Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'.
Guirado, L; Vela, E; Clèries, M; Díaz, J M; Facundo, C; García-Maset, R
According to literature, patient and graft survival is better in living donor renal transplants (LRT) than in cadaver renal transplants (CRT). To study factors that determine the best results in LRT related to those of CRT, found in univariate studies. Renal transplants (RT) done in Catalonia during the 1990-2004 period, performed in patients over 17 years (135 LRT and 3.831 CRT), have been analyzed (retransplants were not included). The data come from the Renal Patients Transplant Registry (RMRC). Student's t-test and chi2 test have been used for mean and for proportions comparisons, respectively. To analyze univariate and multivariate survival, actuarial method and Cox regression have been used, respectively. Estimated creatinine clearance has been studied and its data have been showed through Selwood modified Analysis. As it happens with other great RT patients series, the RMRC analysis, globally and without any adjustment, shows that patient and graft survival in LRT is better than that obtained with CRT. When we studied which variables explain these results, we found that main factors were smaller recipient age and the short time on dialysis. The great influence of both factors has been published in a large number of papers, explaining the differences obtained on the transplanted renal patient survival. Once adjusted the analysis by the different factors that influence the survival of the patient and the graft, there are no differences in the obtained results, since the best outcomes of the TRV are due to factors like the smaller recipient age and the advanced TR.
There has been an increase of the renal transplants from living relatives, making over 80% of all renal transplants thus leaving under 17% of them from cadaveric. As for living donors, anxiety and fear of physical vulnerability, possible complications/disabilities, and death/dying, triggered by the hospitalization; a sense of guilt and/or self-blame, or seeking for rewards/compensation, triggered by the transplant; and introjection, probiosis, regression, often presented post transplant. Depression is one of the significant problems among donors after failed transplant, but also even after successful renal transplant. It is called "paradoxical depression". As for recipients, anxiety, guilt feeling, anger are very common psychological issues before the operation. There are number of young adults who present marked anger and short temper, aggression and acting-out behavior as their defense mechanisms.
Renal transplantation is considered now the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unfortunately, the worldwide shortage of kidneys remains the most important obstacle to transplantation. In developing countries, including those of the Middle East, the shortage is even more dramatic. Despite great efforts to establish and maintain successful transplant centers, the number of kidneys that have been transplanted in the last few years has actually declined. The lack of a dependable kidney source played well into the hands of unscrupulous entrepreneurs who started brokerage of organs for profit. In this practice, patients with ESRD travel to India and other countries to purchase kidneys from living genetically non-related poor donors. Patient care was therefore relegated to the laws of the marketplace and both patients and donors were exploited to maximize profit. Additionally, reported results of this type of transplantation were inferior to those of other types of transplantation. Not unexpectedly, these issues have created intense controversy among transplant physicians and the general public in which moral, ethical and medical issues were debated. To investigate these issues, we conducted a large multicenter study in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Egypt. In the first phase of this study, we surveyed 50 institutions regarding their attitude toward LNRRT, of which 22 responded. The results of our survey clearly show that patients with ESRD take the initiative in seeking LNRRT despite physician discouragement and significant financial burden.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Choi, Ji Yoon; Jung, Joo Hee; Shin, Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Duck Jong
Abstract Introduction: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), autoantibodies directed against phospholipid-binding proteins are associated with cause vascular thrombosis. Patients with APS requiring renal transplantation are at risk of early graft loss due to arterial or venous thrombosis, or thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Here, we report 3 cases of successful renal transplantation in patients with APS. Clinical Findings: A 53-year-old man with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) had experienced bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities 16 years ago and was administered warfarin. However, he frequently experienced recurrent DVT despite of anticoagulation therapy. Before the surgery, APS was confirmed based on positive results lupus anticoagulant in serological tests. A 40-year-old man with polycystic kidney disease and a history recurrent DVT tested positive for lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Lastly, a 42-year-old woman with ESRD was diagnosed with APS 7 years ago. She also developed DVT and tested positive for lupus anticoagulant and anti-B2-glycoprotein 1. The anticoagulation protocol was as follows in all cases: Warfarin was stopped 5 days before living donor renal transplantation and intravenous heparin therapy was started. During surgery, bolus heparin injections (3000 U) were administered to prevent arterial or venous thrombosis. Heparin was substituted with warfarin on postoperative day 4. The third patient (42/F) developed clinical rejection indicated by increased serum creatinine levels and donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and received steroid pulse therapy, plasmapheresis, and rituximab. This treatment restored graft function to within the normal range. The latest graft function in all patients was maintained at normal levels in the outpatient clinic. Conclusions: Living donor renal transplantation may be successful in patients with APS following perioperative anticoagulation therapy. However, because of the high risk of
Ashraf, Hafiz Shahzad; Khan, Mohammad Usman; Hussain, Imran; Hyder, Imran
To determine the frequency and types of post-transplant urological complications in live-related kidney transplantation with reference to the impact of JJ ureteric stent. Case series. Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute and National Institute of Kidney Diseases, Lahore, from June 2006 to July 2010. Consecutive renal transplantations, donors being alive were relatives, reterospectively reviewed. All patients underwent extravesical ureteroneocystostomy and all, except one were stented. From the retrieved clinical records, the frequency and types of various minor and major urological complications and their management was studied. All the complications were managed according to standard guidelines. The overall incidence of urological complications among transplant recipients was 11.9%, observed in 12 patients. The complications were urinary leakage in 2 (2%) and clot retention, ureterovesical junction obstruction and wound infection in one (1%) patient each. Urinary tract infection was observed in 7 (6.9%) patients. Urinary tract infection was the most common urologic complication in the studied cases. The technique of stented extravesical ureteronecystostomy had a low rate of urological complications in this series. Other factors which may reduce the urological complications are preserving adventitia, fat and blood supply of ureter by delicate dissection during donor nephrectomy and prevent kinking and twisting of ureter are important factors in reducing the post-transplant urological complications.
Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico
Kawami, H; Shiramizu, T; Mori, Y; Yayama, T; Yonemura, T; Oka, N; Inokuchi, K
We successfully made ABO-incompatible renal transplantation, of which report is methodologically the first in Japan and probably the second in the world to our knowledge. Sixty year-old-female (mother) with B-blood type donated her right kidney to 36 years-old male (son) with O-blood type. Pretransplant removal of plasma isoagglutinin of the recipient through plasma exchange with albumin solution followed by hemodialysis with administration of fresh frozen B-type plasma effectively reduced the anti-BIgM-antibody titre of x256 to x8 and the anti-IgG-antibody titre of x512 to x16. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplantation. On the 10th POD, the anti-B antibody titres were more decreased to IgM antibody x2 and IgG antibody x8. Patient is doing well without any sign of rejection as of 4 months postoperatively.
Puche-Sanz, Ignacio; Pascual-Geler, Manrique; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Hernández-Vidaña, Adoración María; Flores-Martín, José Francisco; Espejo-Maldonado, Eduardo; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel
A short right renal vein remains a challenge for renal transplant surgery, especially in the living donor. Our objective was to report on a new technique to solve this problem. We describe our experience with the use of cryopreserved iliac artery grafts for right renal vein extension. Two renal grafts from living donors with a short right renal vein were subjected to an extension with a cryopreserved external iliac artery allograft. There were no perioperative or postoperative complications. There were also no changes in ischemia times. The renal implantation was performed easily and conveniently using our standard technique. For the first and second procedures, at 3 and 3.5 years after surgery, respectively, both vascular grafts maintain good patency, and the renal function of both recipients is optimal. Tissue-banked cryopreserved cadaveric vessels can be a useful tool in renal transplant surgery. The use of a cryopreserved iliac artery for renal vein extension is a simple and effective new technique that can be added to the pool of surgical solutions for a short renal vein in living-donor kidney transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the use of such grafts for this purpose has been described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ling, Qi; Wang, Kai; Lu, Di; Guo, Hai-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Shi; He, Xiang-Xiang; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shu-Sen
AIM: To investigate the impact of renal and graft function on post-transplant hyperlipidemia (PTHL) in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: A total of 115 adult patients undergoing LDLT from January 2007 to May 2009 at a single center were enrolled. Data were collected and analyzed by the China Liver Transplant Registry retrospectively. PTHL was defined as serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL or serum cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL or the need for pharmacologic treatment at the sixth month after LDLT. Early renal dysfunction (ERD) was defined as serum creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dL and/or the need for renal replacement therapy in the first post-transplant week. RESULTS: In 115 eligible patients, the incidence of PTHL was 24.3%. Recipients with PTHL showed a higher incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events compared to those without PTHL (17.9% vs 4.6%, P = 0.037). Serum creatinine showed significant positive correlations with total serum triglycerides, both at post-transplant month 1 and 3 (P < 0.01). Patients with ERD had much higher pre-transplant serum creatinine levels (P < 0.001) and longer duration of pre-transplant renal insufficiency (P < 0.001) than those without ERD. Pre-transplant serum creatinine, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, graft volume/standard liver volume ratio, body mass index (BMI) and ERD were identified as risk factors for PTHL by univariate analysis. Furthermore, ERD [odds ratio (OR) = 9.593, P < 0.001] and BMI (OR = 6.358, P = 0.002) were identified as independent risk factors for PTHL by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Renal function is closely associated with the development of PTHL in LDLT. Post-transplant renal dysfunction, which mainly results from pre-transplant renal insufficiency, contributes to PTHL. PMID:23323005
Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S.; Newhouse, Jeffrey H.; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J.; Carroll, Maureen A.; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; Hardy, Mark A.
Background Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and post-transplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed 96 live-kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from CT angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with 99mTc-DMSA renography. Implantation biopsies at time-zero were semi-quantitatively scored. A comprehensive model utilizing donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at one-year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 at one-year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the CKD-EPI formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). Results In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at one-year were 2.04 ml/kg and 60.4 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Volume and split ratios between two donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r=0.79, p-value<0.001). The biopsy scores among SFD categories (<5%, 5–10%, >10%) were not different (p=0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR=8.94, 95% CI 2.47–32.25, p=0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 at one-year (ROC curve=0.78, 95% CI 0.68–0.89). Conclusion In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at one-year post-transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function. PMID:25719258
Srivastava, Aneesh; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Sandeep; Abhishek; Ansari, M S; Kapoor, Rakesh
Introduction and Objective: Among the surgical complications in renal transplantation, the vascular complications are probably most dreaded, dramatic, and likely to cause sudden loss of renal allograft. We present our experience and analysis of the outcome of such complications in a series of 1945 live related renal transplants. Materials and Methods: One thousand nine hundred and forty five consecutive live related renal transplants were evaluated retrospectively for vascular complications. Complications were recorded and analyzed for frequency, time of presentation, clinical presentation, and their management. Results: The age of patients ranged from 6 to 56 years (mean = 42). Vascular complications were found in 25 patients (1.29%). Most common among these was transplant renal artery stenosis found in 11 (0.58%), followed by transplant reznal artery thrombosis in 9 (0.46%), renal vein thrombosis in 3 (0.15%), and aneurysm formation at arterial anastmosis in 2 (0.10%) patient. The time of presentation also varied amongst complications. All cases of arterial thrombosis had sudden onset anuria with minimal or no abdominal discomfort, while venous thrombosis presented as severe oliguria associated with intense graft site pain and tenderness. Management of cases with vascular thrombosis was done by immediate surgical exploration. Two patients of renal artery stenosis were managed with angioplasty and stent placement. Conclusions: Major vascular complications are relatively uncommon after renal transplantation but still constitute an important cause of graft loss in early postoperative period. Aneurysm and vessel thrombosis usually require graft nephrectomy. Transplant renal artery stenosis is amenable to correction by endovascular techniques. PMID:23671364
Greco, Andres J; Baluarte, Jorge H; Meyers, Kevin E C; Sellers, Marty T; Suchi, Mariko; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Kaplan, Bernard S
Renal cell carcinoma can occur in children who have received renal allografts from adults. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare variant of renal carcinoma with distinct histochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic characteristics. We describe the incidental finding of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a 13 1/2-year-old boy 5 years after receiving a living-related renal transplant. This tumor was found by serendipity during the evaluation of fever and inguinal lymphadenopathy, with the presumptive diagnosis of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. The patient was found to have cat-scratch disease. A renal cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pediatric recipient of an adult kidney with an incidental finding of a tumor in the graft.
McGrath, Pam; Holewa, Hamish
There has been no research exploring the financial impact on the live renal donor in terms of testing, hospitalisation and surgery for kidney removal (known as nephrectomy). The only mention of financial issues in relation to live renal transplantation is the recipients' concerns in relation to monetary payment for the gift of a kidney and the recipients' desire to pay for the costs associated with the nephrectomy. The discussion in this article posits a new direction in live renal donor research; that of understanding the financial impact of live renal donation on the donor to inform health policy and supportive care service delivery. The findings have specific relevance for live renal donors living in rural and remote locations of Australia. The findings are presented from the first interview (time 1: T1) of a set of four times (time 1 to time 4: T1-T4) from a longitudinal study that explored the experience of live renal donors who were undergoing kidney removal (nephrectomy) at the Renal Transplantation Unit at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. A qualitative methodological approach was used that involved semi-structured interviews with prospective living kidney donors (n=20). The resulting data were analysed using the qualitative research methods of coding and thematic analysis. The findings indicate that live renal donors in non-metropolitan areas report significant financial concerns in relation to testing, hospitalisation and surgery for nephrectomy. These include the fact that bulk billing (no cost to the patient for practitioner's service) is not always available, that individuals have to pay up-front and that free testing at local public hospitals is not available in some areas. In addition, non-metropolitan donors have to fund the extra cost of travel and accommodation when relocating for the nephrectomy to the specialist metropolitan hospital. Live renal transplantation is an important new direction in medical care that has excellent
Taghizadeh Afshari, Ali; Mohammadi Fallah, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Mansour; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Rahimi, Ezatollah; Vossoghian, Sara
Receiving a kidney transplant from donors with multiple renal arteries (MRAs) is suggested to be associated with higher risk of vascular and urologic complications and poor allograft outcomes compared to the donors with single renal artery (SRA). We evaluated survival rates in the recipients from donors with MRAs compared to those from donors with SRA. In a retrospective study on 115 kidney allograft recipients, demographic characteristics and the outcomes of kidney transplantation were compared between the recipients from donors with MRAs compared to those from donors with SRA. These included acute tubular necrosis, acute allograft rejection, hypertension, vascular complications, urologic complications, kidney function indicators, and allograft survival at 1 year. There was no significant difference in the recipients' age, sex distribution, and weight, donors' age, donor-recipient familial relation, urologic complications, and duration of hospitalization between the two groups. However, MRA was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of right-side kidney donation, longer warm and cold ischemia times, and lower glomerular filtration rate and higher serum creatinine concentrations at discharge and 12 months after transplantation, as compared to SRA transplants. No significant difference was seen in late complications including hypertension and renal artery stenosis. One-year graft survival was slightly poorer in the MRA group than the SRA group. Our results demonstrate that kidney allografts with MRAs are associated with risks but have acceptable outcomes during the 1st year after transplantation, as compared to SRA kidney allografts.
Fernandez y Garcia, Erik; Lau, Keith K
The relationship between pediatric primary care practitioners and families provides an early opportunity to address ethnic/racial pediatric subspecialty health care disparities. Living donor pediatric renal transplantation is safe and more effective than deceased donor renal transplantation. The purpose of this study is to identify groups of children who may be less likely to receive living donor renal transplantation, as the first step in assisting pediatric clinicians to increase living donor renal transplantation. We employed a retrospective cohort design. We analyzed data from the medical records of 80 children receiving renal transplantation over 20 years in a large pediatric medical center. The proportions of children receiving a living donor renal allograft differed by ethnicity/race (P = .04). Specifically, children of Asian ethnicity/ race were significantly less likely than children of White ethnicity/race to receive a living donor renal allograft (P = .01). There were no significant differences in age at transplantation or wait time for deceased donor transplantation. We discuss the possible reasons for the discrepancy and potential directions for family-centered pediatric practice, policy, and research to address this potential pediatric healthcare disparity.
