantly decreased physical activity during the daytime spent under free-living conditions after the first night of sleep manipulation (P = 0.008). Also, intensities of physical activity were shifted toward lower levels, with less time spent with intense activities (P = 0.046). Total energy intake, feelings of hunger, and appetite as well as ghrelin and leptin concentrations during day 2 remained unaffected by acute sleep restriction. In contrast to our expectation, short-term sleep loss neither increased food intake nor affected concentrations of the hunger-regulating hormones leptin and ghrelin. However, the observed decrease in daytime physical activity may point to another potentially important behavioral mechanism for the health-impairing influence of sleep loss.

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  6. Understanding how self-management interventions work for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan L; Pumarino, Javiera; Clark, Nancy; Carroll, Simon; Dennis, Sarah; Koehn, Sharon; Yu, Tricia; Davis, Connie; Fong, Maylene

    2014-07-01

    Self-management programmes are complex interventions aimed at improving the way individuals self-manage chronic conditions, but there are questions about the overall impact of these programmes on disadvantaged populations, in terms of their capacity to engage with and receive the benefits from these initiatives. Given the increased resources being directed towards self-management initiatives, clinicians and policy makers need knowledge on how self-management interventions work for these populations. Most systematic reviews of self-management interventions do not consider the complex interactions between implementation contexts, intervention strategies, and mechanisms that influence how self-management interventions work in real life for disadvantaged groups. To address the need for better understanding of these mechanisms and to create context-relevant knowledge, we are conducting a realist synthesis of evidence on self-management interventions for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions. The primary research question is: What are the key mechanisms operating in chronic condition self-management interventions among disadvantaged populations? In this protocol, we outline the steps we will take to identify the programme theory for self-management interventions and candidate middle-range theories; to search for evidence in academic and grey literature; to appraise and extract the collected evidence; to synthesise and interpret the findings to generate key context-mechanism-outcome configurations and to disseminate results to relevant stakeholder and to peer-review publications. Understandings of how chronic conditions self-management interventions work among disadvantaged populations is essential knowledge for clinicians and other decision makers who need to know which programmes they should implement for which groups. Results will also benefit medical researchers who want to direct effort towards current gaps in knowledge in order to advance the self

  7. [Living conditions of women 50plus in Europe - results of a secondary analysis in twelve Western European countries].

    PubMed

    Stiehr, K; Spindler, M

    2006-02-01

    Within the framework of the research project MERI, we analyzed in twelve Western European countries which kind of studies and official statistics are available on the situation of women 50plus and how their situation is described by these data. On the one hand, thematic and country-specific knowledge and knowledge gaps were identified. Generally speaking the topics health and social integration are the focus of the examined studies. Detailed data were also found on issues relating to work and the material situation. Knowledge gaps are to be found with regard to the topics interest representation, education and violence/abuse. There are clear country-specific differences in the data. Partly there is a North-South divide with regard to the availability and the quality of data. On the other hand, characteristics of the living conditions of women 50plus were identified. Women 50plus are a very heterogeneous group which strongly differs among others with regard to social background, disability, illness, region and migration. At the same time there are, however, clear common problems in the examined areas health, social integration, education, work, material situation, interest representation and violence/abuse. From the research result recommendations are derived for future studies and the improvement of official statistics.

  8. Greek immigrant children in southern Sweden in comparison with Greek and Swedish children. I. General living conditions.

    PubMed

    Neiderud, J

    1989-01-01

    Greek immigrant children belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children and Greek children in Greece regarding general living conditions. Interviews were performed in the homes of all participants. The parents in the two Greek groups had the lowest educational level. The yearly salary of immigrant families was similar to that of the Swedish families. Immigrant and Swedish parents worked outside their homes to the same extent, Greek immigrant mothers fulltime, Swedish mothers mostly part time. For economical reasons the immigrant parents looked after their children within the family while the Swedish families almost always utilized community day care facilities. The immigrant families had fewer children than the Swedish and Greek rural families and their dwellings were smaller. Corporal punishment was a common method of upbringing in Greece and among the immigrants. The immigrant families had extremely few contacts with Swedish families. A majority of the immigrant families were unsure about their future in Sweden, whether or not to stay. In conclusion, the Greek immigrant group in many respects had adapted to Swedish customs but they had also at the same time retained much of the Greek cultural characteristics.

  9. Non-traditional wearing positions of pedometers: validity and reliability of the Omron HJ-203-ED pedometer under controlled and free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    De Cocker, Katrien A; De Meyer, Jotie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M; Cardon, Greet M

    2012-09-01

    To test the validity and intra-instrument reliability of the HJ-203 Omron pedometer when worn in different positions, under controlled and free-living conditions. Cross-sectional. Forty healthy adults (20 men, 29.5±7.7 years) participated in three controlled tests, i.e. 20 step test, stair climbing (up and down), and treadmill walking (five bouts at different speeds). All participants wore a HJ-203 pedometer in the pants pocket, in a carrier bag, and around the neck. Fifty-four adults (23 men, 33.9±11.1 years) participated in a free-living conditions test, wearing a HJ-203 in the pants pocket and around the neck during one day. During controlled tests, absolute percentage error ranged between 0.1% and 14.0%. Accuracy was influenced by wearing position (p<0.001), walking speed (p<0.001), and wearing position×walking speed (p=0.001). Accuracy was poor for pedometers worn in the pants pocket, especially at slower speeds; and best when worn around the neck. During free-living conditions, APE ranged between 30.7% and 36.9% and did not differ statistically between pants pocket and neck position. Intra-instrument reliability varied for controlled tests (ICC=0.14-0.96) and was acceptable during free-living conditions (ICC=0.94). The HJ-203 Omron pedometer showed acceptable accuracy for all wearing positions during stairs walking and treadmill walking at higher speeds; but limited accuracy during free-living conditions when worn at non-traditional wearing positions (necklace and pants pocket). Reliability was acceptable during treadmill walking at higher speeds and free-living conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity.

  11. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India. PMID:27578928

  12. High-Intensity Telemedicine Decreases Emergency Department Use for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions by Older Adult Senior Living Community Residents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Erin B; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Wood, Nancy E; Wang, Hongyue; Noyes, Katia; Nelson, Dallas; Dozier, Ann; McConnochie, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are common among older adults. The high-intensity telemedicine model of care has been proposed as an innovative approach to expand access to acute illness care, thereby preventing ED visits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a high-intensity telemedicine program for senior living community (SLC) residents on the rate of ED use for ACSCs. We performed a prospective cohort study at a primary care geriatrics practice that provides care to 22 SLCs. Six SLCs selected as intervention facilities, with the remaining SLCs serving as controls. Consenting practice patients at intervention facilities could have patient-to-provider, real-time, or store-and-forward high-intensity telemedicine services to diagnose and treat illnesses. The primary outcome was the rate of ED visits for which the primary diagnosis was an "ambulatory-care-sensitive" condition by the Institute of Medicine, which we compared between control and intervention participants. During the study period, control participants had 310 ED visits for ACSCs, for a rate of 0.195 visits/person-year. Intervention participants visited the ED for ACSCs 85 times, for a rate of 0.138 visits/person-year [unadjusted rate ratio (RR): 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.94]. Among intervention participants, ED use for ACSCs decreased at an annual rate of 34% (RR: 0.661, 95% CI: 0.444-0.982), whereas, in the control group there was no statistically significant change in ED use over time (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.90-1.14). Providing acute illness care by high-intensity telemedicine to older adults residing in SLCs significantly decreases the rate of ED use for ACSCs over 1 year, compared with no change in the rate of ED use for ACSCs among the control group. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of body condition, live weight, breed, age, calf performance, and calving date on reproductive performance of spring-calving beef cows.

    PubMed

    Osoro, K; Wright, I A

    1992-06-01

    Data from 321 spring-calving cows (mean calving date March 27) were used to assess the effects of body condition, live weight, cow age (from 4 to 13 yr), and breed (237 Hereford x Friesians and 84 Blue-Greys) and time of calving on the proportion of cows that became pregnant, the number of days from the start of mating to pregnancy, and calving interval. Mating started at turn-out to pasture in mid-May and lasted 9 to 10 wk. Body condition at calving and breed were the most significant animal factors affecting reproductive performance. Cows calving in higher body condition had shorter (P less than .001) calving intervals (11.2 d per unit of body condition at calving). Blue-Grey cows became pregnant in a higher proportion (90%) and calving interval was shorter (364 d) than in Hereford x Friesians (83%; 374 d). Body condition at the start of mating was less important and body condition at the end of mating had no effect. Live weight at calving and changes in live weight from calving to the start of mating and during the mating period had no significant effect. The proportion of cows becoming pregnant decreased significantly with age in Hereford x Friesian cows older than 7 yr. The variance in calving interval accounted for by calving date, body condition at calving, breed, and age was 42%.

  14. The mental healthcare needs of undocumented migrants: an exploratory analysis of psychological distress and living conditions among undocumented migrants in Norway.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Trine; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova

    2017-03-01

    To explore undocumented migrants' mental healthcare needs and more specifically to explore how undocumented adults living in Norway perceive psychological distress, to gather insight on their living conditions and to explore associated living condition risk factors. Undocumented migrants are defined both nationally and internationally as an especially vulnerable group with regard to their health status, living conditions and barriers to access to health care and social welfare. An exploratory mixed-methods design using primarily quantitative data with a qualitative component was implemented. Socio-demographic data on 90 undocumented migrants were obtained, and self-report questionnaire on psychological distress was completed, supplemented by qualitative data obtained through interviews. The level of psychological distress was extremely high in our group of undocumented migrants. Leaving their home country because of war or persecution, economic strain, homelessness, hunger and having experienced abuse was significantly positively associated with psychological distress. Contrary to what was predicted, having family and work was not significantly associated with the reduction of psychological distress. Additional qualitative data indicate that having family entails great responsibilities and work implies exploitation to such an extent that any potential positive influence this has on mental health, such as a sense of belonging and a reasonable standard of living, is outweighed. The high level of psychological distress indicates a need of additional diagnostic evaluation and mental health care. The living conditions were so marginal that their day-to-day existence was threatened. We recognised a need for an interdisciplinary and dynamic approach to mental health care. Undocumented migrants are in need of a minimum of psychological and material support assuring basic needs such as shelter and appropriate food and access to health care and social welfare. © 2016 John

  15. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  16. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  17. No Longer Children: Case Studies of the Living and Working Conditions of the Youth Who Harvest America's Crops. Executive Summary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre International, San Mateo, CA.

    This report examines the living and working conditions of adolescent migrant farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 216 youth working during peak harvest time in six states, as well as with adult farmworkers, family members of working youth, and farm labor contractors. Most of the youth were 14-17 years old, although a few had begun work as…

  18. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.03. Living Conditions in the U.S.: New York. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides the participant with an overview of living conditions of the Puerto Rican in New York, so that as a teacher he may better understand the conflicts and emerging values of both parents and children on the mainland. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to list and describe the advantages and disadvantages…

  19. Disclosure of the differences of Mesorhizobium loti under the free-living and symbiotic conditions by comparative proteome analysis without bacteroid isolation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that show a symbiotic relationship with their host legume. Rhizobia have 2 different physiological conditions: a free-living condition in soil, and a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition in the nodule. The lifestyle of rhizobia remains largely unknown, although genome and transcriptome analyses have been carried out. To clarify the lifestyle of bacteria, proteome analysis is necessary because the protein profile directly reflects in vivo reactions of the organisms. In proteome analysis, high separation performance is required to analyze complex biological samples. Therefore, we used a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system, equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, which is superior to conventional columns. In this study, we compared the protein profile of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 under free-living condition to that of symbiotic conditions by using small amounts of crude extracts. Result We identified 1,533 and 847 proteins for M. loti under free-living and symbiotic conditions, respectively. Pathway analysis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that many of the enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolic pathway were commonly detected under both conditions. The proteins encoded in the symbiosis island, the transmissible chromosomal region that includes the genes that are highly upregulated under the symbiotic condition, were uniquely detected under the symbiotic condition. The features of the symbiotic condition that have been reported by transcriptome analysis were confirmed at the protein level by proteome analysis. In addition, the genes of the proteins involved in cell surface structure were repressed under the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition. Furthermore, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) was found to be biosynthesized only in rhizobia under the symbiotic condition. Conclusion The obtained protein profile appeared to reflect the

  20. Disclosure of the differences of Mesorhizobium loti under the free-living and symbiotic conditions by comparative proteome analysis without bacteroid isolation.

    PubMed

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Nambu, Mami; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-07-31

    Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that show a symbiotic relationship with their host legume. Rhizobia have 2 different physiological conditions: a free-living condition in soil, and a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition in the nodule. The lifestyle of rhizobia remains largely unknown, although genome and transcriptome analyses have been carried out. To clarify the lifestyle of bacteria, proteome analysis is necessary because the protein profile directly reflects in vivo reactions of the organisms. In proteome analysis, high separation performance is required to analyze complex biological samples. Therefore, we used a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system, equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, which is superior to conventional columns. In this study, we compared the protein profile of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 under free-living condition to that of symbiotic conditions by using small amounts of crude extracts. We identified 1,533 and 847 proteins for M. loti under free-living and symbiotic conditions, respectively. Pathway analysis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that many of the enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolic pathway were commonly detected under both conditions. The proteins encoded in the symbiosis island, the transmissible chromosomal region that includes the genes that are highly upregulated under the symbiotic condition, were uniquely detected under the symbiotic condition. The features of the symbiotic condition that have been reported by transcriptome analysis were confirmed at the protein level by proteome analysis. In addition, the genes of the proteins involved in cell surface structure were repressed under the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition. Furthermore, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) was found to be biosynthesized only in rhizobia under the symbiotic condition. The obtained protein profile appeared to reflect the difference in phenotypes under the

  1. Potential therapeutic competition in community-living older adults in the U.S.: use of medications that may adversely affect a coexisting condition.

    PubMed

    Lorgunpai, Songprod Jonathan; Grammas, Marianthe; Lee, David S H; McAvay, Gail; Charpentier, Peter; Tinetti, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The 75% of older adults with multiple chronic conditions are at risk of therapeutic competition (i.e. treatment for one condition may adversely affect a coexisting condition). The objective was to determine the prevalence of potential therapeutic competition in community-living older adults. Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative sample of 5,815 community-living adults 65 and older in the U.S, enrolled 2007-2009. The 14 most common chronic conditions treated with at least one medication were ascertained from Medicare claims. Medication classes recommended in national disease guidelines for these conditions and used by ≥ 2% of participants were identified from in-person interviews conducted 2008-2010. Criteria for potential therapeutic competition included: 1), well-acknowledged adverse medication effect; 2) mention in disease guidelines; or 3) report in a systematic review or two studies published since 2000. Outcomes included prevalence of situations of potential therapeutic competition and frequency of use of the medication in individuals with and without the competing condition. Of 27 medication classes, 15 (55.5%) recommended for one study condition may adversely affect other study conditions. Among 91 possible pairs of study chronic conditions, 25 (27.5%) have at least one potential therapeutic competition. Among participants, 1,313 (22.6%) received at least one medication that may worsen a coexisting condition; 753 (13%) had multiple pairs of such competing conditions. For example, among 846 participants with hypertension and COPD, 16.2% used a nonselective beta-blocker. In only 6 of 37 cases (16.2%) of potential therapeutic competition were those with the competing condition less likely to receive the medication than those without the competing condition. One fifth of older Americans receive medications that may adversely affect coexisting conditions. Determining clinical outcomes in these situations is a research and clinical priority

  2. Potential Therapeutic Competition in Community-Living Older Adults in the U.S.: Use of Medications That May Adversely Affect a Coexisting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lorgunpai, Songprod Jonathan; Grammas, Marianthe; Lee, David S. H.; McAvay, Gail; Charpentier, Peter; Tinetti, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The 75% of older adults with multiple chronic conditions are at risk of therapeutic competition (i.e. treatment for one condition may adversely affect a coexisting condition). The objective was to determine the prevalence of potential therapeutic competition in community-living older adults. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative sample of 5,815 community-living adults 65 and older in the U.S, enrolled 2007–2009. The 14 most common chronic conditions treated with at least one medication were ascertained from Medicare claims. Medication classes recommended in national disease guidelines for these conditions and used by ≥2% of participants were identified from in-person interviews conducted 2008–2010. Criteria for potential therapeutic competition included: 1), well-acknowledged adverse medication effect; 2) mention in disease guidelines; or 3) report in a systematic review or two studies published since 2000. Outcomes included prevalence of situations of potential therapeutic competition and frequency of use of the medication in individuals with and without the competing condition. Results Of 27 medication classes, 15 (55.5%) recommended for one study condition may adversely affect other study conditions. Among 91 possible pairs of study chronic conditions, 25 (27.5%) have at least one potential therapeutic competition. Among participants, 1,313 (22.6%) received at least one medication that may worsen a coexisting condition; 753 (13%) had multiple pairs of such competing conditions. For example, among 846 participants with hypertension and COPD, 16.2% used a nonselective beta-blocker. In only 6 of 37 cases (16.2%) of potential therapeutic competition were those with the competing condition less likely to receive the medication than those without the competing condition. Conclusions One fifth of older Americans receive medications that may adversely affect coexisting conditions. Determining clinical outcomes in these situations

  3. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-02-01

    Only 60-70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to 'live-birth bias') that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies.

