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Sample records for living conditions

  1. Living conditions and health promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, P J

    2001-03-01

    The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.

  2. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  3. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...

  4. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...

  5. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...

  6. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock...

  7. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...

  8. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization.

  9. Promoting health by addressing living conditions in Norwegian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Susanne; Torp, Steffen; Helgesen, Marit; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2016-07-10

    Worldwide, inequalities in health are increasing, even in well-developed welfare states such as Norway, which in 2012, saw a new public health act take effect that enshrined equity in health as national policy and devolved to municipalities' responsibility to act on the social determinants of health. The act deems governance structures and "Health in All Policies" approaches as important steering mechanisms for local health promotion. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Norway's municipalities address living conditions - economic circumstances, housing, employment and educational factors - in local health promotion, and what factors are associated with doing so. All Norway's municipalities (n= 428) were included in this cross-sectional study, and both register and survey data were used and were subjected to descriptive and bi- and multivariate regression analyses. Eighty-two percent of the municipalities reported that they were capable of reducing inequalities in health. Forty percent of the municipalities defined living conditions as a main challenge in their local public health promotion, while 48% cited it as a main health promotion priority. Our study shows that defining living conditions as a main challenge is positively associated with size of municipality, and also its assessment of its own capability in reducing inequalities in health. The latter factor was also associated with actually prioritizing living conditions in health promotion, as was having established cross-sectorial working groups or inter-municipal collaboration related to local health promotion. This study underlines the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration to promote health and well-being.

  10. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa) can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea). We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp.) new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen. PMID:20370908

  11. Living under a democracy: participation and its impact on the living conditions of the poor.

    PubMed

    Avritzer, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian democratization took place between 1985 and 1988. In 1985, the authoritarian power holders transferred political power to civilians, and in 1988, a new democratic constitution was enacted, thus finalizing the transition. The end of the transition triggered processes of participation in different Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro. However, only in Porto Alegre could the political context in the postdemocratization period generate a process of reverting priorities, that is to say, of inverting the pattern of democratic participation and the pattern of public investment at the urban level. In this article, I show the social conditions of the poor in the city of Porto Alegre in 1985, explain the emergence of participatory budgeting in the city, and show how democracy made a difference in the living conditions of the urban poor in the city of Porto Alegre. In the second part of the article, I analyze the recent expansion of participatory budgeting in Brazil and its recent expansion to midsize cities. In the final part of the article, I show how new participatory institutions are being introduced at the federal level of government. Participation at the local and national levels is making a difference in the living conditions of the Brazilian poor.

  12. [Children and adolescents: unequal living conditions, unequal health opportunities].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Richter, M; Klocke, A

    2006-02-01

    Today, children and young people represent the age group that is most frequently threatened by poverty in Germany. Poverty during childhood means a bad start to life and often has long-term effects on an adolescent's social and health development. Health problems are more frequent among preschool-age children from socially disadvantaged families. They are also more often affected by accidents and dental problems. In adolescence, links can be established between the social situation and psychosocial well-being, pain incidence and health behaviour. However, poverty does not inevitably go hand-in-hand with health problems. A stable and supporting social environment -- particularly in families, peer groups and schools -- promotes the development of a positive self-image and social skills, thus empowering the child to deal with demanding living conditions. Measures of social and health policy aimed at lessening the effects of poverty on health must start here.

  13. [Concept of living conditions or social strata?--which approach is more suitable for describing unhealthy living circumstances of mothers?].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, S; Geyer, S

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify living conditions associated with elevated health risks for mothers. Following up the debate on appropriate characterisation of social structure in modern societies, two different approaches, namely the 'social strata concept' and the 'concept of living conditions', were considered. Of particular interest was the question if the concept of living conditions, which is based on a broader definition of social status, allowed a more precise description of health-related living circumstances. The study was based on clinical data from 6,094 inpatients in Mother-Child rehabilitation centres in Germany. Taking socioeconomic status, household characteristics and psychosocial stressors into account seven typical living conditions of mothers could be identified by cluster analysis. Social status was measured by the Winkler Index. A moderate health-related gradient of increasing health risks with decreasing social position could be found for psychological and bodily disabilities. The approach of living conditions revealed that two living circumstances of mothers could be identified as being related to extremely poor health. These are i) dissatisfied single mothers with high degrees of psychosocial distress and lack of social support, and ii) married mothers with conflicts within the family and self-perceived lack of appreciation. Different from these findings, a pronounced social gradient could be found for overweight and smoking. Here the concept of social strata revealed in part excessive risks compared to the concept of living conditions. Overall, the integration of further social determinants allowed a more detailed insight into health-related living conditions, which are not solely determined by socioeconomic position. A global answer about the adequacy of the 'social strata concept' versus 'concept of living conditions' for identifying unhealthy living conditions could not be given because the relevance of both conceptual frameworks

  14. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  15. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  16. Atomic force microscopy study of living diatoms in ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gebeshuber, I C; Kindt, J H; Thompson, J B; Del Amo, Y; Stachelberger, H; Brzezinski, M A; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2003-12-01

    We present the first in vivo study of diatoms using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three chain-forming, benthic freshwater species -Eunotia sudetica, Navicula seminulum and a yet unidentified species - are directly imaged while growing on glass slides. Using the AFM, we imaged the topography of the diatom frustules at the nanometre range scale and we determined the thickness of the organic case enveloping the siliceous skeleton of the cell (10 nm). Imaging proved to be stable for several hours, thereby offering the possibility to study long-term dynamic changes, such as biomineralization or cell movement, as they occur. We also focused on the natural adhesives produced by these unicellular organisms to adhere to other cells or the substratum. Most man-made adhesives fail in wet conditions, owing to chemical modification of the adhesive or its substrate. Diatoms produce adhesives that are extremely strong and robust both in fresh- and in seawater environments. Our phase-imaging and force-pulling experiments reveal the characteristics of these natural adhesives that might be of use in designing man-made analogues that function in wet environments. Engineering stable underwater adhesives currently poses a major technical challenge.

  17. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  18. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  19. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  20. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  1. Associations between poor living conditions and multi-morbidity among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. Methods: A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. Results: The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. Conclusion: The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. PMID:27402635

  2. Representing Residence, Living Situation, and Living Conditions: An Evaluation of Terminologies, Standards, Guidelines, and Measures/Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Winden, Tamara J.; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in diagnosis, prevention, health outcomes, and quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine existing standards, vocabularies, and terminologies for items related to Residence, Living Situation, and Living Conditions and to synthesize them into model representations. Sources were identified through literature and keyword searches, and an examination of commonly used resources. Each source was systematically analyzed by two reviewers, mapped to topic area(s), and further mapped to a model representation. A total of 27 sources were identified and reviewed. Seven of the sources had no items, i.e. concepts, elements, or values, related to the three topic areas while SNOMED-CT had the most items at 436 followed by the US Census at 174. While none of the identified sources encompassed a complete representation for documenting the three topic areas, their synthesis together results overall in more comprehensive representations. PMID:28269967

  3. Unraveling fabrication and calibration of wearable gas monitor for use under free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Yue Deng; Cheng Chen; Tsow, Francis; Xiaojun Xian; Forzani, Erica

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals that have high vapor pressure at regular conditions. Some VOC could be dangerous to human health, therefore it is important to determine real-time indoor and outdoor personal exposures to VOC. To achieve this goal, our group has developed a wearable gas monitor with a complete sensor fabrication and calibration protocol for free-living conditions. Correction factors for calibrating the sensors, including sensitivity, aging effect, and temperature effect are implemented into a Quick Response Code (QR code), so that the pre-calibrated quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensor can be used with the wearable monitor under free-living conditions.

  4. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  5. Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; de Melo, Cláudia Moura; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue. PMID:25741650

  6. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  7. Comparison of Reports by Relatives and Staff on Living Conditions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, Oie; Sonnander, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Proxies typically serve as information providers in studies of persons with intellectual disabilities. However, little is known about the concordance between different proxy categories and how proxy characteristics influence the information provided. We compared 89 pairs of relative and staff reports on the living conditions of persons with…

  8. Quality of Life and Quality of Living Conditions in Rural Areas: Distinctively Perceived and Quantitatively Distinguished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostini, Luiz R.; Fantini, Alfredo C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, large amount of effort and resources have been spent in projects and programs aiming to develop rural communities. The ultimate goal of such projects is supposed to be the improvement of the "Quality of Life" (QOL) of these communities. Although improving the "Quality of the Living Conditions" (QLC) is an acceptable strategy…

  9. Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

    2001-01-01

    Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults.

  10. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  11. Tuberculosis Mortality and Living Conditions in Bern, Switzerland, 1856-1950

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty-related disease that is associated with poor living conditions. We studied TB mortality and living conditions in Bern between 1856 and 1950. Methods We analysed cause-specific mortality based on mortality registers certified by autopsies, and public health reports 1856 to 1950 from the city council of Bern. Results TB mortality was higher in the Black Quarter (550 per 100,000) and in the city centre (327 per 100,000), compared to the outskirts (209 per 100,000 in 1911–1915). TB mortality correlated positively with the number of persons per room (r = 0.69, p = 0.026), the percentage of rooms without sunlight (r = 0.72, p = 0.020), and negatively with the number of windows per apartment (r = -0.79, p = 0.007). TB mortality decreased 10-fold from 330 per 100,000 in 1856 to 33 per 100,000 in 1950, as housing conditions improved, indoor crowding decreased, and open-air schools, sanatoria, systematic tuberculin skin testing of school children and chest radiography screening were introduced. Conclusions Improved living conditions and public health measures may have contributed to the massive decline of the TB epidemic in the city of Bern even before effective antibiotic treatment became finally available in the 1950s. PMID:26881850

  12. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  13. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  14. Rearing conditions have long-term consequences for stress responsiveness in free-living great tits.

    PubMed

    Landys, Mėta M; Goymann, Wolfgang; Slagsvold, Tore

    2011-11-01

    In captivity, the adrenocortical stress response can be permanently altered by events that occur during early life. Free-living animals have rarely been examined in this regard. To examine whether early-life events impact the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the natural setting, we evaluated the stress response of free-living interspecifically cross-fostered great tits (Parus major). Cross-fostered birds may show a long-term potentiation of the adrenocortical stress response because species-specific nutritional requirements may not be met in the nest and/or cross-fostered birds may experience psychosocial stress while being raised by heterospecifics. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that in the natural setting, programmed changes in HPA function would be eclipsed by reactive responses to the immediate environment. Thus, we predicted that adult cross-fostered great tits and controls would show no differences in their adrenocortical stress response. Contrary to predictions, we found that stress responsiveness (i.e., the rate of the corticosterone increase associated with capture and handling) was significantly higher in cross-fostered great tits than in controls. Further, stress responsiveness was not significantly different between mature adults and first-year juveniles. Thus, data indicate significant effects of early rearing conditions on adrenocortical reactivity in the natural setting and also suggest that effects of rearing conditions in free-living animals can last into adulthood.

  15. The impact of childhood living conditions on illness and mortality in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, O

    1993-04-01

    The aim was to explore the relationships between indicators of economic and social problems in childhood on the one hand and illness and mortality in adulthood on the other. In 1968 a representative sample of the Swedish population born 1906-1951 were interviewed about their childhood living conditions, among other things. Four indicators of adverse childhood living conditions were included. Two of these reflect economic circumstances (economic hardship; a large family, defined as four or more siblings), and two reflect social conditions (broken family; conflicts in the family). In 1981, 13 years later, this sample was re-interviewed. This allows for illness in 1981 to be related to reports of childhood conditions given in 1968. A follow-up of mortality for the period 1981-1984 was also conducted. When one controls for age, sex and father's social class, those exposed to economic as well as social problems during childhood are found to have a considerably higher risk of being ill as adults. Of the four factors analysed, conflicts in the family during upbringing is that most strongly related to illness later in life, as well as with mortality. Having a broken family, and, to some extent, economic hardship during childhood, are also clearly associated with illness later in life. These results also hold true when all four factors are included simultaneously in the model, and remain relatively unchanged when controlling for mental illness in 1968.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. [Social support and living conditions in poor elderly people in urban Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Treviño-Siller, Sandra; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the misconception that the needs of the elderly are the individual family's responsibility rather than a collaborative effort by society.

  17. Children's experience of living with a craniofacial condition: perspectives of children and parents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Shute, Rosalyn

    2011-07-01

    This is the first study to examine the range of experiences of children living with a wide range of craniofacial anomalies (CFAs), from the perspectives of children and parents. We interviewed 26 young people and 28 parents about both stressors and positive aspects for young people of living with a CFA. Thematic analysis revealed four major stress-related themes (self-acceptance, responses of others, disabilities and impairments, and treatment). Positive themes included personal qualities and support. Psychological theories often applied to those with CFAs relate to attractiveness, stigma and teasing, but the present findings suggest that these are not as useful as the conceptualization of CFAs as chronic conditions which influence adaptive tasks. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them.

  19. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  20. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  1. A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Live Donor Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Michael L; Pattenden, Clare J; Barlow, Adam D; Hunter, James P; Lee, Gwyn; Hosgood, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Ischemic conditioning involves the delivery of short cycles of reversible ischemic injury in order to induce protection against subsequent more prolonged ischemia. This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RC) in live donor kidney transplantation.This prospective randomized clinical trial, 80 patients undergoing live donor kidney transplantation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either RC or to a control group. RC consisted of cycles of lower limb ischemia induced by an arterial tourniquet cuff placed around the patient's thigh. In the RC treatment group, the cuff was inflated to 200 mm Hg or systolic pressure +25 mm Hg for 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion. In the control group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 25 mm Hg. Patients and medical staff were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary end-point was renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 and 3 months posttransplant.Donor and recipient demographics were similar in both groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in eGFR at 1 month (control 52 ± 14 vs RC 54 ± 17 mL/min; P = 0.686) or 3 months (control 50 ± 14 vs RC 49 ± 18 mL/min; P = 0.678) between the control and RC treatment groups. The RC technique did not cause any serious adverse effects.RC, using the protocol described here, did not improve renal function after live donor kidney transplantation.

  2. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  3. [A perspective on living conditions: child and adolescent mortality in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Cruz Neto, Otavio; Sucena, Luiz Fernando Mazzei

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Mortality Information System, this paper investigates the deaths of children and adolescents in the Manguinhos neighborhood from 1996 to 2000, to determine the main characteristics and associate key mortality aspects with local living conditions. An outlying working-class or "suburban" neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro where the main campus of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is located, Manguinhos consists of 12 "communities" characterized by poverty, social exclusion, drug traffic, and structural violence. In light of these factors and the cultural, social, and economic potential of the Manguinhos population, the authors begin with the theoretical/ practical premise that living conditions played a major role in the deaths of these young citizens. The study of these fatal events may therefore lead to the elucidation of issues and problems that must be included on the agendas and in forums involving both health promotion projects and the Municipal, State, and Federal governments so that they can be appropriately addressed in the scope of public policies.

  4. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; d'Houtaud, Alphonse; Mur, Jean-Marie; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI 1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT>or=7), and significant ORs>or=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-18

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  6. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Annie E.; Dybala, Kristen E.; Botsford, Louis W.; Eadie, John M.; Bradley, Russell W.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment–species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt’s cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt’s cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  7. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities.

  8. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  9. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  10. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life.

  11. Social Resources and Disordered Living Conditions: Evidence from a National Sample of Community-Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Erin York

    2015-01-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement – but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. While socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as co-residential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this paper, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions, as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a co-resident partner, more non-residential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well being in later life. PMID:25651314

  12. Living with a long-term condition: Understanding well-being for individuals with thrombophilia or asthma

    PubMed Central

    Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol; Galvin, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    A range of literature has explored the experience of living with a long-term condition (LTC), and frequently treats such experiences and conditions as problematic. In contrast, other research has demonstrated that it may be possible to adapt and achieve well-being, even when living with such a condition. This tends to focus on meaning and the qualitative experience of living with an LTC, and offers alternative perspectives, often of the same or similar conditions. As a result of these conflicting views, this study chose to consider two conditions which, though they may lead to life-threatening illness on occasion, do not appear to impact significantly the lives of all those affected on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of two long-term, potentially life-threatening health conditions, namely, thrombophilia and asthma. In doing so, it specifically considered the contribution made by information about the condition. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted; this enabled the generation of a theory regarding how people make sense of their LTC, whilst acknowledging the social circumstances in which this was situated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants who had given consent to take part in the research. The findings demonstrate that participants undergo a two-stage process—gaining knowledge and living with a long-term condition. The theory based on these findings indicates that those who are knowledgeable about their condition, making informed decisions in relation to it, and accept their condition are able to live with it, whilst those who do not accept their condition do not fully adapt to it or integrate it into their lives. PMID:27534945

  13. Concurrent Validity of Wearable Activity Trackers Under Free-Living Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Skyler M; An, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Noble, John M; Berg, Kris E; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Brooke, SM, An, H-S, Kang, S-K, Noble, JM, Berg, KE, and Lee, J-M. Concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers under free-living conditions. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1097-1106, 2017-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers in energy expenditure (EE) and sleep period time (SPT) under free-living conditions. Ninety-five (28.5 ± 9.8 years) healthy men (n = 34) and women (n = 61) participated in this study. The total EE and SPT were measured using 8 monitors: Nike+ FuelBand SE (NFB), Garmin VivoFit (VF), Misfit Shine (MF), Fitbit Flex (FF), Jawbone UP (JU), Polar Loop (PL), Fitbit Charge HR (FC), and SenseWear Armband Mini (SWA) (criterion measures: SWA for EE and a sleep log for SPT). The mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for EE was 13.0, 15.2, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2, 22.8, and 24.5% for PL, MF, FF, NFB, FC, JU, and VF, respectively. Mean absolute percent errors were calculated for SPT to be 4.0, 8.8, 10.2, 11.5, 12.9, 13.6, 17.5, and 21.61% for VF, FF, JU, FC, MF, SWA laying down, PL, and SWA, respectively. Concurrent validity was examined using equivalence testing on EE (equivalence zone: 2,889.7-3,531.9 kcal); 2 trackers fell short of falling in the zone: PL (2,714.4-3,164.8 kcal) and FC (2,473.8-3,066.5 kcal). For SPT (equivalence zone: 420.6-514.0 minutes), several monitors fell in the zone: PL (448.3-485.6 minutes), MS (442.8-492.2 minutes), and FF (427.7-486.7 minutes). This study suggests that the PL and FC provide a reasonable estimate of EE under free-living conditions. The PL, FC, and MF were the most valid monitors used for measuring SPT.

  14. Place, not race: disparities dissipate in southwest Baltimore when blacks and whites live under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas; Pollack, Keshia; Thorpe, Roland; Fesahazion, Ruth; Gaskin, Darrell

    2011-10-01

    Much of the current health disparities literature fails to account for the fact that the nation is largely segregated, leaving racial groups exposed to different health risks and with variable access to health services based on where they live. We sought to determine if racial health disparities typically reported in national studies remain the same when black and white Americans live in integrated settings. Focusing on a racially integrated, low-income neighborhood of Southwest Baltimore, Maryland, we found that nationally reported disparities in hypertension, diabetes, obesity among women, and use of health services either vanished or substantially narrowed. The sole exception was smoking: We found that white residents were more likely than black residents to smoke, underscoring the higher rates of ill health in whites in the Baltimore sample than seen in national data. As a result, we concluded that racial differences in social environments explain a meaningful portion of disparities typically found in national data. We further concluded that when social factors are equalized, racial disparities are minimized. Policies aimed solely at health behavior change, biological differences among racial groups, or increased access to health care are limited in their ability to close racial disparities in health. Such policies must address the differing resources of neighborhoods and must aim to improve the underlying conditions of health for all.

  15. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  16. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of a single living cell in environmentally stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gajendra P.; Creely, Caitriona; Volpe, Giovanni; Grotsch, Helga; Petrov, Dmitri

    2005-08-01

    Living cells initiate a stress response in order to survive environmentally stressful conditions. We monitored changes in the Raman spectra of an optically trapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell under normal and hyperosmotic stress conditions. When the yeast cells were challenged with a high concentration of glucose so as to exert hyperosmotic stress, it was shown that two chemical substances - glycerol and ethanol - could be monitored in real time in a single cell. The volume of the detection area of our confocal microspectrometer is approximately 1 fL. The average quantities of detected glycerol and ethanol are about 300 attomol and 700 attomol respectively. This amounts to the detection of approximately 108 glycerol molecules and 4 X 108 ethanol molecules after 36 min of hyper osmotic stress. Besides this, we also optically trapped a single yeast cell for up to three hours under normal conditions and monitored the changes in the Raman spectra during the lag phase of its growth and the G1 phase of its cell cycle. During the lag phase the cell synthesises new proteins and the observed behavior of the peaks corresponding to these proteins as well as those of RNA served as a sensitive indicator of the adaptation of the cell to its changed environment. The changes observed in the Raman spectra of a trapped yeast cell in the late G1 phase or the beginning of S phase corresponded to the growth of a bud.

  18. Measures to combat H7N9 virus infection in China: live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Xu, Lingzhong; Huang, Yong; Yao, Linong; Tang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    From March 31 to May 31, 2013, 132 cases of humans were infected with the H7N9 avian influenza virus, 39 of which resulted in death in China, which sparked global concerns about public health. Fortunately, no new case was reported in China since May 8, which seems like to make it step into a stable stage, and the emergency response to the event launched by Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, and Hu'nan of China have been terminated currently. However, on July 20 and August 10, two new cases were reported from two provinces--Hebei and Guangdong--where no case was reported during the period of spring of 2013. The emerged two new cases rung an alarm bell, thus, the continued public health response cannot let down its guard. Based on our before studies, we found that live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to H7N9 virus contaminated environments in China. Due to the difficulty in changing live poultry purchasing habits and in thoroughly removing or closing live poultry markets in China, we suggest that enhanced regulation of poultry markets would be a more feasible and effective strategy to fight against H7N9 virus infection in China. Moreover, in view of the fact that frequent and inevitable contact between rural residents and poultry where rural residents lived also exists due to poultry handling and living conditions, the enhanced regulations on environmental health are also needed for free-range poultry, especially in rural areas.