Kaltenborn, Alexander; Nolte, Almut; Schwager, Ysabell; Littbarski, Simon A; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Arelin, Viktor; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schrem, Harald
Outcome after living donor kidney transplantation is highly relevant, since recipient and donor were exposed to notable harm. Reliable identification of risk factors is necessary. Three hundred sixty-six living donor kidney transplants were included in this observational retrospective study. Relevant risk factors for renal impairment 1 year after transplantation and delayed graft function were identified with univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression and ordinal regression analysis. Eighty-four patients (26.6 %) suffered from renal impairment KDIGO stage ≥4 1 year post-transplant; median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 35.3 ml/min. In multivariable ordinal regression, male recipient sex (p < 0.001), recipient body mass index (p = 0.006), donor age (p = 0.002) and high percentages of panel reactive antibodies (p = 0.021) were revealed as independent risk factors for higher KDIGO stages. After adjustment for post-transplant data, recipient male sex (p < 0.001), donor age (p = 0.026) and decreased early renal function at the first post-transplant outpatient visit (p < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors. Delayed graft function was independently associated with long stay on the waiting list (p = 0.011), high donor body mass index (p = 0.043), prolonged warm ischemic time (p = 0.016) and the presence of preformed donor-specific antibodies (p = 0.043). Broadening the donor pool with non-blood related donors seems to be legitimate, although with respect to careful medical selection, since donor age in combination with male recipient sex were shown to be risk factors for decreased graft function. Warm ischemic time and waiting time need to be kept as short as possible to avoid delayed graft function. Transplantation across HLA and ABO borders did not affect outcome significantly.
Nahas, W C; Lucon, A M; Mazzucchi, E; Scafuri, A G; Neto, E D; Ianhez, L E; Arap, S
A shortage of organs for transplantation has forced surgeons to optimize the use of marginal organs, such as kidneys with arterial disease. We present a retrospective study of the outcome of donors with renal artery disease and recipients of kidneys from living related and unrelated donors. Kidneys with vascular abnormalities from healthy living donors were grafted into 11 recipients. These kidney transplants comprised 1.8% of those performed at our institution. The vascular abnormalities were aneurysms in 3 cases, atherosclerotic lesions in 4 and fibromuscular dysplasia in 4. After nephrectomy all abnormalities were corrected under hypothermic conditions during bench surgery except in 3 cases of ostial atherosclerotic plaque, which was left in the donors. The renal artery was anastomosed to the external iliac artery in 5 cases and to the internal iliac artery in 6. The ureter was reimplanted using an extravesical technique. All patients had immediate diuresis and no delayed post-transplant graft dysfunction was observed. One patient died of an unrelated cause and 3 had post-transplant graft function loss due to acute vasculopathy in 1, post-diarrhea with acute arterial thrombosis in 1 and recurrence of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in 1. All remaining patients are well with median serum creatinine of 1.4 mg./dl. (normal 0.4 to 1.4). All donors are well and normotensive with normal renal function. The use of kidneys with arterial disease from living donors with unilateral disease is safe. Complete informed consent regarding the risks and benefits by donor and recipient is mandatory.
Khan, Hamid; Mubarak, Muhammed; Aziz, Tahir; Ahmed, Ejaz; Fazal Akhter, Syed; Kazi, Javed; AA Naqvi, Syed; AH Rizvi, Syed
Background: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a common cause of delayed allograft failure throughout the world. Its prevalence and risk factors vary depending on a number of factors. There is little information on the prevalence and risk factors for early CAN in live related renal transplant patients. Objectives: We aimed to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of early CAN in our setup. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology & Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from 2002 to 2005 on patients who had live related kidney transplantation and underwent at least one allograft biopsy within 18 months of transplantation. The biopsies were performed and prepared in accordance with established indications and guidelines. The Banff 97 classification and its updates were used to diagnose and categorize the biopsy pathology. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of CAN on biopsies. Following parameters were compared among the groups: age, sex, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, immunosuppression used, acute rejection (AR) episodes, urinary tract infections (UTIs), viral infections, cyclosporine levels, early and late graft function monitored by serum creatinine. Results: A total of 164 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. The mean age of recipients and donors was relatively young. The majority of the donors were siblings. The overall prevalence of CAN was 25.6% (42/164), between 3 and 18 months post transplantation. The median time to the appearance of CAN was 9 months post-transplant. The prevalence of CAN increased as post-transplant duration increased. In 39 (92.8%) subjects, CAN was detected on the second or subsequent graft biopsy. Only 3 (7.2%) patients showed CAN on the first graft biopsy. The majority of cases belonged to moderate degree or grade II CAN. The mean serum creatinine values were higher in the CAN group at the time of discharge and all times post-transplantation
El-Sherbiny, M; Abou-Elela, A; Morsy, A; Salah, M; Foda, A
This study describes the surgical technique and outcomes of live donor renal allografts with multiple arteries in which the lower polar artery was anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery after declamping. Between 1988 and 2004, 477 consecutive live donor renal transplants were performed, including 429 with single and 48 with multiple arteries. Anastomosis of the lower polar artery to the inferior epigastric artery was used for 15 grafts with multiple arteries. Successful revascularization of all areas of the transplanted graft was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography in most patients and radionuclide renal scanning +/- MRA in some patients. In live donor renal transplantation with multiple arteries, the anastomosis of the lower polar artery to the inferior epigastric artery after declamping avoids prolongation of the ischemia time that occurs with other surgical and microsurgical techniques of intracorporeal and ex vivo surgeries.
Ruiz, Eduardo; Ferraris, Jorge
The number of pediatric patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been steadily growing during the last 10 years all over the world, because of the improvement of medical and surgical treatment of severe urologic malformations and congenital and acquired nephrological disorders. Kidney transplantation (Tx) with a live related donor continues to be the gold standard therapy to treat ESRD in children because of the best final results, the chronic lack of cadaveric donors and the frequent possibility of young patients to have parents or relatives as a source of a potential graft donor. Nowadays almost every pediatric patient can be dialyzed and transplanted, even early in life, if he or she has the possibility of a live related donor. Improvements in pediatric anesthesiology and intensive care have also been very important, in reducing the morbidity and mortality related to Tx procedures. Here we report our experience with Tx for the last 25 years, specially our long experience of live related donor transplantation in children and adolescents with emphasis on technical issues in small children and pediatric patients with severe urologic malformations and bladder dysfunction. We'll make special considerations on the improvement in short and long follow-up with the actual prevention and treatment of graft rejection, due to the new immunosuppressive agents and protocols. PMID:19718302
El-Nono, Ibrahiem H; Al-Ba'adani, Tawfiq H; Ghilan, Abdulilah M; Asba, Nagieb W Abu; Al-Alimy, Gamil M; Al-Massani, Mokhtar M; Noman, Morshed A; Al-Shargabe, Soliman; Al-Mansour, Mohamed M; Nassar, Mogahed Y
Between May 1998 and June 2006, 31 patients (21 males and 10 females) received a renal allograft from live-related donors at the Urology and Nephrology Center in the Al-Thawra Modern General Hospital Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. The cold ischemia time ranged between 48 and 68 minutes. The immunosuppressive protocol was double therapy (steroids and mycophenolate) in the first 8 cases. The subsequent cases received triple therapy with steroids, cyclosporine and mycophenolate. Episodes of acute rejection were treated with high dose steroids while anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was also used in cases of vascular or steroid resistant rejection. Primary graft function was achieved in 29 recipients (93.5%). The post-transplant complications, either surgical or medical, were comparable to those reported in the literature. The kidney transplantation program started sporadically in Yemen since 1998. However, a well-established program has been running regularly since the beginning of 2005.
Reese, PP; Feldman, HI; McBride, MA; Anderson, K; Asch, DA; Bloom, RD
Concern exists about accepting live kidney donation from “medically complex donors” -those with risk factors for future kidney disease. This study’s aim was to examine variation in complex kidney donor use across United States (US) transplant centers. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of live kidney donors using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Donors with hypertension, obesity, or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/minute/1.73m2 were considered medically complex. Among 9319 donors, 2254 (24.2%) were complex: 1194 (12.8%) were obese, 956 (10.3%) hypertensive, and 392 (4.2%) had low eGFR. The mean proportion of medically complex donors at a center was 24% (range 0 – 65%.) In multivariate analysis, donor characteristics associated with medical complexity included spousal relationship to the recipient (OR 1.29, CI 1.06-1.56, p<0.01), low education (OR 1.19, CI 1.04-1.37, p=0.01), older age (OR 1.01 per year, CI 1.01-1.02, p<0.01), and non-US citizenship (OR 0.70, CI 0.51-0.97, p=0.01). Renal transplant centers with the highest transplant volume (OR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.57, p=0.03), and with a higher proportion of (living donation)/(all kidney transplants) (OR 1.97, CI 1.23-3.16, p<0.01) were more likely to use medically complex donors. Though controversial, the use of medically complex donors is widespread and varies widely across centers. PMID:18727695
Nicholson, Michael L; Pattenden, Clare J; Barlow, Adam D; Hunter, James P; Lee, Gwyn; Hosgood, Sarah A
Ischemic conditioning involves the delivery of short cycles of reversible ischemic injury in order to induce protection against subsequent more prolonged ischemia. This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RC) in live donor kidney transplantation.This prospective randomized clinical trial, 80 patients undergoing live donor kidney transplantation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either RC or to a control group. RC consisted of cycles of lower limb ischemia induced by an arterial tourniquet cuff placed around the patient's thigh. In the RC treatment group, the cuff was inflated to 200 mm Hg or systolic pressure +25 mm Hg for 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion. In the control group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 25 mm Hg. Patients and medical staff were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary end-point was renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 and 3 months posttransplant.Donor and recipient demographics were similar in both groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in eGFR at 1 month (control 52 ± 14 vs RC 54 ± 17 mL/min; P = 0.686) or 3 months (control 50 ± 14 vs RC 49 ± 18 mL/min; P = 0.678) between the control and RC treatment groups. The RC technique did not cause any serious adverse effects.RC, using the protocol described here, did not improve renal function after live donor kidney transplantation.
Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Ujjawal; Sharma, Ashish; Kenwar, Deepesh B; Singh, Sarbpreet; Prasad, Rajendra; Minz, Mukut
The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidant and antioxidant status in living donor renal allograft transplant recipients. Ninety-two renal transplant recipients with mean age of 34.75 ± 11.22 years were included in the present study. Venous samples of the recipients were drawn: before the transplant (baseline), 5 min after reperfusion, and 2 weeks after transplant. Samples were processed for the measurement of markers of oxidant and antioxidant status viz. malondialdehyde, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant system. The mean baseline levels of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant system were 1.61 ± 0.84 mg/g hemoglobin, 3.64 ± 1.49 mg/dL, and 1.42 ± 0.14 mmol/L which decreased at 5 min after reperfusion to 1.32 ± 0.72 (p = 0.010), 2.96 ± 1.25 (p = 0.002), and 1.36 ± 0.12 (p = 0.042), respectively. The malondialdehyde levels increased from a baseline value of 3.11 ± 1.02 µmol/mL to 3.32 ± 1.09 at 5 min after reperfusion (p = 0.344) and 4.01 ± 1.21 (p = 0.000) at 2 weeks. Glutathione peroxidase level decreased from 68.59 ± 32.79 units/g hemoglobin (baseline) to 63.65 ± 32.92 at 5 min after reperfusion (p = 0.530) and increased significantly at 2 weeks to 86.38 ± 37.18 (p = 0.00). There was no significant change in the catalase level. In living donor renal transplantation, oxidative stress starts after reperfusion and is reflected by fall in antioxidant factors and enzymes in the early period. Over the next 2 weeks, there is increased oxidative stress and simultaneous strengthening of antioxidant system which is implied by increase in malondialdehyde and improvement in the markers of antioxidant status.
Eguchi, Susumu; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Umeshita, Koji; Imamura, Hajime; Soyama, Akihiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Isaji, Shuji; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Egawa, Hiroto; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Kasahara, Mureo; Nagano, Hiroaki; Ku, Yonson; Ohdan, Hideki; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shuntaro; Inomata, Yukihiro
Background Because simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation has been limited as a standard practice because of a severe shortage of deceased donors in Japan, living donor (LD) liver transplantation alone (LTA) is indicated in most recipients with maintenance renal replacement therapy (MRRT). Methods A retrospective nationwide survey of LD LTA was performed for liver transplant patients on MRRT. The characteristics of donors and recipients, postoperative complications, survival rate, and causes of death were analyzed. Results In the adult cases (n = 28), the overall survival rate at 1 year and 5 years were 66.1% and 57.3%, respectively. When compared with those adults without MRRT (n = 237), it was significantly worse. In the 7 pediatric cases, the overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years were both 83.3%. Three adult recipients died of nonaneurysm cerebral hemorrhage after 1 year and 1 adult recipient died of acute heart failure after 7 months. In adult recipients with MRRT, graft weight versus standard liver volume, and duration and blood loss in LTA surgery were associated with poor outcomes after LD LTA. Multivariate analysis revealed that MRRT was highest hazard ratio on patient survival after LD LTA. Conclusions Early post-LD LTA mortality was higher in patients with MRRT than in those without MRRT with characteristic causes. Smaller grafts for size and a complicated surgery were associated with poor outcome after LD LTA. Thus, LD LTA in adult patients on MRRT should be carefully treated with meticulous postoperative management and follow-up. PMID:27500264
Ashraf, Hafiz Shahzad; Hussain, Imran; Siddiqui, Amjad Ali; Ibrahim, M Nasir; Khan, Mohammadf Usman
The aim of our study was to compare the surgical complications and short-term outcome of renal transplants with single and multiple renal artery grafts. We reviewed the records of 105 kidney transplantations performed consecutively at our institution from July 2006 to May 2010. The data of 33 (31.4%) renal transplants with multiple arteries were compared with the 72 transplants with single artery (68.6%), and the incidence of surgical complications, post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute graft rejection, mean creatinine level, and patient and graft survival was analyzed. We further subdivided the study recipients into three groups: group A (n = 72) with one-renal-artery allografts and one-artery anastomosis, group B (n = 6) with multiple-artery allografts with single-artery anastomosis, and group C (n = 27) with multiple-artery allografts with multiple arterial anasatomosis, and compared their outcome. No significant differences were observed among the recipients of all the three groups regarding early vascular and urological complications, post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, creatinine level, and graft and patient survival. The mean cold ischemia time in groups B and C was significantly higher (P <0.05). One patient in group A developed renal vein thrombosis resulting in graft nephrectomy. None of the patients with multiple renal arteries developed either vascular or urological complications. In conclusion, kidney transplantation using grafts with multiple renal arteries is equally safe as using grafts with single renal artery, regarding vascular, urological complications, as well as patient and graft survival.
Kaku, K; Kitada, H; Noguchi, H; Kurihara, K; Kawanami, S; Nakamura, U; Tanaka, M
Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is a definitive treatment for type 1 diabetics with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Because of the shortage of deceased donors in Japan, the mortality rate during the waiting period is high. We evaluated mortality risk in patients with type 1 diabetes waiting for SPK, and the benefit of living-donor kidney transplantation (LDK) preceding pancreas transplantation, which may reduce mortality in patients awaiting SPK. This retrospective study included 71 patients with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-six patients underwent SPK, 15 underwent LDK, and 30 were waiting for SPK. Their cumulative patient and graft survival rates were retrospectively evaluated. Risk factors contributing to mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes awaiting SPK were evaluated with the use of a Cox proportional hazards model. The 5-year cumulative patient survival rates in the SPK and LDK groups were 100% and 93.3%, respectively (P = .19), and 5-year kidney graft survival rates were 95.7% and 100% (P = .46), respectively. The cumulative survival rate in patients awaiting SPK was 77.7% at 5 years after registration. Duration of dialysis was the only factor significantly associated with patient and graft survivals according to both univariate and multivariate analyses. Patient and graft survival rates were similar in the SPK and LDK groups, but the survival rate of patients awaiting SPK decreased over time. Duration of dialysis was an independent risk factor for patient and graft survival. LDK preceding pancreas transplantation may be an effective therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes and ESRD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sessa, A; Pietrucci, A; Carozzi, S; Torri Tarelli, L; Tazzari, S; Giordano, F; Meroni, M; Battini, G; Valente, U; Renieri, A
Renal transplantation from living donor parents was performed in two brothers with end-stage renal failure due to Alport syndrome (AS). Two years later, the patient receiving the kidney graft from the mother, obligate carrier of AS, presented persistent microhematuria and proteinuria with normal renal function. The histological study demonstrated ultrastructural glomerular lesions consistent with AS. The authors conclude that: (1) Alport patients should not be deprived of renal transplantation from living donors, since anti-GBM nephritis is a rare complication; (2) an oligosymptomatic female carrier of the Alport gene may be considered as living renal donor, although a longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions.