  4. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  5. Don't Push Your Luck! Educational Family Board (Not Bored) Game for School-Age Children Living with Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrea; Semple, Lisa; Alderson, Kerri; Bouskill, Vanessa; Karasevich, Janice; Riske, Brenda; van Gunst, Sheri

    Children who are living with chronic conditions may be supported in self-care through enjoyable active learning and family social processes. This research focused on development and evaluation of "Don't Push Your Luck!", an educational board game designed to inspire family discussion about chronic conditions, and help affected children learn about self-care choices and consequences. Mixed-method research was conducted with families from one outpatient Cystic Fibrosis Clinic and four Hemophilia Treatment Centres in Canada and United States (N=72). In phase I, board game prototype and questionnaires were refined with affected boys, siblings, and parents living with hemophilia (n=11), compared with families living with cystic fibrosis (n=11). In phase II, final board game was evaluated with families living with hemophilia (n=50). Data collection included pre-post-game questionnaires on decision-making and Haemo-QoL Index©, and post-game enjoyment. Analysis included descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (non-parametric), and qualitative themes. Findings revealed this game was an enjoyable and effective resource to engage families in self-care discussions. Key themes included communication, being involved, knowing, decisions and consequences, and being connected. Qualitative and quantitative findings aligned. Statistical significance suggests the game enhanced family engagement to support decision-making skills, as parents identified that the game helped them talk about important topics, and children gained insight regarding family supports and self-care responsibility. This board game was an effective, developmentally appropriate family resource to facilitate engagement and conversation about everyday life experiences in preparation for self-care. There is promising potential to extend this educational family board game intervention with a greater range of school-age children and families living with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Learning about the experience of living with chronic conditions: A framework analysis of nursing students' reflections on their conversations with older adults.

    PubMed

    Olson, Amanda; Reiland, Stephanie; Davies, Susan; Koehler, Amy Reitmaier

    2016-10-17

    Preparing nursing students to work effectively with older adults is an important element of undergraduate nursing education. Reflective journals written as course assignments represent a source of data about students' learning. The aim of this study was to analyze nursing students' reflective journals based on conversations with older adults who are community dwelling, to identify learning in relation to experiences of living with a chronic condition. This was one element of a wider study to evaluate learning partnerships between older adults who are community dwelling and nursing students as an alternative to traditional clinical placements in long-term care settings. Nursing students worked with faculty to complete a qualitative secondary analysis of 47 journals utilizing framework analysis. Students learned about three main aspects of living with chronic conditions: beliefs about chronic conditions, managing chronic conditions, and experiencing chronic conditions, with some evidence that these themes may be interconnected. Findings suggest that learning partnerships with older adults combined with reflective journaling enable nursing students to understand the experience of chronic conditions in later life as reflected within current literature and to identify interventions for gerontological nursing practice. Enabling nursing students to recognize the highly skilled nature of working with older adults with chronic illness has the potential to influence their future career choices.

  7. Accumulation of geriatric conditions is associated with poor nutritional status in dependent older people living in the community and in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takahisa; Hasegawa, Jun; Izawa, Sachiko; Enoki, Hiromi; Suzuki, Yuske; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the association between nutritional status and the prevalence of geriatric conditions in dependent older adults. A cross-sectional observational study of dependent older adults aged 65years or older who were living either in the community (n = 511, mean age 81.2years) or in nursing homes (n = 587, mean age 85.2years) was carried out. Data included the participants' demographic characteristics, basic activities of daily living, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of eight geriatric conditions (visual impairment, hearing impairment, falls, bladder control problems, cognitive impairment, impaired mobility, swallowing disturbance and loss of appetite). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-SF). Of 1098 participants, 21.4% (n = 235) were categorized as "malnourished", according to the MNA-SF classification. Participants in the "malnourished" group had a greater number of geriatric conditions than those in the other two groups. A higher prevalence of all the geriatric conditions except for falls was detected in the group with poorer nutritional status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that malnutrition was associated with the number of geriatric conditions, but not with that of comorbidities, even after controlling for confounders. Malnutrition was confirmed to have significant associations with geriatric conditions in dependent older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. The association of living conditions and lifestyle factors with burden of cysts among neurocysticercosis patients in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Yung, Janette; Fong, Man Wah; Carpio, Arturo; Bagiella, Emilia; Leslie, Denise; Leon, Pietro; Andrews, Howard; Allen Hauser, W

    2012-12-01

    We used baseline data on 154 symptomatic neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients in Ecuador to identify predictors of the burden of cysts. We ran logistic regression models with the burden of cysts as the outcome, defined as the number of cysts in the brain (1 vs >1), and having cysts in all 3 phases of evolution (active, transitional and calcifications) vs <3. These two outcomes are thought to be indicators of exposure dose and/or repeated exposure over time. The predictors examined were: living in a rural area, living on a dirt road, living in an adobe or wood house (vs brick/cement), no running water in the house, no bathroom in the house, having a domestic employee cook in the home, eating most meals at restaurants or street vendors, working in a manual labour job. We found that the odds of having multiple NCC cysts was higher among those working in manual labour (OR=3.5, p=0.004), and those who ate most meals outside the home had higher odds of having cysts in all 3 phases (OR=5.0, p=0.007). Burden of cysts may be a useful outcome when looking to identify exposure risk factors in the absence of an uninfected control group.

  9. The eMouveRecherche application competes with research devices to evaluate energy expenditure, physical activity and still time in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Saboul, Damien; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2017-04-08

    The proliferation of smartphones is creating new opportunities to monitor and interact with human subjects in free-living conditions since smartphones are familiar to large segments of the population and facilitate data collection, transmission and analysis. From accelerometry data collected by smartphones, the present work aims to estimate time spent in different activity categories and the energy expenditure in free-living conditions. Our research encompasses the definition of an energy-saving function (Pred(EE)) considering four physical categories of activities (still, light, moderate and vigorous), their duration and metabolic cost (MET). To create an efficient discrimination function, the method consists of classifying accelerometry-transformed signals into categories and of associating each category with corresponding Metabolic Equivalent Tasks. The performance of the Pred(EE) function was compared with two previously published functions (f(η,d)aedes,f(η,d)nrjsi), and with two dedicated sensors (Armband® and Actiheart®) in free-living conditions over a 12-hours monitoring period using 30 volunteers. Compared to the two previous functions, Pred(EE) was the only one able to provide estimations of time spent in each activity category. In relative value, all the activity categories were evaluated similarly to those given by Armband®. Compared to Actiheart®, the function underestimated still activities by 10.1% and overestimated light- and moderate-intensity activities by 7.9% and 4.2%, respectively. The total energy expenditure error produced by Pred(EE) compared to Armband® was lower than those given by the two previous functions (5.7% vs 14.1% and 17.0%). Pred(EE) provides the user with an accurate physical activity feedback which should help self-monitoring in free-living conditions.

  10. Intergenerational influences on the growth of Maya children: The effect of living conditions experienced by mothers and maternal grandmothers during their childhood.

    PubMed

    Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Bogin, Barry; Rodríguez, Luis; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that living conditions experienced by maternal grandmothers (F1 generation) and mothers (F2 generation) during their childhood are related to height and leg length (LL: height - sitting height) of their 6-to-8 year old children (F3 generation). From September 2011 to June 2012 we obtained height and LL, and calculated z-score values of these measurements for 109 triads (F1 , F2 , F3 ) who are Maya living in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Multiple regression models were adjusted to examine the relation of anthropometric and intergenerational socioeconomic parameters of F1 (house index and family size during childhood) and F2 (paternal job loss during childhood) with the z-score values of height and LL of F3 . Children's height and LL were positively associated with maternal height and LL. This association was relatively stronger in LL. Better categories of grand-maternal house index were significantly associated with higher values of height and LL in grandchildren. Grand-maternal family size was positively related with LL, but not with height. Our findings partially support the hypothesis that living conditions experienced by recent maternal ancestors (F1 and F2 ) during their growth period influence the growth of descendants (F3 ). Results suggest that LL is more sensitive to intergenerational influences than is total height and that the transition from a traditional rural lifestyle to urban conditions results in new exposures for risk in human physical growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    1. The supremum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. With the introduction into service in 1974, of the largest at that time, six-meter telescope BTA at Zelenchukskaya Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) - Department of Extragalactic Research and relativistic astrophysics was established. Its main task was to study the so-called super-distant boundary fields and extreme states of substances of stars, galactic nuclei in the early epoch of the Universe. Now, after 40 years, these tasks are as popular and relevant: quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, black holes, active galactic nuclei, etc. Already established telescopes with diameters of multicomponent mirrors of 8-10 meters or more. Astronomical observatories had gone high into the mountains, to the special mountain on the islands in the oceans, in the alpine desert and into space. Extreme problems on the supremum still attracts the strongest efforts of astrophysicists in the world. But what about the other side of extreme tasks: with the tasks of astrophysics for "infimum"? Let us consider the astrophysical problems of "infimum" in more detail. 2. Infinum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. We believe that among the tasks of modern astrophysics can be super-close latent invasion (SCLI). If SCLI develop the concepts of cosmology, our views on the entire universe, on special times and special state of substance, then the infimum problem solving and must save the people and all living creatures on the planet against various types of aerospace dangerous intruders. SСLІ tasks are vital for all of us. These problems must be solved by leaders of countries and of concrete cities. The essence of these tasks determined the real threats and real fears against quite possibly over-close encounters with deadly consequences for all mankind intrusion of comets nucleus and asteroids, as well as the hidden, latent threat against far more numerous invasions of fragments of these bodies. And it is a

  12. Gene Expression and Physiological Changes of Different Populations of the Long-Lived Bivalve Arctica islandica under Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E.; Ernst, Insa M. A.; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  13. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Eva E R; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E; Ernst, Insa M A; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  14. High-resolution live imaging of plant growth in near physiological bright conditions using light sheet fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Maizel, Alexis; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Federici, Fernán; Haseloff, Jim; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2011-10-01

    Most plant growth occurs post-embryonically and is characterized by the constant and iterative formation of new organs. Non-invasive time-resolved imaging of intact, fully functional organisms allows studies of the dynamics involved in shaping complex organisms. Conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy suffer from limitations when whole living organisms are imaged at single-cell resolution. We applied light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy to overcome these limitations and study the dynamics of plant growth. We designed a special imaging chamber in which the plant is maintained vertically under controlled illumination with its leaves in the air and its root in the medium. We show that minimally invasive, multi-color, three-dimensional imaging of live Arabidopsis thaliana samples can be achieved at organ, cellular and subcellular scales over periods of time ranging from seconds to days with minimal damage to the sample. We illustrate the capabilities of the method by recording the growth of primary root tips and lateral root primordia over several hours. This allowed us to quantify the contribution of cell elongation to the early morphogenesis of lateral root primordia and uncover the diurnal growth rhythm of lateral roots. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach at varying spatial and temporal scales by following the division of plant cells as well as the movement of single endosomes in live growing root samples. This multi-dimensional approach will have an important impact on plant developmental and cell biology and paves the way to a truly quantitative description of growth processes at several scales. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  16. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don't report their migration status? A population-based study in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-11-21

    Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs' chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification

  17. A population-based study on health and living conditions in areas with mixed Sami and Norwegian settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Magritt; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Hansen, Solrunn; Melhus, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the method, data collection procedure and participation in The Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Areas with both Sami and Norwegian Settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Study design Cross-sectional and semi-longitudinal. Methods In 2012, all inhabitants aged 18–69 and living in selected municipalities with both Sami and Norwegian settlements in Mid and Northern Norway were posted an invitation to participate in a questionnaire survey covering several topics related to health and living conditions. The geographical area was similar to the area where the SAMINOR 1 study was conducted in 2003/2004 with the exception of one additional municipality. Participants could alternatively use a web-based questionnaire with identical question and answer categories as the posted paper version. Results In total, 11,600 (27%) participated (16% used the web-based questionnaire), with a higher participation rate among those over 50 (37% for women and 32% for men). Some geographical variation in participation rates was found. In addition, for those invited who also participated in the SAMINOR 1 study, we found that the participation rates increased with the level of education and income, while there was little difference in participation rates across ethnic groups. Conclusion The knowledge generated from future theme-specific research utilizing the SAMINOR 2 database has the potential to benefit the general population in this geographical area of Norway, and the Sami people in particular, by providing knowledge-based insight into the health and living conditions of the multi-ethnic population in these parts of Norway. PMID:24971230

  18. A population-based study on health and living conditions in areas with mixed Sami and Norwegian settlements - the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Brustad, Magritt; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Hansen, Solrunn; Melhus, Marita

    2014-01-01

    To describe the method, data collection procedure and participation in The Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Areas with both Sami and Norwegian Settlements - the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Cross-sectional and semi-longitudinal. In 2012, all inhabitants aged 18-69 and living in selected municipalities with both Sami and Norwegian settlements in Mid and Northern Norway were posted an invitation to participate in a questionnaire survey covering several topics related to health and living conditions. The geographical area was similar to the area where the SAMINOR 1 study was conducted in 2003/2004 with the exception of one additional municipality. Participants could alternatively use a web-based questionnaire with identical question and answer categories as the posted paper version. In total, 11,600 (27%) participated (16% used the web-based questionnaire), with a higher participation rate among those over 50 (37% for women and 32% for men). Some geographical variation in participation rates was found. In addition, for those invited who also participated in the SAMINOR 1 study, we found that the participation rates increased with the level of education and income, while there was little difference in participation rates across ethnic groups. The knowledge generated from future theme-specific research utilizing the SAMINOR 2 database has the potential to benefit the general population in this geographical area of Norway, and the Sami people in particular, by providing knowledge-based insight into the health and living conditions of the multi-ethnic population in these parts of Norway.

  19. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Odd; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-11-24

    Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP), comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing >3 weeks. One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000-2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P < 0.05). The results are shown as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-67.6). Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9-32.2); Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5-28.3); Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8-11.4); Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2-10.2); and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1-6.8). As most of the living conditions have previously been insufficiently studied, our findings might contribute a wider knowledge of risk factors for long-term sick-listing for NSP. As the cross-sectional design makes causal conclusions impossible, our study should be complemented by prospective research.

  20. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Odd; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP), comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing >3 weeks. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P < 0.05). The results are shown as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6). Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2); Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3); Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4); Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2); and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8). Conclusions As most of the living conditions have previously been insufficiently studied, our findings might contribute a wider knowledge of risk factors for long-term sick-listing for NSP. As the cross-sectional design makes causal conclusions impossible, our study

  1. Female sex workers use power over their day-to-day lives to meet the condition of a conditional cash transfer intervention to incentivize safe sex.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jan E; Dow, William H; de Walque, Damien; Keller, Ann C; McCoy, Sandra I; Fernald, Lia C H; Balampama, Marianna P; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Packel, Laura J; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Ozer, Emily J

    2017-03-14

    Female Sex Workers are a core population in the HIV epidemic, and interventions such as conditional cash transfers (CCTs), effective in other health domains, are a promising new approach to reduce the spread of HIV. Here we investigate how a population of Tanzanian female sex workers, though constrained in many ways, experience and use their power in the context of a CCT intervention that incentivizes safe sex. We analyzed 20 qualitative in-depth interviews with female sex workers enrolled in a randomized-controlled CCT program, the RESPECT II pilot, and found that while such women have limited choices, they do have substantial power over their work logistics that they leveraged to meet the conditions of the CCT and receive the cash award. It was through these decisions over work logistics, such as reducing the number of workdays and clients, that the CCT intervention had its greatest impact on modifying female sex workers' behavior.

  2. Living Conditions as a Driving Factor in Persistent Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among HIV-infected Youth.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Maria Teresa C; Marlow, Mariel A; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio; Pinheiro, Marcos Gabriel; Freitas Alves, Maria de Fátima Nogueira de; Santos Cruz, Maria Letícia; Saavedra Gaspar, Mariza Curto; Rocha, Rebeca; Velarde, Luis Guillermo C; Araújo Cardoso, Claudete A

    2016-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has been linked to HIV-related sexual and social behaviors. MRSA risk factors may be different for HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults. We investigated the association of MRSA colonization, persistent colonization and genotypes with potential risk factors among HIV-infected youth. For this case-control study, patients 24 years of age or younger attending 2 HIV reference centers were recruited from February to August 2012 and followed for 1 year. Nasal swabs were collected at enrollment and every 3 months. MRSA clones were characterized by staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. We compared MRSA colonization and persistent colonization with patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Among 117 participants, MRSA colonization frequency (calculated for each collection based on the number of positive cultures per patient) was 12.8% at the first collection. The average MRSA colonization frequency was 10.4%. Our results showed 11.1% were persistent carriers (subjects with more than 1 positive culture in at least 3). Crowding was the only factor associated with MRSA colonization (P = 0.018). Persistent carriers had significantly higher (4.2 times) odds of living in a crowded household (95% confidence interval-1.1-16.2). We observed high genetic diversity among MRSA isolates, with t002/ST5 and t318/ST30 being the most frequent. MRSA colonization among HIV-infected youth is more closely related to living in a low-income or slum community than to HIV-related clinical factors. High genetic MRSA isolate diversity in our population suggests frequent transmission.