  19. Living under stressful conditions: Fish life history strategies across environmental gradients in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Nils; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2017-03-01

    The life history strategies of fishes can be defined by specific combinations of demographic traits that influence species performances depending on environmental features. Hence, the constraints imposed by the local conditions restrict the range of successful strategies by excluding species poorly adapted. In the present study, we compared the demographic strategies of fish caught in 47 estuaries of the North East Atlantic coast, aiming to determine the specific attributes of resident species and test for changes in trait associations along the environmental gradients. Eight demographic traits were considered to project our findings within a conceptual triangular model, composed on three endpoint strategies: (i) periodic (large size, long generation time, high fecundity); (ii) opportunistic (small size, short generation time, high reproductive effort); and (iii) equilibrium (low fecundity, large egg size, parental care). We demonstrated that various life history strategies co-exist in estuaries, but equilibrium species were scarce and restricted to euhaline open-water. Resident species form a specialised assemblage adapted to high spatiotemporal variability of estuarine conditions, i.e. opportunistic attributes associated with parental care. Even with these singular attributes, our findings revealed changes in distribution of resident species across the estuarine gradients linked to their life history traits. Among other patterns, the diversity of life history strategies significantly decreased from euhaline to oligohaline areas and along gradient of human disturbances. These trends were associated with a convergence of species traits toward short generation times, suggesting that long-lived species with late maturation are more severely impacted by disturbance and environmental stress.

  20. Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Dale A.; Tillo, Shane E.; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B.; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V.; Guo, Caiying

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. PMID:25505322

  1. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  2. Charting the Territory: Children and families living with progressive life-threatening conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siden, Harold; Steele, Rose

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the topic of paediatric palliative care among practicing physicians in Canada by exploring the impact of a child’s neurological or rare genetic life-threatening condition on the affected child and his/her parents. METHODS: Cross-sectional, baseline results from an observational, longitudinal study, Charting the Territory, which followed 275 children and 390 parents from 258 families. Parents completed multiple surveys, for themselves and their child. RESULTS: These children had a high symptom burden. The three most common symptoms were pain, sleep problems and feeding difficulties; on average, they had 3.2 symptoms of concern. Despite analgesic use, the frequency of pain episodes and distress were invariant over time, suggesting that treatments were not successful. Parents experienced anxiety, depression and burden; at the same time they also reported positive life change and a high degree of spirituality. The child’s condition resulted in parental changes in living arrangements, work status and hours devoted to caregiving. Nearly two-thirds of families were involved with a palliative care team; the size of the community in which a family resided did not make a significant difference in such involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These families experience many challenges, for the patient, other individual members and the family as a whole. At least some of these challenges may be alleviated by early and organized palliative care. Effective interventions are needed to enhance symptom management for the ill child and to alleviate the various negative impacts on the family. PMID:25914572

  3. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles.

  4. Development of a direct isolation procedure for free-living diazotrophs under controlled hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2012-08-01

    Free-living diazotrophs are diverse and ubiquitous in soil, contributing the nitrogen pool in natural ecosystems. The isolation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms has relied on semisolid nitrogen-free medium enrichment, followed by multiple subculturing steps. These procedures limit the diversity of recovered isolates. In the current study, we investigated three different isolation strategies for free-living diazotrophs using a soil sample from the Amazon forest. The methods were (i) direct plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, (ii) enrichment in semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under 2% O(2), and (iii) enrichment followed by subculturing in the semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on nitrogen containing medium under a 21% O(2) concentration. A total of 794 isolates were differentiated by their genomic fingerprinting patterns, and strains with unique profiles were identified on the basis of sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. Isolates belonged to four bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The novel strategy of combining a solid N-free medium and hypoxic conditions showed an increase of 62.6% in the diversity of diazotrophs in comparison to that obtained by the conventional semisolid medium-based methods. All isolates grew on the nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, 78% of them showed the presence of the nifH gene, and 39% tested positive for acetylene reduction activity. Our results suggest that direct plating of soil dilutions on nitrogen-free solid medium under a 2% O(2) concentration is a useful strategy for the isolation of the diverse diazotrophic communities.

  5. [Health conditions among fishermen living in the Minamata disease prevalent area].

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, A

    1994-05-01

    More than thirty years have elapsed since the major outbreak of Minamata disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the current health conditions among fishermen living along the coastal area of Yatsushiro Sea which received high exposure to methylmercury contamination. From 1988 to 1990 an interview survey was conducted on a random sample of 215 fishermen in two adjoining areas classified as contaminated: Minamata City of Kumamoto Prefecture and Izumi City of Kagoshima Prefecture. Completed responses were collected from 181 (129 males and 52 females). Health conditions were measured by four indicators: activities of daily living, presence of chronic diseases, subjective symptoms, and depressive symptoms. The associations between each health indicator and estimated intake levels of fish and/or shellfish during the heavy contamination period were examined. Residents in areas designated as contaminated can be categorized into three groups: 1) persons who are officially recognized as patients with Minamata disease, 2) persons applying for recognition as having Minamata disease but who have not been officially recognized, and 3) persons who have not applied for official recognition. In the analysis this recognition-related status was used as one of the controlling factors. Findings may be summarized as follows: 1. In both areas, a significant relationship was observed between subjective symptoms and estimated fish intake levels after controlling for sex and age. Judging from subjective symptoms, it appeared that the health level of recognized patients was lowest among the three recognition-related groups; and the health level of non-recognized persons was lower than that of the non-applicants. 2. Among Minamata City fishermen, the significant effect of fish intake levels on subjective symptoms disappeared after controlling for sex, age and recognition-related status. On the other hand, among Izumi City fishermen, a significant relationship between subjective

  6. [Spatial analysis of dengue occurrence and living conditions in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana Pires; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo

    2009-05-01

    The reemergence, spread, and persistence of dengue are currently challenging the Brazilian health system. Factors related to living conditions have been addressed to understand different health outcomes. This study examines the occurrence of dengue and its relationship to living conditions in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, from 1996 to 2004. Data on dengue occurrence were obtained from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (SINAN). A composite indicator of socioeconomic and urban infrastructure variables was created to characterize the prevailing living conditions, using 2000 census data. Operations between layers were used to identify spatial associations between the composite indicator and dengue incidence by neighborhood. The results do not show a linear relationship between poor living conditions and disease occurrence, but the spatial patterns indicated greater susceptibility of areas with inequalities in living conditions and behind highway access routes. The results also suggest that such inequalities can influence the dengue time trend. Thus, models that consider the interaction between socioeconomic variables (and not only the quantification of social indicators) can be useful for dengue surveillance.

  7. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  8. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jeannel, D; Hubert, A; de Vathaire, F; Ellouz, R; Camoun, M; Ben Salem, M; Sancho-Garnier, H; de-Thé, G

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tunisia, on diet, dietary patterns and life style, the characteristics of which had been defined by an anthropological study. Eighty incident cases, diagnosed in Tunisia between November 1986 and November 1987, were each matched for sex, age and place of residence to 2 controls. The subjects were asked for dietary data referring to the year preceding the diagnosis of NPC and, with help of their families, during childhood and after weaning. After adjustment for an empirical living conditions score, the following food items were found to be associated with an increased risk for NPC: preserved spiced meat (quaddid), basic stewing preparation (mixture of red and black pepper, garlic, oil, caraway and coriander), and harissa (red pepper, olive oil, garlic, caraway, salt) taken with bread as a snack during childhood and youth. Moreover, subjects who had been directly weaned from mother's milk on to an adult diet were found to be at higher risk for NPC.

  9. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations. PMID:26594267

  10. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; López-López, J Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

  11. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-04-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations.

  12. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan CY; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15312.001 PMID:27205882

  13. Diets and living conditions of Asian boys in Coventry with and without signs of rickets.

    PubMed

    O'Hara-May, J; Widdowson, E M

    1976-07-01

    1. The diets and living conditions of nin Asian boys with biochemical, and in most instances also radiological, signs of rickets were compared with those of nine other boys who appeared to be normal. The groups were matched according to age, religion, place of father's origin and boy's own place of birth. 2. There were no outstanding differences between the diets of the boys with, and of those without signs of rickets. All had adequate to high calcium intakes. Most of the boys had low intakes of vitamin D, and those withsigns of rickets generally had lower intakes than the normal boys. The food tables used for making the calculations of vitamin D intakes report the amount of the vitamin in the lipid fraction of milk. If it proves to be true that most of the vitamin D activity of milk is in the aqueous fraction, the boys would have been getting considerably more vitamin D than the results suggested, and their average intake may have been about 3-5mug/d. 3. It was not possible to make any quantitative measure of the exposure of the boys to sunlight. All Asian boys studied appeared to have their bodies more completely covered than British or West Indian boys. 4. The problem of why nine boys had signs of rickets and nine had none has not been solved. It is suggested that those with signs of rickets may have had higher requirements for vitamin D than others. When the intake of vitamin D is low and exposure to sunlight is minimal, those with high requirements will be the ones to develop signs of rickets.

  14. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must receive a psychosocial evaluation, if possible. (2) Before a transplant center places a transplant... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  15. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must receive a psychosocial evaluation, if possible. (2) Before a transplant center places a transplant... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  16. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must receive a psychosocial evaluation, if possible. (2) Before a transplant center places a transplant... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  17. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must receive a psychosocial evaluation, if possible. (2) Before a transplant center places a transplant... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  18. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed.

  19. Striving to live a normal life: a review of children and young people's experience of feeling different when living with a long term condition.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of findings from qualitative studies on children's experience of feeling different when living with the long term conditions; diabetes, epilepsy and asthma. Following electronic database and hand searches of reference lists of identified papers, eighteen studies were selected for inclusion in the review. These studies revealed three common themes; participation in everyday life-restrictions and adjustments; treatment regimens-constraining and enabling; and communication-disclosure, stigma and support. Across these themes it was evident that children felt different physically and socially and they grappled constantly with balancing the dilemma of feeling and acting normal or feeling, being and revealing difference.

  20. Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

    PubMed Central

    du Prel, Xianming; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Oppermann, Hanna; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education and health indicators were examined. Methods All boys and girls entering elementary school and living in predefined areas of East and West Germany were invited to participate in a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2000. Data of 28,888 German children with information on parental education were included in the analysis. Information about educational level of the parents, individual living conditions, symptoms and diagnoses of infectious diseases and allergies were taken from questionnaire. At the day of investigation, atopic eczema was diagnosed by dermatologists, blood was taken for the determination of allergen-specific immuno-globulin E, height and weight was measured and lung function tests were done in subgroups. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between the health indicators and parental educational level as well as the child's living conditions. Gender, urban/rural residency and year of survey were used to control for confounding. Results Average response was 83% in East Germany and 71% in West Germany. Strong associations between health indicators and parental education were observed. Higher educated parents reported more diagnoses and symptoms than less educated. Children of higher educated parents were also more often sensitized against grass pollen or house dust mites, but had higher birth weights, lower airway resistance and were less overweight at the age of six. Furthermore, most of the health indicators were significantly associated with one or more living conditions such

  1. Novel microchip for in situ TEM imaging of living organisms and bio-reactions in aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Chien-Chen; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Chang, Pin; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2008-11-01

    A novel and disposable microchip (K-kit) with SiO(2) nano-membranes was developed and used as a specimen kit for in situ imaging of living organisms in an aqueous condition using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) without equipment modification. This K-kit enabled the successful TEM observation of living Escherichia coli cells and the tellurite reduction process in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The K. pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can stay alive in K-kit after continuous TEM imaging for up to 14 s and 42 s, respectively. Besides, different tellurite reduction profiles in cells grown in aerobic and anaerobic environments can be clearly revealed. These results demonstrate that the K-kit developed in this paper can be useful for observing living organisms and monitoring biological processes in situ.

  2. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  3. Age and living conditions as related to perceptions of ambiguous figures.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Beer, J; Markley, R P; Camp, C J

    1989-06-01

    For ambiguous figures, reversing and embedded/hidden subfigures, data were obtained from four groups of 20 subjects each varying in age (young or elderly) and living environments (in college, in the community, and in nursing homes or confined to an institution). 10 men and 10 women were tested in each of the four groups. Dependent measures were the number of reversals passively reported for the Necker cube, the Mach book, the Schroeder staircase within 90 sec. on each task, and the number of embedded/hidden figures located. Younger subjects generally saw more reversals and found more embedded figures than elderly ones. The subjects' living situation, education, and verbal ability also were correlated with perceptual performance. These results suggest generalization of age associations with scores in 90 sec. must be tempered by consideration of other factors which affect intactness, basic competence, and how competence is measured.

  4. Condition for the appearance of a live magnetic layer on paramagnetic pure transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrani, A.; Demangeat, C.; Dreyssé, H.

    1990-12-01

    Self-consistent real-space calculations in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian are performed for slabs of metallic systems with unfilled d shells in order to investigate a possible appearance of a live magnetic surface plane on paramagnetic bulk. These results can also be obtained qualitatively within a flat-band model, which gives a simple relation between the appearance of magnetism and the coordination number. Within this model, vanadium is shown to have a ferromagnetic surface plane, as observed experimentally.

  5. An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna

    Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

  6. Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Thomas, Jai; Webb, Jonathan K; Pearson, David J; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of 2 sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ("goannas," Varanus panoptes). One set of trials (described in this paper) exposed recently-captured lizards to sausages made from cane toad flesh, laced with a nausea-inducing chemical (lithium chloride) to reinforce the aversion response. The other trials (in a recently-published paper, reviewed herein) exposed free-ranging lizards to live juvenile cane toads. The effectiveness of the training was judged by how long a lizard survived in the wild before it was killed (fatally poisoned) by a cane toad. Both stimuli elicited rapid aversion to live toads, but the CTA response did not enhance survival rates of the sausage-trained goannas after they were released into the wild. In contrast, the goannas exposed to live juvenile toads exhibited higher long-term survival rates than did untrained conspecifics. Our results suggest that although it is relatively easy to elicit short-term aversion to toad cues in goannas, a biologically realistic stimulus (live toads, encountered by free-ranging predators) is most effective at buffering these reptiles from the impact of invasive toxic prey.

  7. Application of the Perovskite Ceramics to Conditioning of the Long-Lived Fraction of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavskaya, N. E.; Chizhevskaya, S. V.; Ochkin, A. V.

    2002-02-25

    High level waste (HLW) partitioning concept includes separation of a long-lived fraction following by its immobilization in ceramics. Improved process flow sheet suggested for implementation at PA ''Mayak'' implies production of a long-lived HLW fraction with rare earth elements (REE) as major components, Am and Cm as minor constituents, and only traces of U, Pu, and corrosion products (iron group elements). Because most of the elements occurred are trivalent, one of the most promising host phase is supposed to be REE aluminate or ferrate with perovskite structure. Major advantages of the perovskite are incorporation of trivalent REEs and actinides, simultaneous incorporation of residual corrosion products, flexibility of perovskite structure allowing accommodation of traces of tetravalent actinides (U, Pu), high chemical durability, and high HLW volume reduction. High melting points of the perovskites makes problematic melting route, therefore, cold pressing and sintering method is more preferable. In order to reduce sintering temperature pre-treatment of ceramic batches with high mechanical energy has been studied.

  8. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  9. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  10. Study the live weight and live weight gain of black bengal and jamunapari goat breeds by fitting the linear regression under semi-intensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K I; Naznin, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the live weight gain of goats under semi-intensive conditions of Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the period of July, 2012 to January, 2013. Data were collected from 72 black Bengal and 32 Jamunapari goats and the kids birth weight and their subsequent live weight at weekly intervals up to age and weight of weaning at sexual maturity was recorded. The weight gains from birth to sexual maturity of two different breeds under 2 different farms were studied. Average birth weight of male and female black Bengal goats kids were 1.22 +/- 0.15, 1.01 +/- 0.14, 1.42 +/- 0.10 and 1.12 +/- 0.27 kg, respectively for farm 1 and 2. For Jamunapari goat's kid birth weight were 1.51 +/- 0.07 and 1.42 +/- 0.09 kg, for male and females, respectively in the farm 2. The average weaning age was 4 months and the average weaning weight of male and female black Bengal goats were 5.19 +/- 0.358, 5.05 +/- 0.28, 5.63 +/- 0.61 and 5.54 +/- 0.41 kg, in the farm 1 and 2, respectively. However, the average weaning weight of male and female Jamunapari was 6.59 +/- 0.69 and 6.79 +/- 0.31 kg, respectively in farm 2 which was higher than black Bengal. The average age at sexual maturity of black Bengal goat was 8 months. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female black Bengal goats were 9.82 +/- 0.75 and 9.52 +/- 0.62 kg, respectively in farm 1 and 9.65 +/- 0.75 and 9.138 +/- 0.70 kg, respectively in farm 2. The average age at sexual maturity was 9 months for Jamunapari goat. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female Jamunapari goats was 13.2 +/- 0.75 and 14.1 +/- 0.82 kg, respectively. The average daily body weight gain from birth to weaning for male and female black Bengal goat was 33.70, 35.11 g day(-1) and was 35.67 and 45.94 g day(-1), respectively in farm 1 and 2 and for Jamunapari goat was 42.97 and 45.47 g day(-1), respectively. The males were grew faster than the females. The predicted live weight gains for both

  11. [Living conditions and life experiences of working-class groups in Rio de Janeiro: rethinking dengue control and popular mobilization].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R M; Valla, V V

    2001-01-01

    Using narratives of an experience with popular mobilization during the 1986-91 dengue epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the authors discuss the scientific research and technical counseling involving basic sanitation conditions for vulnerable social groups. They present research results on water distribution in the slums from the Leopoldina area of the city. The research stemmed from demands by community leaders at local forums discussing health conditions. Gathering, systematizing, and analyzing the data were based on what they call "shared knowledge construction", resulting by crossing accumulated scientific knowledge with popular knowledge produced as a result of living conditions and life experiences among working-class groups. Finally, the authors comment on the need for local health professionals to be aware of relationships between epidemic and endemic processes and protection of life.

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  14. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  15. Validation of a Talking Pedometer for Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Free-Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Porretta, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Because school-aged individuals with visual impairments are less physically active than peers without visual impairments, they are at greater risk for developing health-related conditions. One instrument that provides an objective, cost-effective measure of physical activity by counting the total number of steps taken is the pedometer (Albright…

  16. Nutritional condition and serum biochemistry for free-living Swainson's Hawks wintering in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sarasola, José Hernán; Negro, Juan José; Travaini, Alejandro

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the nutritional condition and established reference values for serum chemistry parameters in a long distance migrant bird of prey, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), wintering in central Argentina. We analyzed serum concentration of urea, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides and assessed age and sex related differences in these parameters. A body condition index was obtained from the resultant residuals of the regression of body mass and a morphometric measure. No statistical differences were observed among sex and age groups for urea, uric acid and triglyceride serum concentration. However, cholesterol concentration differed among male and female hawks, which could be related to the gain of body mass in wintering grounds at differential rates. The mean values of the four parameters were in the range of those recorded in the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), indicating good nutritional condition of the population we studied. Forearm length was the morphometric variable that better correlated with body mass. The resultant body condition index was only correlated with triglyceride concentration, suggesting that this index could be valuable in future work dealing with the assessment of body fat storage in wintering and breeding hawks, as well as in stopover points on the migratory route.

  17. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  18. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  19. Citalopram amplifies the influence of living conditions on mood in depressed patients enrolled in the STAR*D study.

    PubMed

    Chiarotti, F; Viglione, A; Giuliani, A; Branchi, I

    2017-03-21

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs, have a variable and incomplete efficacy. In order to better understand SSRI action, we explored the hypothesis that SSRIs do not affect mood per se but amplify the influence of the living conditions on mood. To this aim, we exploited the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) data set, selected a subpopulation of 591 patients with an overlapping clinical history and analyzed treatment outcome according to dosage -20 or 40 mg per day of citalopram. We found that sociodemographic characteristics affected treatment response in the same direction in the two dose groups, but these effects reached statistical significance only in the 40 mg per day dose group. In the latter, higher improvement rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0219), longer education (P=0.0053), high income (P=0.01) or a private insurance (P=0.0031), and the higher remission rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0326) or longer education (P=0.0484). Moreover, the magnitude of the effect of the sociodemographic characteristics on mood, measured as the percent of patients showing a positive outcome when exposed to favorable living conditions, was much greater-up to 37-fold-in the 40 compared to the 20 mg per day dose group. Overall, our results indicate that citalopram amplifies the influence of the living conditions on mood in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provide a potential explanation for the variable efficacy of SSRIs and might lead to the development of personalized strategies aimed at enhancing their efficacy.

  20. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  1. Developing biographies: the experiences of children, young people and their parents of living with a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; Kirk, Sue; Callery, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This article reports on data from a qualitative interview study that sought to understand the experiences, choices and actions of children and young people undergoing surgery for a long-term condition and that of their parents. Using the concept of biography the article examines how the biographies of children, young people and their parents can be influenced by surgery and the ongoing management of a long-term continence condition. This article challenges previous work that characterises the presence of a condition from birth as a continuous and normal part of the illness experiences of these patients. Although this may be the case in some instances, children, young people and their parents can experience diverse and changing experiences associated with ongoing condition management as well as surgery. Biographical continuity, enrichment and disruption are all relevant concepts for such patients living with a long-term continence condition. These can be influenced by their previous experiences of their condition, their expectations, and dynamics with parents, including changes associated with development and the increasing independence of young people.

  2. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  3. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  4. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  5. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  6. Local Actors' Frames of the Role of Living Conditions in Shaping Hypertension Risk and Disparities in a Colombian Municipality.

    PubMed

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the social and physical environment influence population health and risk for CVD, including hypertension. These environmental conditions are influenced by the decisions of public officials, community leaders, and service providers. Examining the frames that local decision makers bring to understanding hypertension can provide important insights into the decisions that they make about strategies for addressing this problem in their jurisdiction. The goal of this study was to examine the frames that local decision makers in Quibdó, Colombia, bring to understanding hypertension risk, and in particular, whether and how they use frames that encompass associations between living conditions and hypertension risk. Data for this qualitative study were collected using a stratified sampling strategy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 local decision makers and analyzed using a framework approach. Participants linked the structural conditions experienced in Quibdó, including displacement, limited economic opportunities, and the infrastructure of the city, to hypertension risk through multiple pathways, including behavioral risk factors for hypertension and physiologic responses to stress. They described the social patterning of these factors across socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender hierarchies. Although several conditions associated with hypertension risk are widely distributed in the city's population, social processes of marginalization and stratification create additional disadvantages for those on the lower rungs of the social hierarchy.