Najarian, J S; Frey, D J; Matas, A J; Gillingham, K J; So, S S; Cook, M; Chavers, B; Mauer, S M; Nevins, T E
The timing of renal transplantation in infants is controversial. Between 1965 and 1989, 79 transplants in 75 infants less than 2 years old were performed: 23 who were 12 months or younger, 52 who were older than 12 months; 63 donors were living related, 1 was living unrelated, and 15 were cadaver donors; 75 were primary transplants and 4 were retransplants. Infants were considered for transplantation when they were on, or about to begin, dialysis. All had intra-abdominal transplants with arterial anastomosis to the distal aorta. Sixty-four per cent are alive with functioning grafts. The most frequent etiologies of renal failure were hypoplasia (32%) and obstructive uropathy (20%); oxalosis was the etiology in 11%. Since 1983 patient survival has been 95% and 91% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival has been 86% and 73% at 1 and 5 years. For cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients, patient survival is 100% at 1 and 5 years; graft survival is 96% and 82% at 1 and 5 years. There was no difference in outcome between infants who were 12 months or younger versus those who were aged 12 to 24 months; similarly there was no difference between infants and older children. Sixteen (21%) patients died: 5 after operation from coagulopathy (1) and infection (4); and 11 late from postsplenectomy sepsis (4), recurrent oxalosis (3), infection (2), and other causes (2). Routine splenectomy is no longer done. There has not been a death from infection in patients transplanted since 1983. Rejection was the most common cause of graft loss (in 15 patients); other causes included death (with function) (7), recurrent oxalosis (3), and technical complications (3). Overall 52% of patients have not had a rejection episode; mean creatinine level in patients with functioning grafts is 0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dL. Common postoperative problems include fever, atelectasis, and ileus. At the time of their transplants, the infants were small for age; but with a successful transplant, their growth, head
El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Osman, Yasser M; Sobh, Mohamed A
To study the characteristics and the predictors of survival observed in our pediatric live-donor renal transplant recipients with an allograft that functioned for more than 10 yr. One hundred fifteen children underwent renal transplantation between 1976 and 1995. Of these, 30 had functioning allografts for more than 10 yr (range, 11-18). The patients included 18 males and 12 females, with a mean age at transplantation of 13 yr (range, 5-18). Characteristics of the patients, data on graft survival, and determinants of outcome were obtained by reviewing all medical charts. At most recent follow-up (January 2005), the mean daily dose of azathioprine was 1.2 mg/kg (range, 1-2) and that of prednisone was 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.1-0.2). Mean creatinine clearance was 72 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (range, 45-112). Acute rejection occurred in 14 (47%) patients. Seven patients had one episode, five had two episodes, and two had three episodes of acute rejection. Three patients (10%) developed malignancy. A substantial proportion of patients (44%) were short, with a height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88, which is below the third percentile for age and gender. One quarter of the patients, more commonly the females, were obese. Other complications included osteoporosis in 16 (53%) patients, avascular bone necrosis in four (13%), post-transplantation diabetes mellitus in three (10%), and hypertension in 18 (60%). Twelve (40%) patients were married and 27% had children post-transplantation. The independent determinants of long-term graft survival were acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Despite good renal function, long-term pediatric renal transplant survivors are at risk of significant morbidity. The determinants of long-term graft survival are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.
Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; de Salis, Isabel; Tomson, Charles; Owen-Smith, Amanda
In the UK there is a short-fall between individuals requiring a renal transplant and kidneys available for transplantation. Non-directed 'altruistic' living kidney donation has emerged as a strategy for bridging this gap between supply and demand, with the number increasing each year. This study aimed to explore the views of potential recipients towards non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor kidney transplantation. Semi-structured interviews with 32 UK deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were performed. Interviews explored willingness to consider directed and non-directed live-donor kidney transplants (LDKTs). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. For those not willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT, the following themes were identified: i) Prioritising other recipients above self; ii) Fear of acquiring an unknown donor's characteristics, and iii) Concern for the donor - unnecessary risk. For those willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT the following themes were identified: iv) Prioritising known above unknown persons, v) Belief that they are as deserving as other potential recipients, and vi) Advantages of a LDKT. Drawing on 'gift exchange theory', this study contributes to our understanding of the experience of the intended recipient of a gift. The anonymity of the donor-recipient appears to be seen as a benefit of non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor transplants, freeing recipients from the obligations of the gift. However, those who feel unworthy of the 'gifted transplant' are concerned about the donor and by the lack of opportunity for direct reciprocity. Highlighting the 'reciprocal benefits' reported by donors may allow individuals whose preference is a live-donor transplant to accept one if offered. These insights provide the transplant community with targets for intervention, through which the concerns of potential
Akoh, Jacob A
Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.
Peces, Ramón; Afonso, Sara; Peces, Carlos; Nevado, Julián; Selgas, Rafael
Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis and by the onset of reactive amyloid-associated amyloidosis. Amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever can lead to end-stage renal disease, culminating in kidney transplantation for some patients. In this study, we report the clinical outcome of two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever who were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. Subsequently, they were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever and were successfully treated with anakinra and colchicine. Two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever and renal amyloidosis were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. The recipient had presented recurrent acute febrile episodes of familial Mediterranean fever, developed nephrotic syndrome secondary to amyloidosis and needed bilateral nephrectomy and chronic dialysis. His elder brother, in apparent good health, donated his left kidney to his brother. Immediately after the kidney transplantation, both the donor and recipient presented massive proteinuria, impaired renal function and elevated serum amyloid A levels. Biopsies of the brothers' kidneys showed amyloidosis. Genetic studies thereafter revealed a homozygous variant for the MEFV gene (NM_000243.2.c.2082G > A; p.M694I) in both brothers. At this point, both the donor and recipient were treated with colchicine and anakinra, resulting in improved renal function, decreased proteinuria, undetectable serum amyloid A levels and stable renal function at 62 months of follow-up and no major adverse effects. In familial Mediterranean fever, analyses of the MEFV gene should be performed in potential live kidney donors from a direct family member (either between siblings or between parents and children). In addition, genetic studies are required when consanguinity is suspected between members involved in
Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Menezes, Cristiane Alves da Silva; Alpoim, Patrícia Nessralla; Cardoso, Carolina Neris; Martins, Suellen Rodrigues; Alves, Lorraine Vieira; de Assis Martins-Filho, Olindo; Braga Gomes Borges, Karina; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna
The maintenance of stable graft function in renal transplanted recipients (RTR) is a challenge for healthcare staff. The ideal biomarkers must have significative predictive values to monitor the intricate renal function response triggered after renal transplantation. The main purpose in this study was to evaluate the regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines as biomarkers of allograft function in living-related renal transplant patients. Regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokine plasma levels were measured by flow cytometry in 120 living-related renal transplanted patients categorized into three groups according to creatinine plasma levels: creatinine less than 1.4 mg/dL (C1), creatinine within 1.4-2.0mg/dL (C2) and more than 2.0 mg/dL (C3). Patients were also classified as "low" or "high" cytokine producers. Clinical data were obtained from patients' medical record. We have found a peak of regulatory cytokines in RTR with low creatinine levels as well as a peak of IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine in patients with high creatinine levels. C1 and C3 groups showed a mixed pro-inflammatory (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) cytokine pattern and C2 had a predominant pro-inflammatory profile. C3 group showed a higher frequency of high pro-inflammatory cytokine producers compared to C1. Our data suggest that regulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 could be good biomarkers associated with stable renal function, while pro-inflammatory cytokines seems to be potential markers in RTR related to high creatinine plasma levels, specially IL-6 despite of its borderline values. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yanishi, Masaaki; Tsukaguchi, Hiroyasu; Huan, Nguyen Thanh; Koito, Yuya; Taniguchi, Hisanori; Yoshida, Kenji; Mishima, Takao; Sugi, Motohiko; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi
Optimizing nephron supply to recipient demand is a non-immunologic determinant of renal allograft outcome. Nephron reduction is usually caused by physical donor-recipient mismatch, but its pathologic relevance remains to be determined. Thirty-one recipients of living donor renal transplants were divided into three subgroups: those who received transplants from the same gender (n = 6, Group 1) and those who underwent male-to-female (n = 8, Group 2) and female-to-male (n = 17, Group 3) transplants. Renal mass was evaluated by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry before and one year after transplantation. Glomerular volume was determined from protocol biopsies obtained one hour and one year after transplantation. Histologically determined glomerular volume in biopsied tissues showed a significant linear correlation with allograft size on 3D-CT volumetry (p < 0.001, r = 0.625). Mismatches in body weight, glomerular volume and kidney volume ratios were significantly greater in female-to-male (Group 3) than in male-to-female (Group 2) transplants (p < 0.001 each). Despite the two groups having nearly equal graft filtration rates one year after transplantation, proteinuria rate was three-fold higher in Group 3 than in Group 2 (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that too small graft size, frequent in female-to-male transplants, could cause hypertrophy in both kidneys and glomeruli, thereby affecting allograft function and survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mineral Metabolism in European Children Living with a Renal Transplant: A European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Study
Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico
Background and objectives Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 1237 children (0–17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines on prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure. Results Abnormal serum phosphorus levels were observed in 25% (14% hypophosphatemia and 11% hyperphosphatemia), altered serum calcium in 30% (19% hypocalcemia, 11% hypercalcemia), and hyperparathyroidism in 41% of the patients. A longer time since transplantation was associated with a lower risk of having mineral levels above target range. Serum phosphorus levels were inversely associated with eGFR, and levels above the recommended targets were associated with a higher risk of graft failure independently of eGFR. Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are common after pediatric renal transplantation in Europe and are associated with graft dysfunction. PMID:25710805
Vinod, P. B.; Sharma, Raj Kumar
The purpose of review was increasing number of opportunistic infections with use of newer immunosuppression and difficulty in diagnosis and management of such patients. For this review, MEDLINE database was searched from 2000 to 2006 with the keywords of opportunistic infections in renal transplantation. Opportunistic infection is a serious clinical complication in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. The two major factors for successful renal transplantation are better control of rejection and better prevention and treatment of infection. In renal allograft recipient, immunosuppressive drug therapy is the major cause of immunocompromised status and occurrence of infections, which arise most commonly as a result of invasion by endogenous opportunists. The opportunistic infections with varicella zoster viruses, parvovirus B-19, polyomavirus, nocardia and mucormycosis in immunosuppressed patients were present with severe complications that are reviewed in this article. As a result of use of strong immunosuppressive drugs like tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetyl and antirejection therapy with antithymocyte globulins, these infections are now seen frequently, so they should always be included in differential diagnostic consideration. New diagnostic procedures and new treatment strategies are required to allow early detection and successful treatment of opportunistic infections in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:19672339
Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya
As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.
Song, Joohan; Kim, Myeong Gyu; Choi, Boyoon; Han, Na Young; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Oh, Jung Mi
Cyclosporine is often used to prevent allograft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, cyclosporine has a narrow therapeutic window and large variability in its pharmacokinetics. Individual characteristics and genetic polymorphisms can cause the variation. Hence, it is important to determine the cause(s) of the variation in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. To our knowledge, this is the first reported population pharmacokinetic study of cyclosporine in living donor renal transplant recipients that considered the genetic polymorphism as a covariate. To build a population pharmacokinetic model of cyclosporine in living donor renal transplant recipients and identify covariates including CYP3A5*3, ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms that affect cyclosporine pharmacokinetic parameters. Clinical characteristics and cyclosporine concentration data for 69 patients who received cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy after living donor renal transplantation were collected retrospectively for up to 400 postoperative days. CYP3A5*1/*3 and ABCB1C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T geno-typing was performed. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a NONMEM program. After building the final model, 1000 bootstrappings were performed to validate the final model. In total, 2034 blood samples were collected. A 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption and elimination was chosen to describe the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. A population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that postoperative days, sex, and CYP3A5 genotype significantly affected the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. The final estimate of mean clearance was 56 L/h, and the mean volume of distribution was 4650 L. The interindividual variability for these parameters was 22.98% and 51.48%, respectively. Using the present model to calculate the dose of cyclosporine with CYP3A5 genotyping can be possible for the patients whose cyclosporine concentration is not within the therapeutic range even with
Kim, H S; Kwon, O J; Kang, C M
The availability of donors is a major limiting factor in living donor renal transplantation. Approximately one third of patients with end-stage renal disease have willing potential living donors who are blood type or cross-match incompatible. The living donor kidney exchange has become an efficient solution for recipients in this situation. We analyzed the outcome and advantages of an exchange donor program compared with ABO-incompatible transplantation and desensitized protocol transplantation for highly sensitized patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 152 exchange donor cases from 1991 to 2010. We analyzed the risk factors, outcomes, matching factors, complication rates, and acute rejection rates of this program compared with other alternative strategies. In our center, 22% of total living donor kidney transplantations were performed through an exchange program and an expanded donor pool. The graft survival, complication, and acute rejection rates were not significantly different compared with the alternatives. The severe complication rates were lower than with the alternatives and the immunosuppressant protocol and preoperative preparation were simpler. Blood type O recipients who registered in the exchange program showed no significant differences from the living related groups (P = .45), which were similar to the proportions for other ABO types. Upon multivariate analysis, an acute rejection episode and use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were significant factors associated with graft survival (P = .015 and P = .007; odds ratio [OR] 5.968 and 7.324; 95% confidence interval [CI] .003-.533 and .098-.690). Although exchange donor programs are not the sole solution, they show several advantages, such as the prescription of standard immunosuppression, simple preoperative preparation, low cost, and modest rates of severe complications compared with ABO-incompatible transplantation or desensitized protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All
Goldberg, D S; Ruebner, R L; Abt, P L
Since initiation of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based allocation for liver transplantation, the risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased. Recent US data have demonstrated comparable, if not superior survival, among recipients of living donor liver transplants (LDLT) when compared to deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) recipients. However, little is known about the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT. We analyzed linked Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) and US Renal Data System (USRDS) data of first-time liver-alone transplant recipients from February 27, 2002 to March 1, 2011, and restricted the cohort to recipients with a laboratory MELD score ≤25 not on dialysis prior to transplantation, in order to evaluate the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT, and to compare the incidence among LDLT versus DDLT recipients. There were 28 707 DDLT and 1917 LDLT recipients included in the analyses. The 1-, 3- and 5-year unadjusted risk of ESRD was 1.7%, 2.9% and 3.4% in LDLT recipients, compared with 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.8% in DDLT recipients (p > 0.05), respectively. In multivariable competing risk Cox regression models, there was no association between receiving an LDLT and risk of ESRD (sub-hazard ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, p = 0.92). In conclusion, the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT in the United States is low, and there are no significant differences among LDLT and DDLT recipients with MELD scores ≤25 at transplantation.
Velchik, M.G.; Kressel, H.; Thickman, D.; Alavi, A.