  3. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  4. Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S

    2013-01-01

    Trait binge eating has been proposed as a "hedonic subtype" of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m(2); Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake.

  5. Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake. PMID:24155732

  6. "You Know the Medicine, I Know My Kid": How Parents Advocate for Their Children Living With Complex Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Katherine A; Sullivan, Shelbie L

    2016-09-02

    Caring for a child with a chronic condition has received considerable attention in the pediatric health literature. Today, approximately 1 out of 5 North American children are diagnosed with a chronic condition that requires parents to become caregivers and advocates. Although advocacy is regarded as a significant aspect to parental caregiving, more research is needed to better define this oversimplified and misrepresented concept in clinical practice and research. Subsequently, we interviewed 35 parents of children diagnosed with complex chronic conditions. Within our analysis, we identified three themes that elaborate upon how parental advocacy is socially constructed through communication behaviors and partnerships with other people (e.g., medical professionals, family, school educators). We also discuss the emotional side of advocacy, and proffer suggestions to practitioners who work with parents to form collaborative care teams.

  7. [Differences in mortality in Brazilian youth: the importance of household socioeconomic factors and living conditions in Brazilian municipalities and states].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabiano Neves Alves; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2016-10-10

    This study analyzed the relationship between household socioeconomic status and local social conditions and risk of death in Brazilian youth 15 to 29 years of age. Mortality data from the previous 12 months collected by the 2010 Population Census were used for the analysis at the local level. Data analysis was based on hierarchical models that allowed identifying the role of household social conditions and municipality and state of residence on mortality in young Brazilians. Differences in socioeconomic status between households accounted for more than 90% of the variability in risk of death. Residing in socioeconomically deprived areas also increased the odds of death among young people from households of any socioeconomic status.

  8. Minority Health and Small Numbers Epidemiology: A Case Study of Living Conditions and the Health of Children in 5 Foreign Romá Camps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J.; Cockcroft, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. We sought to test methods for generating epidemiological evidence on health conditions of small, dispersed minority communities. Methods. We used community-based mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey in 5 purposely selected settlements of Khorakané Romá (Gypsies of Muslim culture) in Italy to study the living conditions and health status of children aged from birth to 5 years. Results. In the 15 days prior to the survey, 32% of the children had suffered diarrhea and 55% had had a cough. Some 17% had experienced respiratory difficulties during the past year. Risk factors associated with these outcomes included years spent living at the camp, overcrowding, housing conditions, use of wood-burning stoves, presence of rats, and issues related to quality of sanitation and drains. Qualitative information helped define the approach and the design, and in the interpretation and consolidation of quantitative results. Conclusions. Guided by the priorities expressed by dispersed minority communities, small studies with little resources can provide a solid base to advocate for evidence-based participatory planning. Exact intervals appeared to be robust and conservative enough compared with other intervals, conferring solidity to the results. PMID:18799769

  9. Quantification of radiation dose from short-lived positron emitters formed in human tissue under proton therapy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettern, K.; Coenen, H. H.; Qaim, S. M.

    2009-06-01

    The dose distribution in proton therapy is mainly due to primary particles and secondary electrons. The contribution of short-lived β + emitters formed in the interactions of protons with the light mass elements C, N and O has hitherto not been considered. We estimated the formation of 11C, 13N and 15O in irradiation of tissue with 200 MeV protons. The integral yields at 150 MeV were compared with a literature phantom measurement. The results for 11C and 15O agreed very well; for 13N, however, appreciable deviation was observed. The activities were also calculated in the region around the Bragg peak as well as over the path length after entrance of the beam. Dose calculations were then done using the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism. Furthermore, a dose calculation was simulated for a 150 MeV proton beam (2 nA, 2 min) in a brain tumour. The dose deposited by the positron emitters in the Bragg peak region was found to be about 1.5 mGy, i.e. less than 1% of the dose estimated from the electronic interactions of protons. The absorbed dose in the whole brain amounted to 5.5 mGy.

  10. A two-photon fluorescent probe for nitroreductase imaging in living cells, tissues and zebrafish under hypoxia conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Baoping; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jinyu; Chi, Siyu; Lei, Yidi; Zhang, Fang; Zhong, Cheng; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-04-04

    A two-photon fluorescent probe FNTR for nitroreductase was synthesized by using 9,9-dimethyl-2-acetyl-fluoren-7-methylamino (1) as a two-photon fluorophore and a p-nitrobenzyl carbamate group as a recognition domain for nitroreductase (NTR). The probe and the fluorophore were tested under one- and two-photon modes respectively. After reacting with nitroreductase, FNTR had a 130-fold fluorescence enhancement at 563 nm in 10 min and the maximal two-photon action cross-section value was detected as 66 GM at 750 nm. The probe showed a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 23.67 ng ml(-1), high selectivity, low cytotoxicity and good photostability. In the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), endogenous NTR was detected in living cells, tissues and zebrafish. Cobalt chloride was used to induce chemical hypoxia to produce NTR, which generated enhanced fluorescence in cells and tumor tissues. Finally, two-photon fluorescence imaging of NTR was achieved in zebrafish at a penetration depth of up to 200 μm.

  11. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community.

    PubMed

    Ciro, Carrie A; Smith, Patsy

    2015-09-11

    To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values.

  12. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Ciro, Carrie A.; Smith, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. Methods: We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Results: Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Discussion: Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values. PMID:26378559

  13. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness.

  14. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. Method Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Results In total, 489 segments were available with an HRV value from both Actiheart and Holter recordings after filtering out segments with >10% interpolated beats. No systematic differences between Actiheart and Holter HRV were found. The random deviations between Actiheart and Holter were comparable to the repeatability standard deviation between consecutive Holter measurements. Discussion The results show that Actiheart is suited as a stand-alone ambulatory method for heart rate variability monitoring during occupational and leisure-time activities. PMID:21481282

  15. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E.; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age. PMID:26689455

  16. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use - among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  17. Managing the caseload: a qualitative action research study exploring how community children's nurses deliver services to children living with life-limiting, life-threatening, and chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pontin, David; Lewis, Mary

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE; The number of children living with life-limiting, life-threatening, and chronic conditions nursed at home/in the community is increasing. There is limited literature on how community children's nurses (CCNs) manage their caseloads. A qualitative-action research study used in-depth interviews. The study generated a number of insights about the sorts of phenomena that contribute to CCNs' perceptions of workload. Themes included strategy, being proactive, purposeful visit, and knowing families. Using a workload tool may help CCNs manage caseloads. Further work in other areas is required to identify issues of cultural specificity.

  18. Harboring illnesses: On the association between disease and living conditions in a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    HABIB, RIMA R.; BASMA, SHIRAZ H.; YERETZIAN, JOUMANA S.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the association between the domestic built environment in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon, and the presence of illness among household members. Data on the domestic built environment, socio-demographics and health were collected in 860 households. The association between the presence of illness among household members and three environmental indices, namely infrastructure and services, housing conditions, and crowding was evaluated. These indices were based on a number of items that reflected the existing problems in the domestic built environment. The main finding was the positive association between poor housing conditions and the presence of illness among household members. Households with 8-15 housing problems were twice more likely to report the presence of illness than those with less than four housing problems (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-3.11). This research contributes to the understanding of the influence of the built environment on the health of a refugee population. PMID:16546804

  19. Characterization of wrist-wearable activity measurement using whole body calorimetry in semi-free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Amor, James D; Hattersley, John G; Barber, Thomas M; James, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a significant factor in a number of health conditions and monitoring PA can play a significant role in the treatment of, or research into, these conditions. For longitudinal monitoring of PA, unobtrusive devices are often used and there is a need for the development of energy expenditure (EE) estimation techniques from single-device systems. This paper presents an experiment designed to characterize the relationship between a previously described technique, the activity score (AS) and EE obtained from whole-room indirect calorimetry. The study used 8 participants over a 24-hr period with interspersed exercise periods to observe physical movement with wearable devices and EE in 5 minute epochs. Results show that AS and EE are correlated with a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.775 with p <; 0.001.

  20. What is known about the health and living conditions of the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia, the Sami?

    PubMed

    Sjölander, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Sami are the indigenous ethnic population of northern Scandinavia. Their health condition is poorly known, although the knowledge has improved over the last decade. The aim was to review the current information on mortality, diseases, and risk factor exposure in the Swedish Sami population. Health-related research on Sami cohorts published in scientific journals and anthologies was used to compare the health condition among the Sami and the majority non-Sami population. When relevant, data from the Sami populations in Swedish were compared with corresponding data from Norwegian and Finnish Sami populations. Life expectancy and mortality patterns of the Sami are similar to those of the majority population. Small differences in incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. The traditional Sami lifestyle seems to contain elements that reduce the risk to develop cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. physical activity, diet rich in antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids, and a strong cultural identity. Reindeer herding is an important cultural activity among the Sami and is associated with high risks for accidents. Pain in the lower back, neck, shoulders, elbows, and hands are frequent among both men and women in reindeer-herding families. For men, these symptoms are related to high exposure to terrain vehicles, particularly snowmobile, whereas for women psychosocial risk factors seem to more important, e.g. poor social support, high effort, low reward, and high economical responsibilities. Although the health condition of the Sami population appears to be rather similar to that of the general Swedish population, a number of specific health problems have been identified, especially among the reindeer-herding Sami. Most of these problems have their origin in marginalization and poor knowledge of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture in the majority population. It is suggested that the most sustainable measure to improve the health

  1. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  2. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Altenburg, Teatske M.; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18–23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days. PMID:28018243

  3. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18-23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days.

  4. Population based study of health and living conditions in areas with both Sámi and Norwegian populations--the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Eiliv; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Nystad, Tove; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Selmer, Randi; Lund-Larsen, Per G

    2007-04-01

    The overall aim of the SAMINOR project was to study health and diseases in relation to living conditions among the Sámi population and to compare these with the Norwegian population in the same area. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the methods employed for the data collection. We give sample characteristics and elaborate on different definitions of ethnicity. Cross-sectional, population-based study, including questionnaires, a clinical examination and analyses of blood samples. All individuals 30 or 36 to 79 years of age who were living in defined municipalities or specified local areas with a known Sámi population were invited to a cardiovascular screening program. The data were collected during 2003-2004. The questionnaires focused on living conditions, health, Sámi traditions and ethnicity. The eligible population consisted of 27,987 individuals and 16,865 (60.6%) participated by answering at least one questionnaire. Analyses were restricted to the 36 to 79 year-old age group which had 16,538 participants. The screening program comprised a blood sample, measurements of blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip ratio. Different definitions of Sámi ethnicity were explored. Of the sample, 35.6% reported Sámi background, and 13.2% reported that they, their parents and their grandparents had Sámi as their domestic language. This stringent definition of Sámi produced clearer differences between Sámi and Norwegians, as shown for some measures of socioeconomic status. The findings that are related to more strict definitions of Sámi ethnicity have important implications for the interpretation of earlier works and for future studies.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old Greek children and the use of dental services: evaluation of socioeconomic, behavioural factors and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William

    2013-04-01

    To assess dental caries and use of dental services experience in 5-year-old children attending public kindergartens in Attica, Greece and to examine the influence of certain socioeconomic factors and living conditions as well as dental behaviours and attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, a random and stratified sample of 605 Greek children was examined using decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces and simplified debris indices. The use of dental services was measured by children's dental visits (any dental visit up to the age of 5 years). Care Index was also calculated. Risk indicators were assessed by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson and Logistic Regression Analysis were generated to test statistical significant associations. The prevalence of dental caries was 16.5%. Care Index was 32% and dental visits were reported for the 84% of the children. Medium Socio-Economic Level (SEL) was associated with no detectable caries. High SEL was related to decreased decayed, missing, filled teeth values, while female gender and rented houses had the opposite effect. The age of the mother (35-39 years) and the higher SEL were related to higher levels of dental services use. It is suggested that there are differences in the experience of dental caries and use of dental services among preschool children in Attica, which are related to demographic, socioeconomic factors and living conditions. Dental public polices should focus on groups with specific characteristics in order to improve oral health levels of disease-susceptible populations. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Resilience in Youth and Families Living With Pediatric Health and Developmental Conditions: Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Nabors, Laura; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology showcases a growing area of research with a collection of 16 contemporary studies of resilience in youth with chronic medical or developmental conditions and their families. The research reported in this special issue covers a broad range of pediatric populations, including cancer, type 1 diabetes, and chronic pain, among others, ranging in age from early childhood through early adulthood. This introduction to the special issue reviews the various ways the articles' authors conceptualize and define risk and resilience; most analyze protective processes in relation to resilient outcomes, including both achievement of explicitly positive experiences and avoidance of dysfunction or disruption. Challenges with measurement of resilience-related constructs is reviewed. Finally, the special issue editors offer a definition of resilience in the context of pediatric and health psychology. PMID:26275974

  7. Medication understanding among patients living with multiple chronic conditions: Implications for patient-reported measures of adherence.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, R J; Gibbons, L; Brown, S; Edwards, T C; Yang, F M; Fitzsimmons, E; Alperovitz-Bichell, K; Godfrey, M; Wang, A; Church, A; Gutierrez, C; Paez, E; Dant, L; Loo, S; Walcott, M; Mugavero, M J; Mayer, K; Mathews, W C; Patrick, D L; Crane, P K; Crane, H M

    2017-06-20

    Low health literacy is associated with poor medication adherence and poor health outcomes. Limited understanding of prescribed medications may decrease validity of patient-reported adherence measures. To assess knowledge of names and purposes of prescribed medications among patients with multiple chronic conditions. Individual interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of patients from six U.S. primary care clinics. Participants (n = 57) were English and/or Spanish-speaking patients prescribed 3+ medications for chronic conditions, for which non-adherence may lead to disability or death. In individual interviews, patients were asked to name their medications, explain the purpose of each, and to explain how they distinguish them from one another. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded; coded content was quantified by 1) whether or not the patient could name medications; 2) method of categorizing medications; 3) whether or not the purpose of the medication was understood. Descriptive statistics were compiled using Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between patient knowledge and medication characteristics. Thirty percent of patients could not name at least one of their medications; 19% did not know their purpose; 30% held misconceptions about the purpose of one or more medications. There was no significant difference in ability to name medications or state their medication's purpose between patients using medi-sets, pre-packaged rolls, or blister packs, and patients who stored pills in their original containers (p = 0.56 and p = 0.73, respectively), or across demographic groups (p = 0.085 to 0.767). Many patients demonstrated difficulty identifying the name and purpose of prescribed medications; this did not differ by demographic group or medication storage type. Patients may benefit from routine review of medications with their provider in order to improve health literacy, outcomes, and patient-reported adherence

  8. Microclimatic conditions and their effects on sheep behavior during a live export shipment from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2013-09-01

    The microclimate can potentially impact the health and welfare of livestock exported by ship. Within-pen microclimatic conditions were recorded and the effects of ammonia on sheep behavior investigated on a voyage from Australia to the Middle East. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide as well as wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperature and air speed were mapped in 20 open-deck focal pens, with the focus on the behavior and location of a marked sheep in each pen. Air speed was highly variable in most pens, with pockets of high but transient concentrations of ammonia (30.7 to 44.2 mg/m(3)) in 20% of pens that had no or minimal air flow. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied in some pens, but overall concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were low. Sheep in pens previously identified to have high ammonia concentrations, high wet-bulb temperatures, and low wind speed stood longer (P = 0.003) and spent less time feeding (P = 0.01) and ruminating (P = 0.004) than those in pens previously identified with low ammonia, low wet-bulb temperature, and high wind speed. Moreover, sheep exposed to increased ammonia concentrations held their head higher (P = 0.004) to avoid the greater ammonia concentrations at lower heights, and these sheep had more conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Sheep movement around the pen was limited. Increased time spent lying down (P = 0.04) and more rhythmical behavior in the second half of the voyage indicated that the sheep adjusted to shipboard conditions over time. It is concluded that high, transient concentrations of ammonia existed in some pens, which adversely affected the behavior of sheep.

  9. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  10. Control-focused behavioral treatment of earthquake survivors using live exposure to conditioned and simulated unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Salcioğlu, Ebru; Başoğlu, Metin

    2010-02-01

    Earthquakes lead to increased rates of mental health problems in the communities they struck. Few attempts have been made to develop effective psychological care strategies for earthquake survivors. During the course of our 6-year work with earthquake survivors in Turkey, we developed a control-focused behavioral treatment (CFBT) that aims to enhance survivors' resilience against traumatic stressors by helping them develop a sense of control over them. CFBT exposes the client to either (a) unconditioned stimuli (i.e., earthquake tremors) in a safe and controlled environment or (b) conditioned stimuli (e.g., earthquake reminders) until the person can tolerate and control associated distress. A single session of CFBT involving instructions to conduct self-exposure to distressing earthquake reminders achieved about 60% reduction in posttraumatic stress symptoms, resulting in global improvement in 80% of the survivors. The efficacy of CFBT was maximized by exposure to simulated earthquake tremors in an earthquake simulator. In a randomized controlled trial, earthquake simulation treatment combined with therapist-delivered instructions for self-exposure to conditioned trauma cues achieved 79% improvement in PTSD symptoms, resulting in generalized improvement in 92% of the cases. The relapse rate was very low in all studies despite ongoing threat to safety caused by numerous aftershocks and expectations of another major earthquake, suggesting increased resilience against traumatic stress induced by earthquakes. Evidence also suggests that CFBT can be effectively delivered as a self-help intervention using booklets and similar media. Based on variants of CFBT, a mental health care model for disaster survivors is proposed.