  7. [Living conditions of the rural population in France. Situation in 1974 and evolution from 1967 to 1974 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Paillat, P

    1977-04-01

    A survey of the living conditions of aged people in rural regions of France in 1974 and a comparison with the previous surveys of 1967/68 in 302 rural vallages are analysed. Of the 4,800 persons in 1967/68, by 1974 1,609 were dead (35%). After questioning the 2,191 living persons (1,275 farmers and 916 non farmers) an increased number of widowed people appeared in those 7 years. For men in 1967/68: 20%, now 28%; for women in 1967/68: 61%, now 72%. In the age group 75-79 three times more women lost their husbands than men lost their wives. 2/3 of the households remained identical, 1/5 became smaller, 1/8 increased. The comparison (excluding the dead persons) showed no significant differences in the health conditions. Detailed questions were asked regarding social relationships but it is very difficult to analyse the date due to the great number of dead persons. The difference between farmers (whose number decreases) and non farmers (whose number increases) is especially mentioned and specific problems are treated separately. In France ageing in rural areas is increasing rapidly: in 1968, 393 rural counties contained 20% of people aged 65 or more.

  8. Department of Defense Survey of Living Conditions Overseas. 1984. Volume 2. Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    8 8.7 14 Vehicles (shipping, insurance, inspection) 14.7 9 23.0 5 Recreation and entertainment 14.1 10 8.9 13 Family adjustment to the new situation...housing, working conditions, and transportation and least concerned with recreation and entertainment , shopping, medical/dental care, and vehicles...Economy 35.3 52.3 14.7 16.1 20.7 26.0 Half and half 28.2 24.5 24.7 27.6 25.7 26.8 Government 36.6 23.1 60.6 56.3 53.6 47.2 , Q95. Entertainment (theatres

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a

  11. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  12. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  13. Physical Activity Assessment Between Consumer- and Research-Grade Accelerometers: A Comparative Study in Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Winfree, Kyle N; Pohlig, Ryan T; Papas, Mia A

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity monitors such as Fitbit enable users to track various attributes of their physical activity (PA) over time and have the potential to be used in research to promote and measure PA behavior. However, the measurement accuracy of Fitbit in absolute free-living conditions is largely unknown. Objective To examine the measurement congruence between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph GT3X for quantifying steps, metabolic equivalent tasks (METs), and proportion of time in sedentary activity and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA in healthy adults in free-living conditions. Methods A convenience sample of 19 participants (4 men and 15 women), aged 18-37 years, concurrently wore the Fitbit Flex (wrist) and ActiGraph GT3X (waist) for 1- or 2-week observation periods (n=3 and n=16, respectively) that included self-reported bouts of daily exercise. Data were examined for daily activity, averaged over 14 days and for minutes of reported exercise. Average day-level data included steps, METs, and proportion of time in different intensity levels. Minute-level data included steps, METs, and mean intensity score (0 = sedentary, 3 = vigorous) for overall reported exercise bouts (N=120) and by exercise type (walking, n=16; run or sports, n=44; cardio machine, n=20). Results Measures of steps were similar between devices for average day- and minute-level observations (all P values > .05). Fitbit significantly overestimated METs for average daily activity, for overall minutes of reported exercise bouts, and for walking and run or sports exercises (mean difference 0.70, 1.80, 3.16, and 2.00 METs, respectively; all P values < .001). For average daily activity, Fitbit significantly underestimated the proportion of time in sedentary and light intensity by 20% and 34%, respectively, and overestimated time by 3% in both moderate and vigorous intensity (all P values < .001). Mean intensity scores were not different for overall minutes of exercise or for run or

  14. [Effect of working conditions and various social and living factors of the incidence of nervous system diseases with temporary disability among farmers].

    PubMed

    Kuptsov, V V

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out that working and living conditions have essential impact on the incidence of nervous diseases causing temporary disability among farmers. The above conclusion has great practical significance since the necessity of carrying out a set of measures aimed at the sanitation of working and living conditions of farmers has been scientifically approved in order to reduce work losses due to nervous diseases.

  15. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  16. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region.

  17. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

    PubMed

    Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

    1997-12-01

    Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

  18. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  1. Greek immigrant children in southern Sweden in comparison with Greek and Swedish children. I. General living conditions.

    PubMed

    Neiderud, J

    1989-01-01

    Greek immigrant children belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children and Greek children in Greece regarding general living conditions. Interviews were performed in the homes of all participants. The parents in the two Greek groups had the lowest educational level. The yearly salary of immigrant families was similar to that of the Swedish families. Immigrant and Swedish parents worked outside their homes to the same extent, Greek immigrant mothers fulltime, Swedish mothers mostly part time. For economical reasons the immigrant parents looked after their children within the family while the Swedish families almost always utilized community day care facilities. The immigrant families had fewer children than the Swedish and Greek rural families and their dwellings were smaller. Corporal punishment was a common method of upbringing in Greece and among the immigrants. The immigrant families had extremely few contacts with Swedish families. A majority of the immigrant families were unsure about their future in Sweden, whether or not to stay. In conclusion, the Greek immigrant group in many respects had adapted to Swedish customs but they had also at the same time retained much of the Greek cultural characteristics.

  2. [Living conditions of women 50plus in Europe - results of a secondary analysis in twelve Western European countries].

    PubMed

    Stiehr, K; Spindler, M

    2006-02-01

    Within the framework of the research project MERI, we analyzed in twelve Western European countries which kind of studies and official statistics are available on the situation of women 50plus and how their situation is described by these data. On the one hand, thematic and country-specific knowledge and knowledge gaps were identified. Generally speaking the topics health and social integration are the focus of the examined studies. Detailed data were also found on issues relating to work and the material situation. Knowledge gaps are to be found with regard to the topics interest representation, education and violence/abuse. There are clear country-specific differences in the data. Partly there is a North-South divide with regard to the availability and the quality of data. On the other hand, characteristics of the living conditions of women 50plus were identified. Women 50plus are a very heterogeneous group which strongly differs among others with regard to social background, disability, illness, region and migration. At the same time there are, however, clear common problems in the examined areas health, social integration, education, work, material situation, interest representation and violence/abuse. From the research result recommendations are derived for future studies and the improvement of official statistics.

  3. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity.

  4. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India. PMID:27578928

  5. The effect of body condition, live weight, breed, age, calf performance, and calving date on reproductive performance of spring-calving beef cows.

    PubMed

    Osoro, K; Wright, I A

    1992-06-01

    Data from 321 spring-calving cows (mean calving date March 27) were used to assess the effects of body condition, live weight, cow age (from 4 to 13 yr), and breed (237 Hereford x Friesians and 84 Blue-Greys) and time of calving on the proportion of cows that became pregnant, the number of days from the start of mating to pregnancy, and calving interval. Mating started at turn-out to pasture in mid-May and lasted 9 to 10 wk. Body condition at calving and breed were the most significant animal factors affecting reproductive performance. Cows calving in higher body condition had shorter (P less than .001) calving intervals (11.2 d per unit of body condition at calving). Blue-Grey cows became pregnant in a higher proportion (90%) and calving interval was shorter (364 d) than in Hereford x Friesians (83%; 374 d). Body condition at the start of mating was less important and body condition at the end of mating had no effect. Live weight at calving and changes in live weight from calving to the start of mating and during the mating period had no significant effect. The proportion of cows becoming pregnant decreased significantly with age in Hereford x Friesian cows older than 7 yr. The variance in calving interval accounted for by calving date, body condition at calving, breed, and age was 42%.

  6. No Longer Children: Case Studies of the Living and Working Conditions of the Youth Who Harvest America's Crops. Executive Summary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre International, San Mateo, CA.

    This report examines the living and working conditions of adolescent migrant farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 216 youth working during peak harvest time in six states, as well as with adult farmworkers, family members of working youth, and farm labor contractors. Most of the youth were 14-17 years old, although a few had begun work as…

  7. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  8. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  9. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-02-01

    Only 60-70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to 'live-birth bias') that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies.

  10. The association of living conditions and lifestyle factors with burden of cysts among neurocysticercosis patients in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Yung, Janette; Fong, Man Wah; Carpio, Arturo; Bagiella, Emilia; Leslie, Denise; Leon, Pietro; Andrews, Howard; Allen Hauser, W

    2012-12-01

    We used baseline data on 154 symptomatic neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients in Ecuador to identify predictors of the burden of cysts. We ran logistic regression models with the burden of cysts as the outcome, defined as the number of cysts in the brain (1 vs >1), and having cysts in all 3 phases of evolution (active, transitional and calcifications) vs <3. These two outcomes are thought to be indicators of exposure dose and/or repeated exposure over time. The predictors examined were: living in a rural area, living on a dirt road, living in an adobe or wood house (vs brick/cement), no running water in the house, no bathroom in the house, having a domestic employee cook in the home, eating most meals at restaurants or street vendors, working in a manual labour job. We found that the odds of having multiple NCC cysts was higher among those working in manual labour (OR=3.5, p=0.004), and those who ate most meals outside the home had higher odds of having cysts in all 3 phases (OR=5.0, p=0.007). Burden of cysts may be a useful outcome when looking to identify exposure risk factors in the absence of an uninfected control group.

  11. Learning about the experience of living with chronic conditions: A framework analysis of nursing students' reflections on their conversations with older adults.

    PubMed

    Olson, Amanda; Reiland, Stephanie; Davies, Susan; Koehler, Amy Reitmaier

    2016-10-17

    Preparing nursing students to work effectively with older adults is an important element of undergraduate nursing education. Reflective journals written as course assignments represent a source of data about students' learning. The aim of this study was to analyze nursing students' reflective journals based on conversations with older adults who are community dwelling, to identify learning in relation to experiences of living with a chronic condition. This was one element of a wider study to evaluate learning partnerships between older adults who are community dwelling and nursing students as an alternative to traditional clinical placements in long-term care settings. Nursing students worked with faculty to complete a qualitative secondary analysis of 47 journals utilizing framework analysis. Students learned about three main aspects of living with chronic conditions: beliefs about chronic conditions, managing chronic conditions, and experiencing chronic conditions, with some evidence that these themes may be interconnected. Findings suggest that learning partnerships with older adults combined with reflective journaling enable nursing students to understand the experience of chronic conditions in later life as reflected within current literature and to identify interventions for gerontological nursing practice. Enabling nursing students to recognize the highly skilled nature of working with older adults with chronic illness has the potential to influence their future career choices.

  12. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  13. Gene Expression and Physiological Changes of Different Populations of the Long-Lived Bivalve Arctica islandica under Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E.; Ernst, Insa M. A.; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  14. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    1. The supremum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. With the introduction into service in 1974, of the largest at that time, six-meter telescope BTA at Zelenchukskaya Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) - Department of Extragalactic Research and relativistic astrophysics was established. Its main task was to study the so-called super-distant boundary fields and extreme states of substances of stars, galactic nuclei in the early epoch of the Universe. Now, after 40 years, these tasks are as popular and relevant: quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, black holes, active galactic nuclei, etc. Already established telescopes with diameters of multicomponent mirrors of 8-10 meters or more. Astronomical observatories had gone high into the mountains, to the special mountain on the islands in the oceans, in the alpine desert and into space. Extreme problems on the supremum still attracts the strongest efforts of astrophysicists in the world. But what about the other side of extreme tasks: with the tasks of astrophysics for "infimum"? Let us consider the astrophysical problems of "infimum" in more detail. 2. Infinum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. We believe that among the tasks of modern astrophysics can be super-close latent invasion (SCLI). If SCLI develop the concepts of cosmology, our views on the entire universe, on special times and special state of substance, then the infimum problem solving and must save the people and all living creatures on the planet against various types of aerospace dangerous intruders. SСLІ tasks are vital for all of us. These problems must be solved by leaders of countries and of concrete cities. The essence of these tasks determined the real threats and real fears against quite possibly over-close encounters with deadly consequences for all mankind intrusion of comets nucleus and asteroids, as well as the hidden, latent threat against far more numerous invasions of fragments of these bodies. And it is a

  15. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  16. A population-based study on health and living conditions in areas with mixed Sami and Norwegian settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Magritt; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Hansen, Solrunn; Melhus, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the method, data collection procedure and participation in The Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Areas with both Sami and Norwegian Settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Study design Cross-sectional and semi-longitudinal. Methods In 2012, all inhabitants aged 18–69 and living in selected municipalities with both Sami and Norwegian settlements in Mid and Northern Norway were posted an invitation to participate in a questionnaire survey covering several topics related to health and living conditions. The geographical area was similar to the area where the SAMINOR 1 study was conducted in 2003/2004 with the exception of one additional municipality. Participants could alternatively use a web-based questionnaire with identical question and answer categories as the posted paper version. Results In total, 11,600 (27%) participated (16% used the web-based questionnaire), with a higher participation rate among those over 50 (37% for women and 32% for men). Some geographical variation in participation rates was found. In addition, for those invited who also participated in the SAMINOR 1 study, we found that the participation rates increased with the level of education and income, while there was little difference in participation rates across ethnic groups. Conclusion The knowledge generated from future theme-specific research utilizing the SAMINOR 2 database has the potential to benefit the general population in this geographical area of Norway, and the Sami people in particular, by providing knowledge-based insight into the health and living conditions of the multi-ethnic population in these parts of Norway. PMID:24971230

  17. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Odd; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP), comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing >3 weeks. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P < 0.05). The results are shown as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6). Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2); Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3); Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4); Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2); and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8). Conclusions As most of the living conditions have previously been insufficiently studied, our findings might contribute a wider knowledge of risk factors for long-term sick-listing for NSP. As the cross-sectional design makes causal conclusions impossible, our study

  18. Female sex workers use power over their day-to-day lives to meet the condition of a conditional cash transfer intervention to incentivize safe sex.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jan E; Dow, William H; de Walque, Damien; Keller, Ann C; McCoy, Sandra I; Fernald, Lia C H; Balampama, Marianna P; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Packel, Laura J; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Ozer, Emily J

    2017-03-14

    Female Sex Workers are a core population in the HIV epidemic, and interventions such as conditional cash transfers (CCTs), effective in other health domains, are a promising new approach to reduce the spread of HIV. Here we investigate how a population of Tanzanian female sex workers, though constrained in many ways, experience and use their power in the context of a CCT intervention that incentivizes safe sex. We analyzed 20 qualitative in-depth interviews with female sex workers enrolled in a randomized-controlled CCT program, the RESPECT II pilot, and found that while such women have limited choices, they do have substantial power over their work logistics that they leveraged to meet the conditions of the CCT and receive the cash award. It was through these decisions over work logistics, such as reducing the number of workdays and clients, that the CCT intervention had its greatest impact on modifying female sex workers' behavior.

  19. "You Know the Medicine, I Know My Kid": How Parents Advocate for Their Children Living With Complex Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Katherine A; Sullivan, Shelbie L

    2016-09-02

    Caring for a child with a chronic condition has received considerable attention in the pediatric health literature. Today, approximately 1 out of 5 North American children are diagnosed with a chronic condition that requires parents to become caregivers and advocates. Although advocacy is regarded as a significant aspect to parental caregiving, more research is needed to better define this oversimplified and misrepresented concept in clinical practice and research. Subsequently, we interviewed 35 parents of children diagnosed with complex chronic conditions. Within our analysis, we identified three themes that elaborate upon how parental advocacy is socially constructed through communication behaviors and partnerships with other people (e.g., medical professionals, family, school educators). We also discuss the emotional side of advocacy, and proffer suggestions to practitioners who work with parents to form collaborative care teams.

  20. Minority Health and Small Numbers Epidemiology: A Case Study of Living Conditions and the Health of Children in 5 Foreign Romá Camps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J.; Cockcroft, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. We sought to test methods for generating epidemiological evidence on health conditions of small, dispersed minority communities. Methods. We used community-based mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey in 5 purposely selected settlements of Khorakané Romá (Gypsies of Muslim culture) in Italy to study the living conditions and health status of children aged from birth to 5 years. Results. In the 15 days prior to the survey, 32% of the children had suffered diarrhea and 55% had had a cough. Some 17% had experienced respiratory difficulties during the past year. Risk factors associated with these outcomes included years spent living at the camp, overcrowding, housing conditions, use of wood-burning stoves, presence of rats, and issues related to quality of sanitation and drains. Qualitative information helped define the approach and the design, and in the interpretation and consolidation of quantitative results. Conclusions. Guided by the priorities expressed by dispersed minority communities, small studies with little resources can provide a solid base to advocate for evidence-based participatory planning. Exact intervals appeared to be robust and conservative enough compared with other intervals, conferring solidity to the results. PMID:18799769

  1. A two-photon fluorescent probe for nitroreductase imaging in living cells, tissues and zebrafish under hypoxia conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Baoping; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jinyu; Chi, Siyu; Lei, Yidi; Zhang, Fang; Zhong, Cheng; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-04-04

    A two-photon fluorescent probe FNTR for nitroreductase was synthesized by using 9,9-dimethyl-2-acetyl-fluoren-7-methylamino (1) as a two-photon fluorophore and a p-nitrobenzyl carbamate group as a recognition domain for nitroreductase (NTR). The probe and the fluorophore were tested under one- and two-photon modes respectively. After reacting with nitroreductase, FNTR had a 130-fold fluorescence enhancement at 563 nm in 10 min and the maximal two-photon action cross-section value was detected as 66 GM at 750 nm. The probe showed a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 23.67 ng ml(-1), high selectivity, low cytotoxicity and good photostability. In the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), endogenous NTR was detected in living cells, tissues and zebrafish. Cobalt chloride was used to induce chemical hypoxia to produce NTR, which generated enhanced fluorescence in cells and tumor tissues. Finally, two-photon fluorescence imaging of NTR was achieved in zebrafish at a penetration depth of up to 200 μm.

  2. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness.

  3. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E.; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age. PMID:26689455

  4. Harboring illnesses: On the association between disease and living conditions in a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    HABIB, RIMA R.; BASMA, SHIRAZ H.; YERETZIAN, JOUMANA S.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the association between the domestic built environment in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon, and the presence of illness among household members. Data on the domestic built environment, socio-demographics and health were collected in 860 households. The association between the presence of illness among household members and three environmental indices, namely infrastructure and services, housing conditions, and crowding was evaluated. These indices were based on a number of items that reflected the existing problems in the domestic built environment. The main finding was the positive association between poor housing conditions and the presence of illness among household members. Households with 8-15 housing problems were twice more likely to report the presence of illness than those with less than four housing problems (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-3.11). This research contributes to the understanding of the influence of the built environment on the health of a refugee population. PMID:16546804

  5. Characterization of wrist-wearable activity measurement using whole body calorimetry in semi-free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Amor, James D; Hattersley, John G; Barber, Thomas M; James, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a significant factor in a number of health conditions and monitoring PA can play a significant role in the treatment of, or research into, these conditions. For longitudinal monitoring of PA, unobtrusive devices are often used and there is a need for the development of energy expenditure (EE) estimation techniques from single-device systems. This paper presents an experiment designed to characterize the relationship between a previously described technique, the activity score (AS) and EE obtained from whole-room indirect calorimetry. The study used 8 participants over a 24-hr period with interspersed exercise periods to observe physical movement with wearable devices and EE in 5 minute epochs. Results show that AS and EE are correlated with a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.775 with p <; 0.001.

  6. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Contact Us Search Patients & Caregivers / Living with VHL VHL disease is a lifelong condition. However, with appropriate measures, people can effectively manage the VHL and lead full and productive lives. Early diagnosis, ...

  7. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  8. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18-23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days.

  9. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Altenburg, Teatske M.; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18–23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days. PMID:28018243

  10. Resilience in Youth and Families Living With Pediatric Health and Developmental Conditions: Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Nabors, Laura; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology showcases a growing area of research with a collection of 16 contemporary studies of resilience in youth with chronic medical or developmental conditions and their families. The research reported in this special issue covers a broad range of pediatric populations, including cancer, type 1 diabetes, and chronic pain, among others, ranging in age from early childhood through early adulthood. This introduction to the special issue reviews the various ways the articles' authors conceptualize and define risk and resilience; most analyze protective processes in relation to resilient outcomes, including both achievement of explicitly positive experiences and avoidance of dysfunction or disruption. Challenges with measurement of resilience-related constructs is reviewed. Finally, the special issue editors offer a definition of resilience in the context of pediatric and health psychology. PMID:26275974

  11. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  12. Control-focused behavioral treatment of earthquake survivors using live exposure to conditioned and simulated unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Salcioğlu, Ebru; Başoğlu, Metin

    2010-02-01

    Earthquakes lead to increased rates of mental health problems in the communities they struck. Few attempts have been made to develop effective psychological care strategies for earthquake survivors. During the course of our 6-year work with earthquake survivors in Turkey, we developed a control-focused behavioral treatment (CFBT) that aims to enhance survivors' resilience against traumatic stressors by helping them develop a sense of control over them. CFBT exposes the client to either (a) unconditioned stimuli (i.e., earthquake tremors) in a safe and controlled environment or (b) conditioned stimuli (e.g., earthquake reminders) until the person can tolerate and control associated distress. A single session of CFBT involving instructions to conduct self-exposure to distressing earthquake reminders achieved about 60% reduction in posttraumatic stress symptoms, resulting in global improvement in 80% of the survivors. The efficacy of CFBT was maximized by exposure to simulated earthquake tremors in an earthquake simulator. In a randomized controlled trial, earthquake simulation treatment combined with therapist-delivered instructions for self-exposure to conditioned trauma cues achieved 79% improvement in PTSD symptoms, resulting in generalized improvement in 92% of the cases. The relapse rate was very low in all studies despite ongoing threat to safety caused by numerous aftershocks and expectations of another major earthquake, suggesting increased resilience against traumatic stress induced by earthquakes. Evidence also suggests that CFBT can be effectively delivered as a self-help intervention using booklets and similar media. Based on variants of CFBT, a mental health care model for disaster survivors is proposed.