The preliminary results of NMR evaluation of renal transplants (Txs) are reported including correlation with nuclear medicine (NM) and ultrasound (US). Thirteen Txs (8 cadaver (Cd), 5 living related doner (LRD) in 13 patients (6M, 7F) ranging in age from 25-47 (x 35) were evaluated by NM (32), NMR (15) and US (5). Clinical diagnoses included: rejection (8), ATN (2), infarction (1), and normal (2). Of the 8 patients with rejection (5) Cd; 3 LRD) pathologic proof was obtained in 3. An experimental 0.12 T resistive magnet (GE) was used with a partial saturation technique with repetition time (TR) of 143 and 286 msec to provide T1 weighting. T2 weighted information was obtained with a spin echo technique with echo times (TE) of 20, 40, 60 and 80 msec. The NMR appearance of normal Txs consisted of a uniform signal intensity (Tx> pelvic musculature), well-defined internal architecture with good cortical medullary differentiation and normal appearing vessels. The NMR appearance of abnormal transplants consisted of a heterogeneous or overall decrease in signal intensity (kidney muscle) with poor cortical medullary differentiation with or without a halo of decreased signal intensity. Although NMR was able to differentiate normal from abnormal, it was unable to clearly discriminate between ATN and rejection. Advantages of NMR included the ability to demonstrate regional anatomy, vasculature, post operative fluid collections and hematomas, and associated avascular necrosis of the hips.
Lin, Y-H; Lin, C-C; Wang, C-C; Wang, S-H; Liu, Y-W; Yong, C-C; Lin, T-L; Li, W-F; Concejero, A M; Chen, C-L
Recipients after liver transplantation. (OLT) often experience renal dysfunction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) after OLT occur among 20% to 50% and 30% to 90% of recipients, respectively; 2% to 5% of them deteriorate into end-stage renal disease each year. Since the predictable factors for CKD have not been well identified. We sought to investigate the incidence and predictors of CKD at 5 years after OLT. Between August 2002 and December 2005, we enrolled 77 patients who underwent adult living donor OLT with over 2 years of follow-up. The strategies to prevent renal dysfunction included induction with basiliximab to delay the use of tacrolimus: addition of mycophenolate mofetil to reduce the tacrolimus dosage; avoidance of the calcineurin inhibitor using sirolimus or administration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. The clinical variables were reviewed for analysis. The mean follow-up was 76 ± 14 months. The incidence of AKI (over 50% increase level of creatinine) was 29%. Ten (13.0%) patients developed CKD (creatinine > 2 mg/dL). One (1.3%) subject developed end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. Upon multivariate analysis the development of CKD was significantly associated with the posttransplant 4-week creatinine level: 0.92 ± 0.23 versus 1.37 ± 0.93 mg/dL (P = .008). The 4-week creatinine value was predictive of the occurence of CKD over 5 years after OLT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ishida, Hideki; Takahara, Shiro; Amada, Noritoshi; Tomikawa, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kota; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Takahiro; Tanabe, Kazunari; Toma, Hiroshi
Our objectives were to compare the clinical outcomes of mizoribine (12 mg/kg/d) and mycophenolate mofetil (2000 mg/d) in combination with tacrolimus, basiliximab, and corticosteroids. We enrolled 83 recipients of living-donor renal transplant (performed between 2008 and 2013) in this study. This prospective multi-institutional randomized comparative study compared mizoribine (n = 41) and mycophenolate mofetil (n = 42) in combination with tacrolimus, basiliximab, and corticosteroids for living-donor renal transplant recipients. We compared the acute rejection and graft survival rates and adverse event rates within 1 year of renal transplant between the 2 groups using intention-to-treat analyses. During the 1-year observation period, patient and graft survival rates were 100%. The acute rejection rate was 17.1% in the mizoribine group and 19% in the mycophenolate mofetil group. The incidence rate of cytomegalovirus infection seropositivity (recipient and donor with positive cytomegalovirus antibody status) was higher in the mycophenolate mofetil group than in the mizoribine group, although the difference in these rates was not statistically significant. The incidence of leukopenia was higher in the mizoribine group than in the mycophenolate mofetil group. High-dose mizoribine at 12 mg/kg/day was a safe and efficacious immunosuppressive alternative to mycophenolate mofetil in living-donor renal transplant recipients. Leukopenia should be closely monitored in the initial period of insufficient kidney function after renal transplant.
Ishida, Hideki; Takahara, Shiro; Amada, Noritoshi; Tomikawa, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kota; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Takahiro; Tanabe, Kazunari; Toma, Hiroshi
Our objectives were to compare the clinical outcomes of mizoribine (12 mg/kg/d) and mycophenolate mofetil (2000 mg/d) in combination with tacrolimus, basiliximab, and corticosteroids. We enrolled 83 recipients of living-donor renal transplant (performed between 2008 and 2013) in this study. This prospective multi-institutional randomized comparative study compared mizoribine (n = 41) and mycophenolate mofetil (n = 42) in combination with tacrolimus, basiliximab, and corticosteroids for living-donor renal transplant recipients. We compared the acute rejection and graft survival rates and adverse event rates within 1 year of renal transplant between the 2 groups using intention-to-treat analyses. During the 1-year observation period, patient and graft survival rates were 100%. The acute rejection rate was 17.1% in the mizoribine group and 19% in the mycophenolate mofetil group. The incidence rate of cytomegalovirus infection seropositivity (recipient and donor with positive cytomegalovirus antibody status) was higher in the mycophenolate mofetil group than in the mizoribine group, although the difference in these rates was not statistically significant. The incidence of leukopenia was higher in the mizoribine group than in the mycophenolate mofetil group. High-dose mizoribine at 12 mg/kg/day was a safe and efficacious immunosuppressive alternative to mycophenolate mofetil in living-donor renal transplant recipients. Leukopenia should be closely monitored in the initial period of insufficient kidney function after renal transplant.
Matsumura, Mariko; Yaguchi, Hiroaki; Mito, Yasunori
In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I-) positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation. The second patient was a 65-year-old man who had been suffering from diabetic nephropathy. He was seronegative for HTLV-I and underwent renal transplantation one year previously, with his HTLV-I seropositive wife as the donor. He developed HAM eight months after renal transplantation. Both cases showed neurological improvements after the immunomodulating therapies. We tried to shed some light on the understanding of immunological mechanisms of transplantation-associated HAM, focusing on therapeutic strategies based on the immunopathogenesis of the condition. PMID:27777805
Tajima, Yasutaka; Matsumura, Mariko; Yaguchi, Hiroaki; Mito, Yasunori
In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I-) positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation. The second patient was a 65-year-old man who had been suffering from diabetic nephropathy. He was seronegative for HTLV-I and underwent renal transplantation one year previously, with his HTLV-I seropositive wife as the donor. He developed HAM eight months after renal transplantation. Both cases showed neurological improvements after the immunomodulating therapies. We tried to shed some light on the understanding of immunological mechanisms of transplantation-associated HAM, focusing on therapeutic strategies based on the immunopathogenesis of the condition.
Bouattar, T; Hakim, H; Rhou, H; Benamar, L; Bayahia, R; Ouzeddoun, N
Renal transplantation with a well-functioning graft leads to a rapid restoration of endocrine and sexual functions. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with pregnancies among renal transplant patients, particularly with regard to their impact on graft function. We analyzed 10 pregnancies in 7 renal transplant recipients for long-term graft outcomes in terms of clinical and biological data. The mean patient age was 28.5 +/- 4 years. They all received a living donor kidney. The time between transplantation and the onset of pregnancy was 33.4 +/- 23.2 months. Regarding the immunosuppressive therapy, all patients received steroids and cyclosporine; 4 patients received in addition azathioprine and 2 received mycophenolate mofetil that was changed at 1 month before conception to azathioprine. There was no significant difference between the serum creatinine before and during pregnancy. We did not observe any acute rejection episode. Pregnancy complications were preclampsia in 1 case, hypertension in 1 case, urinary tract infection in 2 cases, and anemia in 80% of patients during the third trimester. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in 1 case and preterm delivery in 2 cases. Two cases of neonatal death were registered. Cesarean section was performed in 50% of cases. The follow-up revealed 2 cases of chronic rejection. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for pregnancy which generally occurs at 2 years after kidney transplantation.
Hatch, D A; Barry, J M; Norman, D J
Fourteen adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution were randomly assigned to receive either high fluid replacement (total volume of urine output + 30 ml/hr) or low fluid replacement (constant 125 ml/hr) during the first 48 hr after grafting. High replacement recipients had significantly higher fluid intake and urine output than did low replacement recipients. However, net fluid balance at the end of the 48-hr study period was positive for both groups and not significantly different. Fractional excretion of sodium was directly related to urine output in all patients. Serum osmolality, serum sodium concentration, and urine sodium concentration were not significantly different in the treatment groups. Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the low-replacement group at 24 and 36 hr after transplantation. The i.v. replacement of total urinary output is unnecessary in adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution because such grafts can conserve sodium and water immediately after transplantation.
Demir, E; Balal, M; Paydas, S; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U
We evaluated renal function, lipid profile, body weight, and physical activity of living donors in long-term follow-up after nephrectomy. A total of 121 living donors were compared with 81 healthy subjects with normal renal function and no history of any surgery or disease. Before and after donor nephrectomies, we recorded age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, lipids, and serum glucose levels of the donors. Preoperative (baseline) and postoperative (last visit) physical activities of donors and controls were evaluated through the Modified Baecke Questionnaire (occupational activities, sports activities, leisure-time activities). There were no differences between donors and controls for age (P = .772), gender (P = .927), and follow-up period (P = .564). According to baseline levels, blood pressure and serum creatinine were increased and creatinine clearance was decreased (P < .001 for all). The mean increases in body weight (P = .012), LDL (P = .004), and triglyceride (P < .001) were higher in donors than in controls. But the mean decrease in HDL was not different between controls and donors (P = .057). Indices of sports and total activities were lower in donors than in controls on the last visit (P < .001). Indices of occupational and leisure-time activities were similar on the last visit in donors and in controls (P = .126, P = .083). The alterations in total cholesterol and total activity showed significant negative correlations in donors (r = -.581, P < .001). Also, the alterations in total cholesterol and body weight showed a significant correlation (r = .25, P = .02). We followed donors together with serum lipid levels, body weight, and total physical activities as well as blood pressure and renal function tests.
Thuret, R; Kleinclauss, F; Terrier, N; Karam, G; Timsit, M O
To describe kidney transplantation surgical techniques and to propose strategies in high-risk recipients. Relevant publications were identified through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and Embase (http://www.embase.com/) database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "renal transplantation; peripheral arterial disease; obesity; third and fourth transplantation; robotic-assisted kidney transplant; anticoagulant therapy; dual kidney transplant". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and case-reports were selected. A total of 1949 articles were analyzed for arterial disease and anticoagulant therapy, 1083 for obesity, 663 for dual kidney transplants, 458 for third and subsequent procedures and 84 for robotic-assisted kidney transplantation. After careful selection, 304 publications were eligible for our review. Surgical assessment of future recipients is a pivotal step to anticipate technical difficulties, to interrupt clopidogrel or direct oral anticoagulants and to propose a revascularization procedure when necessary. Lack of data regarding obese recipients does not allow us to conclude about best surgical care or optimal timing but suggest that an early global management of obesity in chronic kidney disease patients is mandatory to improve access to a successful transplantation. In neurologic bladder and congenital anomalies, urodynamics and bladder function must be assessed prior to the onset of oliguria to intend an early treatment. Urinary diversion may be performed prior to or after transplantation with similar survival outcome and comparable rates of infections. Because of a rigorous selection of donors, the French dual kidney transplant program provides satisfactory outcomes, but fails in convincing surgical
Mann, A.; Soundararajan, P.; Shroff, S.
Historically HIV positive patients were considered a contraindication for renal transplant. After the year 1996, with the introduction of HAART the retropositive patients live longer and therefore end stage organ disease is now an increasingly important cause of mortality and morbidity in these patients. Here we report our experience for the first time in India. A forty nine year old hypertensive female from Africa who was diagnosed chronic kidney disease and retropositive status, progressed to end stage renal disease and underwent live related renal transplant at our centre. PMID:20436733
Korzeniewska, Anna; Dyła, Tomasz; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata
Renal transplant recipients carry a relatively high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). In most cases, active TB is the result of reactivation of a latent infection and is located in the lungs. In these patients, clinical presentation of TB can often be atypical and there is a high risk of dissemination and high mortality rates. Therefore, the use of invasive procedures for proper diagnosis is recommended, as well as anti-tuberculosis therapy instituted whenever there is a strong suspicion of TB on clinical grounds, even without microbiological evidence. The treatment of active TB in renal transplant recipients should be the same as in the general population. To avoid graft rejection, blood levels of calcineurin inhibitors should be monitored closely. Prophylaxis is recommended for high-risk patients.
Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.
With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.
Fahlenkamp, D; Reinke, P; Kirchner, S; Schnorr, D; Lindeke, A; Loening, S A
In 1243 patients after renal transplantation, 39 malignant tumours were detected in 37 patients. The average latency period between transplantation and tumour disease was 72 months. Tumours included 8 malignant lymphomas, 7 dermatomas and 24 visceral tumours. The patients who developed a tumour had received fewer blood transfusions before transplantation than a tumour-free control group of 60 patients with renal transplants. Rejection crises occurred in a significantly smaller number of tumour patients compared with the control group.
Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun
Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131
Transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy for children with end-stage renal disease. Compared with dialysis, successful transplantation in children and adolescents not only ameliorates uremic symptoms but also allows for significant improvement of delayed growth, sexual maturation, and psychosocial functioning. The child with a well-functioning kidney can enjoy a quality of life that cannot be achieved with dialysis therapy. The 5- and 10-year patient/graft survival rate in transplant recipients are 97.9/88.8% and 96.2%/79.4% based on Japanese Renal Transplant Registry Society data. This article reviews recent reports of pediatric renal transplantation including ABO-incompatible and preemptive renal transplantation in Japan.
Ahn, B K; Kwon, O J; Kang, C M
The exchange donor program in renal transplantation is an efficient solution for recipients with a blood type or crossmatch-incompatible donor. However, this program has some difficulties to define unacceptable human leukocyte antigen matches, deteriorating clinical potential recipient condition, and withdrawal of donor consent. We analyzed the outcomes of exchange donor renal transplantation through the altruistic unbalanced chain. Among 152 cases of exchange donor renal transplantation from 1991 to 2010 in our hospital, we performed 58 procedures through altruistic unbalanced chains. We compared their outcomes with the direct and balanced chain group. We analyzed retrospectively whether this program expanded the donor pool, seeking better immunologic, size, and age matching. The graft survival and acute rejection rates did not differ significantly in the two groups. Of 152 cases, 58 (38.2%) renal transplantations were performed through an unbalanced chain. Seventeen waiting list recipients were transplanted through an altruistic unbalanced chain. In blood type O recipients (n = 32), the causes of registration in the exchange program were ABO incompatibility (93.3%), and positive crossmatch (6.7%). Nine altruistic blood type O donors and 9 (28.1%) type O recipients underwent transplantations through this chain. We suggest the altruistic unbalanced chain may expand the donor pool with advantages for difficult-to-match pairs. The disadvantages of type O recipients may be overcome through the use of an unbalanced chain. The altruistic unbalanced exchange transplantation program can help easy-to-match subjects, shortening the waiting periods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer
Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively.
Caetano Mota, Patrícia; Vaz, Ana Paula; Castro Ferreira, Inês; Bustorff, Manuela; Damas, Carla
Renal transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation and kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to pulmonary complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. To evaluate patients admitted to the Renal Transplant Unit (RTU) of Hospital de S. João with respiratory disease. We performed a retrospective study of all patients admitted to RTU with respiratory disease during a period of 12 months. Thirty-six patients were included. Mean age 55.2 (+/-13.4) years; 61.1% male. Immunosuppressive agents most frequently used were prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil associated with ciclosporin (38.9%) or tacrolimus (22.2%) or rapamycin (13.9%). Thirty-one patients (86.1%) presented infectious respiratory disease. In this group the main diagnoses were 23 (74.2%) pneumonias, 5 (16.1%) opportunistic infections, 2 (6.5%) tracheobronchitis, and 1 case (3.2%) of lung abscesses. Microbiological agent was identified in 7 cases (22.6%). Five patients (13.9%) presented rapamycin-induced lung disease. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 15 patients (41.7%), diagnostic in 10 cases (66.7%). Mean hospital stay was 17.1 (+/-18.5) days and no related death was observed. Respiratory infections were the main complications in these patients. Drug-induced lung disease implies recognition of its features and a rigorous monitoring of drug serum levels. A more invasive diagnostic approach was determinant in the choice of an early and more specific therapy.
Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L
Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.
Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L
Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P < .05), and the proportion receiving organs with > or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P < .05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed nonsignificant differences in kidney survival: 86% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years in Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.
Sørensen, P J; Schmidt, E B; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Kristensen, S D; Dyerberg, J; Kornerup, H J
Platelet function and protein C activity and antigen level was studied in 31 renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy controls. The patients were divided into three groups: (I) cyclosporin treated, (II) azathioprine treated, and (III) azathioprine treated patients with chronic rejection. The platelet function in the renal transplant patients was normal and there was no difference between groups I and II. The specific activity of protein C was decreased in patients after renal transplantation and decreasing protein C activity and progressive renal failure was found to be positively correlated in the azathioprine treated groups.
Makuuchi, M; Kawarazaki, H; Iwanaka, T; Kamada, N; Takayama, T; Kumon, M
Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver transplantations had already been performed in Japan, mainly for children with biliary atresia. Five of these patients subsequently died, however, our patient has survived more than 1 year, and she is presently leading a normal school life. The most important issue regarding living related liver transplantation is to ensure the donor's safety. For this purpose, we conducted a preoperative banking of the donor's own blood and plasma. In addition, a selective vascular occlusion was carried out to reduce blood loss during the resection of the liver. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was introduced for evaluating the circulation of the graft. By using this modality, the following three points were able to be accurately estimated in order to obtain optimal graft perfusion: 1) The most suitable position for the graft to be fixed to the abdominal wall, 2) whether or not the abdominal wall could be closed and 3) the indication for a ligation of the collateral veins to form a porto-systemic shunt. Thanks to these procedures, living related liver transplantations have now become an acceptable transplant method, however, a transplantation from a cadaver that is brain dead but still has a beating heart is still absolutely necessary for adult recipients. Therefore, in the future, both methods should be performed.
Qunibi, W; Abulrub, D; Shaheen, F; el-Din, A B; Alfurayh, O; Almeshari, K
Renal transplantation offers patients with end-stage renal disease the best opportunity for rehabilitation and long-term survival. However, there is a critical shortage of transplantable kidneys worldwide. This plays well into the hands of transplanters and entrepreneurs involved in commercial renal transplantation, particularly in India. This practice has been condemned by all transplant societies. In our fight against rampant commercialism in renal transplantation, we sought to describe feelings of patients who had received transplants in India, and the difficulties they faced during their stay there. The results show that the two reasons that motivated patients to go to India were lack of living-related donors and the need for prompt transplant. More than half of the patients did not meet their donors. Their experience, however, has been largely positive except for some negative feelings toward the broker and the standard of hospital hygiene. The total cost of the transplant was far less than that in the West but, despite that, some patients felt financially exploited. Communication with them was poor, as most patients did not get adequate pretransplant education and were not informed of possible complications including rejection and graft loss. Furthermore, almost half of the patients were not given medical reports. These results substantiate the impression that CRT in India does not conform to the high standards of renal transplant medicine.
Malluche, Hartmut H.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Herberth, Johann
In light of greatly improved long-term patient and graft survival after renal transplantation, improving other clinical outcomes such as risk of fracture and cardiovascular disease is of paramount importance. After renal transplantation, a large percentage of patients lose bone. This loss of bone results from a combination of factors that include pre-existing renal osteodystrophy, immunosuppressive therapy, and the effects of chronically reduced renal function after transplantation. In addition to low bone volume, histological abnormalities include decreased bone turnover and defective mineralization. Low bone volume and low bone turnover were recently shown to be associated with cardiovascular calcifications, highlighting specific challenges for medical therapy and the need to prevent low bone turnover in the pretransplant patient. This Review discusses changes in bone histology and mineral metabolism that are associated with renal transplantation and the effects of these changes on clinical outcomes such as fractures and cardiovascular calcifications. Therapeutic modalities are evaluated based on our understanding of bone histology. PMID:19918255
Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Kiil
Nearly 20 years of experience at Severance Hospital has shown that utilizing exchange donors increases the donor pool safely, with outcomes comparable to living related donor grafts. The exchange donor program is invaluable for incompatible donor-recipient pairs to consecutively proceed to transplantation. Recently, newer desensitization protocols have been devised to approach incompatible donor-recipient pairs, but not without risks. These desensitization protocols may be an alternative when confronting the limitations in the exchange program. Therefore, the exchange program and the desensitization protocols should be complementary, not competing strategies and centers should weigh the merits and limitations of each protocol in each incompatible donor-recipient pair to select the optimal method for a safe and successful transplantation.
De Paepe, J P; Michel, L; Pirson, Y; Squifflet, J P; Alexandre, G
A kidney transplantation was performed in July 1981 on a 29 year old woman who presented the signs of tuberous sclerosis and suffered from chronic renal failure. The frequency and the genetic transmission of Bourneville's disease are explained. The signs of the disease are exposed with special emphasis on the renal lesions. Only the patients with minor neurological symptoms can survive. These patients are able to develop chronic renal failure. This occurs either when the kidneys are destructed by renal cysts or tumors, or when a bilateral nephrectomy must be performed for bleeding or tumoral compression. A kidney transplantation can give them an opportunity to live almost normally. When nephrectomy is not performed, a regularly follow-up is necessary because the unknown future of the renal lesions in place.
Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N
The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession.
El-Nono, Ibrahiem H; Telha, Khaled A; Al-Alimy, Gamil M; Ghilan, Abdulilah M; Abu Asba, Nagieb W; Al-Zkri, Abdo M; Al-Adimi, Abdulilah M; Al-Ba'adani, Tawfiq H
Background Renal replacement therapy was first introduced in Yemen in 1978 in the form of hemodialysis. Twenty years later, the first renal transplantation was performed. Kidney transplantations were started in socially and financially challenging circumstances in Yemen in 1998. A structured program was established and has been functioning regularly since 2005. A pediatric transplantation program was started in 2011. Material and Methods This was a prospective study of 181 transplants performed at the Urology and Nephrology Center between May 1998 and 2012. All transplants were from living related donors. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted initially of double therapy with steroid and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Subsequently, triple therapy with addition of a calcineurin inhibitor was introduced. Primary graft function was achieved in 176 (97.2%) recipients. Results Cold ischemia time was 48-68 min. Episodes of acute rejection in 12 patients were treated with high-dose steroids. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was used in cases of vascular or steroid-resistant rejection in 2 patients. The post-transplant complications, either surgical or medical, were comparable to those recorded in the literature. Conclusions Renal transplantation is a good achievement in our country. The patients and graft survival rates are comparable to other reports.
Barbour, Thomas D; Crosthwaite, Amy; Chow, Kevin; Finlay, Moira J; Better, Nathan; Hughes, Peter D; Cohney, Solomon J
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may occur in isolation or in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with the potential to cause renal failure via several distinct pathologies. Renal transplantation in the presence of APS carries a risk of early graft loss from arterial or venous thrombosis, or thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Whilst perioperative anticoagulation reduces the risk of large vessel thrombosis, it may result in significant haemorrhage, and its efficacy in preventing post-transplant TMA is uncertain. Here, we report a patient with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to lupus nephritis and APS, in whom allograft TMA developed soon after transplantation despite partial anticoagulation. TMA resolved with plasma exchange-based therapy albeit with some irreversible graft damage and renal impairment. We discuss the differential diagnosis of post-transplant TMA, and current treatment options.
Lerner, Susan M
Hepatitis C is a widespread problem, and the prevalence is higher in patients on hemodialysis than in the general population. In addition, hepatitis C reduces survival in dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients. Kidney transplantation offers a survival advantage to those patients with chronic hepatitis C infection faced with the alternative of remaining on dialysis. Kidney transplantation should therefore be considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease and hepatitis C infection. However, these patients need to be chosen appropriately, and there are no well-established guidelines for the workup or selection of these of these patients. Liver biopsy is an essential tool to determine the degree of fibrosis in these patients and also will prove useful in the management of the patients after transplantation. Transplantation of kidneys from hepatitis C-positive donors to hepatitis C-positive recipients has been shown to be safe and confers a significant advantage in terms of waiting time in this population where death on the waiting list is significant. Treatment prior to transplantation should be considered by the hepatology team, although it is often more difficult to treat given the constraints of a patient in renal failure. Although interferon treatment in hepatitis C-positive kidney-transplant candidates is recommended, treatment posttransplant remains controversial. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation should be considered for those candidates with evidence of portal hypertension or decompensated cirrhosis. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Prasad, Narayan; Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Agarwal, Vikas; Kumar, Shashi; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Yadav, Subhash; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama
Background We aimed to longitudinally analyse changes in the levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and associated minerals in patients undergoing renal transplantation. Methods Sixty-three patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent living donor transplantation were recruited. Serum FGF23, iPTH, uric acid, inorganic phosphorous (iP), blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were measured pre-transplant and at 1 (M1), 3 (M3) and 12 months (M12) post-transplantation. Results FGF23 levels were decreased at M1, M3 and M12 by 93.81, 96.74 and 97.53%, respectively. iPTH levels were decreased by 67.95, 74.95 and 84.9%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism at M1, M3 and M12 post-transplantation was 63.5, 42.9 and 11.1%, respectively. FGF23 and iP levels remained above the normal range in 23 (36.5%) and 17 (27%) patients at M1, 10 (15.9%) and 5 (8%) at M3 and in none at M12 post-transplantation, respectively. A multivariate regression model revealed that, pre-transplant, iP was positively associated with iPTH (P = 0.016) but not with FGF 23; however, post-transplant, iP level was negatively associated with FGF23 (P < 0.001) but not with iPTH. Conclusions Post-transplant FGF23 levels settle faster than those of iPTH. However, 11% of patients continued to have hyperparathyroidism even after 12 months. PMID:27679713
Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B
Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in
Ghods, Ahad J; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush
Currently, the buying and selling of kidneys through "transplant tourism" is occurring at an increasing rate, both in developed and developing countries. Since 1988, Iran has adopted a compensated and regulated living-unrelated donor renal transplant program, and by providing financial incentives to volunteer living donors, has eliminated the renal transplant waiting list. In the Iranian model of renal transplantation program, regulations have been put in place to prevent transplant tourism. Foreigners are not allowed to undergo renal transplantation from Iranian living-unrelated donors. They also are not permitted to volunteer as kidney donors for Iranian patients. A study at the transplant unit of Hashemi Nejad Kidney Hospital in Tehran, Iran, showed that of 1881 renal transplant recipients, 19 (1%) were Afghani or Iraqi refugees, 11 (0.6%) were other foreign nationals, and 18 (0.9%) were Iranian immigrants. Renal transplantations seemed ethically acceptable to all refugees and foreign nationals. However, transplantation of Iranian immigrants who had been residing abroad for years constituted true transplant tourism.
Galliford, J; Game, D S
Renal transplantation offers patients with end stage renal failure improved survival and quality of life compared with dialysis. Although more transplants are being performed in the UK and elsewhere, the size of the renal transplant waiting list is increasing at a faster rate. Live donor transplantation between antibody compatible and incompatible pairs is one of the short term solutions to this; it may also be a sensible long term strategy since it affords better outcomes. Following successful transplantation, balancing the chronic and often deleterious effects of immunosuppression with chronic immune damage poses the key clinical challenge for transplant physicians today. Research efforts worldwide are focused towards immunological tolerance of transplanted organs with two main questions: first, how can we induce tolerance; and second, how can we test that it is operational? Immunosuppressive protocols vary greatly between transplant units, which may be reflected in differing patient and allograft survival.
Renal transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the number of patients waiting for transplantation greatly exceeds the number of suitable organs. Use of live kidney donors can increase the donor pool. Historically, donor nephrectomy was performed as an open technique. Its associated prolonged convalescence and long-term morbidity was likely a disincentive to donate. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, however, has been shown to have fewer long-term complications without compromising graft function. Since its inception, there has been an increase in the number of live donor renal transplantations performed.
Fuchs, Karin M; Wu, Danny; Ebcioglu, Zeynep
Women with renal disease face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy as they approach end-stage renal disease due to uremia. Renal transplantation has provided these patients the ability to return to a better quality of life, and for a number of women who are of child bearing age with renal disease, it has restored their fertility and provided the opportunity to have children. But, although fertility is restored, pregnancy in these women still harbors risk to the mother, graft, and fetus. Selected patients who have stable graft function can have successful pregnancies under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team involving maternal fetal medicine specialists and transplant nephrologists. Careful observation and management are required to optimize outcome for mother and fetus.
Subar, M; Gucalp, R; Benstein, J; Williams, G; Wiernik, P H
Four renal transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy who presented with acute myeloid leukaemia are described. In two cases, azathioprine may have played an important role as a cofactor in leukaemogenesis. In a third case, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide may have contributed. All patients were treated for leukaemia with full doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy and, in each case, a functioning renal allograft was preserved throughout the treatment despite attenuation of immunosuppressive therapy. Three patients achieved complete remission. Of the three, one is surviving at 2 years and two expired during the pancytopenic phase of their treatment with no active leukaemia present, and with intact renal function. As increasing expertise in the field of organ transplantation allows patients to survive longer, such patients' exposure to immunosuppressive and potentially leukaemogenic drugs is prolonged. The risk of secondary neoplasia has been previously documented in this population. Two of the four cases reported here suffered from polycystic kidney disease as their underlying condition. While this report suggests that the leukaemias are related to renal transplantation, we cannot rule out an association with the underlying disease which led to the transplant. This report further suggests that the leukaemia that develops in such patients may respond to standard therapy, and that such treatment does not compromise the transplanted kidney.
Wright, A J; Humar, A; Gourishankar, S; Bernard, K; Kumar, D
Legionella species are intracellular gram-negative bacilli that require specific culture media for growth. Transplant recipients with impaired cellular immunity are at particular risk for infection with this pathogen. Most human disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila; disease caused by non-L. pneumophila species is reported mainly in immunosuppressed patients with the exception of Legionella longbeachae. L. longbeachae is a common cause of Legionnaires' disease in Australia and New Zealand, and is associated with exposure to potting soil. We report the case of a patient, 26 years post kidney transplant, who presented with severe and rapidly progressive respiratory illness. L. longbeachae serogroup 1 was isolated from respiratory cultures. Further investigation revealed that she had significant soil exposure before the onset of illness. We highlight the importance of following safe living strategies to prevent exposure-related illness even in long-term transplant recipients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Jain, Anand; Baxi, Vaibhavi; Dasgupta, D
Summary Transplantation provides a near normal life and excellent rehabilitation compared to dialysis and is the preferred method of treatment for end stage renal disease patients. We describe our experiences through a retrospective analysis of anaesthesia management of 350 cases of both living related and cadaveric renal transplantation conducted between Jan 2004 - April 2008 at Jaslok Hospital And Research Center. Areas of our interest include preoperative patient status, fluid management, hemodynamic stability, anaesthesia management, and perioperative complications. Recent advances in surgical techniques; anaesthesia management and immunosuppressive drugs have made renal transplantation sale and predictable. Preoperative patient optimization, intraoperative physiological stability and postoperative care of renal transplant patients have contributed to the success of renal transplant programme in our hospital. PMID:20640138
Montgomery, Robert A; Cooper, Matthew; Kraus, Edward; Rabb, Hamid; Samaniego, Milagros; Simpkins, Christopher E; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Ugarte, Richard M; Warren, Daniel S; Zachary, Andrea A
A stagnant supply of transplantable organs in the face of a relentless burgeoning of transplant waiting lists has created a crisis. Necessity continues to be the mother of invention and as the crisis has deepened it has served as a crucible for the development of new ways to think about perennial problems. Our program has taken a 2-pronged approach to increasing the organ supply for our patients. First, through innovations like the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, ABO-incompatible and positive-crossmatch transplantation protocols, unconventional paired kidney exchanges, and the use of altruistic donors we have more than doubled our utilization of live donor organs. At the same time, we have developed algorithms and interrogative techniques to enhance the intelligent use of kidneys from expanded criteria donors for patients who do not have an available live donor. The laparoscopic nephrectomy has proven to be a safe and effective way of removing a significant barrier to live donation. Our results from 100 ABOi, (+)XM, and PKE transplants are similar to national statistics for compatible live donor transplants, suggesting that existing paradigms of compatibility can be safely expanded. These encouraging early outcomes and the savings they transmit to the health care system have allowed us to obtain insurance coverage for the InKTP programs, setting the stage for further expansion of these opportunities to broaden the options for patients with end-stage renal disease.