  11. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non

  12. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Contact Us Search Patients & Caregivers / Living with VHL VHL disease is a lifelong condition. However, with appropriate measures, people can effectively manage the VHL and lead full and productive lives. Early diagnosis, ...

  13. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Contact Us Website References Search Patients / Living with VHL VHL disease is a lifelong condition. ... regularly surveillance, appropriate treatment and emotional support, and living a healthy lifestyle are all keys to effectively ...

  14. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

  15. Living with Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Vasculitis The outcome of vasculitis is hard ... effects of your medicines. Emotional Issues and Support Living with a chronic condition may cause fear, anxiety, ...

  16. Photosynthetic and respiratory characteristics of an Arctic ice algal community living in low light and low temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kudoh, Sakae; Takahashi, Masayuki

    1997-02-01

    The massive development of the ice algal community commonly observed under first-year sea ice was studied with particular attention to photosynthetic and respiratory characteristics of ice algae at low temperature and low light conditions. Field experiments were carried out in April and May 1992 at Resolute Passage in the Canadian Arctic. Under ca. 200 cm of sea ice with a snow cover of less than 7 cm, ice algal biomass increased from 3.7 to 88.7 Chl am -2 with growth rates increasing from 0.17 to 0.23 doublings d -1, although the development was disturbed between 1 and 6 May. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) measured at the bottom of the sea ice near midday was between 8.6 and 1.5 μmol photons m -2 s -1 (1.0 and 0.1% of the surface irradiance), and the water temperature was near -1.8°C. In response to these low irradiance levels, ice algae exhibited a high α (the initial slope of the photosynthesis vs. irradiance relationship) of 0.26 μg C μg Chl a-1 h -1 (μ mol photons m -2 s -1) -1. The dark respiration contributed up to 35% of the gross photosynthetic rare and was estimated to be 0.22 μg C μg Chl a-1 h -1 on average. Considering the value of α and the dark respiration rate, light compensation was estimated to be 0.8 μmol photons m -2 s -1 for the ice algal community, which was enough for ice algae to maintain the positive photosynthesis at the bottom of the sea ice at the maximum daily irradiance. Using a numerical model with these estimated parameters, we evaluated the net positive diel photosynthesis under natural environmental conditions. The numerical model also suggested that the long day length in the late spring and summer in the Arctic region allowed the algae to maintain positive net photosynthesis even after the massive development of the ice algal community.

  17. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a

  18. Resilience in Youth and Families Living With Pediatric Health and Developmental Conditions: Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Marisa E; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Nabors, Laura; Hood, Korey K

    2015-10-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology showcases a growing area of research with a collection of 16 contemporary studies of resilience in youth with chronic medical or developmental conditions and their families. The research reported in this special issue covers a broad range of pediatric populations, including cancer, type 1 diabetes, and chronic pain, among others, ranging in age from early childhood through early adulthood. This introduction to the special issue reviews the various ways the articles' authors conceptualize and define risk and resilience; most analyze protective processes in relation to resilient outcomes, including both achievement of explicitly positive experiences and avoidance of dysfunction or disruption. Challenges with measurement of resilience-related constructs is reviewed. Finally, the special issue editors offer a definition of resilience in the context of pediatric and health psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  20. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and nutritional conditions. Moreover

  1. Association between Satisfaction with State of Health and Meals, Physical Condition and Food Diversity, Health Behavior, and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Older People Living Alone in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Takemi, Y; Fukuda, Y; Nakaya, T; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptions of shopping difficulty, and the relationships with satisfaction with state of health and meals, physical condition, food diversity and health behavior in older people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectional, multilevel survey was designed. The questionnaire was distributed by mail and self-completed by participants. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample of older people living alone, by proximity to a supermarket. In total, 2,346 older people (827 men and 1,519 women) completed the questionnaire. The dependent variable was whether shopping was easy or difficult. A logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and proximity of residence to a supermarket using stepwise variable analyses. The response rate was 67.8%. Overall, 14.5% of men and 21.7% of women considered shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the factors most strongly related to shopping difficulty were a subjective feeling of poor health (men: OR = 3.01, women: OR = 2.16) and lack of satisfaction with meals (men: OR = 2.82, women: OR = 3.69). Other related physical condition and dietary factors were requiring nursing care (men: OR = 3.69, women: OR = 1.54), a high level of frailty, measured using the frailty index score (women: OR = 0.36) and low food diversity score (men: OR = 1.84, women: OR = 1.36). The study found that older people's assessment of their shopping difficulty was related to satisfaction aspects, including a subjective feeling of poor health, and lack of satisfaction with meals, as well as physical condition. These have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than income in both sexes, and proximity to a supermarket in women.

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa migrants have slower initial CD4 cell recovery after cART initiation than French natives, regardless of living conditions.

    PubMed

    Seng, Rémonie; Ghislain, Mathilde; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Cotte, Laurent; Meybeck, Agnès; Raffi, François; Abgrall, Sophie; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Goujard, Cécile; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Meyer, Laurence

    2017-03-29

    Poorer immunologic responses to cART have been reported among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants than among native Europeans. We studied whether differences in CD4 cell recovery between French natives and SSA migrants starting first-line cART could be explained by differences in socioeconomic conditions, inflammatory marker levels, and other established determinants. We compared 319 French natives and 175 SSA migrants (ANRS-COPANA cohort). Clinical, biological and socioeconomic data (education, employment, income, cohabiting partnership) were recorded at regular visits. A piecewise linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze CD4 cell count kinetics on cART. Compared to French natives, SSA migrants were more frequently women, younger, less educated, living in more adverse conditions, and had more frequent symptoms of depression. The rate of CD4 cell recovery during the first 4 months on cART was significantly slower in SSA migrants, despite a similar virologic response, but did not differ significantly thereafter. The mean CD4 cell count rose from 251/mm at baseline to 508/mm at 36 months in migrants, and from 308 to 623/mm in natives (additional mean gain of 58 cells/mm in natives). The difference persisted after adjustment for clinical, updated socioeconomic and living conditions (-0.40√CD4/month, p = 0.04); 25OH-VitD, MCP-1 and sTNFR1 levels were lower in SSA migrants, but only sTNFR1 contributed to the difference in CD4 slope. Initial CD4 cell recovery on cART was slower among SSA migrants than among French natives. This difference was not explained by established clinical and biological determinants or by socioeconomic status.

  3. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  4. Why Health and Social Care Support for People with Long-Term Conditions Should be Oriented Towards Enabling Them to Live Well.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Vikki A; Cribb, Alan; Owens, John

    2016-11-28

    There are various reasons why efforts to promote "support for self-management" have rarely delivered the kinds of sustainable improvements in healthcare experiences, health and wellbeing that policy leaders internationally have hoped for. This paper explains how the basis of failure is in some respects built into the ideas that underpin many of these efforts. When (the promotion of) support for self-management is narrowly oriented towards educating and motivating patients to adopt the behaviours recommended for disease control, it implicitly reflects and perpetuates limited and somewhat instrumental views of patients. It tends to: restrict the pursuit of respectful and enabling 'partnership working'; run the risk of undermining patients' self-evaluative attitudes (and then of failing to notice that as harmful); limit recognition of the supportive value of clinician-patient relationships; and obscure the practical and ethical tensions that clinicians face in the delivery of support for self-management. We suggest that a focus on enabling people to live (and die) well with their long-term conditions is a promising starting point for a more adequate conception of support for self-management. We then outline the theoretical advantages that a capabilities approach to thinking about living well can bring to the development of an account of support for self-management, explaining, for example, how it can accommodate the range of what matters to people (both generally and more specifically) for living well, help keep the importance of disease control in perspective, recognize social influences on people's values, behaviours and wellbeing, and illuminate more of the rich potential and practical and ethical challenges of supporting self-management in practice.

  5. The Study of Living Conditions and Perceived Needs for Social Security among Clergy in China: A Case Study of Guanzhong Qinling Area.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Zhuang, Qi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-02-17

    This study used quantitative and qualitative data collected in the Guanzhong Qinling area of China to examine living conditions and perceived needs for social security among men and women of the clergy. The survey finds that most respondent clergy are Buddhists. When the clergy have economic difficulties, their main types of support include self-support (28.8%), help from other believers (25.6%), and assistance from other community residents (18.4%). When the clergy are old, they tend to live alone (25%), receive institutional care from religious organizations (19%), and receive support from other believers (18%). When the clergy are ill, they will often select self-treatment (primarily the use of traditional Chinese medicine [25%], and spiritual healing [25%], including meditation, prayers, and psychotherapy) and receive treatment at hospitals (20%). The study found that the clergy perceived their needs for social security as either great (19.7%) or modest (36.5%). Very few clergy (10%) indicate the absence of social security needs. Most clergy believe that the key social security priorities should be medical care (34%), elderly care (29%), and charitable assistance (21%).

  6. 'You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you': gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bennett, Erica

    2013-02-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women 'learn to live' with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults' experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men's stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies' altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses.

  7. The validity of consumer-level, activity monitors in healthy adults worn in free-living conditions: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Ty; Rowlands, Alex V; Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol

    2015-03-27

    Technological advances have seen a burgeoning industry for accelerometer-based wearable activity monitors targeted at the consumer market. The purpose of this study was to determine the convergent validity of a selection of consumer-level accelerometer-based activity monitors. 21 healthy adults wore seven consumer-level activity monitors (Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Jawbone UP, Misfit Shine, Nike Fuelband, Striiv Smart Pedometer and Withings Pulse) and two research-grade accelerometers/multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia SenseWear, and ActiGraph GT3X+) for 48-hours. Participants went about their daily life in free-living conditions during data collection. The validity of the consumer-level activity monitors relative to the research devices for step count, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sleep and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was quantified using Bland-Altman analysis, median absolute difference and Pearson's correlation. All consumer-level activity monitors correlated strongly (r > 0.8) with research-grade devices for step count and sleep time, but only moderately-to-strongly for TDEE (r = 0.74-0.81) and MVPA (r = 0.52-0.91). Median absolute differences were generally modest for sleep and steps (<10% of research device mean values for the majority of devices) moderate for TDEE (<30% of research device mean values), and large for MVPA (26-298%). Across the constructs examined, the Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse performed most strongly. In free-living conditions, the consumer-level activity monitors showed strong validity for the measurement of steps and sleep duration, and moderate valid for measurement of TDEE and MVPA. Validity for each construct ranged widely between devices, with the Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse being the strongest performers.

  8. Relatively Low β-Cell Responsiveness Contributes to the Association of BMI with Circulating Glucose Concentrations Measured under Free-Living Conditions among Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Shepard, Desti N; Schneider, Camille R; Flagg, Lee Anne; Granger, Wesley M; Mancuso, Melissa S; Biggio, Joseph R; Gower, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)) is positively associated with plasma glucose in late pregnancy and with risk of adverse obstetric outcomes. Much of the existing research uses single-clinic measures of plasma glucose, which may not accurately reflect circulating glucose under free-living conditions. Furthermore, little is known about circulating glucose concentrations of African American women, who tend to have poorer diet quality and a greater risk of obstetric complications. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the positive association of BMI in early pregnancy with third-trimester circulating glucose concentrations measured under free-living conditions among African American women would be at least partially attributable to lower β-cell insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity [i.e., lower disposition index (DI)]. Using a prospective, observational design, 40 pregnant African American women (mean ± SD age: 23.1 ± 4.0 y; mean ± SD BMI: 28.4 ± 7.5) wore continuous glucose monitors and accelerometers for 3 d at 32-35 wk of gestation and concurrently maintained a food diary to report their self-selected meals. The DI was derived from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression modeling was used to calculate the association of BMI with the 24-h glucose (GLUC24h) and 2-h (GLUC2hPP) postprandial glucose areas under the curve and with the percentage of time the glucose concentrations were >120 mg/dL. The positive associations between BMI and GLUC24h (standardized β = 0.36, P = 0.03) and the percentage of time glucose concentrations were >120 mg/dL (standardized β = 0.40, P = 0.02) were independent of total carbohydrate intake and physical activity and were attenuated when DI was added to the model. The positive association of BMI with GLUC2hPP was attenuated when DI was added to the model, and DI itself was independently associated with GLUC2hPP after self-selected breakfast and dinner (standardized β = -0.33 and -0

  9. Informing the Design of "Lifestyle Monitoring" Technology for the Detection of Health Deterioration in Long-Term Conditions: A Qualitative Study of People Living With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Sarah; Hawley, Mark S; Haywood, Annette; Enderby, Pamela M

    2017-06-28

    Health technologies are being developed to help people living at home manage long-term conditions. One such technology is "lifestyle monitoring" (LM), a telecare technology based on the idea that home activities may be monitored unobtrusively via sensors to give an indication of changes in health-state. However, questions remain about LM technology: how home activities change when participants experience differing health-states; and how sensors might capture clinically important changes to inform timely interventions. The objective of this paper was to report the findings of a study aimed at identifying changes in activity indicative of important changes in health in people with long-term conditions, particularly changes indicative of exacerbation, by exploring the relationship between home activities and health among people with heart failure (HF). We aimed to add to the knowledge base informing the development of home monitoring technologies designed to detect health deterioration in order to facilitate early intervention and avoid hospital admissions. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews to explore everyday activities undertaken during the three health-states of HF: normal days, bad days, and exacerbations. Potential recruits were identified by specialist nurses and attendees at an HF support group. The sample was purposively selected to include a range of experience of living with HF. The sample comprised a total of 20 people with HF aged 50 years and above, and 11 spouses or partners of the individuals with HF. All resided in Northern England. Participant accounts revealed that home activities are in part shaped by the degree of intrusion from HF symptoms. During an exacerbation, participants undertook activities specifically to ease symptoms, and detailed activity changes were identified. Everyday activity was also influenced by a range of factors other than health. The study highlights the importance of careful development of LM

  10. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  11. Eating behaviour and its association with social living conditions and weight status among adolescent girls: results of the cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bau, Anne-Madeleine; Krull, Sarah; Ernert, Andrea; Babitsch, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    To capture a more holistic picture of eating behaviour by investigating the impact of the social living conditions and weight status of parents and daughters on food consumption frequency, the context of meals and daily portion sizes. Cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study. A total of sixty-nine schools in Berlin (3 400 000 inhabitants, eastern Germany) participated in the present study. A total of 1519 girls aged 11-14 years were selected. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, migration background, socio-economic status (SES), parental education, family situation and the weight status of parents and daughters on three different eating behaviour scores according to nutritional recommendations. For the three dependent eating behaviour variables, different patterns of influencing factors emerged. Multivariate regression (model 1) revealed that low and middle SES, two-parent migration background and older age were significant risk factors. Meal context was also significantly influenced by living with a single parent. Similar results were obtained for the daily portion size scores and maternal overweight status was the most influential. Model 2 succeeded in showing that, within the composite variable of family SES, mothers' level of education was the dominant component. SES as a whole, and especially the component of mothers' level of education and two-parent migration background, was the strongest risk factor for an unfavourable eating pattern among adolescent girls. The results clearly indicated preventive potential. Using three different measures of eating behaviour simultaneously provided an in-depth understanding of general patterns and potential risk factors.

  12. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population. PMID:24893053

  13. Field durability of the same type of long-lasting insecticidal net varies between regions in Nigeria due to differences in household behaviour and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Albert; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Selby, Richmond A; Fotheringham, Megan; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-03-24

    With the recent publication of WHO-recommended methods to estimate net survival, comparative analyses from different areas have now become possible. With this in mind, a study was undertaken in Nigeria to compare the performance of a specific long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) product in three socio-ecologically different areas. In addition, the objective was to assess the feasibility of a retrospective study design for durability. In three states, Zamfara in the north, Nasarawa in the centre and Cross River in the south, four local government areas were selected one year after mass distribution of 100-denier polyester LLINs. From a representative sample of 300 households per site that had received campaign nets, an assessment of net survival was made based on rate of loss of nets and the physical condition of surviving nets measured by the proportionate hole index (pHI). Surveys were repeated after two and three years. Over the three-year period 98% of the targeted sample size of 3,720 households was obtained and 94% of the 5,669 campaign nets found were assessed for damage. With increasing time since distribution, recall of having received campaign nets dropped by 11-22% and only 31-87% of nets actually lost were reported. Using a recall bias adjustment, attrition rates were fairly similar in all three sites. The proportion of surviving nets in serviceable condition differed dramatically, however, resulting in an estimated median net survival of 3.0 years in Nasarawa, 4.5 years in Cross River and 4.7 years in Zamfara. Although repairs on damaged nets increased from around 10% at baseline to 21-38% after three years, the average pHI value for each of the four hole size categories did not differ between repaired and unrepaired nets. First, the differences observed in net survival are driven by living conditions and household behaviours and not the LLIN material. Second, recall bias in a retrospective durability study can be significant and while adjustments can

  14. Effect of vaccination with a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine on growth performance in fattening pigs under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    LYOO, Kwang-Soo; CHOI, Jong-Young; HAHN, Tae-Wook; PARK, Kun Taek; KIM, Hye Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused significant economic losses to the global swine industry. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccine in conventionally reared growing/finishing pigs. Four barns were designated for groups A, B, C and D in the growing-to-finishing site. All pigs of the A barn were vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV MLV vaccine, whereas pigs of the B, C or D barn as control groups were unvaccinated. Twenty pigs randomly selected and tagged from each barn were serially bled at 0, 20, 40 and 60 day-post-vaccination, and tested for serological response with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Body weights were measured to calculate the average-daily-weight gain (ADG). Serological assays indicated that the seropositivity of the PRRSV-vaccinated group was higher than that of the unvaccinated groups at 40 day-post-vaccination. ADG of group A was significantly higher than that of groups B and C, and the mean weights of groups A, B, C and D were 0.82 ± 0.017, 0.76 ± 0.016, 0.74 ± 0.019 and 0.81 ± 0.018 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports the serological responses and growth performance parameters by the PRRSV MLV vaccine in growing/finishing pigs under field conditions. PMID:27264966

  15. Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.