  13. Microclimatic conditions and their effects on sheep behavior during a live export shipment from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2013-09-01

    The microclimate can potentially impact the health and welfare of livestock exported by ship. Within-pen microclimatic conditions were recorded and the effects of ammonia on sheep behavior investigated on a voyage from Australia to the Middle East. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide as well as wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperature and air speed were mapped in 20 open-deck focal pens, with the focus on the behavior and location of a marked sheep in each pen. Air speed was highly variable in most pens, with pockets of high but transient concentrations of ammonia (30.7 to 44.2 mg/m(3)) in 20% of pens that had no or minimal air flow. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied in some pens, but overall concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were low. Sheep in pens previously identified to have high ammonia concentrations, high wet-bulb temperatures, and low wind speed stood longer (P = 0.003) and spent less time feeding (P = 0.01) and ruminating (P = 0.004) than those in pens previously identified with low ammonia, low wet-bulb temperature, and high wind speed. Moreover, sheep exposed to increased ammonia concentrations held their head higher (P = 0.004) to avoid the greater ammonia concentrations at lower heights, and these sheep had more conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Sheep movement around the pen was limited. Increased time spent lying down (P = 0.04) and more rhythmical behavior in the second half of the voyage indicated that the sheep adjusted to shipboard conditions over time. It is concluded that high, transient concentrations of ammonia existed in some pens, which adversely affected the behavior of sheep.

  14. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non

  15. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  16. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  17. Why Health and Social Care Support for People with Long-Term Conditions Should be Oriented Towards Enabling Them to Live Well.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Vikki A; Cribb, Alan; Owens, John

    2016-11-28

    There are various reasons why efforts to promote "support for self-management" have rarely delivered the kinds of sustainable improvements in healthcare experiences, health and wellbeing that policy leaders internationally have hoped for. This paper explains how the basis of failure is in some respects built into the ideas that underpin many of these efforts. When (the promotion of) support for self-management is narrowly oriented towards educating and motivating patients to adopt the behaviours recommended for disease control, it implicitly reflects and perpetuates limited and somewhat instrumental views of patients. It tends to: restrict the pursuit of respectful and enabling 'partnership working'; run the risk of undermining patients' self-evaluative attitudes (and then of failing to notice that as harmful); limit recognition of the supportive value of clinician-patient relationships; and obscure the practical and ethical tensions that clinicians face in the delivery of support for self-management. We suggest that a focus on enabling people to live (and die) well with their long-term conditions is a promising starting point for a more adequate conception of support for self-management. We then outline the theoretical advantages that a capabilities approach to thinking about living well can bring to the development of an account of support for self-management, explaining, for example, how it can accommodate the range of what matters to people (both generally and more specifically) for living well, help keep the importance of disease control in perspective, recognize social influences on people's values, behaviours and wellbeing, and illuminate more of the rich potential and practical and ethical challenges of supporting self-management in practice.

  18. The Study of Living Conditions and Perceived Needs for Social Security among Clergy in China: A Case Study of Guanzhong Qinling Area.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Zhuang, Qi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-02-17

    This study used quantitative and qualitative data collected in the Guanzhong Qinling area of China to examine living conditions and perceived needs for social security among men and women of the clergy. The survey finds that most respondent clergy are Buddhists. When the clergy have economic difficulties, their main types of support include self-support (28.8%), help from other believers (25.6%), and assistance from other community residents (18.4%). When the clergy are old, they tend to live alone (25%), receive institutional care from religious organizations (19%), and receive support from other believers (18%). When the clergy are ill, they will often select self-treatment (primarily the use of traditional Chinese medicine [25%], and spiritual healing [25%], including meditation, prayers, and psychotherapy) and receive treatment at hospitals (20%). The study found that the clergy perceived their needs for social security as either great (19.7%) or modest (36.5%). Very few clergy (10%) indicate the absence of social security needs. Most clergy believe that the key social security priorities should be medical care (34%), elderly care (29%), and charitable assistance (21%).

  19. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  20. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population. PMID:24893053

  1. Effect of vaccination with a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine on growth performance in fattening pigs under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    LYOO, Kwang-Soo; CHOI, Jong-Young; HAHN, Tae-Wook; PARK, Kun Taek; KIM, Hye Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused significant economic losses to the global swine industry. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccine in conventionally reared growing/finishing pigs. Four barns were designated for groups A, B, C and D in the growing-to-finishing site. All pigs of the A barn were vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV MLV vaccine, whereas pigs of the B, C or D barn as control groups were unvaccinated. Twenty pigs randomly selected and tagged from each barn were serially bled at 0, 20, 40 and 60 day-post-vaccination, and tested for serological response with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Body weights were measured to calculate the average-daily-weight gain (ADG). Serological assays indicated that the seropositivity of the PRRSV-vaccinated group was higher than that of the unvaccinated groups at 40 day-post-vaccination. ADG of group A was significantly higher than that of groups B and C, and the mean weights of groups A, B, C and D were 0.82 ± 0.017, 0.76 ± 0.016, 0.74 ± 0.019 and 0.81 ± 0.018 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports the serological responses and growth performance parameters by the PRRSV MLV vaccine in growing/finishing pigs under field conditions. PMID:27264966

  2. Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.

  3. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  4. [A comparative study of the health conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly at home in a rural area of Shiga Prefecture: special reference to morbidity rate and blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, A; Hirao, K; Sugimoto, C; Kita, Y; Ueshima, H; Okayama, A; Yamakawa, M

    1993-09-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data and for establishing a support system for elderly people with various health and social problems, a population survey was performed in 1990 to investigate the health and living conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly in the town of Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture. A total of 275 subjects (103 male, 172 female) 65 years of age and over were surveyed. The participation rate in this survey was 88.1%. Analysis of health conditions (morbidity rate, blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data) of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly produced the following: 1) Stroke was the main cause of being bedridden in men, while in women, bone and joint disease, especially fracture, was the main cause. 2) The combined prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension in elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly was over 50%. The bedridden elderly had a lower prevalence than elderly people living alone and elderly couples. 3) Men in all of the above mentioned life styles, had a higher tendency of showing ECG abnormalities than women. The tendency for major ECG abnormalities was high for bedridden elderly, both male and female, with the tendency for men being higher. 4) In bedridden elderly, a tendency of higher prevalence of anemia, in both male and females, lower total serum cholesterol and triglyceride in males compared to elderly people living alone and in elderly couples, was observed.

  5. A nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern does not affect total daily dietary cost in North American women in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the dietary response to the nutritional intervention, a registered dietician administered a FFQ at 0, 6, 12, and 24 wk. Total daily dietary cost was calculated using a price list including all items from the FFQ. Our findings indicated that daily energy cost evaluated at wk 12 vs. wk 0 [1046 +/- 217 vs. 967 +/- 192 kJ/Canadian dollars (CAN$), respectively, P = 0.18] and total daily dietary cost (8.61 +/- 2.13 vs. 8.75 +/- 2.50 CAN$/d per participant, respectively, P = 0.58) did not change. Total daily energy density at wk 12 decreased compared with wk 0 (2.56 +/- 0.76 vs. 2.20 +/- 0.67 kJ/g; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet led to increased cost related to vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, canola/olive oil, whole grains, poultry, and fish (P < or = 0.01) and to reduced dietary cost for red meat, refined grains, desserts and sweets, and fast food (P < or = 0.008). In conclusion, these data suggest that adherence to a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean food pattern is not associated with increased daily dietary cost or energy cost but led to a reduction in energy density. Consequently, increased cost should not be considered a barrier to the promotion and adoption of a Mediterranean diet.

  6. The impact of usual dietary patterns, selection of significant foods and cuisine choices on changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Hokman, Anita; Sebastiao, Ana; Denmeade, Sharyn; Martin, Gina; Calvert, G Dennis; Jenkins, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general population and for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease suggest a reduction in dietary fat, and in particular dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). In order to achieve the recommended levels, changes in food choice patterns are required. Foods are consumed in combination with other foods, and these combinations are often recognizable as cuisine patterns. In this study we examined the food choice patterns of a group of 63 adults with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus who completed a 12 month dietary intervention trial aimed at changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions. In both lower fat (LF, 27%) and modified fat (MF, 37%E) groups, a reduction in dietary SFA and an increase in polyunsaturated fat were required, with an additional requirement to increase dietary monounsaturated fat in the MF group. The usual diets of the study sample were on average low in total fat (27%E), but high in saturated fat (12%E). Those already consuming total fat at the level concordant with their allocation (LF or MF) achieved targets faster than those with a discordant allocation, but there was no significant effect of usual diet on time of target achievement at 12 months. At 6 months, those achieving dietary fat targets had changed to low fat dairy products and leaner meats, were having more spreads, oils, and nuts and were consuming takeaway meals less than twice a week. Contributions to dietary fat shifted from takeaway foods, meat, dairy products and cakes to spreads, oils and nuts. The modified fat and low fat groups chose more Mediterranean and South East Asian cuisines respectively. In this study sample, usual dietary patterns had an initial impact on change in the diet, but identifiable changes in food choice patterns and the adoption of certain cuisines that combined foods indicative of the dietary guidelines resulted in successful achievement of dietary fat targets.

  7. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation.

  8. Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Myojin, Tomoya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Keiko; Okada, Eisaku; Shibata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Mieko; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation. Methods We used anonymous data from the 2007 “Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions,” collected by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan according to the Statistics Act, Article 36. We used logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and sex. Limitation in daily activities was applied as the dependent variable, and each disease/injury was applied as an independent variable in this analysis. Furthermore, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results The provided data included 98,789 subjects. We used data for 75,986 valid subjects aged 12 years or older. The following diseases showed high PAF: backache (PAF 13.27%, OR 3.88), arthropathia (PAF 7.61%, OR 4.82), eye and optical diseases (PAF 6.39%, OR 2.01), and depression and other mental diseases (PAF 5.70%, OR 11.55). PAFs of cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes were higher for males than for females; on the other hand, PAFs of orthopedic diseases were higher among females. Conclusions Our results indicate that orthopedic diseases, ophthalmic diseases, and psychiatric diseases particularly affect activity limitation. PMID:28142015

  9. Steroid levels and reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise, Geochelone nigra, living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos).

    PubMed

    Schramm, B G; Casares, M; Lance, V A

    1999-04-01

    The Galápagos Islands are home to 11 subspecies of large terrestrial tortoises (Geochelone nigra). All Galápagos tortoises are considered endangered and approximately 12,000 animals still exist. Until now, the reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise has been studied only in captive animals, and no data from free-ranging tortoises have been available. During a one-year period, blood samples were collected from male and female G. nigra living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Plasma steroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs). In males, plasma testosterone and corticosterone increased a few months before the onset of the mating season. Peak levels were observed while most copulations occurred and environmental temperatures were highest. Both testosterone and corticosterone showed low levels during the cold and dry nesting season and high levels during the hot and rainy mating season. In females, testosterone and corticosterone also rose during the hot and rainy mating season. Both hormones peaked during the second half of the mating season and decreased during the cooler dry season. Female estradiol levels increased at the onset of the mating season, reaching the highest level at the peak of the mating season, which coincided with the highest annual temperatures measured. Estradiol slowly decreased within the next months and rapidly dropped at the onset of the nesting season when temperatures decreased. Progesterone levels were high close to the time of ovulation and showed clearly elevated levels at the beginning of the nesting season after some females had laid their first clutch. Progesterone decreased during the nesting season, when ambient temperatures began to decrease, and reached minimal levels in the postbreeding period shortly before the onset of the next mating season. There were significant annual variations in plasma testosterone in both males and females. Plasma corticosterone was generally higher in

  10. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    PubMed

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  11. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  12. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  13. Living with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis You have questions. We have answers. Whether you ... caregivers > About the Paralysis Resource Center Explore our paralysis resources > Health > Causes of paralysis > Secondary conditions > Costs ...

  14. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  15. "It Ain't Much, but It's All I Got." The Rural Homelessness Project: A Study of Living Conditions in Two Rural West Virginia Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Many poor families in rural West Virginia live in unsafe, unsanitary structures that do not protect them from the elements, but these families are not considered officially homeless. Lincoln and Clay Counties are very rural, traditionally poor areas, with 45% of their populations receiving welfare and much larger proportions receiving food stamps.…

  16. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...

  17. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  18. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transportation Back to top How to Choose a Facility? The following suggestions can help you get started ... for a safe, comfortable and appropriate assisted living facility: Think ahead. What will the resident’s future needs ...

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  1. Greener Living

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.

  2. If We Build It, We Will Come: A Model for Community-Led Change to Transform Neighborhood Conditions to Support Healthy Eating and Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Vedette R.; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Leon, Janeen B.; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods impact health. In three adjoining inner-city Cleveland neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb.1 To address this disparity a local health funder created a Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The Fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Using the model, residents identified a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12,000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  3. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  4. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise.

  5. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale and Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool: Data from amateur sports players in live-match conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Christopher; Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is a growing public health concern. A short, simple sideline assessment tool is essential for evaluation of concussion at an amateur participation level. The current study examined responses to sideline assessment measures in a sample of amateur Australian Rules Football players competing in real-time live matches who had not sustained a concussion on the day of testing. Participants (N = 127) completed the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) and the Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool (Pocket CRT), which contains the Maddocks Questions (assessing orientation and recent memory) and the Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The study showed 98.4% of participants passed the A-WPTAS, while 81.9% passed the Maddocks Questions. Participants endorsed a mean of 4.16 (SD = 4.02) symptoms on the PCSS, with 86.6% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a mild level or greater and 40.2% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a moderate or severe level. The current results suggest the Maddocks Questions may not be sufficient for use in an amateur sports context. To reduce the risk for a false positive diagnosis of concussion, it is recommended that the Pocket CRT be complemented with the A-WPTAS for use in an amateur sports context.

  6. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  7. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  8. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  9. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  10. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  11. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in four free-living bird species exposed to different levels of lead under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the δALAD activity and δALAD ratio in blood of four free-living bird species (Griffon vulture, Eagle owl, Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull); (2) and to investigate the correlations between δALAD activity/ratio and Pb concentrations in blood samples. A decrease was observed in δALAD activity in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls exposed to Pb. In addition, negative relationships were found between δALAD ratio or δALAD activity and Log blood Pb levels in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls, and these relationships were stronger in areas with the highest Pb exposure. We provide equations that may be helpful to estimate δALAD activity and δALAD ratio using blood Pb concentrations. Regarding gull species, δALAD activity found in the present study may be considered the normal activity in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull species, since very low blood Pb concentrations and no correlations were found in these species. Although both δALAD activity and δALAD ratio are sensitive biomarkers of Pb exposure and effect in birds, the use of δALAD ratio may improve the results. Besides, this study provides blood threshold concentrations at which Pb bears effects on δALAD enzyme (5µg/dl in Eagle owl; 8µg/dl in Griffon vulture; and probably >2µg/dl in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull). Our findings show that Eagle owl seems to be more sensitive to δALAD enzymatic inhibition by Pb than Griffon vultures. Eagle owls and Griffon vultures exhibited up to 79% and 94% decrease in δALAD activity when blood Pb concentrations exceeded 19 and 30µg/dl, respectively. Regarding the effects related with δALAD inhibition, significant negative correlations were found between δALAD activity and hematocrit in Eagle owls and Griffon vultures, which may be related to compensatory response associated with a decrease in δALAD activity. In addition, an effect on creatine kinase activity and total proteins in plasma was found

  12. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  13. Expression and functional roles of Bradyrhizobium japonicum genes involved in the utilization of inorganic and organic sulfur compounds in free-living and symbiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Shah, Gopit R; Sadowsky, Michael J; Paliy, Oleg; Speck, Justin; Vail, Andrew W; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2011-04-01

    Strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with many legumes, including soybean. Although inorganic sulfur is preferred by bacteria in laboratory conditions, sulfur in agricultural soil is mainly present as sulfonates and sulfur esters. Here, we show that Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B. elkanii strains were able to utilize sulfate, cysteine, sulfonates, and sulfur-ester compounds as sole sulfur sources for growth. Expression and functional analysis revealed that two sets of gene clusters (bll6449 to bll6455 or bll7007 to bll7011) are important for utilization of sulfonates sulfur source. The bll6451 or bll7010 genes are also expressed in the symbiotic nodules. However, B. japonicum mutants defective in either of the sulfonate utilization operons were not affected for symbiosis with soybean, indicating the functional redundancy or availability of other sulfur sources in planta. In accordance, B. japonicum bacteroids possessed significant sulfatase activity. These results indicate that strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. likely use organosulfur compounds for growth and survival in soils, as well as for legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

  14. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. Objectives The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. Methods A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. Results A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. Conclusion The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them. PMID:27272912

  15. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  16. Living with Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Valve Disease Heart valve disease is a lifelong condition. However, ... all of your medicines as prescribed. Pregnancy and Heart Valve Disease Mild or moderate heart valve disease during pregnancy ...

  17. Predicting Fatigue Lives Under Complex Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Nelson, R. S.; Janitor, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) computer program performs high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue life prediction for materials analysis. Designed to account for effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loadings involving such factors as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, wave-shapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features practical for application to actual component analysis using modern finite-element or boundary-element methods. Although developed for use in predicting crack-initiation lifetimes of gas-turbine-engine materials, also applied to other materials as well. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  19. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  20. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  3. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  4. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  5. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  6. Living with an Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...

  7. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  8. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  9. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  10. Living with Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Award Living With Kidney Cancer Living With Cancer Day to Day The impact of kidney cancer on your life ... least one half hour of exercise every other day. Vigorous walking, jogging, swimming, or other aerobic exercise ...

  11. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic ... Final Rule Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  12. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  13. Strategies for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... and FASD FASD and the Law – Criminal Justice Expectant Mothers Addiction Treatment Weekly Roundup Archive Speakers ... Now VIDEOS CONTACT DONATE Living with FASD National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome / Living with FASD Go ...

  14. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Competitive Grant Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory ... FEATURES Older Americans Month DD Awareness Month Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES Older ...

  15. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  16. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  17. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member’s physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists’ performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists’ via speakers. We recorded the audience members’ electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience’s heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience’s sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience’s physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience’s superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance. PMID:27104377

  18. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers. We recorded the audience members' electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience's heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience's sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience's physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience's superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance.

  19. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  20. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  1. Nanobiomechanics of living cells: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinju

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiomechanics of living cells is very important to understand cell–materials interactions. This would potentially help to optimize the surface design of the implanted materials and scaffold materials for tissue engineering. The nanoindentation techniques enable quantifying nanobiomechanics of living cells, with flexibility of using indenters of different geometries. However, the data interpretation for nanoindentation of living cells is often difficult. Despite abundant experimental data reported on nanobiomechanics of living cells, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion on testing with different tip geometries, and the associated mechanical models that enable extracting the mechanical properties of living cells. Therefore, this paper discusses the strategy of selecting the right type of indenter tips and the corresponding mechanical models at given test conditions. PMID:24748952

  2. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  3. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System About Us File Formats Help: How ...

  4. Living Better with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Living Better with Osteoarthritis Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. ...

  5. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the vaccinia virus. Who should NOT get the smallpox vaccine? People most likely to have side effects ...

  6. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  7. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... November 1, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Corner Stores Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Salt Matters Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health ( ... Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Hidden Sodium Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health ...

  9. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  10. Living with Advanced MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... more progressive disease course. Taking these factors into account can help you and your family plan more effectively for the future. Identifying options The key message to anyone living with advanced MS is ...

  11. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit the salt in your diet. Be Physically Active Physical activity is an important part of a ... right away. Emotional Issues and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. You ...

  12. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  13. Living with Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  14. Living with Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  15. Living with Hemochromatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Hemochromatosis The outlook for people who have hemochromatosis largely ... do to help you. Screening Family Members for Hemochromatosis Parents, grandparents, brothers and sisters, and children (blood ...

  16. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  17. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although CF can cause fertility problems, men and women who have the disease should still have protected sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Emotional Issues Living with CF may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel ...

  18. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  19. Where Plumes Live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    From the perspective of fluid dynamics, `Plumes or not?' might be the wrong question. Let me begin by defining a few terms. Plume with a `P' is the well-known thermal structure with thin (order 100 km) tail and large, bulbous head that originates at the core-mantle boundary. The thin tail/large, bulbous-head morphology has been generated in a number of laboratory and numerical experiments. It can be seen, for example, on the cover of the famous fluid dynamics text by Batchelor. There is a clearly-defined range of parameters for which this structure is the preferred solution for instabilities arising from a bottom boundary layer in a convecting fluid. For example, a strong temperature-dependent rheology is needed. By contrast, plume with a `p' is any cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical instability originating from a thermal (or thermo-chemical) boundary layer. In fluid dynamics plume is sometimes used interchangeable with jet. Unless there is a very small temperature drop across the core-mantle boundary or a rather remarkable balance between temperature and composition at the base of the mantle, there are almost certainly plumes. (Note the little p.) Are these plumes the thermal structures with thin (order 100 km) tails and large bulbous heads or could they be broad, hot regions such as the degree 2 pattern seen in global seismic tomography images of the lower mantle, or the disconnected droplets seen in chaotic convection? To study this question, I will present a sequence of numerical `experiments' that illustrate the morphology of instabilities from a basal thermal boundary layer, i.e., plumes. Some of the aspects I will present include: spherical geometry, temperature-and pressure-dependence of rheology, internal heating, pressure-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, variable coefficient of thermal diffusivity, phase transformations, and compositional layering at the base of the mantle. The goal is to map out the parameters and conditions where Plumes live

  20. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action.

  1. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  2. Living-cell microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; King, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment.