Chronic Allograft Nephropathy; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Disordered Mineral Metabolism; End Stage Renal Disease; Hyperparathyroidism; Hypophosphatemia; Kidney Disease; Kidney Transplantation; Post Renal Transplantation
Robles, N R; Gómez Campdera, F; Anaya, F; Niembro, E; Junco, E; Valderrábano, F
8 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MG) after renal transplants (RT) are presented; one being a recurrence of the original disease and the other 7 due to a different cause of renal insufficiency. The total incidence of MG after transplantation was 1.63%; 1.39% being the incidence of MG of new cases. Only 1 patient showed decrease of renal function and in this case the MG was accompanied by chronic rejection lesions. There was no sign of neoplasias nor drugs producing MG. As far as chronic infections are concerned, only one patient showed B antigen and it was not observed during the immunofluorescent test in the biopsy. 6 patients had urological complications after the renal transplant (3 cases of urinary fistula; 2 cases of obstructive uropathy; 1 case of short ureter). 2 patients experienced the start of hemodialysis due to focal and segmentary glomerulosclerosis. The beginning of proteinuria commences between 2 and 23 months after the RT (median 13,0 +/- 7,5 moths); with a range of between 2.0 and 12.0 gr/day (median: 6.8 +/- 3,2 Z gr/day), this being nephrotic in 4 cases. Proteinuria improved 1 case, and persisted in the other patients at the same level registered previous to the diagnosis. MG is a non-frequent complication or RT and is usually benign. Patients with post-transplant urologic complications could be considered to have a higher risk of developing a MG "de novo".
Graft Failure; Death; Acute Rejection of Renal Transplant; Infections; Bone Disease; Post Transplant Diabetes Mellitus; Quality of Life; HLA Antibody Production; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Non-HLA Antibody Production
Gupta, P. N.; Pokhariyal, S.; Bansal, S.; Jain, S.; Saxena, V.; Sharma, R.; Jain, M.; Jha, P.; Sethi, S. K.; Ghosh, P.; Tewari, A.; Ahlawat, R.; Kher, V.
In India, patients without a compatible blood group donor are usually excluded from renal transplantation. For young patients, it is a difficult therapeutic choice to stay on long-term dialysis. We describe the case of a 19-year-old male patient who had blood group O +ve and had no compatible donor in the family. His mother was B +ve and was willing to donate. The patient had an initial anti-B antibody titer of 1:512 and underwent antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (11 sessions) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 100 mg/kg after every plasmapheresis. He also received rituximab 500 mg for 3 days prior to transplant and was induced with basiliximab. At the time of transplant, his anti-B titers were <1:8. Post-operatively, he required four sessions of plasmapheresis and IVIG as his titers rebounded to 1:64. The titers then spontaneously subsided to <1:16 and have stayed at the same level for 6 months post-transplant. The patient continues to have normal renal function with a creatinine of 1.4 mg/dl% and has had no episodes of rejection. PMID:23814422
Invited manuscript poster on renal-related education American Society of Nephrology, Nov. 16-21, 2010. Improving access to kidney transplant information has increased preemptive living kidney donation.
Brown, Wendy; McDermott, Jennifer; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Loucaidou, Marina; Galliford, Jack; Papalois, Vassilios
Transplantation provides the best outcomes and quality of life for people with end-stage renal disease and therefore offers the optimum treatment of choice. Preemptive living donor (LD) transplantation is an increasingly preferable alternative to dialysis as transplantation outcomes indicate lower morbidity and mortality rates and greater graft and patient survival rates compared to those who are transplanted after dialysis has commenced. Despite nursing and medical teams giving information to patients regarding transplantation and living donation, the number of people coming forward for preemptive transplant work-up remained limited. Changing the format, environment, and quality of information given to patients and families seemed necessary in order to increase the number of preemptive transplants. Our data show that we have improved the access to the information seminars with attendance rising from 5 to 15 attendees per seminar (3 per year) in 2005 to average 65 attendees per seminar (6 per year) in 2010. By expanding the access to information for patients, their families and friends, living donation has increased with a growth in the proportion of preemptive LD transplants from 28% (23/81) in 2006 to 44% in 2010 (29/66; p = 0.05). We can conclude that expanding the pool accessing information has increased the number of preemptive (LD) transplants in our center.
Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Rojas, Eudocia; Carlini, Raul G; Suniaga, Orlando; Weisinger, José R
Several studies have indicated that bone alterations after transplantation are heterogeneous. Short-term studies after transplantation have shown that many patients exhibit a pattern consistent with adynamic bone disease. In contrast, patients with long-term renal transplantation show a more heterogeneous picture. Thus, while adynamic bone disease has also been described in these patients, most studies show decreased bone formation and prolonged mineralization lag-time faced with persisting bone resorption, and even clear evidence of generalized or focal osteomalacia in many patients. Thus, the main alterations in bone remodeling are a decrease in bone formation and mineralization up against persistent bone resorption, suggesting defective osteoblast function, decreased osteoblastogenesis, or increased osteoblast death rates. Indeed, recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that there is an early decrease in osteoblast number and surfaces, as well as in reduced bone formation rate and delayed mineralization after transplantation. These alterations are associated with an early increase in osteoblast apoptosis that correlates with low levels of serum phosphorus. These changes were more frequently observed in patients with low turnover bone disease. In contrast, PTH seemed to preserve osteoblast survival. The mechanisms of hypophosphatemia in these patients appear to be independent of PTH, suggesting that other phosphaturic factors may play a role. However, further studies are needed to determine the nature of a phosphaturic factor and its relationship to the alterations of bone remodeling after transplantation.
Ishida, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hiromi; Nakane, Keita; Kato, Taku; Seike, Kensaku; Miwa, Kousei; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Sigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi
A 59-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy who had been on maintenance hemodialisis for 4 years, underwent a living-unrelated renal transplantation 6 years ago. She was admitted to our hospital, because of a low grade fever and edema. Ultrasonography revealed the cyst with heterogeneity structure in the upper pole of the transplanted kidney. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity cystic mass measuring 68×53 mm. As fever and laboratory data did not improve sufficiently by the treatment with antibiotics, echo-guided puncture and drainage were performed for the abnormal structure in the upper pole of the transplanted kidney. In the culture of the purulent aspirate drained from renal cyst, Escherichia coli was isolated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infected renal cyst of the graft in a renal transplant recipient in the world.
Leong, Khai Gene; Coombs, Peter
Abstract One of the principal roles of a nephrologist is to closely monitor renal transplant allograft function and promptly evaluate any dysfunction. Renal transplant sonography has a major role in this assessment process given its ability to easily define renal transplant anatomy and surrounding structures. Abnormalities can be extrarenal or involve vascular, parenchymal and urological components of the graft and these can acutely or chronically influence graft function and survival. Procedural guidance as is required during allograft biopsy, as well as routine surveillance and screening for post transplant complications such as malignancy are also important applications of ultrasound in the management of renal transplant recipients. This article outlines key ultrasound findings and applications in renal transplantation from the clinician's perspective. PMID:28191257
Ghods, A J; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kazemeini, M
During 23 years of civil war in Afghanistan, there has been a continuous flow of more than 5 million refugees out of the country. Iran has hosted about 40% of all refugees. The majority have resided outside of camps with opportunities to integrate locally, having access to the Iranian labor market and government services, such as dialysis and transplantation. Iran also has adopted a compensated living unrelated donor renal transplantation program in which foreigners can receive transplants from living related donors or volunteer living unrelated donors of the same nationality. In June 2004, among 241 refugees with end-stage kidney disease in Iran, 179 were on hemodialysis and 62 underwent renal transplantation. Nine patients received kidneys from living related donors, 1 from a spouse, 50 from Afghani living unrelated donors, and 1 from a cadaveric donor. No refugee had been used as a kidney donor to an Iranian patient. Transplantation of all Afghan refugees in need and the absence of their use as kidney donors to Iranian patients proffer strong evidence against commercialism and a reason to believe that the Iran Model transplantation is practiced with ethical standards. In the last 2 years since the civil war has ended, returning these patients to Afghanistan has raised important ethical concerns. Repatriation of dialysis patients and transplant recipients may be tantamount to their deaths. It is expected that The Transplantation Society and the World Health Organization will establish links with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee Offices to provide humanitarian assistance to these patients.
Yazla, Ece; Ozkurt, Sultan; Musmul, Ahmet
Although low quality of sleep has been reported in kidney transplant patients with functioning allografts, there are no previous studies investigating the dreams of these patients. We aimed to investigate the differences in dream anxiety level between renal transplant patients and healthy control subjects. We also planned to compare depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep quality and sleepiness level between these two groups. Twenty-two living-donor renal transplant recipients followed at an outpatient nephrology clinic and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic Data Collection Form, and the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS), the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories were used for the assessment of the necessary features. Hemoglobin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and glucose levels were measured. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of dream anxiety (p = 0.45), depression (p = 0.76), sleep quality (p = 0.8), insomnia severity (p = 0.08) and Hb (p = 0.11) and glucose levels (p = 0.14). Although, BUN (p = 0.00) and creatinine (p = 0.00) levels differed significantly between the two groups, both parameters were found to be within their normal range. In our study, chronic renal failure patients with a successful kidney transplant were found to be able to completely return to normal in terms of metabolic parameters, sleep quality and mood. Similar levels of dream anxiety are also consistent with these findings.
Cochat, Pierre; Harambat, Jérôme
Achieving normal height in children after renal transplantation is a crucial issue for both quality of life and self-esteem. The management of growth retardation in renal transplant recipients includes adequate nutritional intake, correction of acidosis, optimal drug compliance, limited calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, steroid-sparing strategies, and sometimes recombinant human growth hormone.
Gulleroglu, K; Baskin, E; Bayrakci, U S; Aydogan, M; Alehan, F; Kantar, A; Karakayali, F; Moray, G; Haberal, M
Neurocognitive dysfunction is one of the major complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). Uremic state during CRF encompasses a wide spectrum of neurobehavioral and neurological disturbances. Recent studies showed that the pathophysiology of neurocognitive dysfunction in CRF is related to plasma levels of uremic solutes. Successful renal transplantation improves renal, metabolic, and endocrine functions and the quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the state of neurocognitive function in pediatric renal transplant recipients. We prospectively performed a neurological examination and neuropsychological test battery (Bender-Gestalt Test, Cancellation Test, and Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test) in 20 pediatric renal transplant recipients between 6 and 16 years of age. Twenty healthy children and 20 children with CRF were included in the study as the control groups. Mean age of the renal transplant recipients was 13.50 ± 3.40 years old. Mean evaluation time after transplantation was 2.0 ± 0.5 years. Bender-Gestalt Test result was abnormal in 40% of patients. The results of the Cancellation Test and the Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test showed significant decline in pediatric renal transplant patients when compared with the control. We found that neurocognitive dysfunction was frequent in pediatric renal transplantation patients. Awareness of this potential problem may be helpful for early recognition and treatment. Our findings suggest that periodic neurocognitive assessments may be indicated in transplant recipients.
Peces, R; Navascués, R A; Baltar, J; Laurés, A S; Ortega, F; Alvarez-Grande, J
We report a case of toxic multinodular goiter with severe symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a female diagnosed 5 months after successful renal transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented case of hyperthyroidism in a renal transplant recipient that responded well to methimazole. Special attention should be made to the use of methimazole and the possible interaction with immunosuppressive drugs.
Fazal, Muhammad Asim; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal
To compare new onset dyslipidaemia in live-related renal transplant recipients taking cyclosporine versus tacrolimus after 3 months of therapy. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, from September 2010 to April 2011, and included 182 End Stage Renal Disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis with pre-transplant normal lipid profile. The patients, who had live-related renal transplant, were randomly allocated to two equal groups using lottery. Group A received cyclosporine (3 mg/kg) and group B was treated with tacrolimus (0.1 mg/kg). All patients had pre-transplant fasting lipid profile checked when they were on maintenance haemodialysis and 3 months after renal transplantation. Serum fasting lipid profile was collected by taking 5 ml blood by venipuncture after an overnight fast of 9-12 hours. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 182 patients, 144 (79.1%) were males and 38 (20.9%) were females. The overall mean age was 30.18 +/- 9.57 years, and the mean weight was 54.41 +/- 11.144 kg. Significant difference was not observed between the two groups regarding age and weight of the patients. Dyslipidaemia was found in 115(63.2%) subjects; 61(67%) in group A and 54 (59.3%) in group B. There was no statistical difference (p=0.28) when comparison was done after 3 months of therapy. The occurrence of new onset hyperlipidaemia is similar in renal transplant recipients receiving either cyclosporine or tacrolimus in first 3 months post-transplant, but there is room for more research in this field as dyslipidaemia following successful renal transplantation is a frequent and persistent complication.
Vasudevan, A; Phadke, K
One of the fundamental challenges in managing pediatric renal transplant recipient is to ensure normal growth and development. The goal of renal transplant is not just to prolong life but to optimize quality of life. Short stature during childhood may be associated with academic underachievement and development of comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, and mood disorders. The most important factors affecting growth are use of corticosteroids, allograft function, and age and height deficit at the time of transplant. Aggressive conservative management of chronic renal failure and early use of growth hormone therapy will help in optimizing height at time of transplant. Early transplant, steroid minimization or withdrawal, and growth hormone therapy will help in achieving normal adult height in a majority of renal post transplant population. Steroid avoidance to achieve good growth still needs to be validated.
Kärrfelt, H M; Berg, U B; Lindblad, F I; Tydén, G E
Between 1981 and 1994, 67 transplantations were performed in 59 children below 16 years of age at Huddinge University Hospital. In most of the cases, one of the parents was the donor. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the transplantation influenced the parents. One hundred sixteen individual questionnaires were sent out to the donor parents and to the parents who for different reasons had not been donors. Of special interest was to investigate the emotional reactions, the social consequences, the relationship to the child, and the parents' attitudes toward donation. Thirty-five donors and 41 nondonors replied. The majority of both donors and nondonors were satisfied with the medical information. The nondonors expressed more stress and anxiety before the transplantation. More than half of the donors experienced the operation as more painful than they had expected. Despite this fact, the nondonors showed significantly more psychosomatic/psychiatric symptoms than the donors after the operation. The donors reported an improved relation to the recipient child after the transplantation to a greater extent than the nondonors. Half of the donors reported an improved self-esteem after the donation. None of the donors regretted their donation and all of them would do the same again. This study indicates that ethical and psychological risks in parental kidney donation should not be regarded as a major obstacle. However, irrespective of the parents being a donor or not, they wanted more psychosocial support both before, during, and after the transplantation.
McGonigle, R. J.; Bewick, M.; Trafford, J. A.; Parsons, V.
A 26-year-old female diabetic patient developed hypertensive encephalopathy with gross neurological abnormalities complicating renal artery stenosis of her transplant kidney. The elevated blood pressure was unresponsive to medical treatment. Surgical correction of the stenoses in the renal artery cured the hypertension and renal failure and led to the patient's complete recovery. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6377286
Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M
The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.