  16. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  17. 'I have to live with the decisions I make': laying a foundation for decision making for children with life-limiting conditions and life-threatening illnesses.

    PubMed

    Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Hargrave, Darren; Henderson, Ellen M; Langner, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between parents and clinician is critical to the care and treatment of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) and life-threatening illnesses (LTIs). This relationship is built and maintained largely in consultations. In this article we lay out factors that bear on the success of clinical consultations and the maintenance of the essential clinician-parent relationship at progression or deterioration of LLCs or LTIs. We suggest an approach to engaging parents in conversations about care and treatment that recognises and appreciates the dilemmas which clinicians and parents face and in so doing provides a way for everyone to live with the decisions that are made. A close analysis of a consultation at progression and excerpts of encounters among parents, clinician and researcher are used to illustrate our approach to research, analysis and development of recommendations for clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. A long way to Tipperary? Young people with complex health conditions living in residential aged care: a metaphorical map for understanding the call for change.

    PubMed

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Sunderland, Naomi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Quinn, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    There is ongoing public and private concern regarding the appropriateness of young people with complex health needs residing in nursing homes and the search for alternative living environments. Despite the demand for change, there is only tacit understanding of the key motivations behind this call for change and even less in the way of coherent arguments underlying the need for alternative solutions. The study aimed to explore the assumed truths that have formed around this topic in recent years and to reposition ambitious but ambiguous arguments regarding the need to relocate younger people from aged care facilities. By applying the method of systematic metaphor analysis, the authors conducted a review of social discourse (i.e. media corpus of 904 published articles dated 2001-2009). A conceptual media map was developed to document the process of social change around this topic. Additionally, the narrative described five metaphors that outlined the experience of aged care residential homes for young people with complex health conditions, namely 'captivity', 'commodity', 'battlelines', 'fragmentation' and 'a contemporary life'. These metaphors reflected the fears and hopes held by young people and their families. Results indicate that young people at risk of nursing home placement are confronted with a range of distinct and complex personal dilemmas which ought to be resolved through initiatives purported to offer 'more appropriate' residential options. We conclude that principles of good quality care are in danger of becoming misplaced within over-simplified interpretations of the needs of young people with complex conditions. Alignment of disability and rehabilitation policy with residential care practice will allow for more informed decisions about long-term care needs of young people, leading to quality outcomes.

  19. [A comparative study of the health conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly at home in a rural area of Shiga Prefecture: special reference to morbidity rate and blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, A; Hirao, K; Sugimoto, C; Kita, Y; Ueshima, H; Okayama, A; Yamakawa, M

    1993-09-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data and for establishing a support system for elderly people with various health and social problems, a population survey was performed in 1990 to investigate the health and living conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly in the town of Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture. A total of 275 subjects (103 male, 172 female) 65 years of age and over were surveyed. The participation rate in this survey was 88.1%. Analysis of health conditions (morbidity rate, blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data) of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly produced the following: 1) Stroke was the main cause of being bedridden in men, while in women, bone and joint disease, especially fracture, was the main cause. 2) The combined prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension in elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly was over 50%. The bedridden elderly had a lower prevalence than elderly people living alone and elderly couples. 3) Men in all of the above mentioned life styles, had a higher tendency of showing ECG abnormalities than women. The tendency for major ECG abnormalities was high for bedridden elderly, both male and female, with the tendency for men being higher. 4) In bedridden elderly, a tendency of higher prevalence of anemia, in both male and females, lower total serum cholesterol and triglyceride in males compared to elderly people living alone and in elderly couples, was observed.

  20. 2 month evening and night closed-loop glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes under free-living conditions: a randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kropff, Jort; Del Favero, Simone; Place, Jerome; Toffanin, Chiara; Visentin, Roberto; Monaro, Marco; Messori, Mirko; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Farret, Anne; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Magni, Paolo; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris P; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Cobelli, Claudio; DeVries, J Hans; Renard, Eric; Magni, Lalo

    2015-12-01

    An artificial pancreas (AP) that can be worn at home from dinner to waking up in the morning might be safe and efficient for first routine use in patients with type 1 diabetes. We assessed the effect on glucose control with use of an AP during the evening and night plus patient-managed sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) during the day, versus 24 h use of patient-managed SAP only, in free-living conditions. In a crossover study done in medical centres in France, Italy, and the Netherlands, patients aged 18-69 years with type 1 diabetes who used insulin pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were randomly assigned to 2 months of AP use from dinner to waking up plus SAP use during the day versus 2 months of SAP use only under free-living conditions. Randomisation was achieved with a computer-generated allocation sequence with random block sizes of two, four, or six, masked to the investigator. Patients and investigators were not masked to the type of intervention. The AP consisted of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump connected to a modified smartphone with a model predictive control algorithm. The primary endpoint was the percentage of time spent in the target glucose concentration range (3·9-10·0 mmol/L) from 2000 to 0800 h. CGM data for weeks 3-8 of the interventions were analysed on a modified intention-to-treat basis including patients who completed at least 6 weeks of each intervention period. The 2 month study period also allowed us to asses HbA1c as one of the secondary outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02153190. During 2000-0800 h, the mean time spent in the target range was higher with AP than with SAP use: 66·7% versus 58·1% (paired difference 8·6% [95% CI 5·8 to 11·4], p<0·0001), through a reduction in both mean time spent in hyperglycaemia (glucose concentration >10·0 mmol/L; 31·6% vs 38·5%; -6·9% [-9·8% to -3·9], p<0·0001) and in hypoglycaemia (glucose concentration <3·9

  1. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation.

  2. Steroid levels and reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise, Geochelone nigra, living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos).

    PubMed

    Schramm, B G; Casares, M; Lance, V A

    1999-04-01

    The Galápagos Islands are home to 11 subspecies of large terrestrial tortoises (Geochelone nigra). All Galápagos tortoises are considered endangered and approximately 12,000 animals still exist. Until now, the reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise has been studied only in captive animals, and no data from free-ranging tortoises have been available. During a one-year period, blood samples were collected from male and female G. nigra living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Plasma steroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs). In males, plasma testosterone and corticosterone increased a few months before the onset of the mating season. Peak levels were observed while most copulations occurred and environmental temperatures were highest. Both testosterone and corticosterone showed low levels during the cold and dry nesting season and high levels during the hot and rainy mating season. In females, testosterone and corticosterone also rose during the hot and rainy mating season. Both hormones peaked during the second half of the mating season and decreased during the cooler dry season. Female estradiol levels increased at the onset of the mating season, reaching the highest level at the peak of the mating season, which coincided with the highest annual temperatures measured. Estradiol slowly decreased within the next months and rapidly dropped at the onset of the nesting season when temperatures decreased. Progesterone levels were high close to the time of ovulation and showed clearly elevated levels at the beginning of the nesting season after some females had laid their first clutch. Progesterone decreased during the nesting season, when ambient temperatures began to decrease, and reached minimal levels in the postbreeding period shortly before the onset of the next mating season. There were significant annual variations in plasma testosterone in both males and females. Plasma corticosterone was generally higher in

  3. Determining the efficacy of the chronic disease self-management programme and readability of 'living a healthy life with chronic conditions' in a New Zealand setting.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J J-Y; Arenhold, F; Braakhuis, A J

    2016-11-01

    Self-management programmes are an increasingly popular way of treating chronic diseases. This study aims to determine the efficacy of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in a New Zealand context by assessing course outcomes and readability of the accompanying reference guide Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions, 4th Edition. This is a cross-sectional pre-post study conducted in Auckland between August 2009 and September 2015, using CDSMP participants' baseline and follow-up Health Education Intervention Questionnaire (heiQ(TM) ) data. Readability of the guide was assessed using the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman Liau, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook scores. Significant evidence of improvement (P ≤ 0.001) was observed in seven of the eight domains measured by the heiQ(TM) (Deakin University, Centre for Population Health Research, Melbourne, Vic., Australia). The greatest improvements were seen in skill and technique acquisition (mean change score 0.25, P ≤ 0.001) and self-monitoring and insight (0.18, P ≤ 0.001). There was little evidence of improvement in health service navigation (0.04, P = 0.17). Readability analyses indicate that a person needs to be reading at a minimum of U.S. 8th grade level in order to understand the text, and possibly up to 11th grade. The CDSMP is effective for improving patient self-efficacy in the New Zealand setting. However, adaptation of the programme to support better health service navigation is warranted. The readability of the reference guide is not suitable for this setting and requires further improvement. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. The impact of usual dietary patterns, selection of significant foods and cuisine choices on changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Hokman, Anita; Sebastiao, Ana; Denmeade, Sharyn; Martin, Gina; Calvert, G Dennis; Jenkins, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general population and for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease suggest a reduction in dietary fat, and in particular dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). In order to achieve the recommended levels, changes in food choice patterns are required. Foods are consumed in combination with other foods, and these combinations are often recognizable as cuisine patterns. In this study we examined the food choice patterns of a group of 63 adults with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus who completed a 12 month dietary intervention trial aimed at changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions. In both lower fat (LF, 27%) and modified fat (MF, 37%E) groups, a reduction in dietary SFA and an increase in polyunsaturated fat were required, with an additional requirement to increase dietary monounsaturated fat in the MF group. The usual diets of the study sample were on average low in total fat (27%E), but high in saturated fat (12%E). Those already consuming total fat at the level concordant with their allocation (LF or MF) achieved targets faster than those with a discordant allocation, but there was no significant effect of usual diet on time of target achievement at 12 months. At 6 months, those achieving dietary fat targets had changed to low fat dairy products and leaner meats, were having more spreads, oils, and nuts and were consuming takeaway meals less than twice a week. Contributions to dietary fat shifted from takeaway foods, meat, dairy products and cakes to spreads, oils and nuts. The modified fat and low fat groups chose more Mediterranean and South East Asian cuisines respectively. In this study sample, usual dietary patterns had an initial impact on change in the diet, but identifiable changes in food choice patterns and the adoption of certain cuisines that combined foods indicative of the dietary guidelines resulted in successful achievement of dietary fat targets.

  5. Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Myojin, Tomoya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Keiko; Okada, Eisaku; Shibata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Mieko; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation. Methods We used anonymous data from the 2007 “Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions,” collected by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan according to the Statistics Act, Article 36. We used logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and sex. Limitation in daily activities was applied as the dependent variable, and each disease/injury was applied as an independent variable in this analysis. Furthermore, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results The provided data included 98,789 subjects. We used data for 75,986 valid subjects aged 12 years or older. The following diseases showed high PAF: backache (PAF 13.27%, OR 3.88), arthropathia (PAF 7.61%, OR 4.82), eye and optical diseases (PAF 6.39%, OR 2.01), and depression and other mental diseases (PAF 5.70%, OR 11.55). PAFs of cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes were higher for males than for females; on the other hand, PAFs of orthopedic diseases were higher among females. Conclusions Our results indicate that orthopedic diseases, ophthalmic diseases, and psychiatric diseases particularly affect activity limitation. PMID:28142015

  6. A nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern does not affect total daily dietary cost in North American women in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the dietary response to the nutritional intervention, a registered dietician administered a FFQ at 0, 6, 12, and 24 wk. Total daily dietary cost was calculated using a price list including all items from the FFQ. Our findings indicated that daily energy cost evaluated at wk 12 vs. wk 0 [1046 +/- 217 vs. 967 +/- 192 kJ/Canadian dollars (CAN$), respectively, P = 0.18] and total daily dietary cost (8.61 +/- 2.13 vs. 8.75 +/- 2.50 CAN$/d per participant, respectively, P = 0.58) did not change. Total daily energy density at wk 12 decreased compared with wk 0 (2.56 +/- 0.76 vs. 2.20 +/- 0.67 kJ/g; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet led to increased cost related to vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, canola/olive oil, whole grains, poultry, and fish (P < or = 0.01) and to reduced dietary cost for red meat, refined grains, desserts and sweets, and fast food (P < or = 0.008). In conclusion, these data suggest that adherence to a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean food pattern is not associated with increased daily dietary cost or energy cost but led to a reduction in energy density. Consequently, increased cost should not be considered a barrier to the promotion and adoption of a Mediterranean diet.

  7. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    PubMed

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  8. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  9. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  10. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measures of live fuel moisture and fuel condition in a shrubland ecosystem in southern California

    Treesearch

    D. A. Roberts; P.E. Dennison; S. Peterson; S. Sweeney; J. Rechel

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes in live fuel moisture (LFM) and fuel condition modify fire danger in shrublands. We investigated the empirical relationship between field-measured LFM and remotely sensed greenness and moisture measures from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the...

  11. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  12. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  13. "It Ain't Much, but It's All I Got." The Rural Homelessness Project: A Study of Living Conditions in Two Rural West Virginia Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Many poor families in rural West Virginia live in unsafe, unsanitary structures that do not protect them from the elements, but these families are not considered officially homeless. Lincoln and Clay Counties are very rural, traditionally poor areas, with 45% of their populations receiving welfare and much larger proportions receiving food stamps.…

  14. That These People May Live; Conditions Among the Oglala Sioux of the Pine Ridge Reservation. [Hechel Lena Oyate Kin Nipi Kte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Eileen; Twiss, Gayla

    A picture of the present conditions of the Oglala Sioux Indian tribe is offered in an effort to provide insight into how to improve the life and spirit of this tribe of the northern plains. Socioeconomic characteristics and sociopsychological problems are utilized in describing the conditions. Information on their history and traditional culture…

  15. Can our people afford to live? The effect of changing economic conditions on high density urban dwellers around Harare, March 1992 to June 1993.

    PubMed

    Watts, T E

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Community Medicine with the assistance of fourth year medical students have been monitoring the basic cost of living of high density urban dwellers near Harare from March 1992 to June 1993. The cheapest diet able to provide sufficient calories, protein and vitamin A for a standard family of five people was calculated, and also the average cost of rent, rates, essential travel and schooling for a month. Sixty to 80 people were interviewed on each of four occasions. The cost of basic foods increased by over 50 pc from $157.50 in March 1992 to $349.20 in June 1993, and the cost of rents, rate, transport and schooling from $230.63 to $268.43 in the same period. This gave an average total monthly cost of $388.18 in March 1992 and $617.63 in June 1993. Minimum costs were calculated by using the mean cost of rent and rates etc.--2 standard errors. This increase in the basic cost of living is compared with the wages of security guards and the implications regarding the affordability of health care.

  16. If We Build It, We Will Come: A Model for Community-Led Change to Transform Neighborhood Conditions to Support Healthy Eating and Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Vedette R.; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Leon, Janeen B.; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods impact health. In three adjoining inner-city Cleveland neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb.1 To address this disparity a local health funder created a Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The Fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Using the model, residents identified a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12,000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  17. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  18. Acquisition of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning Using β-Adrenoceptor Activation of the Dorsal Premammillary Nucleus as an Unconditioned Stimulus to Mimic Live Predator-Threat Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Canteras, Newton S; Carobrez, Antônio P

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we sought to mimic the internal state changes in response to a predator threat by pharmacologically stimulating the brain circuit involved in mediating predator fear responses, and explored whether this stimulation would be a valuable unconditioned stimulus (US) in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm (OFC). The dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) is a key brain structure in the neural processing of anti-predatory defensive behavior and has also been shown to mediate the acquisition and expression of anti-predatory contextual conditioning fear responses. Rats were conditioned by pairing the US, which was an intra-PMd microinjection of isoproterenol (ISO; β-adrenoceptor agonist), with amyl acetate odor—the conditioned stimulus (CS). ISO (10 and 40 nmol) induced the acquisition of the OFC and the second-order association by activation of β-1 receptors in the PMd. Furthermore, similar to what had been found for contextual conditioning to a predator threat, atenolol (β-1 receptor antagonist) in the PMd also impaired the acquisition and expression of OFC promoted by ISO. Considering the strong glutamatergic projections from the PMd to the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), we tested how the glutamatergic blockade of the dPAG would interfere with the OFC induced by ISO. Accordingly, microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 6 nmol) into the dPAG were able to block both the acquisition, and partially, the expression of the OFC. In conclusion, we have found that PMd β-1 adrenergic stimulation is a good model to mimic predatory threat-induced internal state changes, and works as a US able to mobilize the same systems involved in the acquisition and expression of predator-related contextual conditioning. PMID:21209611

  19. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  1. Greener Living

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.