  3. Living My Family's Story

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk. PMID:22544165

  4. New Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  5. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  6. Native American Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Julie Anna

    1992-01-01

    Examines features of independent living philosophy with regard to compatibility with Native American cultures, including definition or conceptualization of disability; self-advocacy; systems advocacy; peer counseling; and consumer control and involvement. Discusses an actualizing process as one method of resolving cultural conflicts and…

  7. The living building

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    If one is to increase the energy performance of buildings beyond what is now possible, one can no longer afford to think of a building's systems and components as independent of one another. With emerging trends in building technology, it is becoming possible to design buildings (or groups of buildings) that respond to their environments as naturally as do living organisms. The living building integrates advances in glazing technology, photovoltaics, daylight-integrated lighting controls, HVAC and ecological waste management in conjunction with direct digital controls to respond actively to temperature, humidity, heat gain, cooling, lighting levels, and ventilation. This revolutionary building is the building of the future; it maximizes energy savings due to the inherent efficiency of an intelligent, interconnected system in which the envelope, lighting, and HVAC are always aware of and responding to each other's needs. While some of the technologies for such a system are already in use and resulting energy savings documented, it is not until advances such as electrochromic glazing reach the market that the level of integration necessary to produce the living building will be possible. This paper explores the limits of the living building's capacity to learn from environmental forces and regulate itself; the paper then examines emerging technologies that have demonstrated the potential to make such systemic integration and unprecedented energy savings possible.

  8. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  9. Living with ARDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With ARDS Some people fully recover from ARDS. Others continue to have health problems. After you ... of breath. After treatment, many people who have ARDS recover close-to-normal lung function within 6 ...

  10. Living the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia; Lemay, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Describes one elementary school's "Living the Dream" award program named in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Students read and reviewed books and presented the award to the author of a recent picture book that focused on multicultural awareness. A list of suggested titles is included. (SM)

  11. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  12. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a…

  13. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  14. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  15. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  16. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  17. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  18. The Living Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for a second-grade class project. Suggests that the students will learn to identify the word "famous," complete a timeline for a famous person, learn facts about the person, and express individual thoughts and feelings. Explains the steps involved in the presentation of a living museum where students portray famous…

  19. Live Site Demonstrations - Massachusetts Military Reservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    MetalMapper Sensor; Advanced electromagnetic induction ; UXO; Classification; Live Site Demonstration; Massachusetts Military Reservation 16. SECURITY...Berkeley UXO Discriminator CD cultural debris CIA Central Impact Area cm centimeter DAQ data acquisition computer EMI electromagnetic induction ...advanced electromagnetic induction sensors developed specifically for discrimination on real sites under operational conditions. • Investigate in

  20. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  1. Improving assisted living care.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  2. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living Room Fireplace Details, Door Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Governor's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  4. Living Conditions in Anbar Province in June 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    44 5.6. Annual Household Spending on Education per Student ...45 5.7. Average Annual Cost of Education per Student , by Age...Sales from garden, 9% Home production, 9% Street vending , 2% Consumption from garden, 6% Taxi and other services, 16% Other self-employment income, 5

  5. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  6. Living Conditions, Ecology and Social Changes in the Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. Subba

    1984-01-01

    Major problems faced in India's development are discussed, including rapid industrialization and urbanization and needs for ecological protection as well as food and industry, literacy, and rapid social change in a multilingual and multireligious society. The roles of higher education and international cooperation are also examined. (MSE)

  7. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  8. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  9. Communication in Assisted Living*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

  10. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  11. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  12. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  13. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sickle Cell Disease If you or your child has sickle ... NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease (Nicholas) 09/02/2011 In this video— ...

  14. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  15. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  16. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  17. Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain Share Tweet Linkedin ... syndrome, and depression. back to top What Causes Fibromyalgia? Scientists believe that the condition may be due ...

  18. Electron-beam direct processing on living cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takayuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrated a direct processing on a living Hep G2 cell membrane in conventional cultivation conditions using an electron beam. Electron beam-induced deposition from liquid precursor 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and ablation was performed on the living cells. The 2.5-10 keV electron beam which was irradiated through a 100-nm-thick SiN nanomembrane could induce a deposition pattern and a ablation on a living cell membrane. This electron beam direct processing can provide simple in-situ cell surface modification for an analytical method of living cell membrane dynamic.

  19. Live From the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Kent, J.; Lippsett, L.

    2006-12-01

    International Polar Year presents an extraordinary opportunity to educate students and the public about science at the icy ends of the Earth. The goal of our proposal is to apply collaborative multimedia approaches to bring the story of four polar research expeditions to the general public and the classroom. The four expeditions (measurement of ice sheet dynamics in Greenland, a study of the McMurdo ecosystem over austral winter, installation of a buoy array in the Beaufort Gyre, and exploration of the Gakkel Ridge) were chosen based on their broad range of disciplines and relevance to the three primary IPY research emphasis areas defined by NSF. A science writer and a professional photographer will join each expedition and file dispatches for a daily Webcast. The posting will feature science updates, logistical challenges, team member profiles, and life at sea (or on the ice). The writer will also coordinate real-time phone patches from PIs in the field to audiences at the Museum of Science, Boston, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum, Chicago, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Birch Aquarium, San Diego, the Pacific Science Center, Seattle, National Public Radio "Talk of the Nation: Science Friday," CBS News, and to student "reporters" writing for Scholastic Online. At the museums, the "Live from the Ice" interactive phone calls will be preceded by a background presentation by a scientist, who will also moderate the live discussion between the public and researchers in the field. A 20-30 minute satellite phone call will allow the public to ask the researchers questions about their research while it's happening. In addition to building and promoting an online experience, a museum exhibit featuring models of Arctic instruments and informative kiosks will be developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Exhibit Center. Each of our partner museums will also provide a "leave-behind" component to continue to educate

  20. Living on the edge.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes.

  1. Gaia Live in School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

  2. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Mathematics for generative processes: Living and non-living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantoni, Corrado

    2006-05-01

    The traditional Differential Calculus often shows its limits when describing living systems. These in fact present such a richness of characteristics that are, in the majority of cases, much wider than the description capabilities of the usual differential equations. Such an aspect became particularly evident during the research (completed in 2001) for an appropriate formulation of Odum's Maximum Em-Power Principle (proposed by the Author as a possible Fourth Thermodynamic Principle). In fact, in such a context, the particular non-conservative Algebra, adopted to account for both Quality and quantity of generative processes, suggested we introduce a faithfully corresponding concept of "derivative" (of both integer and fractional order) to describe dynamic conditions however variable. The new concept not only succeeded in pointing out the corresponding differential bases of all the rules of Emergy Algebra, but also represented the preferential guide in order to recognize the most profound physical nature of the basic processes which mostly characterize self-organizing Systems (co-production, co-injection, inter-action, feed-back, splits, etc.).From a mathematical point of view, the most important novelties introduced by such a new approach are: (i) the derivative of any integer or fractional order can be obtained independently from the evaluation of its lower order derivatives; (ii) the exponential function plays an extremely hinge role, much more marked than in the case of traditional differential equations; (iii) wide classes of differential equations, traditionally considered as being non-linear, become "intrinsically" linear when reconsidered in terms of "incipient" derivatives; (iv) their corresponding explicit solutions can be given in terms of new classes of functions (such as "binary" and "duet" functions); (v) every solution shows a sort of "persistence of form" when representing the product generated with respect to the agents of the generating process

  4. Live like the Affluent in College, Live like a Student after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes in basic economic conditions make it harder for college students to find their way in the new economy. However, in addition to these structural changes that drive up the costs of living in society, many students are also suffering from the effects of developing an unsustainable, affluent lifestyle both before and during the pursuit…

  5. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  6. Psychological effects of living with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah

    2014-12-02

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term inflammatory condition that can affect physical, psychological and social function. The condition is not curable - although drug therapy can be used to reduce inflammation - and patients often experience daily symptoms of joint pain and stiffness, fatigue and functional limitations. Patients may also experience psychological challenges. This article focuses on the psychological implications of living with rheumatoid arthritis, including reaction to diagnosis, anxiety and depression, body image, sexuality, self-esteem and social role. It aims to explore the role of the nurse in addressing these psychological challenges to optimise the physical and psychological status of each patient.

  7. To Live and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimin, B.

    Described in the booklet are the history and functions of the All-Russia Society for the Blind which was founded in 1925 to improve the physical, educational, and employment conditions of the more than 300,000 Russian people who before 1917 became blind from disease and poverty. The society is said to have units in the 15 constituent Soviet…

  8. Making A Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" presents the story of Iowans at work beginning with the Ioway Indians before 1830 through the Great Depression of the 1930s. One article looks at how children worked to help their families buy food and clothing. Organized labor helped all workers in Iowa by providing better working conditions. Women in…

  9. NIGMS's Living Labs

    MedlinePlus

    ... other human disorders. Photo courtesy of NIGMS Mouse Genetic engineering allows scientists to create specific strains of mice that reveal the functions of specific genes. Some mouse strains are models for human genetic diseases, increasing knowledge about how the conditions arise ...

  10. Creating living machines

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  11. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  12. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  13. The living publication

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  14. Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Kathy

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  15. Connecting with assisted living consumers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kathleen A; Pinkowitz, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Connecting with residents and their family members should be considered an integral part of medication therapy management services that pharmacists provide to assisted living communities. This article provides suggestions on how pharmacists can better connect and communicate with current and future assisted-living consumers and staff to optimize medication use, maintain resident function, and help residents age in place.

  16. Framework for Healthful Living Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The Healthful Living Education program promotes behaviors that contribute to a healthful lifestyle and improved quality of life for all students. The Framework for Healthy Living Education supports and reinforces the goals and objectives of its three major components: health education, physical education, and alcohol and other drugs. When the…

  17. SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    mance needs can vary in use-dependent ways. For example in a content sharing system, the lag-tolerance for a live - streaming use may depend on the kind...USA, Octo- ber 2005. [15] Qi Huang, Hai Jin, and Xiaofei Liao, “P2P Live Streaming with Tree-Mesh based Hybrid Overlay”, In Pro- ceedings of ICPP

  18. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  19. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  20. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth...

  1. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth...

  2. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth...

  3. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth...

  4. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth...

  5. Mechanical force characterization in manipulating live cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Sun, Dong; Huang, Wenhao

    2011-02-24

    Laser trapping with optical tweezers is a noninvasive manipulation technique and has received increasing attentions in biological applications. Understanding forces exerted on live cells is essential to cell biomechanical characterizations. Traditional numerical or experimental force measurement assumes live cells as ideal objects, ignoring their complicated inner structures and rough membranes. In this paper, we propose a new experimental method to calibrate the trapping and drag forces acted on live cells. Binding a micro polystyrene sphere to a live cell and moving the mixture with optical tweezers, we can obtain the drag force on the cell by subtracting the drag force on the sphere from the total drag force on the mixture, under the condition of extremely low Reynolds number. The trapping force on the cell is then obtained from the drag force when the cell is in force equilibrium state. Experiments on numerous live cells demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed force calibration approach.

  6. Live concerts reduce cancer inpatients' anxiety.

    PubMed

    Toccafondi, A; Bonacchi, A; Mambrini, A; Miccinesi, G; Prosseda, R; Cantore, M

    2016-10-10

    In Italy a new experience of music medicine called "The Music Givers" is spreading among Oncology Units; it aims to organise weekly live concerts (length 45-60 min) followed by a buffet. Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the format of The Music Givers on cancer in-patients' anxiety. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) was administered to 111 in-patients before and after the concerts. After the concerts we observed a 3.87 point decrease in state anxiety (p < .001) and statistically significant differences in most of the domains assessed by STAI-Y. These results invite a reflection on the importance of offering to inpatients events such as live music concerts, in order to improve their psychological condition during hospitalisation.

  7. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  8. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05-0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05-0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  9. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1–4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3–4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05–0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05–0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions. PMID:27932989

  10. Health smart home for elders - a tool for automatic recognition of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Le, Xuan Hoa Binh; Di Mascolo, Maria; Gouin, Alexia; Noury, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Elders live preferently in their own home, but with aging comes the loss of autonomy and associated risks. In order to help them live longer in safe conditions, we need a tool to automatically detect their loss of autonomy by assessing the degree of performance of activities of daily living. This article presents an approach enabling the activities recognition of an elder living alone in a home equipped with noninvasive sensors.

  11. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...

  12. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... considered, plays a key role in diabetes care. Connecting with other people living with diabetes that understand ... affected by diabetes to find that support. Our Family Link program connects parents of children with type ...

  13. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  14. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  15. Living with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send ... D.), you’re more likely to also have coronary heart disease , heart attack , stroke , and transient ischemic attack ("mini- ...

  16. Living with von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With von Willebrand Disease If you have von Willebrand disease (VWD), you ... that they get tested too. Pregnancy and von Willebrand Disease Pregnancy can be a challenge for women who ...

  17. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When & How to Wash Hands: Key Times and Tips Show Me the Science: ...

  18. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  19. Living With Diabetes: Foot Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  20. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  1. Living Membranes as Environmental Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-19

    addition to the core results, we have explored important aspects of the system, including loading capacity, long-term stability, detection capacity, and...Oct-2011 30-Sep-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Living Membranes as Environmental Detectors The views, opinions...Report: Living Membranes as Environmental Detectors Report Title The work conducted over the course of this program has made significant progress

  2. The Current Condition of Native Americans. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold

    This digest provides an overview of Native American demography, education, employment, and health conditions. In the 1990 census, 1.9 million Americans claimed American Indian status and over 5 million indicated Indian descent. About 637,000 lived on reservations or trust lands, while over 250,000 lived in cities. Half of Native Americans lived in…

  3. Living Well with Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Living Well with Sickle Cell Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with sickle cell disease can live full lives and enjoy most ...

  4. Video fingerprinting for live events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  5. Virtual and live social facilitation while exergaming: competitiveness moderates exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Amanda L; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study compared the impact on exercise intensity of a virtual versus a live competitor, when riding a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike ("cybercycle"). It was hypothesized that competitiveness would moderate effects. Twenty-three female college students were exposed to three conditions on a cybercycle: solo training, virtual competitor, and live competitor. After training without a competitor (solo condition for familiarization with equipment), participants competed against a virtual avatar or live rider (random order of presentation). A repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant condition (virtual/live) by competitiveness (high/low) interaction for exercise intensity (watts). More competitive participants exhibited significantly greater exercise intensity when competing against a live versus virtual competitor. The implication is that live competitors can have an added social facilitation effect and influence exercise intensity, although competitiveness moderates this effect.

  6. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  7. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  8. Astronomy Cast Live: Live Blogging Today's Science to the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemrose-Fetter, Rebecca; Gay, P. L.; Astronomy Cast LIVE Team

    2008-05-01

    In today's digital, on-demand society, consumers of information both want to know exactly what is happening as it is happening, and to be able to subscribe to content of their choosing. Meeting the needs of these tech savvy individuals are bloggers, podcasters and vodcasters. Using text, audio, and video to reach their respective audiences, these communicators are the new face of public outreach and journalism, but even their communications means are starting to become passé in the face of live blogging. The idea behind live blogging is simple: Take any person - even an undergraduate - with an Internet connected device, put them someplace interesting, and have them report on what they are seeing and experiencing online in real-time. This new tool is bringing astronomy enthusiasts around the world the thrill of live astronomy announcements, attending talks in real, and being "in the room" with astronomers via an Internet connection. These audiences can be anyone, from any nation, with any age. Beyond the public communications benefits of this program, it is also a program that allows the participation of early undergraduate students in science conferences. To date, two undergraduate students and five E/PO professionals have live blogged text, audio, and video content from three science conferences and a shuttle launch. Together, they have produced over 200 hundred stories that have reached tens of thousands of people around the world. In this poster we describe how we have made astronomy live blogging a reality from both the technical and personal standpoint. This project is funded through NSF grant # 0744944.

  9. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  10. Functional Literacy in People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabušicová, Milada; Oplatková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a qualitative study into the lives of people with inadequate functional literacy skills. The data were collected through a biographical interview with a respondent whose characteristics correspond to those of a hypothetical person likely to exhibit signs of low functional literacy. The characteristics, such as…

  11. Chicanas: Their Voices, Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockert, Lucia Fox, Ed.

    This book is an oral history of ten Chicana women ranging in ages from 84 to 24. The collection of interviews reflects how their hard work and determination have significantly changed their lives for the better. The backgrounds of the women vary; some were born in Mexico and moved to the United States. Others were born in the Southwest and later…

  12. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  13. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  14. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  15. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  16. Teen Living. 7015. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education Services.

    This curriculum guide was developed as a resource for teachers to use in planning and implementing a competency-based instructional program on teenage living at the high school level. It contains materials for a 2-semester consumer home economics course, based on the North Carolina Program of Studies (revised 1992); it is designed to help students…

  17. Investigating Evolution with Living Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes two investigative labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)

  18. Effective Communication. Successful Living Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on effective communication is one of a series of modules designed to help teach students to become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. This module contains teacher and student materials that are planned to help students become more relaxed, prepared, and confident when using written and verbal communications.…

  19. I Know Where They Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Ed, Ed.

    This science-oriented reading readiness text is provided in two versions: English and Navajo. It consists of large black-and-white drawings of animals, birds, and insects familiar to the Southwestern U.S. One picture is provided on each page, labeled with the following simple sentences: "This is a [name of the animal]. He lives in [name of…

  20. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  1. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  2. Senior to Senior: Living Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Senior to Senior: Living Lessons is a program created to provide meaningful horticulture therapy activities for community minority elders (60 years of age and older) and senior college students (20 years of age and older) from an Historically Black University. The program's objectives were to promote positive intergenerational relationships and to…

  3. Finding a Place to Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on bird habitats, how birds have adapted to living in these habitats, and bird migration. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy student materials (puzzles and worksheets) are included. (JN)

  4. College for Living Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Robert G., Jr.; And Others

    This five-part manual was designed to help volunteer instructors in Northern Virginia Community College's College for Living Program to conduct survival and socialization courses for handicapped adults. After introductory material summarizing general principles and specific suggestions, Robert Templin provides information on the skills and…

  5. Living in the Gifted Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Arlene R.

    2010-01-01

    Raising gifted children is both a joy and a challenge. How does one survive and thrive living in a gifted family? Parents play an essential role in helping children develop appreciation and respect for the world and their place in it. Intellectual development and emotional reactions begin at an early age, and many major behavioral patterns are set…

  6. Living Assessment Passes the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dorothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher at an independent boys' school, gives a first-person account of how her constant assessments and requirement that her students be active participants in their own learning gainsays the need for high-stakes, standardized testing. She posits a "living assessment" that is intertwined, interactive and…

  7. Teaching Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    Provided are strategies for teaching activities of daily living (ADL), which include dressing, eating, grooming, toileting, and basic homemakine, to severely retarded students. Reviewed are the steps necessary to teach ADL skills: ADL assessment, identification of appropriate strategies and tactics, and task analysis. Explained are four common…

  8. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Fionnuala; Walker-Bone, Karen; Tariq, Shema

    2017-01-01

    The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors. One-third of PLHIV in the United Kingdom are female, and increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are reaching menopausal age. Oestrogen decline in the context of an elevated background risk of poor bone health results in WLHIV being at greater risk of osteoporosis than women without HIV. European HIV guidelines therefore recommend routine screening of postmenopausal WLHIV using FRAX(©) for clinical risk factors, with or without bone mineral density scanning. Data support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in PLHIV. Additionally, some patients with confirmed osteoporosis may benefit from a switch to an ART agent with a better bone safety profile. However, there remains a notable paucity of data on HIV and menopause, including the impact of hormone replacement therapy on the bone health of WLHIV. In conclusion, it is important that clinicians are aware that postmenopausal WLHIV are a group at particular risk of bone disease, who require proactive screening and advice about preventative measures.

  9. Depressive Symptoms among Older Residents in Assisted Living Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Bergman, Elizabeth; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Molinari, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the dramatic growth in Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs), the present study focused on mental health among older residents in ALFs. We assessed the effects of physical health constraints (chronic conditions, functional disability, and self-rated health) and psychosocial resources (social network, sense of mastery, religiosity, and…

  10. What Teachers Can Do for Children Living in Difficult Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovitt, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of children are living in stressful and dysfunctional situations. Scores of them reside in conditions replete with drugs or alcohol. As a court appointed special advocate (CASA), this author has advocated for children who have been abused or neglected and whose situations are involved in the courts, more specifically in the dependency…

  11. The Human Cost of Food: Farmworkers' Lives, Labor, and Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles D., Jr., Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda F., Ed.

    Since 1993, Student Action with Farmworkers (SAF) has placed nearly 300 college students into summer internships with farmworker agencies in North and South Carolina, where students work alongside farmworkers struggling to improve their living and working conditions. Because of significant gaps in academic materials related to farmworkers in the…

  12. Adaptation to Living and Working in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-07-01

    with Arctic operations which may "become critical in any future war - - "materiel failure and human inefficiency when equipment and men are exposed to...13): *The body is rubbed with seal or whale oil to condition the skin and form a thin barrier to the vapor generated by the heat .0,Hexl a...accordingly« This fact has also been demonstrated under controlled experimental conditions. In one such ~."’’\\<i study ( Zk ), 18 men lived outdoors

  13. How do people live in the Anthropocene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Libby

    2016-04-01

    While geologists have focused their efforts on which changes in the strata might constitute a functional shift out of the present epoch, environmental humanities scholars, museums and creative artists have taken up the Anthropocene as a concept raising new moral and practical dilemmas. A central concern is with how people adapt and live creatively in a world that is functioning beyond the physical planetary boundaries defined by the Holocene. This paper will provide an overview of the lively scholarly and popular debates on the question of what it means, ethically, to be human in an Age of Humans. Major questions include the question of who are 'we' in the Anthropocene, and how the conditions of the putative new epoch will affect 'more-than-human-others'. Creative and justice activist responses to the Anthropocene typically distinguish among humans, focusing not on the causes, but rather on concerns of the people on the receiving end of global change (for example, the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) group of 39+8). Some are concerned about the collateral effects of technological 'fixes' for energy transformations and climate, and others about economic shifts and market-based incentives. As a historian of ideas, I explore the multiple paths by which people have come to the Anthropocene concept, and the uses to which it has already been put, even before a final decision is made on its formal status. The Anthropocene already arouses anxiety about 'the future'. One big idea that is shared across activists and scholars (and not just those in the humanities) is the question of enabling hopeful responses. A diversity of creative projects for living in the Anthropocene, which can contribute to coping with the stress of accelerating global change, is essential to this.