Manrique, J; Rossich, E; Hernández Sierra, A
This is the case of a 32-year-old male patient, diagnosed with end stage renal disease secondary to a focal and segmental glomerulonephritis. After four years of haemodialysis, he received a renal graft from a cadaveric donor. During the following sixteen years, he developped many different complications. In the early post-transplant period, he developed a severe acute tubular necrosis and two episodes of acute rejection took place, both of them with later recovery. Among the outstanding infectious complications were a virus herpes zoster dorsal infection and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial pneumonia. Twelve months later, a series of severe digestive complications took place: cholecystitis that required cholecystectomy, pancreatic pseudocyst which required laparotomy because of an abdominal complication, two separate episodes of upper digestive bleeding that finally required gastric surgery, and an hemorrhagic subphrenic abscess that required a second laparotomy. Currently he has developed a calcified chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, metabolic complications must be mentioned carbohydrate intolerance, cataracts and an avascular bone necrosis, all of them closely related to the immunosuppressive therapy. In spite of these multiple complications, he mantains a good renal function and his quality of life is acceptable.
... instructions before and after surgery. • Have a compatible blood type. • Have an emotional tie with the recipient. • Not ... test is to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant ...
Si-ahmed, E M
Currently, living related donor renal transplantation is the most common source for transplantation in Algeria. To develop cadaveric organ donation, the Blida Transplantation Team (BTT) started a local education program and campaign. On March 31, 2010, we procured and transplanted 2 kidneys from a 17-year-old brain-dead donor. The BTT is conscious that the local initiative must be followed nationally, with the help of the health authorities. There is an urgent need to promote brain-dead donors and cadaveric organ retriveal throughout the country. It will also be necessary to create national waiting lists for candidates not only for renal, but also for other organ transplantations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Zhimin; Sun, Jia; Haarhaus, Mathias; Barany, Peter; Wennberg, Lars; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Brismar, Torkel B; Lindholm, Bengt; Wernerson, Annika; Söderberg, Magnus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD) and vascular calcification (VC), but links to the latter are unclear. Here we investigated associations between BMD, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, and histological signs of VC in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplantation (LD-Rtx). In 66 ESRD patients (median age 45 years, 68% males), BMD (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), CAC score (by computed tomography, CT; n = 54), and degree of VC score (graded by histological examination of epigastric artery specimens collected at LD-Rtx; n = 55) were assessed at the time of LD-Rtx. Of the patients, 26% had osteopenia and 7% had osteoporosis. Of those undergoing artery biopsy, 16% had extensive VC, and of those undergoing CT 28% had high CAC score (>100 Agatston units). CAC scores correlated with BMD of legs and pelvis. BMDs of leg and pelvic sub-regions were significantly lower in patients with extensive VC. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, lower BMD of leg sub-region was associated with CAC score >100 AUs and extensive VC, and patients with extensive VC had significantly higher CAC score. Both high CAC and extensive VC were independently predicted by low BMD of legs. Low BMD has the potential to identify ESRD patients at risk of vascular calcification.
Bowie, D. M.; Marrie, T. J.; Janigan, D. T.; MacKeen, A. D.; Belitsky, P.; MacDonald, A. S.; Lannon, S. G.; Cohen, A. D.
Between January 1976 and March 1982, 28 episodes of pneumonia occurred in 26 renal transplant patients. The overall mortality rate was 46%. Of the 16 patients with nosocomial pneumonia 9 (56%) died, whereas of the 12 patients with community-acquired pneumonia 4 (33%) died. In all 9 cases of unknown cause the response to empiric treatment was prompt, whereas in 4 of the 10 cases of monomicrobial pneumonia and 8 of the 9 cases of polymicrobial pneumonia the patient died. Cytomegalovirus was the sole cause of the pneumonia in two patients and a contributing cause, along with aerobic gram-negative bacteria, in another five, four of whom also had a fungal infection. Two patients, both of whom survived, had nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. PMID:6342741
Taştepe, Firdevs Zeynep; Özgün, Gonca; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Haberal, Mehmet
The purpose of this study was to evaluate colonic pathologies in renal transplant recipients. Patients with colon biopsies were selected from 1816 renal transplant recipients from January 1990 to December 2012 at Baskent University Hospital (Ankara, Turkey). Demographic and clinical findings with colon biopsies were examined. There were 84 patients who had colon biopsies after renal transplant. There were 57 male and 27 female patients (median age at renal transplant was 33 y). Chronic diarrhea was the most common clinical finding at the time of colon biopsy. The median interval from renal transplant to first colon biopsy was 48.1 ± 47.5 months. On microscopic evaluation, there were no pathologic changes in 17 patients. The remaining 67 patients had colitis (38 patients), polyps (17 patients), cytomegalovirus colitis (8 patients), and amyloidosis (4 patients). The mean interval between transplant and the diagnosis of colitis was 49.08 ± 42.6 months, amyloidosis was 47.5 ± 79.28 months, cytomegalovirus colitis was 5 ± 3.5 months, and polyps was 77.65 ± 58.8 months. There was a statistically significant difference between biopsy diagnosis and the time interval between transplant and colon biopsy (P < .01). Among 84 renal transplant recipients with colonic biopsies, 40 patients never had acute rejection episodes and 44 patients had at least 1 acute rejection episode. Seven of 8 patients with cytomegalovirus colitis, 19 of 38 with colitis, 3 of 4 with amyloidosis, and 5 of 17 with polyps had acute rejection episodes. In our report on colonic manifestations in renal transplant recipients, the most common colonic lesion was noninfectious colitis. Cytomegalovirus colitis is an important infection that affects immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus must be kept in mind, and thorough sectioning and immunohistochemical sta ining should be used if necessary in the presence of any clinical or histologic suspicion for infective colitis.
Hanaway, Michael J; Woodle, E Steve; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant; Peddi, V Ram; Kaufman, Dixon B; First, M Roy; Croy, Richard; Holman, John
There are few comparisons of antibody induction therapy allowing early glucocorticoid withdrawal in renal-transplant recipients. The purpose of the present study was to compare induction therapy involving alemtuzumab with the most commonly used induction regimens in patient populations at either high immunologic risk or low immunologic risk. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned patients to receive alemtuzumab or conventional induction therapy (basiliximab or rabbit antithymocyte globulin). Patients were stratified according to acute rejection risk, with a high risk defined by a repeat transplant, a peak or current value of panel-reactive antibodies of 20% or more, or black race. The 139 high-risk patients received alemtuzumab (one dose of 30 mg, in 70 patients) or rabbit antithymocyte globulin (a total of 6 mg per kilogram of body weight given over 4 days, in 69 patients). The 335 low-risk patients received alemtuzumab (one dose of 30 mg, in 164 patients) or basiliximab (a total of 40 mg over 4 days, in 171 patients). All patients received tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil and underwent a 5-day glucocorticoid taper in a regimen of early steroid withdrawal. The primary end point was biopsy-confirmed acute rejection at 6 months and 12 months. Patients were followed for 3 years for safety and efficacy end points. The rate of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was significantly lower in the alemtuzumab group than in the conventional-therapy group at both 6 months (3% vs. 15%, P<0.001) and 12 months (5% vs. 17%, P<0.001). At 3 years, the rate of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection in low-risk patients was lower with alemtuzumab than with basiliximab (10% vs. 22%, P=0.003), but among high-risk patients, no significant difference was seen between alemtuzumab and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (18% vs. 15%, P=0.63). Adverse-event rates were similar among all four treatment groups. By the first year after transplantation, biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was less
Blumhardt, R.; Growcock, G.; Lasher, J.C.
The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renogram is a well extabished noninvasive method for evaluating and following transplanted kidneys. The examination is useful in distinguishing rejection from acute tubular necrosis as well as demonstrating several less common complications such as vascular occlusion, urinary extravasation, obstruction, and lymphocele. A previously unreported condition involving a transplant kidney (i.e., renal cortical necrosis) is described which was diagnosed with renal scintigraphy in combination with sonography.
Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier
Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant.
Effect of intraoperative transesophageal Doppler-guided fluid therapy versus central venous pressure-guided fluid therapy on renal allograft outcome in patients undergoing living donor renal transplant surgery: a comparative study.
Srivastava, Divya; Sahu, Sandeep; Chandra, Abhilash; Tiwari, Tanmay; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, P K
Transesophageal Doppler (TED)-guided intraoperative fluid therapy has shown to noninvasively optimize intravascular volume and reduce postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Doppler-guided intraoperative fluid administration and central venous pressure (CVP)-guided fluid therapy on renal allograft outcome and postoperative complications. A prospective nonrandomized active controlled study was conducted on end-stage renal disease patients scheduled for living donor renal transplant surgery. 110 patients received intraoperative fluid guided by corrected flow time (FTc) and variation in stroke volume values obtained by continuous TED monitoring. Data of 104 patients in whom intraoperative fluid administration was guided by CVP values were retrospectively obtained for a control. The amount of intraoperative fluid given in the study group (12.20 ± 4.24 ml/kg/h) was significantly lower than in the controls (22.21 ± 4.67 ml/kg/h). The amount of colloid used was also significantly less and fewer recipients were seen to require colloid (69 vs 85%). The mean arterial pressures were comparable throughout. CVP reached was 7.18 ± 3.17 mmHg in the study group. It was significantly higher in the controls (13.42 ± 3.12 mmHg). The postoperative graft function and rate of dysfunction were comparable. Side-effects like postoperative dyspnoea (4.8 vs 0%) and tissue edema (9.6 vs 2.7%) were higher in the controls. FTc-guided intraoperative fluid therapy achieved the same rate of immediate graft function as CVP-guided fluid therapy but used a significantly less amount of fluid. The incidence of postoperative complications related to fluid overload was also reduced. The use of TED may replace invasive central line insertions in the future.
Skhiri, Habib; Guedri, Yousr; Achour, Abdellatif; Sabra, Aloui; Hadj, Youssef Dorsaf; Bouraoui, Samia; Frih, Ameur; Ben Dhia, Nasr; Sakkouhi, Mohamed; Gahbiche, Mourad; Saad, Hamadi; El May, Mezni
Women with end-stage renal disease or on regular dialysis have low fertility. Renal transplantation restores not only normal renal and endocrine functions but also the reproductive function as well and this conception becomes possible. Pregnancy in transplanted women is at higher risk and necessitates a multidisciplinary follow up. We report the course and out come of two successful pregnancies, the second was the first case of twin pregnancy in Tunisia in a transplanted woman. Our patient is 35 years old had a chronic renal insufficiency, secondary to interstitial nephropathy. After six years of hemodialysis, she had received a renal graft from a living donor (his brother). A double drug immunosuppression was given (Prednisolone - Azathioprine). Two years later, she became pregnant and delivered a normal baby at term, and one year later she had a twin pregnancy that ended successfully and delivered by caesarian section a two babies with different sex. Pregnancy after renal transplantion must be considered as a risk factor for any subsquent pregnancy, and the risk nicreases in case of twin pregnancy.
Echo, A; Hovsepian, R V; Shen, G K
Zygomycosis occurs as an opportunistic infection following organ transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy. Gastrointestinal zygomycosis is an exceedingly rare and usually fatal presentation of this infection. We discuss the case of a renal transplant recipient who survived cecal perforation from zygomycosis. The successful treatment consisted of aggressive surgical resection, intensive course of antifungal therapy, and rapid withdrawal of anti-rejection medications.
Rosina, Kelli T C; Menna Barreto, Ana Paula M; Pontes, Karine S S; Martins, Cyro J M; Souza, Edison; Bregman, Rachel; Barreto Silva, Maria Inês; Klein, Márcia R S T
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with CVD, impaired kidney function and proteinuria. To date, no study has evaluated these associations in renal transplant recipients (RTR) adjusting for body adiposity assessed by a 'gold standard' method. This study aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status and its association with body adiposity, CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria in RTR, living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (a low-latitude city (22°54'10"S)), taking into account body adiposity evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This cross-sectional study included 195 RTR (114 men) aged 47·6 (sd 11·2) years. Nutritional evaluation included anthropometry and DXA. Risk factors for CVD were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. eGFR was evaluated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was used to define vitamin D status as follows: 10 % (n 19) had vitamin D deficiency (30 ng/ml). Percentage of body fat (DXA) was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independently of age, sex and eGFR. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with higher odds of the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidaemia after adjustment for age, sex and eGFR, but not after additional adjustment for body fat. Hypertension and diabetes were not related to 25(OH)D. Lower serum 25(OH)D was associated with increasing proteinuria and decreasing eGFR even after adjustments for age, sex and percentage of body fat. This study suggests that in RTR of a low-latitude city hypovitaminosis D is common, and is associated with excessive body fat, decreased eGFR and increased proteinuria.
Imafuku, A; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S
Colovesical fistula is a relatively rare condition that is primarily related to diverticular disease. There are few reports of colovesical fistula after renal transplantation. We report of a 53-year-old man who was diagnosed with colovesical fistula after recurrent urinary tract infection, 5 months after undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Laparoscopic partial resection of the sigmoid colon with the use of the Hartmann procedure was performed. Six months after that surgery, there was no evidence of recurrent urinary tract infection and the patient's renal graft function was preserved. Physicians should keep colovesical fistula in mind as a cause of recurrent urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients, especially in those with a history of diverticular disease.
Andre, Mark; Huang, Edmund; Everly, Matthew; Bunnapradist, Suphamai
Kidney transplantation has become a preferred treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as transplant recipients enjoy freedom from dialysis and improvement in both quality and quantity of life. More patients are being placed on the transplant waiting list, although the waiting list patients still only represent a very small fraction of ESRD patients. The characteristics of both waitlisted and transplanted patients have changed considerably in the last decade, as the ESRD population has aged and waiting list times have increased. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed an increasingly severe shortage of kidney donors. Even with increasing efforts of the transplant community to expand the donor pool by including larger numbers of high risk deceased donor transplants, the overall number of kidney transplants has remained relatively stable. Those who do receive transplants, however, benefit from excellent transplant outcomes. The use of paired exchange/chain transplant donors has increased the living donor pool significantly and with outstanding results. Belatacept, a costimulation blockage drug, represents a new class of transplant immunosuppression. It has been used sparingly in the first few years of its approval. Most kidney transplant patients are still maintained on immunosuppressive agents that were approved almost two decades ago. In the next decade, we will certainly continue to deal with an organ shortage as the number of eligible and waitlisted patients is likely to increase. Effective and efficient organ allocation policies will be increasingly necessary to address this scarcity. Optimizing the transplant candidate work-up, improving maintenance of waitlisted patients, and providing optimal post-transplant medical care will be vital to the continued success of kidney transplantation.