  2. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  3. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  4. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  5. [Health of aged people living with siblings who are professional nurses in China from the view point of lifestyle and health condition].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Eiji; Matsushita, Hiroko; Gong, Y; Minotani, Shinko; Ideno, Keiko; Asano, Yuko; Miyamoto, Kei; Murai, Teiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiko; Gotoh, Sachiko

    2004-06-01

    Since 1978 in China, rapid economic development has taken place and the nation's quality of life has improved through the introduction of reform-opening policies. Such change has caused new health problems, partially due to aging of the population, with increase in lifestyle-related diseases and environmental pollution, and also expansion of regional variation. In this study, diseases undergoing treatment (relevance) and lifestyles of the elderly living with siblings who are professional nurses were evaluated. We conducted a study in 23 provinces to discern characteristics and factors related to lifestyle and situations of patients undergoing treatment. We analyzed 1,548 senior citizens (response rate: 82.1%) over 65 years old living with a sibling who is a professional nurse. The professional nurse provided the replying to the questions. 1. A total of 457 out of 597 males (76.5%) and 725 out of 951 females (76.2%) had diseases under treatment. Males over 75 years old suffered from arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular diseases, and heart disease. Females over 75 years old suffered from arteriosclerosis, respiratory diseases, and eye diseases. 2. In both males and females over 75 years old (older elderly) there were no significant differences in the Health Practice Index (HPI) from persons under 75 (younger elderly). Older elderly were more likely to snack often. Among males and females, 5 of 8 health-practices, such as a napping and physical exercise, differed. Females were less likely to smoke and drink alcohol. 3. In both males and females, non-diseased participants had a higher HPI than that of diseased participants. This tendency was the same in both younger and older elderly. 4. Cluster analyses of patterns of diseases revealed that the 23 provinces could be classified into 4 areas. The HPI in areas with a low proportion of diseased subjects was significantly higher than that in areas with a high proportion of diseased. One of the areas' HPI appeared to be

  6. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise.

  7. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale and Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool: Data from amateur sports players in live-match conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Christopher; Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is a growing public health concern. A short, simple sideline assessment tool is essential for evaluation of concussion at an amateur participation level. The current study examined responses to sideline assessment measures in a sample of amateur Australian Rules Football players competing in real-time live matches who had not sustained a concussion on the day of testing. Participants (N = 127) completed the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) and the Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool (Pocket CRT), which contains the Maddocks Questions (assessing orientation and recent memory) and the Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The study showed 98.4% of participants passed the A-WPTAS, while 81.9% passed the Maddocks Questions. Participants endorsed a mean of 4.16 (SD = 4.02) symptoms on the PCSS, with 86.6% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a mild level or greater and 40.2% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a moderate or severe level. The current results suggest the Maddocks Questions may not be sufficient for use in an amateur sports context. To reduce the risk for a false positive diagnosis of concussion, it is recommended that the Pocket CRT be complemented with the A-WPTAS for use in an amateur sports context.

  8. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  9. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013–June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Methods Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Results Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. Conclusion The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS. PMID:26447550

  10. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013-June 2014.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan L; Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-10-08

    Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS.

  11. Living with orofacial conditions: psychological distress and quality of life in adults affected with Treacher Collins syndrome, cherubism, or oligodontia/ectodermal dysplasia-a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Saltnes, Solfrid Sørgjerd; Storhaug, Kari; Åsten, Pamela; Nordgarden, Hilde; Jensen, Janicke Liaaen

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between quality of life, psychological distress, and orofacial syndromes in children and adolescents has been reported in several studies. However, little is known about differences in psychological distress and quality of life among adults with different orofacial conditions. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine and compare these factors among three groups of adults affected by Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), cherubism, and oligodontia/ectodermal dysplasia (ED). We included 11 individuals with TCS (mean age 46.9, SD 12.9 years), 15 with cherubism (mean age 50.3, SD 16.8 years), and 49 with oligodontia/ED (mean age 30.7, SD 15.6 years). The respondents completed questionnaires related to psychological distress and quality of life. The oligodontia/ED group had a significantly higher level of anxiety and worse mental health-related quality of life than both the TCS and cherubism groups. Adults with TCS reported the highest level of depression, and the lowest levels of overall quality of life, well-being, and physical health-related quality of life. The cherubism group displayed the best overall quality of life, well-being, and mental health. Psychological distress and quality of life differed in various orofacial conditions. This study provided insight into these aspects that may contribute to improved care.

  12. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in four free-living bird species exposed to different levels of lead under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the δALAD activity and δALAD ratio in blood of four free-living bird species (Griffon vulture, Eagle owl, Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull); (2) and to investigate the correlations between δALAD activity/ratio and Pb concentrations in blood samples. A decrease was observed in δALAD activity in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls exposed to Pb. In addition, negative relationships were found between δALAD ratio or δALAD activity and Log blood Pb levels in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls, and these relationships were stronger in areas with the highest Pb exposure. We provide equations that may be helpful to estimate δALAD activity and δALAD ratio using blood Pb concentrations. Regarding gull species, δALAD activity found in the present study may be considered the normal activity in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull species, since very low blood Pb concentrations and no correlations were found in these species. Although both δALAD activity and δALAD ratio are sensitive biomarkers of Pb exposure and effect in birds, the use of δALAD ratio may improve the results. Besides, this study provides blood threshold concentrations at which Pb bears effects on δALAD enzyme (5µg/dl in Eagle owl; 8µg/dl in Griffon vulture; and probably >2µg/dl in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull). Our findings show that Eagle owl seems to be more sensitive to δALAD enzymatic inhibition by Pb than Griffon vultures. Eagle owls and Griffon vultures exhibited up to 79% and 94% decrease in δALAD activity when blood Pb concentrations exceeded 19 and 30µg/dl, respectively. Regarding the effects related with δALAD inhibition, significant negative correlations were found between δALAD activity and hematocrit in Eagle owls and Griffon vultures, which may be related to compensatory response associated with a decrease in δALAD activity. In addition, an effect on creatine kinase activity and total proteins in plasma was found

  13. Countryside Live!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Andrew; Richardson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The "Countryside Live!" events, organised by the Countryside Foundation for Education (CFE), provide a unique opportunity for urban children to explore a whole new area of possibilities and learning, through becoming aware at first-hand of what goes on in the countryside. The event at Staunton Country Park, Havant, Hampshire, which took…

  14. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  15. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  16. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  17. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  18. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  19. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  20. Expression and functional roles of Bradyrhizobium japonicum genes involved in the utilization of inorganic and organic sulfur compounds in free-living and symbiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Shah, Gopit R; Sadowsky, Michael J; Paliy, Oleg; Speck, Justin; Vail, Andrew W; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2011-04-01

    Strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with many legumes, including soybean. Although inorganic sulfur is preferred by bacteria in laboratory conditions, sulfur in agricultural soil is mainly present as sulfonates and sulfur esters. Here, we show that Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B. elkanii strains were able to utilize sulfate, cysteine, sulfonates, and sulfur-ester compounds as sole sulfur sources for growth. Expression and functional analysis revealed that two sets of gene clusters (bll6449 to bll6455 or bll7007 to bll7011) are important for utilization of sulfonates sulfur source. The bll6451 or bll7010 genes are also expressed in the symbiotic nodules. However, B. japonicum mutants defective in either of the sulfonate utilization operons were not affected for symbiosis with soybean, indicating the functional redundancy or availability of other sulfur sources in planta. In accordance, B. japonicum bacteroids possessed significant sulfatase activity. These results indicate that strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. likely use organosulfur compounds for growth and survival in soils, as well as for legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

  1. Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-07-28

    Most adults with chronic conditions live at home and rely on informal caregivers to provide support. Caregiving can result in negative impacts such as poor mental and physical health. eHealth interventions may offer effective and accessible ways to provide education and support to informal caregivers. However, we know little about the impact of Web-based interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this rapid evidence review was to assess the impact of Web-based interventions on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for informal caregivers of persons with chronic conditions living in the community. A rapid evidence review of the current literature was employed to address the study purpose. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ageline were searched covering all studies published from January 1995 to July 2016. Papers were included if they (1) included a Web-based modality to deliver an intervention; (2) included informal, unpaid adult caregivers of community-living adults with a chronic condition; (3) were either a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT); and (4) reported on any caregiver outcome as a result of use or exposure to the intervention. A total of 20 papers (17 studies) were included in this review. Study findings were mixed with both statistically significant and nonsignificant findings on various caregiver outcomes. Of the 17 included studies, 10 had at least one significant outcome. The most commonly assessed outcome was mental health, which included depressive symptoms, stress or distress, and anxiety. Twelve papers examined the impact of interventions on the outcome of depressive symptoms; 4 found a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Eight studies examined the outcome of stress or distress; 4 of these found a significant reduction in stress or distress as a result of the intervention. Three studies examined the

  2. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them.

  3. Reproductive performance response to the male effect in goats is improved when doe live weight/body condition score is increasing.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the nutritional and metabolic cue-induced modulation of the reproductive performance response of female goats to the male effect. During natural anoestrus, 48 Blanca Andaluza does were isolated from bucks for 45 days and distributed into two groups: (1) low body weight (BW)/low body condition score (BCS) animals (LL-gain group, N=18), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements; and (2) high BW/high BCS animals (HH-loss group, N=30), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements. Following isolation, oestrous activity was recorded daily by visual observation of the marks left by harness-equipped males. Weekly blood samples were taken for the determination of progesterone, glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and leptin concentrations. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. Significantly greater ovarian and oestrous responses, and productivity, were observed in the LL-gain group compared to the HH-loss group (P<0.05). After the introduction to the males, no differences in NEFA concentration were seen between the groups; before introduction the values were higher in the HH-loss group. At the moment of detection of oestrus following male introduction, the insulin concentration of the LL-gain animals was higher (P<0.05). The present results show that the reproductive performances of does subjected to the male effect in spring are poorer in those with a decreasing BW and BCS and better in those with increasing scores. This might be explained by the differences between groups in terms of their plasma insulin concentrations. The NEFA concentration was clearly modified by introduction to the males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. Objectives The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. Methods A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. Results A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. Conclusion The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them. PMID:27272912

  5. Living Jointness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...COVERED 00-00-1993 to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Living Jointness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...and the peacetime activities of all services other than participation in joint exercises. It challenges the existing joint command structure because

  6. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  7. Which Sámi? Sámi inclusion criteria in population-based studies of Sámi health and living conditions in Norway - an exploratory study exemplified with data from the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Torunn; Brustad, Magritt

    2013-01-01

    In a situation where national censuses do not record information on ethnicity, studies of the indigenous Sámi people's health and living conditions tend to use varying Sámi inclusion criteria and categorizations. Consequently, the basis on which Sámi study participants are included and categorized when Sámi health and living conditions are explored and compared differs. This may influence the results and conclusions drawn. To explore some numerical consequences of applying principles derived from Norway's Sámi Act as a foundation for formalized inclusion criteria in population-based Sámi studies in Norway. We established 1 geographically based (G1) and 3 individual-based Sámi example populations (I1-I3) by applying diverse Sámi inclusion criteria to data from 17 rural municipalities in Norway north of the Arctic Circle. The data were collected for a population-based study of health and living conditions in 2003-2004 (the SAMINOR study). Our sample consisted of 14,797 participants aged 36-79 years. The size of the individual-based populations varied significantly. I1 (linguistic connection Sámi) made up 35.5% of the sample, I2 (self-identified Sámi) made up 21.0% and I3 (active language Sámi) 17.7%. They were also noticeably unevenly distributed between the 5 Sámi regions defined for this study. The differences for the other characteristics studied were more ambiguous. For the population G1 (residents in the Sámi language area) the only significant difference found between the Sámi and the corresponding non-Sámi population was for household income (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.74). For the populations I1-I3 there were significant differences on all measures except for I2 and education (OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.99-1.21). The choice of Sámi inclusion criterion had a clear impact on the size and geographical distribution of the defined populations but lesser influence on the selected characteristics for the Sámi populations relative to the respective non

  8. Which Sámi? Sámi inclusion criteria in population-based studies of Sámi health and living conditions in Norway – an exploratory study exemplified with data from the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Torunn; Brustad, Magritt

    2013-01-01

    Background In a situation where national censuses do not record information on ethnicity, studies of the indigenous Sámi people's health and living conditions tend to use varying Sámi inclusion criteria and categorizations. Consequently, the basis on which Sámi study participants are included and categorized when Sámi health and living conditions are explored and compared differs. This may influence the results and conclusions drawn. Objective To explore some numerical consequences of applying principles derived from Norway's Sámi Act as a foundation for formalized inclusion criteria in population-based Sámi studies in Norway. Design We established 1 geographically based (G1) and 3 individual-based Sámi example populations (I1–I3) by applying diverse Sámi inclusion criteria to data from 17 rural municipalities in Norway north of the Arctic Circle. The data were collected for a population-based study of health and living conditions in 2003–2004 (the SAMINOR study). Our sample consisted of 14,797 participants aged 36–79 years. Results The size of the individual-based populations varied significantly. I1 (linguistic connection Sámi) made up 35.5% of the sample, I2 (self-identified Sámi) made up 21.0% and I3 (active language Sámi) 17.7%. They were also noticeably unevenly distributed between the 5 Sámi regions defined for this study. The differences for the other characteristics studied were more ambiguous. For the population G1 (residents in the Sámi language area) the only significant difference found between the Sámi and the corresponding non-Sámi population was for household income (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.63–0.74). For the populations I1–I3 there were significant differences on all measures except for I2 and education (OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.99–1.21). Conclusions The choice of Sámi inclusion criterion had a clear impact on the size and geographical distribution of the defined populations but lesser influence on the selected characteristics for

  9. Living a normal life in an extraordinary way: A systematic review investigating experiences of families of young people's transition into adulthood when affected by a genetic and chronic childhood condition.

    PubMed

    Waldboth, Veronika; Patch, Christine; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Metcalfe, Alison

    2016-10-01

    The transition into adulthood is a developmental stage within the life cycle. A chronic childhood condition can disrupt this transition and create major challenges for both the young person and his or her family. Little is known about families' experiences when living with a rare genetic disease. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to understand experiences of families living with a chronic childhood disease during transition into adulthood by integrating evidence. A systematic review using an integrative approach to data inclusion and analysis comprising qualitative, quantitative and other methodological studies about a range of genetic and chronic childhood diseases was undertaken to identify relevant information. Databases searched were PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and AMED, using the search terms (1) family, caregivers, young adult, adolescent; (2) adolescent development, transitional programs, transition to adult care; (3) muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis, haemophilia and sickle cell disease. Study findings were critically appraised and analyzed using critical interpretive synthesis. A total of 8116 citations were retrieved. 33 studies remained following the removal of duplicates, papers unrelated to genetic childhood conditions and families' experiences of the transition into adulthood. Findings provided three perspectives: (1) the young person's perspective on how to "live a normal life in an extraordinary way" and "manage a chronic and life threatening disease"; (2) the parent perspective on the "complexity of being a parent of a chronically ill child" and "concerns about the child's future" and (3) the sibling perspective on "concerns about the siblings future". As a consequence of the genetic childhood condition, during the ill family members' transition into adulthood all family members were at risk for psychosocial difficulties as they mutually influenced each other. Previous research focused

  10. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  11. Predicting Fatigue Lives Under Complex Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Nelson, R. S.; Janitor, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) computer program performs high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue life prediction for materials analysis. Designed to account for effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loadings involving such factors as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, wave-shapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features practical for application to actual component analysis using modern finite-element or boundary-element methods. Although developed for use in predicting crack-initiation lifetimes of gas-turbine-engine materials, also applied to other materials as well. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Rhizoremediation half-lives of PCBs: Role of congener composition, organic carbon forms, bioavailability, microbial activity, plant species and soil conditions, on the prediction of fate and persistence in soil.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, Elisa; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Morosini, Cristiana; Raspa, Giuseppe; Borin, Sara; Mapelli, Francesca; Vergani, Lorenzo; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2017-08-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely produced and used in many countries until the increasing concern about their environmental risk lead to their ban in the 1980s. Although their emissions decreased, PCBs are nowadays still present in the environment and can be reemitted from reservoir compartments such as contaminated soils. In the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in bioremediation technologies that use plants and microorganisms (i.e. rhizoremediation) to degrade organic chemicals in contaminated sites. Different studies have been conducted to investigate the potential of plant-microbe interactions in the remediation of organic chemical contaminated soils. They range from short-term and laboratory/greenhouse experiments to long-term and field trials and, when correctly set up, they could provide useful data such as PCB rhizoremediation half-lives in soil. Such type of data are important input parameters for multimedia fate models that aim to estimate the time requested to achieve regulatory thresholds in a PCB contaminated site, allowing to draw up its remediation plan. This review focuses on the main factors influencing PCB fate, persistence and bioavailability in soil including PCB mixture congener composition, soil organic carbon forms, microorganism activity, plant species and soil conditions. Furthermore, it provides an estimate of rhizoremediation half-lives of the ten PCB families starting from the results of literature rhizoremediation experiments. Finally, guidance to perform appropriate experiments to obtain comparable, accurate and useful data for fate estimation is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  14. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  15. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  16. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  17. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  18. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  19. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  20. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. [Living better or living longer].