  14. Applications of living systems theory to life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James Grier

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the basic needs of life, is an extreme example of such isolation. A space station would include living systems at levels of individual human beings, groups of people engaged in a variety of activities, and the entire space crew as an organization. It could also carry living systems of other species, such as other animals and plants. Using the subsystem analysis of living systems theory, planners of a station, either in space or on a celestial body, would make sure that all the requirements for survival at all these levels had been considered. Attention would be given not only to the necessary matter and energy, but also the essential information flows that integrate and control living systems. Many variables for each subsystem could be monitored and kept in steady states. Use of living systems process analysis of the five flows of matter energy and information would assure that all members of the crew received what they needed.

  15. Onychomycosis in close quarter living review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Michael I; Zeichner, Joshua

    2013-11-01

    Onychomycosis is defined as a fungal infection of the nail bed and/or nail plate. The prevalence of onychomycosis has increased dramatically as a worldwide condition in the twentieth century due to occlusive footwear, global wars and natural migration. Risk factors generally leading to onychomycosis development include bodily spread of dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte tinea pedis, peripheral vascular disease, damaged nails via sports and trauma, older age, genetics, immunodeficiency and diabetes. Many publications discuss prevalence, symptoms and treatment of the disease in individual cases, hospitals or specific locations, but few strongly link the cause of onychomycosis to living environments. This is a review of the current literature on the prevalence of onychomycosis and its relationship to surrounding living environments of those infected. A Pubmed search was performed with 'onychomycosis'. Articles were selected based on the relevance to close quarter living environments. All ages can be affected with onychomycosis, ranging from children in boarding schools to elderly in nursing homes. Although not directly linking living environments to transmission and infection in all articles reviewed, onychomycosis was very prevalent in many different close quarter living settings, including within families, boarding schools, military quarters and nursing homes. This review demonstrates that various close quarter living environments are highly associated with increased transmission and infection with onychomycosis.

  16. The Impact of Living Arrangements and Deinstitutionalisation in the Health Status of Persons with Intellectual Disability in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Leal, R.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Linehan, C.; Walsh, P.; Weber, G.; Van Hove, G.; Maata, T.; Azema, B.; Haveman, M.; Buono, S.; Germanavicius, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Tossebro, J.; Carmen-Cara, A.; Berger, D. Moravec; Perry, J.; Kerr, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite progress in the process of deinstitutionalisation, very little is known about the health conditions of people with intellectual disability (PWID) who live in large institutions and PWID living in small residential services, family homes or independent living within the community. Furthermore, there are no international…

  17. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  18. Steps to Independent Living Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This set of six activity books and a teacher's guide is designed to help students from eighth grade to adulthood with special needs to learn independent living skills. The activity books have a reading level of 2.5 and address: (1) "How to Get Well When You're Sick or Hurt," including how to take a temperature, see a doctor, and use medicines…

  19. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  20. Women living with environmental illness.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Keddy, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    We used a case study approach to explore the experiences of 4 women who live with environmental illness (EI). From the unstructured interviews we found a variety of themes that pointed to the complexity of EI and its severe impact on the lives of these women, their families, and their significant others. The methodology was guided by an ecofeminist approach, which enabled a critical analysis of the data to move beyond the personal to the broader sociopolitical forces shaping society. We identified the following themes from the women's stories: indirect exposure to incitants through people with whom these women come in close physical contact; the phenomenon of burden of proof, meaning that these women are forced to explain and legitimize their illness on a continuous basis; taking refuge from a hostile environment in social isolation to a more controlled environment, not as a matter of choice, but because of the severity of the illness; and, finally, a change in value system was integral to the entire process of living with EI.

  1. Sleep disturbances in persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Taibi, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    Up to 70% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience sleep disturbances. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are common disorders seen in the primary care of PLWH. This paper reviews the current evidence and practice recommendations for treating these conditions. Insomnia is evaluated by clinical interview, questionnaires, and sleep diaries. The recommended first-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a trained therapist. Certain sedative medications may be useful, but over-the-counter treatments (particularly those containing antihistamines) are not recommended. OSAS is diagnosed by overnight sleep study but can be screened for in primary care. The STOP-BANG is a useful eight-item screening tool. The gold standard of treatment for OSAS is the use of a continuous positive airway pressure device. Treatment of insomnia and OSAS is important for improving quality of life and preventing associated health problems (especially cardiovascular disease in OSAS) in PLWH.

  2. Dynamic Metabolism Studies of Live Bacterial Films

    SciTech Connect

    Majors, Paul D.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial film (biofilm) microbes exist within spatial (nutrient, electron-acceptor, pH, etc.) gradients of their own making. Correspondingly, biofilm bacteria are physiologically and functionally distinct from free-floating bacteria and from their own species at differing biofilm depths. This article describes our efforts to develop noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technologies for biofilm-metabolism studies. This involves integrating NMR with controlled-cultivation methods to interrogate microbial physiology live and under known growth conditions. NMR is uniquely capable of providing depth-resolved metabolic and transport information in a non-invasive, non-sample-consuming fashion, providing information required for experimental reactive transport studies. We have studied mono-species biofilms relevant to environment remediation and human health. We describe these technologies, discuss their advantages and limitations, and give examples of their application.

  3. The Tumultuous Lives and Deaths of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars have a profound astrophysical influence throughout their tumultuous lives and deaths. Stellar feedback - the injection of energy and momentum by stars to the interstellar medium (ISM) - occurs through a variety of mechanisms: radiation, photoionization heating, winds, jets/outflows, supernovae, and cosmic-ray acceleration. Despite its importance, stellar feedback is cited as one of the biggest uncertainties in astrophysics today, stemming from a dearth of observational constraints and the challenges of considering many feedback modes simultaneously. In this talk, I will discuss how a systematic approach to multiwavelength observations can be used to overcome these issues. I will summarize results from application of these methods to massive-star regions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, where feedback processes are best resolved. Finally, I will highlight exciting prospects of using current and upcoming facilities to explore feedback in diverse conditions.

  4. Thermodynamics of protein destabilization in live cells.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Jens; Mu, Xin; Lang, Lisa; Wang, Huabing; Binolfi, Andres; Theillet, François-Xavier; Bekei, Beata; Logan, Derek T; Selenko, Philipp; Wennerström, Håkan; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2015-10-06

    Although protein folding and stability have been well explored under simplified conditions in vitro, it is yet unclear how these basic self-organization events are modulated by the crowded interior of live cells. To find out, we use here in-cell NMR to follow at atomic resolution the thermal unfolding of a β-barrel protein inside mammalian and bacterial cells. Challenging the view from in vitro crowding effects, we find that the cells destabilize the protein at 37 °C but with a conspicuous twist: While the melting temperature goes down the cold unfolding moves into the physiological regime, coupled to an augmented heat-capacity change. The effect seems induced by transient, sequence-specific, interactions with the cellular components, acting preferentially on the unfolded ensemble. This points to a model where the in vivo influence on protein behavior is case specific, determined by the individual protein's interplay with the functionally optimized "interaction landscape" of the cellular interior.

  5. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  6. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2009-12-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  7. Living with low vision: a personal and professional perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, S B

    1995-10-01

    Unlike most readers of this special issue, I have been both a consumer and provider of rehabilitation services. A retinal hemorrhage that occurred when I was in my late twenties signaled the beginning of delayed-onset retinopathy of prematurity--a condition that has been further complicated since that time. In this article, I offer a glimpse of what living with low vision is like by describing activities in my own life and accommodations I have made. My hope is that therapists will learn more about the realities of living with low vision and will seek our additional information that they will incorporate into their practice.

  8. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, Ann; Waltman, Mary Jo; Smith, Hillary L.; Pocivavsek, Luka; Zebda, Noureddine; Birukov, Konstantin; Viapiano, Mariano; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-12-10

    In this study, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells' adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell — surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  9. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    DOE PAGES

    Junghans, Ann; Waltman, Mary Jo; Smith, Hillary L.; ...

    2014-12-10

    In this study, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells' adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutronmore » reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell — surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.« less

  10. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    JUNGHANS, ANN; WALTMAN, MARY JO; SMITH, HILLARY L.; POCIVAVSEK, LUKA; ZEBDA, NOUREDDINE; BIRUKOV, KONSTANTIN; VIAPIANO, MARIANO; MAJEWSKI, JAROSLAW

    2015-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell – surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies. PMID:25705067

  11. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Ann; Waltman, Mary Jo; Smith, Hillary L.; Pocivavsek, Luka; Zebda, Noureddine; Birukov, Konstantin; Viapiano, Mariano; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells' adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell — surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  12. Complexity for Survival of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A logical connection between the survivability of living systems and the complexity of their behavior (equivalently, mental complexity) has been established. This connection is an important intermediate result of continuing research on mathematical models that could constitute a unified representation of the evolution of both living and non-living systems. Earlier results of this research were reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most relevant being Characteristics of Dynamics of Intelligent Systems (NPO- 21037), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48; and Self-Supervised Dynamical Systems (NPO- 30634) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 72. As used here, living systems is synonymous with active systems and intelligent systems. The quoted terms can signify artificial agents (e.g., suitably programmed computers) or natural biological systems ranging from single-cell organisms at one extreme to the whole of human society at the other extreme. One of the requirements that must be satisfied in mathematical modeling of living systems is reconciliation of evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics. In the approach followed in this research, this reconciliation is effected by means of a model, inspired partly by quantum mechanics, in which the quantum potential is replaced with an information potential. The model captures the most fundamental property of life - the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The model incorporates the equations of classical dynamics, including Newton s equations of motion and equations for random components caused by uncertainties in initial conditions and by Langevin forces. The equations of classical dynamics are coupled with corresponding Liouville or Fokker-Planck equations that describe the evolutions of probability densities that represent the uncertainties. The coupling is effected by fictitious information-based forces that are

  13. Anticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word "evolution", but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of "Natura non facit saltum". He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the "Evolutionary Synthesis" in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word "program" comes from "pro-gram" meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence

  14. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry. (a) Market agencies to make prompt accounting and transmittal of net proceeds. Each market agency... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1)...

  15. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry. (a) Market agencies to make prompt accounting and transmittal of net proceeds. Each market agency... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1)...

  16. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry. (a) Market agencies to make prompt accounting and transmittal of net proceeds. Each market agency... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1)...

  17. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry. (a) Market agencies to make prompt accounting and transmittal of net proceeds. Each market agency... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1)...

  18. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry. (a) Market agencies to make prompt accounting and transmittal of net proceeds. Each market agency... nature of the transaction. (b) Prompt payment for livestock and live poultry—terms and conditions. (1)...

  19. "Getting on with Life": Resilience and Normalcy in Adolescents Living with Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Peter; Walker, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the ways in which "resilience" operates with adolescents whose lives have been marked by a significant health condition. It is based on a qualitative study that followed 31 adolescents, dealing with chronic illness, across 3 years of their lives. The study placed the adolescents at the centre of the research process,…

  20. Quality of Life of Poor People Living in Remote Areas in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Based on three surveys carried out for studying living conditions of youth, women and elderly living in six remote areas (Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Tai Po) in the New Territories of Hong Kong, this paper reports the poverty and social exclusion of these three groups of people. The quality of life of youth, women…

  1. Skill Activities for Independent Living (SAIL). A Curriculum for Developmentally Disabled Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.

    This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…

  2. Social Security and Elderly Living Arrangements--Evidence from Social Security Notch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Gruber, Jonathan; Perry, Cynthia D.

    2005-01-01

    Social Security program has over the period become unsustainable from tax finance and imply reforms that would cut down on benefits of the elderly. The implications are that elderly may have to increase their post-retirement working, reduce consumption and opt for shared living rather than independent living conditions. The last of the three…

  3. Poverty Lines in Theory and Practice. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, Number 133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravallion, Martin

    A poverty line helps focus the attention of policymakers on the living conditions of the poor and may inform policy decisions about targeting development or poverty programs. Poverty lines serve two roles. One is to determine the minimum living standard before a person is not considered "poor." The other is to make interpersonal comparisons, such…

  4. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  5. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  6. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation.

  7. Impact of monitoring technology in assisted living: outcome pilot.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Majd; Dalal, Siddharth; Mack, David; Kell, Steven W; Turner, Beverely; Leachtenauer, Jon; Felder, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to assess the acceptance and some psychosocial impacts of monitoring technology in assisted living. Monitoring systems were installed in 22 assisted living units to track the activities of daily living (ADLs) and key alert conditions of residents (15 of whom were nonmemory care residents). Activity reports and alert notifications were sent to professional caregivers who provided care to residents participating in the study. Diagnostic use of the monitoring data was assessed. Nonmemory care residents were surveyed and assessed using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) instrument. Pre- and post-installation SWLS scores were compared. Older adult participants accepted monitoring. The results suggest that monitoring technologies could provide care coordination tools that are accepted by residents and may have a positive impact on their quality of life.

  8. Living and morking on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, C. P.

    When it becomes feasible to live and work on Mars, martian resources will be a critical part of the sustaining process. It will be necessary to drink water extracted from the martian environment, to make breathable air and fuel components from the martian atmosphere, and to shield or construct facilities using martian dirt. The ultimate use of martian resources may be the "terraforming" of that planet's global environment into an Earth-like biosphere for a population whose ancestors were born on a distant blue planet.

  9. Living and Working in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a presentation about some of the challenges of living and working in space. The presentation shows slides of the Apollo 11 liftoff, Skylab in orbit, a Space Shuttle launch, and a slide of the International Space Station. It reviews the needs and effluents of the astronauts per day, and the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems. It shows a flow diagram of the Space Station Regenerative ECLS, which shows the various systems, and how they interact to control the environment and recycle the air, and water. There are other slides some of which show astronauts eating, brushing teeth, shaving, and sipping from a sip bottle while exercising.

  10. [Clinical evaluation of living donor].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Maria Piera; Comai, G; La Manna, G; Liviano D'Arcangelo, G; Monti, M; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S

    2009-01-01

    When possible, living donor transplantation represents the best therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Studying the donor allows a complete and thorough clinical, laboratory and instrumental assessment that guarantees good organ function whilst protecting the health of the donor. The main parameters considered within this framework are age, renal function, nephrological complications, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc.), malignancies, and infection. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the sociopsychological aspects of the donation, particularly related to the donor, the recipient, and the entire family situation.

  11. Long-lived laser dye

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described of obtaining in a flashlamp pumped laser system, a long-lived flashpumped laser dye having a low threshold of lasing and a moderate output comprising the steps of: placing a dye solution comprising a laser dye, the N-methyl tosylate salt of 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxphenyl)oxazole, and a solvent into a laser dye cavity; screening the dye solution from ultraviolet light with an optical filter; flushing the dye solution with an inert gas; and optically pumping the dye solution with a flashlamp to produce laser emission.

  12. Living with Spina Bifida (at different ages)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida affects the entire ...

  13. Senior Living: Staying Positive and Moving Forward

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Staying Positive and Moving Forward Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... page please turn Javascript on. For Juanita Kuhn, moving to an independent living facility is just the ...

  14. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech.

  15. Gendered Living Arrangements among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Philip N.; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2006-01-01

    Using data on disabilities from the 2000 Census, we found a consistent pattern of living arrangements that leaves children (aged 5-15 years) with disabilities living disproportionately with women. Children with disabilities are more likely to live with single parents, and especially their mothers, than are other children. Further, those who do not…

  16. Living Free: A Teacher Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Robin

    This workbook helps adolescents learn how to take charge of their own lives and happiness. The underlying idea is to teach them how to live responsibly. By learning to live responsibly, adolescents have the best chance of avoiding drugs, alcohol, and other addictive behaviors such as overeating and overspending. The workbook explains the steps to…

  17. Use of Live Supervision in Counselor Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubenzer, Donald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated live supervision in counselor preparation programs by surveying 307 counselor preparation programs. Live supervision was used at 157 institutions and was used in preparing individual, group, and marriage and family counselors. At least 75 percent of programs provided live supervision weekly. Techniques of cotherapy and remote viewing…

  18. Magnetic Levitational Assembly for Living Material Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Liaudanskaya, Volha; Guven, Sinan; Migliaresi, Claudio; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-15

    Functional living materials with microscale compositional topographies are prevalent in nature. However, the creation of biomaterials composed of living micro building blocks, each programmed by composition, functionality, and shape, is still a challenge. A powerful yet simple approach to create living materials using a levitation-based magnetic method is presented.

  19. Inquiry and Living History, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, introduces the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Here, the authors describe how the yearly living history program was implemented and…

  20. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Living well in the Neuropolis

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about the relationship between cities and brains: it charts the back‐and‐forth between the hectic, stressful lives of urban citizens, and a psychological and neurobiological literature that claims to make such stress both visible and knowable. But beyond such genealogical labour, the paper also asks: what can a sociology concerned with the effects of ‘biosocial’ agencies take from a scientific literature on the urban brain? What might sociology even contribute to that literature, in its turn? To investigate these possibilities, the paper centres on the emergence and description of what it calls ‘the Neuropolis’ – a term it deploys to hold together both an intellectual and scientific figure and a real, physical enclosure. The Neuropolis is an image of the city embedded in neuropsychological concepts and histories, but it also describes an embodied set of (sometimes pathological) relations and effects that take places between cities and the people who live in them. At the heart of the paper is an argument that finding a way to thread these phenomena together might open up new paths for thinking about ‘good’ life in the contemporary city. Pushing at this claim, the paper argues that mapping the relations, histories, spaces, and people held together by this term is a vital task for the future of urban sociology. PMID:27397945

  2. Older adult drivers living in residential care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Ginde, Adit A.; Betz, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Residential care facilities (RCF) provide assistance to older adults who cannot live independently, but it is unclear whether these residents have retired from driving. Here, we characterize older adults living in RCFs who still drive from a national cross-sectional survey of residents (2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities), representing ~733,000 adults living in RCFs such as assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Key resident characteristics were health, function, mobility and community activity indicators, which could be associated with increased driving risk. Of 8,087 residents, 4.5% (95%CI=3.9-5.1) were current drivers. Many drivers were older than 80 years (74%, 95%CI=67-79), in very good health (31%, 95%CI=25-38) or good health (35%, 95%CI=29-42), and had a median of two medical conditions. Most were independent with activities of daily living, though some needed assistance with walking and used gait devices. Given these results, RCF staff and healthcare providers need a heightened awareness of factors associated with driving risk to promote safety of older drivers and provide resources for likely transition to other transportation. PMID:26366125

  3. Generation of living cell arrays for atomic force microscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Cécile; Pillet, Flavien; Schiavone, Marion; Duval, Raphaël E; Ressier, Laurence; Dague, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for studying the morphology or the nanomechanical and adhesive properties of live microorganisms under physiological conditions. However, to perform AFM imaging, living cells must be immobilized firmly enough to withstand the lateral forces exerted by the scanning tip, but without denaturing them. This protocol describes how to immobilize living cells, ranging from spores of bacteria to yeast cells, into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps, with no chemical or physical denaturation. This protocol generates arrays of living cells, allowing statistically relevant measurements to be obtained from AFM measurements, which can increase the relevance of results. The first step of the protocol is to generate a microstructured silicon master, from which many microstructured PDMS stamps can be replicated. Living cells are finally assembled into the microstructures of these PDMS stamps using a convective and capillary assembly. The complete procedure can be performed in 1 week, although the first step is done only once, and thus repeats can be completed within 1 d.

  4. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other conditions, like juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Crohn's disease, Lyme disease, and mononucleosis. Cutaneous (or skin) lupus , which usually ... Muscles, and Joints Immune System Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Lyme Disease Guillain-Barré Syndrome Your Immune System Life With ...

  5. Living with Long QT Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... level in your blood. These conditions include the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, excessive vomiting or diarrhea, ... This Content: NEXT >> Updated: September 21, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA ...

  6. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  7. Molecular Spectroscopy of Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in the study of molecules in gas phase, condensed phase, and at interfaces. The transition from in vitro spectroscopy to spectroscopic imaging of living systems is opening new opportunities to reveal cellular machinery and to enable molecule-based diagnosis (Science 2015, 350: 1054). Such a transition involves more than a simple combination of spectrometry and microscopy. In this presentation, I will discuss the most recent efforts that have pushed the physical limits of spectroscopic imaging in terms of spectral acquisition speed, detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging depth. I will further highlight significant applications in functional analysis of single cells and in label-free detection of diseases.

  8. Towards a living earth simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, M.; Kossman, D.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; Argyrakis, P.; Blandford, A.; Bonelli, G.; Anderson, S.; de Freitas, S.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gross, M.; Kohlhammer, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Krause, A.; Linnér, B.-O.; Slusallek, P.; Sorkine, O.; Sumner, R. W.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The Living Earth Simulator (LES) is one of the core components of the FuturICT architecture. It will work as a federation of methods, tools, techniques and facilities supporting all of the FuturICT simulation-related activities to allow and encourage interactive exploration and understanding of societal issues. Society-relevant problems will be targeted by leaning on approaches based on complex systems theories and data science in tight interaction with the other components of FuturICT. The LES will evaluate and provide answers to real-world questions by taking into account multiple scenarios. It will build on present approaches such as agent-based simulation and modeling, multiscale modelling, statistical inference, and data mining, moving beyond disciplinary borders to achieve a new perspective on complex social systems.

  9. Legislative hazard: keeping patients living, against their wills.

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, L L

    1988-01-01

    Natural death act legislation which is intended to assist patients who wish to refuse or limit medical treatment may actually erode patients' rights. By use of a 'living will' the legislation intends to extend the patients' role in decision-making to the time when patients can no longer speak for themselves. However, the legislation erodes and constricts the right of refusal. The erosion is the result of two sets of conditions found in the legislation. The first requires that the patient be qualified and certified by others before interventions can be withdrawn or withheld. The second delineates the physical condition which must be present before a living will can be followed. Patients have had to seek the assistance of the courts to enforce their common law rights of refusal of treatment against these requirements. Legislation is needed, but greater care must be taken to avoid the creation of a Kafkaesque legal nightmare for those we intend to assist. PMID:3392722

  10. Living kidney donation and masked nationalism in Israel.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Miran

    2016-12-13

    This paper draws attention to a current trend of masked conditional-nationalist living kidney donation in Israel, to which the local transplant system has been turning a blind eye. The paper seeks to make the international transplant and bioethics communities aware of this disturbing trend. It also explains why it is wrong and suggests how to tackle it. Finally, it calls on the Israeli system to bring the practice to a halt for the benefit of all parties involved.

  11. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem.

  12. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion

  13. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  14. Living and Working in Antarctica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Noel

    This source book, designed for 11- to 14-year-old students, seeks to describe what life is like in Antarctica. In spite of extreme weather conditions, people go to Antarctica to work every summer. Some of them stay there during the winter as well. This book seeks to supply answers to such questions as: How do people get to Antarctica? Why do they…

  15. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  16. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  17. Three dimensional living neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnenberger, Anna; McLeod, Robert R.; Basta, Tamara; Stowell, Michael H. B.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate holographic optical tweezing combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection micro-stereolithography for fine control of 3D positioning of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel grid. Samples were fabricated using three different cell lines; PC12, NT2/D1 and iPSC. PC12 cells are a rat cell line capable of differentiation into neuron-like cells NT2/D1 cells are a human cell line that exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to that of an early embryo and when exposed to retinoic acid the cells differentiate into human neurons useful for studies of human neurological disease. Finally induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were utilized with the goal of future studies of neural networks fabricated from human iPSC derived neurons. Cells are positioned in the monomer solution with holographic optical tweezers at 1064 nm and then are encapsulated by photopolymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry via projection of a 512x512 spatial light modulator (SLM) illuminated at 405 nm. Fabricated samples are incubated in differentiation media such that cells cease to divide and begin to form axons or axon-like structures. By controlling the position of the cells within the encapsulating hydrogel structure the formation of the neural circuits is controlled. The samples fabricated with this system are a useful model for future studies of neural circuit formation, neurological disease, cellular communication, plasticity, and repair mechanisms.

  18. Live Blogging Science News: The Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.

    2016-03-01

    When one of the world's most popular online news websites decides to cover a space science event live, you know that something big is brewing. Stuart Clark reports on how live blogging can be used for science reporting and how an idea that was triggered by his observations during the Rosetta flyby of the asteroid Lutetia and the landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars led to him live blogging two of Rosetta's most memorable occasions for The Guardian newspaper.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO LIVE E. COLI ORGANISMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    shock and shock produced by injection of live E . coli organisms in dogs. A primary purpose of our research has been to determine the effects of...intravenous injections of living E . coli organisms in dogs and monkeys and compare them with responses produced by endotoxin. Hemodynamic changes...pathologic alterations, and metabolic abnormalities have been evaluated in animals receiving lethal and sublethal injections of live E . coli organisms and comparable dosages of purified endotoxin.

  20. Living musical instruments and inanimate body parts?

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    2001-01-01

    In the literature about category effects in semantic memory, body parts and musical instruments are often considered atypical, because in cases with a disproportionate impairment of living categories body parts are relatively spared, while musical instruments are often severely defective. In this study the performance of 57 subjects affected by diseases generally associated with lexical-semantic impairment, for the most part Alzheimer's disease and other forms of cortical degeneration, but also herpetic encephalitis and traumatic brain damage are analyzed. The subjects were given a picture naming task tapping eight categories: three living categories (animals, fruits and vegetables) and three non-living categories (tools, furniture and vehicles), plus body parts and musical instruments. On a preliminary analysis at the group level, body parts were the least impaired category and musical instruments the most severely impaired, the six living and non-living categories being intermediate. However, these differences disappeared after covariance for lexical frequency, name agreement and age of acquisition. The relationship between living categories, non-living categories, musical instruments and body parts was investigated by means of a Lisrel model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Two latent variables related to living and non-living categories respectively were defined, and it was found that both body parts and musical instruments were significantly related only with non-living categories. The results showed that the definition of the latent variable expressing the substrate of non-living categories was less satisfactory than that expressing the living categories. On this basis, the conclusions of this study appear statistically definite but their psychological interpretation is less straightforward.

  1. The lived experience of feeling misunderstood.

    PubMed

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the structure of the lived experience of feeling misunderstood. Parse's phenomenological-hermeneutic research method was used to answer the research question: What is the structure of the lived experience of feeling misunderstood? Extraction-synthesis revealed four core concepts. The structure is the lived experience of feeling misunderstood is disheartening insignificance surfacing with discordant affiliations, as resignation with resiliency emerges with inventive endeavors. Implications for nursing research and practice are presented.

  2. Phase Transitions in Living Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Garcia, Rashid Vladimir

    Our nervous systems are composed of intricate webs of interconnected neurons interacting in complex ways. These complex interactions result in a wide range of collective behaviors with implications for features of brain function, e.g., information processing. Under certain conditions, such interactions can drive neural network dynamics towards critical phase transitions, where power-law scaling is conjectured to allow optimal behavior. Recent experimental evidence is consistent with this idea and it seems plausible that healthy neural networks would tend towards optimality. This hypothesis, however, is based on two problematic assumptions, which I describe and for which I present alternatives in this thesis. First, critical transitions may vanish due to the influence of an environment, e.g., a sensory stimulus, and so living neural networks may be incapable of achieving "critical" optimality. I develop a framework known as quasicriticality, in which a relative optimality can be achieved depending on the strength of the environmental influence. Second, the power-law scaling supporting this hypothesis is based on statistical analysis of cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches, which conflate causal and non-causal activity, thus confounding important dynamical information. In this thesis, I present a new method to unveil causal links, known as causal webs, between neuronal activations, thus allowing for experimental tests of the quasicriticality hypothesis and other practical applications.

  3. Thermodynamics of protein destabilization in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Jens; Mu, Xin; Lang, Lisa; Wang, Huabing; Binolfi, Andres; Theillet, François-Xavier; Bekei, Beata; Logan, Derek T.; Selenko, Philipp; Wennerström, Håkan; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Although protein folding and stability have been well explored under simplified conditions in vitro, it is yet unclear how these basic self-organization events are modulated by the crowded interior of live cells. To find out, we use here in-cell NMR to follow at atomic resolution the thermal unfolding of a β-barrel protein inside mammalian and bacterial cells. Challenging the view from in vitro crowding effects, we find that the cells destabilize the protein at 37 °C but with a conspicuous twist: While the melting temperature goes down the cold unfolding moves into the physiological regime, coupled to an augmented heat-capacity change. The effect seems induced by transient, sequence-specific, interactions with the cellular components, acting preferentially on the unfolded ensemble. This points to a model where the in vivo influence on protein behavior is case specific, determined by the individual protein’s interplay with the functionally optimized “interaction landscape” of the cellular interior. PMID:26392565

  4. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Henricus H.; Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Löwen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior among the simplest forms of life and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active nonequilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific or which generalizations of the Navier–Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence. PMID:22908244

  5. Living in a Patient-Centric Universe.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Dennis H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer face a number of challenges in terms of treatment, cure of their underlying malignant condition, and quality of survivorship. This presentation will focus on the patient perception of both the quality of care and the empathy and availability of the head and neck oncology team. It has become evident that the quality of survivorship plays a central role in the patient's decision-making process. The process of decision making by the patient facing head and neck cancer and the impact on treatment choices will be explored. The ability of the patient and her or his support system to navigate through the increasingly complicated health care system will be considered, with an emphasis on strategies for success. Finally, the role of the of the head and neck surgeon, and the need for physician wellness in predicating successful patient outcomes will be considered. The ultimate goal of achieving optimal care, superior patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction is the true objective of the concept of living in a patient-centric universe.

  6. Living in poverty in America today.

    PubMed

    Holosko, Michael J; Feit, Marvin D

    2005-01-01

    No statistician, social scientist or tarot card reader is needed to attest that the gap between the rich and poor in America is increasing. Further, most Americans don't care that much about it. There are also more rich people today living in the U.S. and there are more people living in poverty. Between 2000 and 2002, the number of Americans living in poverty increased by nearly 3 million to 34.6 million. Of these, 12% (or about one half a million persons) are living extreme poverty and many are children, with 16.7% likely to be poor (National Association of Social Workers, 2003).

  7. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  8. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  9. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  10. Dietary live yeast alters metabolic profiles, protein biosynthesis and thermal stress tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional factors on insect's life-history traits such as reproduction and lifespan has been excessively examined; however, nutritional determinant of insect's thermal tolerance has not received a lot of attention. Dietary live yeast represents a prominent source of proteins and amino acids for laboratory-reared drosophilids. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster adults were fed on diets supplemented or not with live yeast. We hypothesized that manipulating nutritional conditions through live yeast supplementation would translate into altered physiology and stress tolerance. We verified how live yeast supplementation affected body mass characteristics, total lipids and proteins, metabolic profiles and cold tolerance (acute and chronic stress). Females fed with live yeast had increased body mass and contained more lipids and proteins. Using GC/MS profiling, we found distinct metabolic fingerprints according to nutritional conditions. Metabolite pathway enrichment analysis corroborated that live yeast supplementation was associated with amino acid and protein biosyntheses. The cold assays revealed that the presence of dietary live yeast greatly promoted cold tolerance. Hence, this study conclusively demonstrates a significant interaction between nutritional conditions and thermal tolerance.

  11. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  12. Identifying information needs among children and teens living with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Simmons, G M; Frick, N; Wang, A; Miller, M E; Fragueiro, D

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning from one life stage to the next can be difficult, but for those living with a chronic condition, it can be even more challenging. Children and adolescents with haemophilia need help to manage transitions while dealing with the complications of their disorder. The National Haemophilia Foundation (NHF), headquartered in New York City, has an extensive information centre on bleeding disorders, but it was not clear how much material existed on the topic of transition. The objectives of this project were to (i) assess the availability of literature about transition for children and adolescents living with haemophilia, (ii) determine which transition issues were the most relevant and (iii) develop and test information products that would address those transition issues. An inventory of NHF's resources and an environmental scan over the Internet was performed. Focus groups were conducted to determine messaging. Video prototypes containing messages were created, tested by focus groups and revised. The literature search yielded limited information available on transition for children and adolescents with haemophilia. Results of the formative research indicated that adolescents wanted more information on sports participation and disclosure of their condition (e.g. to peers, teachers, coaches, health care providers). Video was found to be the preferred delivery format. Children and adolescents living with haemophilia need information to help them transition through life. As a result of this study, two educational products were produced, but several more are recommended to guide these individuals in making healthy transitions into adulthood.

  13. Only One Earth: Living for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Lloyd

    Depicting how people in nine countries can improve their lives while living within their environmental means is the primary aim of this book. Chapter 1 highlights the division of earth's people into the haves and the have nots and describes the inequity of so few having so much of the available resources. Chapter 2 examines the problem of how…

  14. Living Citizenship: Transcending the Cultural Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Steven; Potts, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Living citizenship emerging from reflection on an international educational partnership makes a unique contribution to the field and importantly fulfils the British Educational Research Association aim of improving educational practice for the public benefit. This paper explores the conceptual framework of 'living citizenship' as a means for…

  15. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  16. Community Living Skills Guide: Beginning Woodworking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Smith, Don

    This is one of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series which provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Beginning Woodworking, Use of Basic Hand Tools and Shop Safety. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to…

  17. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  18. School on Probation: Teaching That Changes Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    For the past dozen years the author has been teaching, along with other volunteers, in a program called "Changing Lives Through Literature," serving the Dorchester District Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Changing Lives began as a single experiment in New Bedford in 1991 and has spread entirely by word of mouth to a dozen…

  19. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  20. Living with Learning Difficulties: Emma's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paula Jean; Carruthers, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This article is about Emma's experience of living with learning difficulties. Emma expresses a lot of anger, and talks about feelings of loss. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because they can see if their experience is like Emma's in any way. This paper presents Emma's story: her experience of living with learning…

  1. Environmental Living Program, Book 1: What's Happening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldi, Mary Lou

    This booklet documents, in words and pictures, the Environmental Living Program. This program, which has been in operation since 1969, provides overnight living experiences for elementary and secondary school students at cultural, historic, or prehistoric sites. The sites are National and State parks and private sites in California and Arizona.…

  2. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  3. Bush Blitz TeachLive 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In July 2015, the Bush Blitz TeachLive expedition took place on the Olkola people's traditional lands on Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. Five teachers joined more than a dozen scientists and the Olkola Indigenous rangers to act as research assistants, as part of the eight-day Bush Blitz TeachLive experience. As a team, they discovered new…

  4. Beauty in the Context of Particular Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on empirical research by the author into the everyday lives of people living in a small village. Everyday life is approached as a subjective process in time and space, experienced by particular people in a particular environmental and social context. The data of this research has been collected through correspondence in which…

  5. Grandparent Education for Assisted Living Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.

    2017-01-01

    The assisted living population is forecast to increase at a rapid rate. Quality of life for residents should be improved by giving greater attention to their cognitive, emotional, and social needs. A university lifespan development team provided a grandparent education course at a large assisted living facility with the assistance of 20 resident…

  6. Community Living Skills Guide: Looking Good: Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  7. Community Living Skills Guide: Beginning Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Martha; Kreps, Alice Roelofs, Ed.

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Beginning Spanish. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons…

  8. Women's Guide to Overseas Living. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piet-Pelon, Nancy J.; Hornby, Barbara

    This book examines issues critical to women and their families who go abroad to live. In advising how to cope effectively with the problems that arise, the book illuminates the advantages of living overseas and offers practical suggestions and guidelines that help women take advantage of the opportunity to share in another culture. Divided into 13…

  9. Reflection on Lived Experience in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    While debate about the meaning of hermeneutics and phenomenology for educational research continues, the notion of lived experience, and its application to reflective practice, has become a feature of much that goes by the name of phenomenological within this area. The prevalence of the lived experience model can be attributed in large part to the…

  10. NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

  11. Living and working in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of space colonization depends partly on the answer to the practical question whether construction workers can exist and work in zero-g for the time necessary to build the colony framework to the point just prior to spinning it into its artificial-g mode. Based on definitive Skylab experience, there seems to be every reason to believe that workers in zero-g can perform their construction tasks with the same skill as under 1-g conditions. Attention is also given to basic reasons and motivations for the conduction of space flights and the establishment of space colonies.

  12. Oncology patients and the living will.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R L

    1992-05-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act now requires hospitals, nursing homes, and health maintenance organizations to ask patients if they have executed and are in possession of a living will. This article provides a brief historical perspective of what living wills are, how patient autonomy has contributed to their existence, and what distinguishes a living will from a durable power of attorney for health care. Included are working examples of these advance directives and a description of the University of Kansas Cancer Unit's positive experience with living wills. The final section discusses the meaning of certain pivotal terms, looks at the current under-utilization of living wills, and closes with an examination of the Blackhall thesis of futility.

  13. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    PubMed

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  14. Understanding Pennsylvania living wills: the 5 Ws.

    PubMed

    Pina, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    The working world of nurses is often filled with deep-running emotions and physical exhaustion as we care for our dying patients. We feel the need to step back and gain perspective when faced with a dying patient, or more appropriately, a dying person. We must also keep in mind the family of the dying who may have similar feelings. It is nearly impossible to be a nurse and not have to care for a dying patient; thus, we often find ourselves dealing with living wills. The living will is the more common of the two forms of an advance directive; the other is the durable power of attorney for healthcare. Since living wills are so common, and laws about them vary from state-to-state, it is important for the professional nurse in Pennsylvania to understand how living wills work in our state. This may best be approached by considering the 5 Ws related to living wills.

  15. The living will: legal and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wold, J L

    1992-02-01

    Problems surrounding issues of dying and death are many. Health professionals, families and individuals all must cope with different aspects of these problems. The living will has been discussed as one way people can alleviate many of the problems associated with the decision to die with dignity. Nurses are in the perfect position to educate people concerning the benefits of having a living will. As patient advocate, it is imperative nurses be apprised of the laws in their states regarding living wills. By initiating a living will, individuals can make their wishes known to both family and the medical establishment. Increased public education concerning state living will legislation and concomitant rights under these laws is needed. Through education, many of the legal and ethical issues that arise from ignorance of the law may be avoided before they become problems.

  16. Living will status and desire for living will help among rural Alabama veterans.

    PubMed

    Mahaney-Price, Ann F; Hilgeman, Michelle M; Davis, Lori L; McNeal, Sandre F; Conner, Charles M; Allen, Rebecca S

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from an earlier intervention study to increase Veterans Administration health care enrollment in rural Alabama veterans was to determine the veterans' living will status, desire for help completing a living will, and relationships between these and demographic, health insurance, health self-report, cumulative illness, disability, and trust characteristics. Baseline data for 201 rural Alabama veterans were extracted from the larger study. Chi-square and t tests were used to analyze group differences in categorical and continuous variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine multivariate associations of variables with living will status and desire for help. Only 13% of participants had living wills. Of those without living wills, 40% expressed a desire for help completing a living will. African Americans were less likely to have living wills than were Caucasians. Participants with more than high school education were more likely to desire help completing living wills than were those with less education. With the exception of moderate-severe respiratory illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with having a living will. With the exception of moderate-severe vascular illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with desire for help completing a living will. The racial and educational disparities in living will status and desire for help and the number of participants who desired help completing a living will suggests a need for action to increase advance care planning among rural veterans.

  17. Determinants of physical activity among Somali women living in Maine.

    PubMed

    Devlin, John T; Dhalac, Deqa; Suldan, Asha A; Jacobs, Ana; Guled, Khadija; Bankole, Kolawole A

    2012-04-01

    Somali women living in the US are at increased risk for chronic health conditions due to changes in lifestyle following immigration. Numerous barriers to physical activity have been reported in this population. Behavioral theory may inform the design of successful health interventions. We explored in focus groups the behavioral determinants of physical activity (theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy) among Somali women (N = 30). We found that most (two-thirds) subjects were sedentary, although women who had lived in the US for 10 years or longer were more likely to be active. Somali women recognize the health threat of physical inactivity, including high rates of obesity. Moral norms appear to be the major barrier to physical activity, due to prohibitions against exercising in public or in Western-style clothing. Taking moral norms into consideration should allow for the design of culturally-appropriate exercise programs that can address a major health threat in this vulnerable population.

  18. [The kinetic theory of the aging of living systems].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A A; Kholodnov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic theory of aging of living systems is proposed. Theory is based on the concept of continuous adaptation of biological system (BS) from its birth to changing conditions of environment (ENV). Adaptation rate as rate of risk of destructions accumulation in BS is studied as competition between two simultaneous processes: BS destruction and recombination of damages defined by kinetics of autocatalytic chemical reactions. Kinetic theory assumes critical phenomenon: failure of adaptation when intensity of ENV impact becomes higher some critical level. Choice of parameters of kinetic mathematical model and accounting dependence of ENV impact intensity on time allows describing the following results observed in medical practice: child mortality, depletion of adaptive reserves, slowing the rate of aging of long-living persons, damped harmonic oscillations of biological response at pulse toxic intervention and to estimate risks of disease and death.

  19. Treatment Outcome for Street-Living, Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L.; Meyers, Robert J.; Glassman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive intervention for homeless, street living youth that addresses substance use, social stability, physical and mental health issues has received very little attention. In this study, street living youth aged 14 to 22 were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or treatment as usual (TAU) through a drop-in center. Findings showed that youth assigned to CRA, compared to TAU, reported significantly reduced substance use (37% v. 17% reduction), depression (40% v. 23%) and increased social stability (58% v. 13%). Youth in both conditions improved in many other behavioral domains including substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems, and emotion and task oriented coping. This study indicates that homeless youth can be engaged into treatment and respond favorably to intervention efforts. However, more treatment development research is needed to address the barriers associated with serving these youth. PMID:16989957

  20. Term Live Secondary Abdominal Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Deepika; Bharti, Rekha; Anand, HP; Sharma, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Term, live abdominal pregnancy secondary to rupture of a uterine rudimentary horn is a rare condition. Pregnancies conceived in the rudimentary horn of the uterus usually rupture during early gestation and present as a catastrophic event. However, rarely, after rupture of the uterine horn the foetus may continue to grow in the abdominal cavity and reach term gestation. A primigravida with a term pregnancy was referred to our centre for caesarean section with ultrasonography findings of transverse lie and placenta previa. During surgery, a live baby was extracted from the abdominal cavity, revealing a bicornuate uterus with rupture of the rudimentary horn. The early peroperative diagnosis and prompt control of the bleeding with excision of the rudimentary horn and transfusion of multiple blood products saved the patient’s life. The case is presented for its rarity and to highlight the importance of a high index of suspicion in cases presenting with abnormal foetal presentation. PMID:27904431

  1. Improving Care for Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mattke, Soeren; Mengistu, Tewodaj; Klautzer, Lisa; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Brook, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The need for better management of chronic conditions is urgent. About 141 million people in the United States were living with one or more chronic conditions in 2010, and this number is projected to increase to 171 million by 2030. To address this challenge, many health plans have piloted and rolled out innovative approaches to improving care for their members with chronic conditions. This article documents the current range of chronic care management services, identifies best practices and industry trends, and examines factors in the plans' operating environment that limit their ability to optimize chronic care programs. The authors conducted telephone surveys with a representative sample of health plans and made in-depth case studies of six plans. All plans in the sample provide a wide range of products and services around chronic care, including wellness/lifestyle management programs for healthy members, disease management for members with common chronic conditions, and case management for high-risk members regardless of their underlying condition. Health plans view these programs as a “win-win” situation and believe that they improve care for their most vulnerable members and reduce cost of coverage. Plans are making their existing programs more patient-centric and are integrating disease and case management, and sometimes lifestyle management and behavioral health, into a consolidated chronic care management program, believing that this will increase patient engagement and prevent duplication of services and missed opportunities. PMID:28083379

  2. Assessing the planet's condition.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of the environment has accelerated since the Earth Day of 1970, the world's population has increased by another 1.6 billion, and over 500 million acres of forest have been lost. Carbon dioxide levels, greenhouse gases, and chlorofluorocarbons have increased in the atmosphere with evidence that global warming has started. The ozone hole has appeared, acid rain has destroyed forests, air pollution in major northern hemisphere cities has worsened, and species are disappearing, while toxic chemicals have been dumped indiscriminately. World grain production has fallen while population has increased. In Europe 14 countries have stabilized their population, and Japan, France, and Finland are on the way to zero growth. Reduction of high fertility in 1/2 could halt the deterioration of living conditions. Japan and China achieved this within a decade. Energy efficiency has to be attained; US cars still consume too much gas. Solar energy with photovoltaic cells to provide power, fuel alcohol from plants, and solar thermal power plants have potential. Semiarid regions, such as northern Africa, could become major producers of solar energy. Various measures are mandatory to cut down on waste: to recycle paper bags, to use standardized glasses for beverages, and to utilize scrap metal in electric arc steel furnaces. Reforestation is also on the agenda, as major deforestation has occurred in the Brazilian Amazon region, in India, and in Europe because of acid rain. Australia's national plan envisions planting 1 billion trees, and the US project is of similar magnitude during the 1990s. Only the US has succeeded in erosion control and topsoil stabilization when it converted erodible cropland into grassland or woodland during 1986-90.