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious

  3. From Living Carbocationic to Living Radical Polymerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    C 1 -OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-94-1-0101 R&T Code 31321075 Technical Report No. 18 FROM " LIVING " CARBOCATIONIC TO " LIVING " RADICAL...NUMBERS "From Living " Carbocationic to " Living " ’jical Polymerization N00014-94-1-01I01 6. AUTHOR(S) Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...1994) 1Za. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) " Living " carbocationic polymerization is

  4. [Relationship between the attitudes towards improving eating habits and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions].

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshiko; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sato, Shinichi; Ando, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits and their relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2005) and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2005). Individuals aged >30 years (N=3084) were enrolled in this study. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits by using 14 parameters. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the Cronbach α value was calculated. Furthermore, the relationship between attitudes towards improving eating habits and MetS prevalence was examined according to gender by using multinomial logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, number of members in a household, exercise habits, and rest by sleeping. Two factors were extracted: balanced diet (BD) and control of food intake (CFI) (Cronbach α, 0.82 and 0.75, respectively). The goodness of fit model, based on the structural equation models, was adequate (goodness of fit, 0.96). No relationship was noted between BD and MetS prevalence. The MetS prevalence differed according to gender: "Strongly suspected MetS (sure MetS)", 16.3% (male, 24.4%; female, 10.7%), "Preliminary MetS (pre MetS)", 15.2% (male, 24.1%; female, 8.9%), "non-suspected MetS (non MetS)", 68.5% (male, 51.5%; female, 80.5%). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre MetS and sure MetS were 0.57 (0.42-0.78) and 0.52 (0.38-0.71) in males and 0.36 (0.25-0.53) and 0.39 (0.27-0.56) in females, respectively, when non MetS was used as a reference. The results of this study indicated that the attitudes towards improving eating habits primarily focused on BD and CFI. Therefore, improving eating habits towards in terms of better CFI would be effective in preventing MetS in both genders.

  5. Ivermectin-treated cattle reduces blood digestion, egg production and survival of a free-living population of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition in south-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, Issa N; Kessy, Stella T; Mbina, Kasian F; Daraja, Ally A; Mnyone, Ladslaus L

    2017-06-06

    Anopheles arabiensis feed on cattle and contributes to residual transmission of malaria in areas with high coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in East Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ivermectin-treated cattle as a complementary vector control tool against population of An. arabiensis under the semi-field conditions in south-eastern Tanzania. The free-living population of An. arabiensis was allowed to forage on untreated or ivermectin-treated cattle in alternating nights within the semi-field system in south-eastern Tanzania. Fresh blood fed mosquitoes were collected in the morning using mouth aspirators and assessed for their blood meal digestion, egg production, and survivorship. The residual activity of ivermectin-treated cattle was also determined by exposing mosquitoes to the same treatments after every 2 days until day 21 post-treatments. These experiments were replicated 3 times using different individual cattle. Overall, the ivermectin-treated cattle reduced blood meal digestion in the stomach of An. arabiensis, and their subsequent egg production and survival over time. The ivermectin-treated cattle halved blood meal digestion in mosquitoes, but reduced their egg production for up to 15 days. The ivermectin-treated cattle reduced the survival, and median survival times (1-3 days) of An. arabiensis than control cattle. The daily mortality rates of mosquitoes fed on ivermectin-treated cattle increased by five-fold relative to controls in the first week, and it gradually declined up to 21 days after treatment. This study demonstrates that long-lasting effects of ivermectin-treated cattle on egg production and survival of An. arabiensis may sustainably suppress their vector density, and reduce residual transmission of malaria. This study suggests that ivermectin-treated non-lactating cattle (i.e. calves, heifers and bulls) could be suitable option for large-scale malaria vector control without

  6. Improving the health and lives of people living in slums.

    PubMed

    Sheuya, Shaaban A

    2008-01-01

    Urban poverty, ill health, and living in slums are intrinsically interwoven. Poverty is multidimensional and there is no agreement on a universal definition. UN-HABITAT has introduced an operational definition of slums that is restricted to legal aspects and excludes the more difficult social dimensions. The World Health Organization definition is more comprehensive and uses a health and social determinants approach that is strongly based on the social conditions in which people live and work. Health and improving the lives of people living in slums is at the top of international development agenda. Proactive strategies to contain new urban populations and slum upgrading are the two key approaches. Regarding the latter, participatory upgrading that most often involves the provision of basic infrastructure is currently the most acceptable intervention in developing countries. In urbanization of poverty, participatory slum upgrading is a necessary but not sufficient condition to reduce poverty and improve the lives of slum dwellers. Empowering interventions that target capacity development and skill transfer of both individuals and community groups--as well as meaningful negotiations with institutions, such as municipal governments, which can affect slum dwellers' lives--appear to be the most promising strategies to improve the slum dwellers' asset bases and health. Non-governmental organizations, training institutions, and international development partners are best placed to facilitate horizontal relationships between individuals, community groups, and vertical relationships with more powerful institutions that affect the slum dwellers' lives. The main challenge appears to be lack of commitment from the key stakeholders to upgrade interventions citywide.

  7. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  8. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  9. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  10. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  11. Understanding the legal implications of living wills.

    PubMed

    Haas, Fiona

    This article explains the legality of living wills and clarifies the conditions that make an advance statement valid. The practical application of a living will is explored using examples illustrating the necessary considerations. In recognising the legality of advance refusals of treatment, nurses need to be aware that they must abide by such a refusal.

  12. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  13. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic ... Final Rule Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  14. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no ... seek care right away. Emotional Issues and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and ...

  15. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  16. Independent Living Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipping, Joyce

    1978-01-01

    Designed to help handicapped persons who have been living a sheltered existence develop independent living skills, this course is divided into two parts. The first part consists of a five-day apartment live-in experience, and the second concentrates on developing the learners' awareness of community resources and consumer skills. (BM)

  17. Honeybee workers with higher reproductive potential live longer lives.

    PubMed

    Kuszewska, Karolina; Miler, Krzysztof; Rojek, Wiktoria; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Social insects, especially honeybees, have received much attention in comparative gerontology because of their peculiar and flexible ageing patterns that differ across genetically similar individuals. The longevity of honeybee individuals varies and depends on patterns of gene expression during development; females developing into reproductive individuals (queens) live longer than facultatively sterile workers. Here, we show that rebel workers, which develop under queenless conditions after swarming and have high reproductive potential, live approximately 4days longer in hives and approximately 3days longer in cages than individuals that develop in queenright colonies and have lower reproductive potential; this difference in longevity occurs in both free-flying and caged workers. Moreover, we show that both rebel and normal workers live longer when their ovaries contain more ovarioles. Longer-living rebel workers can benefit the colony because they can fill the generation gap that emerges between workers after queen exchange during swarming. Our findings provide novel evidence that the fecundity of workers in a social insect colony impacts their intrinsic longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  19. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers. We recorded the audience members' electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience's heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience's sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience's physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience's superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance.

  20. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member’s physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists’ performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists’ via speakers. We recorded the audience members’ electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience’s heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience’s sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience’s physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience’s superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance. PMID:27104377

  1. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  2. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  3. Recognizing Safety and Liveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    in terms of "bad things" and "good things".* In [ Sistla 85], an attempt is made to give syntactic charcrizations for safety and live- ness properties...properris, and for a subset of the livene= proMe- ties, called absolute liveness propertie Fally, [ Sistla 85] proves that the states of a Buchi

  4. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  5. Nanobiomechanics of living cells: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinju

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiomechanics of living cells is very important to understand cell–materials interactions. This would potentially help to optimize the surface design of the implanted materials and scaffold materials for tissue engineering. The nanoindentation techniques enable quantifying nanobiomechanics of living cells, with flexibility of using indenters of different geometries. However, the data interpretation for nanoindentation of living cells is often difficult. Despite abundant experimental data reported on nanobiomechanics of living cells, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion on testing with different tip geometries, and the associated mechanical models that enable extracting the mechanical properties of living cells. Therefore, this paper discusses the strategy of selecting the right type of indenter tips and the corresponding mechanical models at given test conditions. PMID:24748952

  6. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner.

  7. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  8. Living with hepatitis C: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rebekah; Pfeil, Michael; Moore, Jenny; Richardson, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    To explore the experience of adults living with hepatitis C over time. Hepatitis C virus is a growing problem affecting thousands of people worldwide. The majority of individuals infected develop chronic liver disease, but treatment is not always successful, leaving many to live with the virus indefinitely. Experiences of living with hepatitis C are poorly understood yet essential to meet the needs of an increasing number of affected people. A qualitative study using a descriptive phenomenological methodology. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 23 hepatitis C-positive individuals in the East of England; participants were interviewed twice within a year. Data analysis revealed six themes of the experience of living with hepatitis C: hepatitis C and self; hepatitis C, self and others; self and handling hepatitis C; self and handling hepatitis C treatment issues; living with the consequences of hepatitis C; self, hepatitis C and thoughts of the future. Diagnosis of hepatitis C can disrupt people's sense of identity and trigger a life transition. A complex range of factors create uncertainty for people living with hepatitis C. Many struggle to make a healthy transition to life with the condition, instead living in a state of sustained uncertainty. Nurses working within a chronic care framework of ongoing advice and support can improve experiences for those living with hepatitis C. Practice aimed at reducing both the disruptive effect of the diagnosis and the uncertainties it creates can help facilitate a transition to life with the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ontological security and connectivity provided by pets: a study in the self-management of the everyday lives of people diagnosed with a long-term mental health condition.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Helen; Rushton, Kelly; Walker, Sandra; Lovell, Karina; Rogers, Anne

    2016-12-09

    Despite evidence that connecting people to relevant wellbeing-related resources brings therapeutic benefit, there is limited understanding, in the context of mental health recovery, of the potential value and contribution of pet ownership to personal support networks for self-management. This study aimed to explore the role of pets in the support and management activities in the personal networks of people with long-term mental health problems. Semi-structured interviews centred on 'ego' network mapping were conducted in two locations (in the North West and in the South of England) with 54 participants with a diagnosis of a long-term mental health problem. Interviews explored the day-to-day experience of living with a mental illness, informed by the notion of illness work undertaken by social network members within personal networks. Narratives were elicited that explored the relationship, value, utility and meaning of pets in the context of the provision of social support and management provided by other network members. Interviews were recorded, then transcribed verbatim before being analysed using a framework analysis. The majority of pets were placed in the central, most valued circle of support within the network diagrams. Pets were implicated in relational work through the provision of secure and intimate relationships not available elsewhere. Pets constituted a valuable source of illness work in managing feelings through distraction from symptoms and upsetting experiences, and provided a form of encouragement for activity. Pets were of enhanced salience where relationships with other network members were limited or difficult. Despite these benefits, pets were unanimously neither considered nor incorporated into individual mental health care plans. Drawing on a conceptual framework built on Corbin and Strauss's notion of illness 'work' and notions of a personal workforce of support undertaken within whole networks of individuals, this study contributes to our

  10. Challenges and Opportunities: What Can We Learn from Patients Living with Chronic Musculoskeletal Conditions, Health Professionals and Carers about the Concept of Health Literacy Using Qualitative Methods of Inquiry?

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Charlotte; Brainard, Julii; McDaid, Lisa; Loke, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    The field of health literacy continues to evolve and concern public health researchers and yet remains a largely overlooked concept elsewhere in the healthcare system. We conducted focus group discussions in England UK, about the concept of health literacy with older patients with chronic musculoskeletal conditions (mean age  = 73.4 years), carers and health professionals. Our research posed methodological, intellectual and practical challenges. Gaps in conceptualisation and expectations were revealed, reiterating deficiencies in predominant models for understanding health literacy and methodological shortcomings of using focus groups in qualitative research for this topic. Building on this unique insight into what the concept of health literacy meant to participants, we present analysis of our findings on factors perceived to foster and inhibit health literacy and on the issue of responsibility in health literacy. Patients saw health literacy as a result of an inconsistent interactive process and the implications as wide ranging; healthcare professionals had more heterogeneous views. All focus group discussants agreed that health literacy most benefited from good inter-personal communication and partnership. By proposing a needs-based approach to health literacy we offer an alternative way of conceptualising health literacy to help improve the health of older people with chronic conditions. PMID:25375767

  11. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  12. Living with Stepparents

    MedlinePlus

    ... get divorced . This is never an easy decision. Divorce can be painful for parents, but eventually, each ... ON THIS TOPIC Kids Talk About: Marriage and Divorce (Video) Living With a Single Parent Foster Families ...

  13. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress ... Conference Past Conferences Meet-Ups Twitter Chats Webinars Writing Workshops Young Women's Initiative Fundraising Events Galas Living ...

  14. Living with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Caring for a premature infant can be challenging. You may have: Emotional pain, ... tiredness). Frustration that you can't breastfeed your infant right away. (You can pump and store your ...

  15. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  16. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System File Formats Help: How do I ...

  17. Living with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to answer your questions. Call toll-free 1-800-539-7309 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm ... are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our free ...

  18. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy ... Things Safe Teen Drivers Life Stages & Populations A Killer in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. ...

  20. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  1. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... November 1, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  2. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the vaccinia virus. Who should NOT get the smallpox vaccine? People most likely to have side effects ...

  3. Living Day by Day

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  4. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  5. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... reviewed on 04/30/2014. Register for the Stroke Rehab Webinar Join rehab experts as they discuss ...

  6. ASHRAE's Living Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2008-10-01

    ASHRAE recently remodeled its headquarters building in Atlanta with the intention of making the building a LEED Gold building. As part of that renovation the building was enhanced with additional sensors and monitoring equipment to allow it to serve as a Living Laboratory for use by members and the general public to study the detailed energy use and performance of buildings. This article provides an overview of the Living Laboratory and its capabilities.

  7. Where Plumes Live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    From the perspective of fluid dynamics, `Plumes or not?' might be the wrong question. Let me begin by defining a few terms. Plume with a `P' is the well-known thermal structure with thin (order 100 km) tail and large, bulbous head that originates at the core-mantle boundary. The thin tail/large, bulbous-head morphology has been generated in a number of laboratory and numerical experiments. It can be seen, for example, on the cover of the famous fluid dynamics text by Batchelor. There is a clearly-defined range of parameters for which this structure is the preferred solution for instabilities arising from a bottom boundary layer in a convecting fluid. For example, a strong temperature-dependent rheology is needed. By contrast, plume with a `p' is any cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical instability originating from a thermal (or thermo-chemical) boundary layer. In fluid dynamics plume is sometimes used interchangeable with jet. Unless there is a very small temperature drop across the core-mantle boundary or a rather remarkable balance between temperature and composition at the base of the mantle, there are almost certainly plumes. (Note the little p.) Are these plumes the thermal structures with thin (order 100 km) tails and large bulbous heads or could they be broad, hot regions such as the degree 2 pattern seen in global seismic tomography images of the lower mantle, or the disconnected droplets seen in chaotic convection? To study this question, I will present a sequence of numerical `experiments' that illustrate the morphology of instabilities from a basal thermal boundary layer, i.e., plumes. Some of the aspects I will present include: spherical geometry, temperature-and pressure-dependence of rheology, internal heating, pressure-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, variable coefficient of thermal diffusivity, phase transformations, and compositional layering at the base of the mantle. The goal is to map out the parameters and conditions where Plumes live

  8. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  9. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action.

  10. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Moore, Justin B.; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B.; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to assess the evidence-base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the four domains conceptualized by the model and suggest there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing in order to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  11. Living-cell microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; King, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment.

  12. Psychoanalysis and creative living.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2003-01-01

    Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living.

  13. Living My Family's Story

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk. PMID:22544165

  14. Introduction of Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    separated into kinetic and synthetic. The intention of this paper is not to review existing and proclaimed living systems but to discuss the essence of a...o1 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH S4 CONTRACT N00014-94-1-0101 I R&T Code 31321075 Technical Report No. 10 INTRODUCTION TO LIVING POLYMERIZATION. LIVING ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Introduction to Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization N00014-94-1-0101 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. Multimodal Literacies: Imagining Lives through Korean Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Grace MyHyun; Omerbašic, Delila

    2017-01-01

    Global networks of information and interactions have created new conditions for access to myriad literacies, languages, and communities. Engagements with transnational texts and communities can support the imagination of lives different from one's local context. This article presents data from two qualitative studies of adolescent literacy…

  16. Live Site Demonstrations - Massachusetts Military Reservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    MetalMapper Sensor; Advanced electromagnetic induction ; UXO; Classification; Live Site Demonstration; Massachusetts Military Reservation 16. SECURITY...Berkeley UXO Discriminator CD cultural debris CIA Central Impact Area cm centimeter DAQ data acquisition computer EMI electromagnetic induction ...advanced electromagnetic induction sensors developed specifically for discrimination on real sites under operational conditions. • Investigate in

  17. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  18. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  19. Living with Aplastic Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Clinical Trials for Rare Blood Diseases (Neal Young, M.D.) 05/17/2012 In ... in the lives of people who have rare blood and bone marrow diseases, such as aplastic anemia. // Non Object? Updated: August ...