  3. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    studies (from social sciences, clinical, and related fields) can offer important information about how patients experience their condition. This exploration of the qualitative literature offers insights into patients’ perspectives on COPD, their needs, and how interventions might affect their experiences. The experiences of caregivers are also explored. Research Question What do patients with COPD, their informal caregivers (“carers”), and health care providers experience over the course of COPD? Research Methods Literature Search Search Strategy Literature searches for studies published from January 1, 2000, to November 2010 were performed on November 29, 2010, using OVID MEDLINE; on November 26, 2010, using ISI Web of Science; and on November 28, 2010, using EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Titles and abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. One additional report, highly relevant to the synthesis, appeared in early 2011 during the drafting of this analysis and was included post hoc. Inclusion Criteria English-language full reports studies published between January 1, 2000, and November 2010 primary qualitative empirical research (using any descriptive or interpretive qualitative methodology, including the qualitative component of mixed-methods studies) and secondary syntheses of primary qualitative empirical research studies addressing any aspect of the experiences of living or dying with COPD from the perspective of persons at risk, patients, health care providers, or informal carers; studies addressing multiple conditions were included if COPD was addressed explicitly Exclusion Criteria studies addressing topics other than the experiences of living or dying with COPD from the perspective of persons at risk, patients, health care providers, or informal carers studies labelled “qualitative” but not using a qualitative

  4. [Evaluation of empowerment among socially disadvantaged women - examination in different living circumstances].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, S

    2010-07-01

    This paper follows on from a previous study which assessed the relationship between socioeconomic position, empowerment and the development of psychological health in women after treatment in mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany. The study revealed that socioeconomic position was less important for mothers caring for young children. For this reason the present study is based on a broader definition of social inequity, taking household conditions and psychosocial stressors into account. The aim of the paper is to answer the following questions: 1) To what extent does the improvement of psychological health depend on the living circumstances of the mothers? 2) What is the impact of living conditions on the success of empowerment? 3) Does the health-related impact of empowerment differ between different living conditions of the mothers? By conducting a cluster analysis on clinical data of the women (n=6094), seven different living circumstances of the mothers could be detected. Two living circumstances could be identified to be related to extremely poor health. These are 'dissatisfied single mothers with high degrees of psychosocial distress and lack of social support', and 'married mothers with conflicts within the family and self-perceived lack of appreciation'. At the end of inpatient treatment these mothers showed the highest reduction of psychological symptoms, but after six and twelve months the symptoms increased again. The results of empowerment showed that empowerment is most health-effective for mothers living in poor living conditions, but the success of empowerment here is less pronounced. As a consequence the health effect of empowerment was smaller for those mothers. The study suggests that health promotion programmes could be more effective when they explicitly take the living circumstances of their participants into account.

  5. 20 CFR 725.232 - Member of the same household-“living with,” “living in the same household,” and “living in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Member of the same household-âliving with,â... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of...

  6. 20 CFR 725.232 - Member of the same household-“living with,” “living in the same household,” and “living in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Member of the same household-âliving with,â... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of...

  7. 20 CFR 725.232 - Member of the same household-“living with,” “living in the same household,” and “living in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member of the same household-âliving with,â... AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of...

  8. 20 CFR 725.232 - Member of the same household-“living with,” “living in the same household,” and “living in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Member of the same household-âliving with,â... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of...

  9. Living with diabetes: issues for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, D; Williams, A

    1994-07-01

    Discussion in this paper is based on findings drawn from research undertaken within a qualitative framework of analysis, and with the purpose of exploring people's perceptions of living with diabetes, including the nursing care they receive. A major theoretical concern is to demonstrate the importance of placing patients' and clients' experiences at the centre of nursing interest and practice. It is argued that understanding a disease process should of necessity include an understanding of the concerns of those who live with it. Findings related to the following research questions are discussed: first, what are the challenges of living with diabetes? and second, what are people's perceptions of the nursing care they receive?

  10. Confrontation of the cybernetic definition of a living individual with the real world.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The cybernetic definition of a living individual proposed previously (Korzeniewski, 2001) is very abstract and therefore describes the essence of life in a very formal and general way. In the present article this definition is reformulated in order to determine clearly the relation between life in general and a living individual in particular, and it is further explained and defended. Next, the cybernetic definition of a living individual is confronted with the real world. It is demonstrated that numerous restrictions imposed on the cybernetic definition of life by physical reality imply a number of particular properties of life that characterize present life on Earth, namely: (1) a living individual must be a dissipative structure (and therefore a low-entropy thermodynamic system out of the state of equilibrium); (2) spontaneously-originated life must be based on organic compounds; (3) evolutionarily stable self-dependent, free-living individuals must have some minimal level of complexity of structure and function; (4) a living individual must have a record of identity separated from an executive machinery; (5) the identity of living individuals must mutate and may evolve; (6) living individuals may collect and accumulate information in subsequent generations over very long periods of time; (7) the degree of complexity of a living individual reflects the degree of complexity of its environment (ecological niche) and (8) living individuals are capable of supple adaptation to varying environmental conditions. Thus, the cybernetic definition of a living individual, when confronted with the real physical world, generates most of the general properties of the present life on Earth.

  11. Pathologic hindfoot conditions in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Leach, R E; DiIorio, E; Harney, R A

    1983-01-01

    Millions of people run in the United States, both for competitive reasons and for basic conditioning. Unfortunately, many runners develop cumulative (overload) stress syndromes, a number of which occur in the hindfoot. Among the most common are Achilles tendinitis and its associated conditions, plantar fasciitis, and tendinitis of the posterior tibial and flexor hallucis longus tendons. Most of these conditions respond well to conservative treatment, but in some instances surgery is needed. Surgery frequently can help patients who have not responded to conservative therapy to return to active and even competitive athletic lives.

  12. Space Station Live: EarthKAM

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan interviews Brion Au, EarthKAM Payload Developer. The NASA education program enables middle school students to take pictures of the Earth from the Internation...

  13. Live birth in an archosauromorph reptile

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L.; Benton, Michael J.; Brandley, Matthew C.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes. PMID:28195584

  14. A Live Specimen Cell for the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Provides background and instructions for the assembly of a microaquarium, or specimen cell, in which the dynamic world of living microorganisms can be viewed through a microscope overextended periods of time utilizing the simplest of materials in the process. (JJK)

  15. Prompting Sequences in Teaching Independent Living Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effects of three prompting sequences on the acquisition of independent living skills with 14 mild and moderately mentally retarded vocational rehabilitation clients (16 to 50 years old) are examined. (Author)

  16. Living with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about the benefits of physical activity. Reduce Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your ... and muscle relaxation—can help you cope with stress. Emotional Issues and Support Living with AAT deficiency ...

  17. Feeling unsure: a universal lived experience.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Mary R

    2010-10-01

    Feeling unsure is a universal experience of health and quality of life. The purposes of this research study were to discover the structure of the lived experience of feeling unsure, to add to the body of knowledge on the phenomenon of feeling unsure, and expand the humanbecoming school of thought. The Parse research method was used to guide this study and answer the question, What is the structure of the lived experience of feeling unsure? Participants were 10 individuals living with chronic heart failure in the community. The processes of dialogical engagement, extraction-synthesis, and heuristic interpretation were used. The central finding of this study was the following structure: The lived experience of feeling unsure is discomforting trepidation with unassuredness-assuredness, as vigilantly anticipating possibles with treasured alliances arises with moments of acquiescence. New knowledge extended the theory of humanbecoming and enhanced understanding of the experience of feeling unsure.

  18. Senior Living: There's No Place Like Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living There's No Place Like Home Past Issues / ... state offices on aging; social services organizations; nearby senior centers; and civic, tribal, and religious organizations. They ...

  19. NES Live Video Chat: Dr. Tara Ruttley

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations program sends groups of NASA employees and contractors to live in Aquarius, an underwater laboratory, for up to three weeks at a time. NEEMO crew mem...

  20. Primary students' conceptions of living things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legaspi, Britt Anne

    Elementary school teachers are pressed for time throughout the instructional day to teach all curricular areas as expected by states and districts because of the current focus on reading and mathematics. Thus, foundational science concepts may be overlooked. For example, students' understandings of living and nonliving things may be overlooked by teachers, yet is useful in understanding the nature of living things. In this qualitative study, K-3 grade students were asked to sort objects as either living or nonliving and to give rationales for their choices. It was found that K-3 students readily used physical characteristics, such as having body parts, and physical abilities, such as being able to move, as criteria for living things. Students in grades 1 through 3 were able to articulate their reasons with more adult-like logic based on Jean Piaget' s research on developmental stages.

  1. Care services ecosystem for ambient assisted living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.; Rosas, Joao; Ines Oliveira, Ana; Ferrada, Filipa

    2015-08-01

    Effective provision of care and assistance services in ambient assisted living requires the involvement and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. To support such collaboration, the development of an ecosystem of products and services for active ageing plays an important role. This article introduces a conceptual architecture that supports such care ecosystem. In order to facilitate understanding and better interrelate concepts, a 3-layered model is adopted: Infrastructure layer, Care and assistance services layer and Ambient Assisted Living ecosystem layer. A holistic perspective of ambient assisted living, namely considering four important life settings is adopted: (1) independent living; (2) health and care in life; (3) occupation in life and (4) recreation in life. The proposed architecture is designed in the context of a national Portuguese project and in accordance with the findings of a large European road mapping initiative on ICT and ageing.

  2. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  3. Native American children also live in our communities.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization of Native Americans will bring community health practitioners into contact with a patient population that has potentially different cultural orientations and with individuals in difficult general health and living conditions. Pediatric providers will be faced with a population of youngsters, a greater percentage of whom will have disabilities than the general pediatric population. The challenge will be to meet the "usual" oral health needs of community youngsters--family members whose heritage and culture may be quite different from those of the practitioner and staff.

  4. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  5. Just love in live organ donation.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-08-01

    Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.

  6. Mechanical behavior in living cells consistent with the tensegrity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Naruse, K.; Stamenovic, D.; Fredberg, J. J.; Mijailovich, S. M.; Tolic-Norrelykke, I. M.; Polte, T.; Mannix, R.; Ingber, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    Alternative models of cell mechanics depict the living cell as a simple mechanical continuum, porous filament gel, tensed cortical membrane, or tensegrity network that maintains a stabilizing prestress through incorporation of discrete structural elements that bear compression. Real-time microscopic analysis of cells containing GFP-labeled microtubules and associated mitochondria revealed that living cells behave like discrete structures composed of an interconnected network of actin microfilaments and microtubules when mechanical stresses are applied to cell surface integrin receptors. Quantitation of cell tractional forces and cellular prestress by using traction force microscopy confirmed that microtubules bear compression and are responsible for a significant portion of the cytoskeletal prestress that determines cell shape stability under conditions in which myosin light chain phosphorylation and intracellular calcium remained unchanged. Quantitative measurements of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors in cells also were consistent with specific a priori predictions of the tensegrity model. These findings suggest that tensegrity represents a unified model of cell mechanics that may help to explain how mechanical behaviors emerge through collective interactions among different cytoskeletal filaments and extracellular adhesions in living cells.

  7. A candidate live inactivatable attenuated vaccine for AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, B K; Maitra, R K; Ma, X Z; Kestler, H W

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of long term AIDS nonprogressors who harbor nef-attenuated HIV suggests that a naturally occurring live vaccine for AIDS may already exist. Animal models have shown that a live vaccine for AIDS, attenuated in nef, is the best candidate vaccine. There are considerable risks, real and perceived, with the use of live HIV vaccines. We have introduced a conditional lethal genetic element into HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clones deleted in nef. The antiviral strategy we employed targets both virus replication and the survival of the infected cell. The suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk), was expressed and maintained in HIV over long periods of time. Herpes simplex virus tk confers sensitivity to the antiviral activity of acyclic nucleosides such as ganciclovir (GCV). HIV-tk and SIV-tk replication were sensitive to GCV at subtoxic concentrations, and virus-infected cells were eliminated from tumor cell lines as well as primary cell cultures. We found the HIV-tk virus to be remarkably stable even after being cultured in media containing a low concentration of GCV and then challenged with the higher dose and that while GCV resistant escape mutants did arise, a significant fraction of the virus remained sensitive to GCV. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:8790413

  8. [Living with a chronic abdominal wound--the patients' perspective].

    PubMed

    Rüeger-Schaad, Elisabeth; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Viehl, Carsten T; Spirig, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    Chronic abdominal wounds lead to prolonged hospital stays. However, no data exist that describe the experience of persons living with a chronic abdominal wound. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of persons living with chronic abdominal wounds and elicit their expectations in health professionals. Narrative interviews were conducted with five women and four men. Using content analysis techniques, five categories with one to four subcategories emerged from the data. "Returning to everyday life without a wound" represents the main goal of the participants and is driven by their hope to achieve this outcome. "Everyday life with the wound" illustrates the reality of participants' lives, which is affected by suffering. "The patients' work" demonstrates the component that patients contribute to managing their wound. "The work of primary support persons" shows the importance of the work of people close to the patient. "The work of professionals" includes the expectations that patients have in their caregivers. Teamwork between professionals, patients and primary support persons seems to be an essential condition for the successful healing of an abdominal wound.

  9. Educating Prospective Kidney Transplant Recipients and Living Donors about Living Donation: Practical and Theoretical Recommendations for Increasing Living Donation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Amy D.; Robbins, Mark L.; Peipert, John D.

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for increasing living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rates is improving education about living donation for both prospective kidney transplant recipients and living donors to help overcome the proven knowledge, psychological, and socioeconomic barriers to LDKT. A recent Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation recommended that comprehensive LDKT education be made available to patients at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in considering how to implement this recommendation across different healthcare learning environments, the current lack of available guidance regarding how to design, deliver, and measure the efficacy of LDKT education programs is notable. In the current article, we provide an overview of how one behavior change theory, the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, can guide the delivery of LDKT education for patients at various stages of CKD and readiness for LDKT. We also discuss the importance of creating educational programs for both potential kidney transplant recipients and living donors, and identify key priorities for educational research to reduce racial disparities in LDKT and increase LDKT rates. PMID:27347475

  10. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma.

  11. Automatic Detection of Single Fluorophores in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mashanov, G. I.; Molloy, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in light microscopy enable individual fluorophores to be observed in aqueous conditions. Biological molecules, labeled with a single fluorophore, can be localized as isolated spots of light when viewed by optical microscopy. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy greatly reduces background fluorescence and allows single fluorophores to be observed inside living cells. This advance in live-cell imaging means that the spatial and temporal dynamics of individual molecules can be measured directly. Because of the stochastic nature of single molecule behavior a statistically meaningful number of individual molecules must be detected and their separate trajectories in space and time stored and analyzed. Here, we describe digital image processing methods that we have devised for automatic detection and tracking of hundreds of molecules, observed simultaneously, in vitro and within living cells. Using this technique we have measured the diffusive behavior of pleckstrin homology domains bound to phosphoinositide phospholipids at the plasma membrane of live cultured mammalian cells. We found that mobility of these membrane-bound protein domains is dominated by mobility of the lipid molecule to which they are attached and is highly temperature dependent. Movement of PH domains isolated from the tail region of myosin-10 is consistent with a simple random walk, whereas, diffusion of intact PLC-δ1 shows behavior inconsistent with a simple random walk. Movement is rapid over short timescales but much slower at longer timescales. This anomalous behavior can be explained by movement being restricted to membrane regions of 0.7 μm diameter. PMID:17208981

  12. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy of Live Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, V.; Mason, A.; Saliev, T.; Smith, F. J. D.; McLean, W. H. I.; Campbell, P. A.

    2012-07-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is perhaps the least well known technique from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family of instruments. As with its more familiar counterpart, atomic force microscopy (AFM), the technique provides high-resolution topographic imaging, with the caveat that target structures must be immersed in a conducting solution so that a controllable ion current may be utilised as the basis for feedback. In operation, this non-contact characteristic of SICM makes it ideal for the study of delicate structures, such as live cells. Moreover, the intrinsic architecture of the instrument, incorporating as it does, a scanned micropipette, lends itself to combination approaches with complementary techniques such as patch-clamp electrophysiology: SICM therefore boasts the capability for both structural and functional imaging. For the present observations, an ICnano S system (Ionscope Ltd., Melbourn, UK) operating in 'hopping mode' was used, with the objective of assessing the instrument's utility for imaging live keratinocytes under physiological buffers. In scans employing cultured HaCaT cells (spontaneously immortalised, human keratinocytes), we compared the qualitative differences of live cells imaged with SICM and AFM, and also with their respective counterparts after chemical fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. Characteristic surface microvilli were particularly prominent in live cell imaging by SICM. Moreover, time lapse SICM imaging on live cells revealed that changes in the pattern of microvilli could be tracked over time. By comparison, AFM imaging on live cells, even at very low contact forces (

  13. Variation of health status among people living on boats in Hue, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Quang, N. K.; Takano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, M.; Inose, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Seino, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns of disease and injury in people living on boats in Hue City, Vietnam, and their relations to socioeconomic conditions, sanitary practices, disease prevention proficiency, and people's preference to continued living on boats. Methods: The subjects were 3737 people aged 5 years and over living on boats in Hue City, Vietnam. Diseases and injuries were diagnosed according to ICD-10. The associations between disease/injury and socioeconomic conditions, sanitary practices, disease prevention proficiency, and preference to continued living on boats were analysed by logistic regression. Main results: The prevalence rates of certain infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, diseases of the digestive system, and injuries were 85.3%, 78.0%, 51.2%, 15.4%, and 13.2%, respectively. Various associations were seen between diseases/injuries and socioeconomic conditions. Patterns of disease were strongly influenced by sanitary practices. Better disease prevention proficiency was significantly related to lower prevalence of the first three categories of diseases/injuries regardless of sex, age, or socioeconomic status (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Diseases were more prevalent among people who preferred not to continue living on boats. Conclusions: This large scale comprehensive field study illustrated major diseases and injuries among people living on boats. Variations in health status showed a web-like relation of socioeconomic conditions, sanitary practices, disease prevention proficiency, and preference to continued living on boats. Measures to develop disease prevention proficiency reduce the risk of disease and injury. PMID:16234421

  14. Living and non-living categories. Is there a "normal" asymmetry?

    PubMed

    Capitani, E; Laiacona, M; Barbarotto, R; Trivelli, C

    1994-12-01

    A picture naming task and a semantic memory verbal questionnaire were given to normal subjects to assess the possible asymmetry between knowledge for non-living and living things. We first examined 60 elderly subjects with low education. Asymmetry between non-living and living things was found in the semantic knowledge questionnaire and living things fared worse. This difference was not explained by discrepancy in item frequency, familiarity or prototypicality. Using the same questionnaire, we analysed difficulty judgements given by younger, better-educated subjects: questions about living things were slightly, but significantly more difficult than questions regarding non-living things. In order to check for a possible sample bias, we submitted another verbal questionnaire with an analogous structure to different judges and replicated the previous results. These findings are discussed with regard to the selective semantic memory deficit for living things observed in patients. We suggest that the cognitive pattern presented by these cases may be linked to, but not fully explained by the greater difficulty living things present for normal subjects.

  15. 42 CFR 483.470 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical environment... Disabilities § 483.470 Condition of participation: Physical environment. (a) Standard: Client living environment. (1) The facility must not house clients of grossly different ages, developmental levels,...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  19. Naegleria fowleri: a free living amoeba of emerging medical importance.

    PubMed

    Parija, S C; Jayakeerthee, S R

    1999-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba is ubiquitous and word-wide in distribution. Infection is due to inhalation or aspiration of aerosols containing cysts found in the environment. Of late, the amoeba is emerging as a pathogen of medical importance causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. The diagnosis of the condition is mainly parasitic which depends on the detection and identification of Naegleria trophozoites in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) or biopsied brain tissue. Serological tests are not useful in the diagnosis of PAM. Most cases are fatal and various amoebicidal agents have been tried unsuccessfully. The present paper provides a review of the recent information on the biology and epidemiology of the disease caused by the amoeba Approaches in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the condition are also discussed.

  20. How children and young people construct and negotiate living with medical technology.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Susan

    2010-11-01

    Increasing numbers of children need the support of medical technology for their survival and wellbeing, yet little is known about their experiences of living technology-assisted lives. This study aimed to explore how this group of children experience and construct medical technology and its influence on their identity and social relationships. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 28 children/young people aged between 8 and 19 years old and using different types of medical devices were recruited via nursing services in England. Data were collected by in-depth interviews conducted in children's homes. The medical technology occupied an ambivalent position in children's lives being seen as having both an enabling and disabling presence. Children actively engaged in work to incorporate the technology into their lives and bodies by developing strategies to manage their condition, the technology and their identities. This body work appeared to be driven by a desire to 'normalise' their bodies and their lives. Technologies were shaped to integrate them into everyday life and children managed their self-presentation and controlled information about their condition. This work was ongoing, responding to changing social contexts and relationships. For these children the process of 'growing up' involves incorporating disability, illness and technology. This study contributes to knowledge by examining how medical technology is constructed by children whose lives are dependent on it and illuminating the resources and strategies they use to manage their identity and negotiate peer culture interactions and norms.