  20. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  1. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  2. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a…

  3. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  4. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  5. The living building

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    If one is to increase the energy performance of buildings beyond what is now possible, one can no longer afford to think of a building's systems and components as independent of one another. With emerging trends in building technology, it is becoming possible to design buildings (or groups of buildings) that respond to their environments as naturally as do living organisms. The living building integrates advances in glazing technology, photovoltaics, daylight-integrated lighting controls, HVAC and ecological waste management in conjunction with direct digital controls to respond actively to temperature, humidity, heat gain, cooling, lighting levels, and ventilation. This revolutionary building is the building of the future; it maximizes energy savings due to the inherent efficiency of an intelligent, interconnected system in which the envelope, lighting, and HVAC are always aware of and responding to each other's needs. While some of the technologies for such a system are already in use and resulting energy savings documented, it is not until advances such as electrochromic glazing reach the market that the level of integration necessary to produce the living building will be possible. This paper explores the limits of the living building's capacity to learn from environmental forces and regulate itself; the paper then examines emerging technologies that have demonstrated the potential to make such systemic integration and unprecedented energy savings possible.

  6. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  7. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  8. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you can ... with your doctors to learn how to manage CF. Ongoing Care Having ongoing medical care by a ...

  9. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  10. New Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  11. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  12. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  13. Native American Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Julie Anna

    1992-01-01

    Examines features of independent living philosophy with regard to compatibility with Native American cultures, including definition or conceptualization of disability; self-advocacy; systems advocacy; peer counseling; and consumer control and involvement. Discusses an actualizing process as one method of resolving cultural conflicts and…

  14. Measuring Retirees' Living Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamale, Helen H.

    1978-01-01

    The author evaluates the Consumer Price Index (CPI) used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to make cost-of-living adjustments to retirement benefits and considers the need for a separate retiree index. Stating that the CPI has underestimated inflation's impact on retirees, she recommends revised BLS retiree budgets. (MF)

  15. Living the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia; Lemay, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Describes one elementary school's "Living the Dream" award program named in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Students read and reviewed books and presented the award to the author of a recent picture book that focused on multicultural awareness. A list of suggested titles is included. (SM)

  16. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  17. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  18. Test Pattern For Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicholas

    The lives of Americans today are ruled by interlocking corporations. These corporations together present only one kind of life as viable: the consumer's life. Television is their main means of presenting this view. One cannot choose something he does not know about, and many Americans are not sufficiently informed of the alternatives to make an…

  19. The Living Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for a second-grade class project. Suggests that the students will learn to identify the word "famous," complete a timeline for a famous person, learn facts about the person, and express individual thoughts and feelings. Explains the steps involved in the presentation of a living museum where students portray famous…

  20. Living related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Kawarazaki, H; Iwanaka, T; Kamada, N; Takayama, T; Kumon, M

    1992-01-01

    Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver transplantations had already been performed in Japan, mainly for children with biliary atresia. Five of these patients subsequently died, however, our patient has survived more than 1 year, and she is presently leading a normal school life. The most important issue regarding living related liver transplantation is to ensure the donor's safety. For this purpose, we conducted a preoperative banking of the donor's own blood and plasma. In addition, a selective vascular occlusion was carried out to reduce blood loss during the resection of the liver. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was introduced for evaluating the circulation of the graft. By using this modality, the following three points were able to be accurately estimated in order to obtain optimal graft perfusion: 1) The most suitable position for the graft to be fixed to the abdominal wall, 2) whether or not the abdominal wall could be closed and 3) the indication for a ligation of the collateral veins to form a porto-systemic shunt. Thanks to these procedures, living related liver transplantations have now become an acceptable transplant method, however, a transplantation from a cadaver that is brain dead but still has a beating heart is still absolutely necessary for adult recipients. Therefore, in the future, both methods should be performed.

  1. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  2. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must manage manure in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy metals, or pathogenic organisms and optimizes recycling of nutrients and must..., or well-being of the animal could be jeopardized; (4) Risk to soil or water quality; (5) Preventive...

  3. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must manage manure in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy metals, or pathogenic organisms and optimizes recycling of nutrients and must..., or well-being of the animal could be jeopardized; (4) Risk to soil or water quality; (5) Preventive...

  4. Living Conditions in Anbar Province in June 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    44 5.6. Annual Household Spending on Education per Student ...45 5.7. Average Annual Cost of Education per Student , by Age...Sales from garden, 9% Home production, 9% Street vending , 2% Consumption from garden, 6% Taxi and other services, 16% Other self-employment income, 5

  5. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with §§ 205.239(b) and (c). Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots may be used to provide ruminants with.... Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots shall be large enough to allow all ruminant livestock occupying the.... Continuous total confinement of any animal indoors is prohibited. Continuous total confinement of...

  6. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  7. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  8. Living Conditions, Ecology and Social Changes in the Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. Subba

    1984-01-01

    Major problems faced in India's development are discussed, including rapid industrialization and urbanization and needs for ecological protection as well as food and industry, literacy, and rapid social change in a multilingual and multireligious society. The roles of higher education and international cooperation are also examined. (MSE)

  9. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  10. Improving assisted living care.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  11. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living Room Fireplace Details, Door Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Governor's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  13. Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural system, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  15. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written declaration...

  16. Contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sharon; Steyn, Petrus; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-08-01

    Women living with HIV are often of reproductive age, and many desire effective contraceptive options to delay or prevent pregnancy. We review the safety of various hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, we discuss drug interactions between contraceptive methods and antiretrovirals and the safety of methods with respect to onward transmission to HIV-negative partners for women in sero-discordant partnerships. In general, most methods are safe for most women living with HIV. An understanding of the reproductive goals of each individual patient, as well as her medical condition and medication, should be taken into account when counselling women on their contraceptive options. Further research is needed to understand drug interactions between contraceptives and antiretrovirals better and how to fulfil the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Valuing different human lives.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

    2014-04-01

    Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy.

  18. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  19. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  20. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  1. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  2. Communication in Assisted Living*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

  3. Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain Share Tweet Linkedin ... syndrome, and depression. back to top What Causes Fibromyalgia? Scientists believe that the condition may be due ...

  4. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  5. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  6. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sickle Cell Disease If you or your child has sickle ... NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease (Nicholas) 09/02/2011 In this video— ...

  7. Electron-beam direct processing on living cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takayuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrated a direct processing on a living Hep G2 cell membrane in conventional cultivation conditions using an electron beam. Electron beam-induced deposition from liquid precursor 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and ablation was performed on the living cells. The 2.5-10 keV electron beam which was irradiated through a 100-nm-thick SiN nanomembrane could induce a deposition pattern and a ablation on a living cell membrane. This electron beam direct processing can provide simple in-situ cell surface modification for an analytical method of living cell membrane dynamic.

  8. Active Living: Promoting Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedburg, Randy B.; Izso, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Active Living is a unique Canadian approach in which physical activity is valued and integrated into daily life. Active Living will have an increasing impact on the health, physical education, and recreation fields. The article describes the development of Active Living, its effects on Canadian society, and current initiatives. (SM)

  9. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  10. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  11. Live like the Affluent in College, Live like a Student after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes in basic economic conditions make it harder for college students to find their way in the new economy. However, in addition to these structural changes that drive up the costs of living in society, many students are also suffering from the effects of developing an unsustainable, affluent lifestyle both before and during the pursuit…

  12. Living with Advanced MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs and benefits. Read More Read More Publication Managing Progressive MS An overview of symptom management, coping ... is essential to maintaining your quality of life. Managing other health conditions Compared to the general population, ...

  13. Live From the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Kent, J.; Lippsett, L.

    2006-12-01

    International Polar Year presents an extraordinary opportunity to educate students and the public about science at the icy ends of the Earth. The goal of our proposal is to apply collaborative multimedia approaches to bring the story of four polar research expeditions to the general public and the classroom. The four expeditions (measurement of ice sheet dynamics in Greenland, a study of the McMurdo ecosystem over austral winter, installation of a buoy array in the Beaufort Gyre, and exploration of the Gakkel Ridge) were chosen based on their broad range of disciplines and relevance to the three primary IPY research emphasis areas defined by NSF. A science writer and a professional photographer will join each expedition and file dispatches for a daily Webcast. The posting will feature science updates, logistical challenges, team member profiles, and life at sea (or on the ice). The writer will also coordinate real-time phone patches from PIs in the field to audiences at the Museum of Science, Boston, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum, Chicago, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Birch Aquarium, San Diego, the Pacific Science Center, Seattle, National Public Radio "Talk of the Nation: Science Friday," CBS News, and to student "reporters" writing for Scholastic Online. At the museums, the "Live from the Ice" interactive phone calls will be preceded by a background presentation by a scientist, who will also moderate the live discussion between the public and researchers in the field. A 20-30 minute satellite phone call will allow the public to ask the researchers questions about their research while it's happening. In addition to building and promoting an online experience, a museum exhibit featuring models of Arctic instruments and informative kiosks will be developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Exhibit Center. Each of our partner museums will also provide a "leave-behind" component to continue to educate

  14. Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an insider's account of what it is like to live with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic cardiovascular illness that carries the risk for sudden cardiac death. This study aims to reveal how HCM impacts the family and guides the decision whether or not to pursue genetic testing, how the physical limitations associated with HCM alter being-in-the-world, and how HCM alters social relationships. Fifteen adults with HCM were recruited for a longitudinal, phenomenological, qualitative study through purposive sampling and word of mouth. A total of 45 interviews were conducted by the researcher at a time and place designated by the participant between August 2011 and January 2012. The first interview with each participant was conducted in person. While efforts were made to conduct all interviews in person, a total of three interviews were conducted by telephone as requested by three participants due to scheduling conflicts. Through methods of interpretive phenomenology, three audio-recorded, semistructured interviews occurred over the course of 3 months. Detailed narratives were solicited and transcribed verbatim. Methodological and analytical documentation was supported with the identification of key phrases, similar experiences, themes, and documentation of the rationale for decisions throughout the research process. Participation in genetic testing carries a multitude of personal, familial, financial, and emotional implications. The results of a genetic test elicited an emotional response regardless of whether the results were negative, positive, or inconclusive. Living with a potentially life-threatening illness altered identity, disrupted social relationships, and generated chronic fear and uncertainty. A new normal was re-ordered or transformed by the demands and limitations posed by HCM, and by the person's concerns, priorities, and the meaning of the illness. Results from this study underscore the need for healthcare

  15. Mathematics for generative processes: Living and non-living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantoni, Corrado

    2006-05-01

    The traditional Differential Calculus often shows its limits when describing living systems. These in fact present such a richness of characteristics that are, in the majority of cases, much wider than the description capabilities of the usual differential equations. Such an aspect became particularly evident during the research (completed in 2001) for an appropriate formulation of Odum's Maximum Em-Power Principle (proposed by the Author as a possible Fourth Thermodynamic Principle). In fact, in such a context, the particular non-conservative Algebra, adopted to account for both Quality and quantity of generative processes, suggested we introduce a faithfully corresponding concept of "derivative" (of both integer and fractional order) to describe dynamic conditions however variable. The new concept not only succeeded in pointing out the corresponding differential bases of all the rules of Emergy Algebra, but also represented the preferential guide in order to recognize the most profound physical nature of the basic processes which mostly characterize self-organizing Systems (co-production, co-injection, inter-action, feed-back, splits, etc.).From a mathematical point of view, the most important novelties introduced by such a new approach are: (i) the derivative of any integer or fractional order can be obtained independently from the evaluation of its lower order derivatives; (ii) the exponential function plays an extremely hinge role, much more marked than in the case of traditional differential equations; (iii) wide classes of differential equations, traditionally considered as being non-linear, become "intrinsically" linear when reconsidered in terms of "incipient" derivatives; (iv) their corresponding explicit solutions can be given in terms of new classes of functions (such as "binary" and "duet" functions); (v) every solution shows a sort of "persistence of form" when representing the product generated with respect to the agents of the generating process

  16. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  17. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Living on the edge.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes.

  19. Gaia Live in School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

  20. Can lean save lives?

    PubMed

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  1. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  2. Living Liquid Crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-28

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic par­ticles, often termed •active fluid,• has attracted enormous atten­tion in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here,we introduce a class of active matter-living liquid crystals (UCs}­ that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingre­dients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena. caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence­ enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers­ thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications.

  3. Psychological effects of living with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah

    2014-12-02

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term inflammatory condition that can affect physical, psychological and social function. The condition is not curable - although drug therapy can be used to reduce inflammation - and patients often experience daily symptoms of joint pain and stiffness, fatigue and functional limitations. Patients may also experience psychological challenges. This article focuses on the psychological implications of living with rheumatoid arthritis, including reaction to diagnosis, anxiety and depression, body image, sexuality, self-esteem and social role. It aims to explore the role of the nurse in addressing these psychological challenges to optimise the physical and psychological status of each patient.

  4. NIGMS's Living Labs

    MedlinePlus

    ... other human disorders. Photo courtesy of NIGMS Mouse Genetic engineering allows scientists to create specific strains of mice that reveal the functions of specific genes. Some mouse strains are models for human genetic diseases, increasing knowledge about how the conditions arise ...

  5. Making A Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" presents the story of Iowans at work beginning with the Ioway Indians before 1830 through the Great Depression of the 1930s. One article looks at how children worked to help their families buy food and clothing. Organized labor helped all workers in Iowa by providing better working conditions. Women in…

  6. To Live and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimin, B.

    Described in the booklet are the history and functions of the All-Russia Society for the Blind which was founded in 1925 to improve the physical, educational, and employment conditions of the more than 300,000 Russian people who before 1917 became blind from disease and poverty. The society is said to have units in the 15 constituent Soviet…

  7. Creating living machines

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  8. Live Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    prevent  it.    Users  of  the  system  pulled  information  of  various  kinds  into  the  shared  scenario:  city   maps,  images,  data  from  databases...videos  from  real‐time  feeds  in  the  city   itself.  Working  together,  they  rapidly  solved  their  problem.    The  live  application  could...hold groups of other objects: a  city  object might contain building objects; a  helicopter squadron multiple helicopters, and so forth.   What about data

  9. Colloquium: Toward living matter with colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeravcic, Zorana; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental unsolved problem is to understand the differences between inanimate matter and living matter. Although this question might be framed as philosophical, there are many fundamental and practical reasons to pursue the development of synthetic materials with the properties of living ones. There are three fundamental properties of living materials that we seek to reproduce: The ability to spontaneously assemble complex structures, the ability to self-replicate, and the ability to perform complex and coordinated reactions that enable transformations impossible to realize if a single structure acted alone. The conditions that are required for a synthetic material to have these properties are currently unknown. This Colloquium examines whether these phenomena could emerge by programming interactions between colloidal particles, an approach that bootstraps off of recent advances in DNA nanotechnology and in the mathematics of sphere packings. The argument is made that the essential properties of living matter could emerge from colloidal interactions that are specific—so that each particle can be programmed to bind or not bind to any other particle—and also time dependent—so that the binding strength between two particles could increase or decrease in time at a controlled rate. There is a small regime of interaction parameters that gives rise to colloidal particles with lifelike properties, including self-assembly, self-replication, and metabolism. The parameter range for these phenomena can be identified using a combinatorial search over the set of known sphere packings.

  10. Exact Law of Live Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. The law is universal for all species, from single cell yeast to humans. It includes no characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism etc.) which are a must for life. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment. Its universal dynamics for all animals, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity, is also unique for live systems — cf. different thermodynamics of liquids and glasses. The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is a life specific law of nature.

  11. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Ask our ... experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News ...

  12. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  13. The power of living things: Living memorials as therapeutic landscapes

    Treesearch

    Heather L. McMillen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2017-01-01

    In response to the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), many communities came together to create living memorials. Many living memorials were established near the crash sites, but others were created across the United States from urban to rural areas, with designs ranging from entire forests to single trees. They were created by surviving family members, supporters of...

  14. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  15. On harm thresholds and living organ donation: must the living donor benefit, on balance, from his donation?

    PubMed

    Williams, Nicola Jane

    2017-05-19

    For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.

  16. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  17. Viruses as living processes.

    PubMed

    Dupré, John; Guttinger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The view that life is composed of distinct entities with well-defined boundaries has been undermined in recent years by the realisation of the near omnipresence of symbiosis. What had seemed to be intrinsically stable entities have turned out to be systems stabilised only by the interactions between a complex set of underlying processes (Dupré, 2012). This has not only presented severe problems for our traditional understanding of biological individuality but has also led some to claim that we need to switch to a process ontology to be able adequately to understand biological systems. A large group of biological entities, however, has been excluded from these discussions, namely viruses. Viruses are usually portrayed as stable and distinct individuals that do not fit the more integrated and collaborative picture of nature implied by symbiosis. In this paper we will contest this view. We will first discuss recent findings in virology that show that viruses can be 'nice' and collaborate with their hosts, meaning that they form part of integrated biological systems and processes. We further offer various reasons why viruses should be seen as processes rather than things, or substances. Based on these two claims we will argue that, far from serving as a counterexample to it, viruses actually enable a deeper understanding of the fundamentally interconnected and collaborative nature of nature. We conclude with some reflections on the debate as to whether viruses should be seen as living, and argue that there are good reasons for an affirmative answer to this question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The living publication

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  19. 20 CFR 225.41 - How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a cost-of-living increase is determined... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.41 How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied. Depending on the condition of the social security...

  20. 20 CFR 225.41 - How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How a cost-of-living increase is determined... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.41 How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied. Depending on the condition of the social security...