Gonçalves, Cristina; Sandes, Ana Rita; Azevedo, Sara; Stone, Rosário; Almeida, Margarida
Introdução: A transplantação renal é a terapêutica de eleição na criança com doença renal crónica terminal, evidenciando impacto positivo na sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos doentes. Não é, no entanto, isenta de complicações, algumas com importante morbilidade. Os autores pretendem caracterizar o perfil de complicações pós transplantação renal em doentes pediátricos (até 18 anos).Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos doentes submetidos a transplantação renal e seguidos na Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica entre Setembro de 1995 e Agosto de 2010. Dados obtidos dos processos clínicos: características demográficas, etiologia da doença renal crónica terminal, terapêutica de substituição renal, mortalidade e perda de enxertos, complicações cirúrgicas, infecciosas e não infecciosas (rejeição aguda e crónica, recidiva da doença de base, alterações metabólicas e factores de risco cardiovascular). Análise estatística descritiva simples.Resultados: Foram incluídas 78 crianças transplantadas (48,7% sexo masculino), com idade mediana à data da transplantaçãorenal de 12 anos (2 - 18). A maioria fez previamente diálise peritoneal: 49 (62,6%). Cinco doentes (6,4%) foram transplantados sem diálise prévia. A mediana do tempo de seguimento após transplante foi 37,5 meses (1 - 169). As principais etiologias de doença renal crónica terminal foram: uronefropatias (41%) e glomerulopatias (28,2%). As complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 74,4%; infecçõesvirais em 56,4%, sendo a mais prevalente a infecção citomegalovírus (39,7%); infecções bacterianas em 53,8% (na maioria infecções urinárias em doentes urológicos). Outras complicações: 1) factores de risco para doença cardiovascular: hipertensão arterial em 85,9%; dislipidémia em 16,7% e diabetes de novo em 7,7%; 2) episódios de rejeição aguda em 32,1% e nefropatia crónica do enxerto em 17,9%; 3) complicações relacionáveis com a cirurgia em 16
Juskiewenski, S; Barthe, P; Vaysse, P; Bouissou, F; Guitard, J; Bacque, P; Moscovivi, J; Cao-Van, C
The regional group of renal transplantation in Toulouse includes a medico-surgical team which participates to all the activities of this group. Dialysis and transplantation are covered in a center organized for the care of children. This branch is part of the Regional Hospital. From 15 years old on patients are moved from the pediatric branch to the medico-surgical center taking care of adults. Both teams within the regional hospital share the responsability of taking off kidneys from cadaveric donors and collaborate to France-Transplant and Euro-Transplant. Since the pediatric center in charge of renal failure has opened, 32 children underwent chronic hemodialysis. Some of these patients are presently treated in the center for adults. Fourteen children were grafted and seven are at this moment waiting to receive transplantation. The average number of transplantations per year is from 1 to 4. These fourteen children underwent renal transplantation with kidneys from cadaveric donors. Only one has been provided by Toulouse. Diuresis resumed immediately in 8 cases, later in 5. An extremely acute reject was observed in one case and transplantectomy had to be performed 10 days after transplantation. Eight children presented acute reversible reject which, for 4 of them, evoluated towards chronicle reject. Eight children presented a chronicle reject: 4 of them are again in dialysis. Altogether 8 kidneys are functioning (seven years in the longest case). Five children resumed chronic dialysis. One patient died of acute pancreatitis. He underwent a portocaval shunt for type I glycogenosis which ended in a hyperuricemic nephropathy evoluating towards renal failure forcing a transplantation. The rehabilitation of transplanted children was always satisfactory.
Gil-Vernet, S; Amado, A; Ortega, F; Alarcón, A; Bernal, G; Capdevila, L; Crespo, J F; Cruzado, J M; De Bonis, E; Esforzado, N; Fernandez, A M; Franco, A; Hortal, L; Jiménez, C
An epidemiologic multicenter study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and management of gastrointestinal (GI) complications in solid organ transplant patients. A total of 1788 recipients were included, 1132 of which corresponded to renal transplanted patients. The mean age for the renal transplanted patients was 52 +/- 13.2 years. The mean time from the transplantation was 5.4 +/- 5.4 years. 17.7% showed some pretransplant GI disease, while 53% presented this type of complication in the posttransplant period. Diarrhea was the most prevalent GI complication (51.5%) and digestive perforation was the GI disorder that affected the patients daily living the most. From the patients with GI complications, 71% received pharmacological treatment, using gastric protectors in 91.3% of the cases. Regarding immunosuppressive drugs, in 30.9% of the cases the dose of the drug was reduced, in 9.3% discontinued temporarily and in 7.5% discontinued permanently. These changes mainly affected the MMF (89%, 83% and 74% for dose change, temporary and permanent discontinuation, respectively). The prevalence of GI complications in renal transplant exceeded 50%, and affected patients' daily living. The management of these complications was based on treatment with gastric protectors, dose reduction and/or partial or definitive MMF discontinuation.
Kuvacić, I; Sprem, M; Skrablin, S; Kalafatić, D; Bubić-Filipi, L; Milici D
To correlate pregnancy outcome with complications in pregnancy and transplantation-to-pregnancy interval in renal transplant recipients in Croatia. Data on 23 pregnancies after prepregnancy stabilization of blood pressure and normalization of graft function were retrospectively analyzed. The mean interval between transplantation and conception was 3.1 years. Primary renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, chronic pyelonephritis in 7 and agenesis of right kidney and stenosis of left renal artery in 1 patient. There were 10 term and 5 preterm deliveries, 6 induced and 2 spontaneous abortions. The mean gestational age was 38.1 weeks and the mean newborn birthweight was 3015 g. The prematurity rate was 21.7%. Patients with arterial hypertension in pregnancy, elevated serum creatinine level and bacteriuria, as well as those with conception occurring less than 2 years after transplantation, had a higher rate of therapeutic and spontaneous abortions, preterm deliveries and low birth weight infants. The interval between transplantation and conception, as well as allograft function during pregnancy, seem to be of great importance for successful obstetric outcome in renal transplant patients.
Romero, E; Galindo, P; Bravo, J A; Osorio, J M; Pérez, A; Baca, Y; Ferreira, C; Asensio, C; Osuna, A
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of liver disease after renal transplantation. Most patients have seroconverted on dialysis to positive RNA. The viral load increases during immunosuppressive therapy. The risk of developing chronic liver disease is related to the histopathologic findings, duration and severity of the disease, immunosuppression, and transplantation time. Hepatitis C virus infection can predict onset, of proteinuria and diabetes. We studied 868 patients who received renal transplants between (1987 and 2006), of whom 18.7% were seropositive for HCV. We observed a higher rate of HCV-seropositive patients related to the duration of hemodialysis therapy. Of the HCV seropositive patients, 77% had received renal allografts before 1998. There was no difference between the sexes; however, the HCV positive patients were younger. Polymerase chain reaction tests results were positive in 91.6% of the patients with HCV antibodies. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among HCV positive patients, as was as the persistence of proteinuria. Cryoglobulins were positive in 30.8%. The incidence of acute rejection episodes in the first year was similar between groups. Of the HCV-positive patients, 80.2% were treated with cyclosporine, most patients continued this therapy throughout the study. We observed no significant difference in mortality end graft survival rate between the two groups. However, renal function differed significantly at some points during the evolution of the clinical course. Renal transplantation is still the best treatment option in patients with chronic renal disease.
Winters, J L; Gloor, J M; Pineda, A A; Stegall, M D; Moore, S B
The supply of deceased donor kidneys is inadequate to meet demand. To expand the pool of potential donors, ABO-incompatible transplants from living donors have been performed. We present the Mayo Clinic experience with such transplants. Enrollment was open to patients when the only available potential living kidney donor was ABO-incompatible. Conditioning consisted of plasma exchanges followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplant surgery. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of anti-T lymphocyte antibody, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Isoagglutinin titers and scores were determined before and after each plasma exchange. Transplant outcomes were determined. Twenty-six ABO-incompatible transplants were performed. No hyperacute rejection occurred. Mean patient follow-up was 400 days. Patient and graft survivals at last follow-up were 92 and 85%, respectively. Antibody-mediated rejection occurred in 46% and was apparently reversed in 83% by plasma exchange and increased immunosuppression. The initial plasma exchange reduced immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores by 53.5 and 34.6%, respectively. Over the course of the pretransplant plasma exchanges, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores decreased by 96.4 and 68.5%, respectively. At 3 and 12 months, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutinin reactivity scores and titers were less than those at baseline but greater than or equal to those on the day of transplantation. Despite an increase in scores and titers, antibody-mediated rejection was not present. Pre-transplant plasma exchange conditioning combined with other immunosuppressives can be used to prepare patients for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation from living donors, but antibody-mediated rejection post-transplant is a common occurrence and allograft survival may be reduced. Controlled clinical trials are needed to identify the optimum
Kawai, Tatsuo; Cosimi, A. Benedict; Spitzer, Thomas R.; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Saidman, Susan L.; Shaffer, Juanita; Preffer, Frederic I.; Ding, Ruchuang; Sharma, Vijay; Fishman, Jay A.; Dey, Bimalangshu; Ko, Dicken S.C.; Hertl, Martin; Goes, Nelson B.; Wong, Waichi; Williams, Winfred W.; Colvin, Robert B.; Sykes, Megan; Sachs, David H.
Summary Five patients with end-stage renal disease received combined bone marrow and kidney transplants from HLA single-haplotype mismatched living related donors, with the use of a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen. Transient chimerism and reversible capillary leak syndrome developed in all recipients. Irreversible humoral rejection occurred in one patient. In the other four recipients, it was possible to discontinue all immunosuppressive therapy 9 to 14 months after the transplantation, and renal function has remained stable for 2.0 to 5.3 years since transplantation. The T cells from these four recipients, tested in vitro, showed donor-specific unresponsiveness and in specimens from allograft biopsies, obtained after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, there were high levels of P3 (FOXP3) messenger RNA (mRNA) but not granzyme B mRNA. PMID:18216355
Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.
This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.
Shulkin, B.L.; Dafoe, D.C.; Wahl, R.L.
99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy was evaluated in seven patients as a technique to assess perfusion of the transplanted pancreas and kidney. Such scans provide high-quality images of both organs in both the flow phase and later phases. The radionuclide is readily available and its brief effective half-life allows repeated evaluations at short intervals. /sup 131/I-hippuran, the major radiopharmaceutical for renal transplant scintigraphy, does not allow visualization of the transplanted pancreas or evaluation of its blood supply. Although the blood glucose is a gross indicator of the function of the pancreatic allograft, pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA in one case was capable of detecting graft dysfunction before elevation of the blood glucose occurred. While additional studies will be necessary to determine the predictive value of this test, 99mTc-DTPA is valuable for pancreatic-renal transplant evaluation.
Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S
A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.
Ali, Ala A; Al-Saedi, Ali J; Al-Mudhaffer, Ali J; Al-Taee, Kais H
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. In Iraq, renal transplantation started in 1973 and has continued until now with live donor transplantation, since deceased donor transplant program is not approved as yet. Long-term transplant data are still scarce. The aim of our study is to present data on transplantation and medical follow-up at one year and, survival analysis at one, three and five years. A total of 250 renal transplantations were performed at the Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Center, Baghdad between January 2009 and January 2014. It is a living donor, blood group compatible donor program. All patients received triple immunosuppression (calcineurine inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid, and steroid). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival rate. There were 92 live related donors, 143 unrelated donors, and 15 spouse donors. The mean age was 34.07 ± 12.2 years. The one-year graft survival for related and unrelated donor transplants was 98.9% and 91.8%, respectively. Graft survival was lower (82.9%) in recipients with acute rejection episodes. The patient survival at one-year was 94%. The three-year graft and patient survival was 91% and 90%, respectively, and five-year survival for grafts and patients was 87.1% and 88%, respectively. The outcome of the renal transplantation in Iraq is improving. Long-term patient follow-up needs more meticulous attention. The development of renal transplant registry is critical for future planning. Moreover, renal transplantation practice in Iraq needs more social, religious, and governmental support.
GÓES, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; DURÃES, Sandra Maria Barbosa; LIMA, Caren dos Santos; de SOUZA, Mariana Boechat; VILAR, Enoi Aparecida Guedes; DALSTON, Marcos Olivier
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most common endemic mycosis in Latin America. The etiological agents, which comprise two species, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, are thermodimorphic fungi that usually affect previously healthy adults. They primarily involve the lungs and then disseminate to other organs. Such mycosis is rare in organ transplant recipients; there have been only three cases reported in literature, until now. We report a case of PCM in a renal transplant recipient with an unusual dermatological presentation. PMID:26910451
Hétet, J F; Rigaud, J; Dorel-Le Théo, M; Láuté, F; Karam, G; Blanchet, P
Kidney cancer occurs rarely and late in renal transplants. The lack of grafts and the increasing age of the cadaver donors are likely to result in an increasing number of such cancers. To date, the treatment of choice is the transplant removal. Nevertheless partial nephrectomy may be discussed in selected cases. Ultrasonographic screening should allow detection of low volume tumours suitable for partial nephrectomy. Alternative techniques (radiofrequency, cryoablation) are to be assessed in such patients.
Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Lima, Caren dos Santos; Souza, Mariana Boechat de; Vilar, Enoi Aparecida Guedes; Dalston, Marcos Olivier
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most common endemic mycosis in Latin America. The etiological agents, which comprise two species, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, are thermodimorphic fungi that usually affect previously healthy adults. They primarily involve the lungs and then disseminate to other organs. Such mycosis is rare in organ transplant recipients; there have been only three cases reported in literature, until now. We report a case of PCM in a renal transplant recipient with an unusual dermatological presentation.
Press, Rebecca; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Nickolas, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Shea, Steven; Barr, R Graham
There are known racial disparities in renal graft survival. Data are lacking comparing associations of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with graft failure and functional status after transplantation. Our goal was to test if African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity and poverty are associated with worse outcomes following renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide registry (United Network for Organ Sharing). We studied 4,471 adults who received renal transplants in 1990. Outcomes were graft failure and functional status over 10 years. Cumulative incidence of graft failure was higher among African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (77% vs. 64% vs. 60 %; P<0.001) and among transplant recipients living in the poorest areas (70% vs. 58% in the richest; P<0.001). African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity were independently predictive of graft failure (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-1.9; RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.6, respectively) in multivariate analyses but poverty status was not (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Days with impaired functional status were higher for African-Americans compared to whites (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) but not independent of poverty. Poverty was independently associated with impaired functional status (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). African-Americans and Hispanics had higher rates of graft failure compared to whites after adjustment for poverty and other covariates whereas poverty, but not race/ethnicity, was related to functional status following renal transplantation. National datasets should include individual-level measures of socioeconomic status in order to improve evaluation of social and environmental causes of disparities in renal transplant outcomes.
Sun, N Z; Augustine, J J; Gerstenblith, M R
Cutaneous histoplasmosis is a rare entity, although it can be seen in a substantial portion of renal transplant recipients with disseminated disease. The prognosis of disseminated disease is worse than isolated cutaneous involvement, and significant delays in diagnosis are reported. We reviewed reports of cutaneous histoplasmosis with and without dissemination in the setting of renal transplantation to examine incidence, timing of diagnosis, clinical features, and prognosis. Remarkable morphologic variability and the non-specific appearance of skin findings suggest that tissue culture is required for definitive diagnosis. Cutaneous lesions represent an easily accessible source for early diagnosis.
Ting, I W; Ho, M W; Sung, Y J; Tien, N; Chi, C Y; Ho, H C; Huang, C C
Brucellosis is one of the most common systemic zoonotic diseases transmitted by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or by occupational contact with infected animals. Brucellosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. Only 3 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of brucellosis with hematologic and hepatobiliary complications in a patient 3 years after renal transplantation. The mean time from transplantation to the diagnosis of brucellosis in these 4 reported patients was 5.1 years (range 17 months to 13 years). All patients had fever and constitutional symptoms, and all attained clinical cure after combination antibiotic therapy. Given the small number of patients, further study is needed to identify the characteristics of brucellosis in renal transplant recipients. Drug interactions and acute renal failure developed in our patient during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we should monitor the levels of immunosuppressive agents frequently. Several studies have shown in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis to tigecycline. In our patient, fever finally subsided after tigecycline administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline using Etest was 0.094 μg/mL. Tigecycline may be a potential option for treatment of brucellosis in the setting of transplantation.
Pullman, James; Cohen, Hillel W.; Lee, Sally; Shapiro, Craig; Solorzano, Clemencia; Greenstein, Stuart; Glicklich, Daniel
Bisphosphonates may prevent or treat the bone loss promoted by the immunosuppressive regimens used in renal transplantation. Risedronate is a commonly used third-generation amino-bisphosphonate, but little is known about its effects on the bone health of renal transplant recipients. We randomly assigned 42 new living-donor kidney recipients to either 35 mg of risedronate weekly or placebo for 12 months. We obtained bone biopsies at the time of renal transplant and after 12 months of protocol treatment. Treatment with risedronate did not affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the overall cohort. In subgroup analyses, it tended to preserve BMD in female participants but did not significantly affect the BMD of male participants. Risedronate did associate with increased osteoid volume and trabecular thickness in male participants, however. There was no evidence for the development of adynamic bone disease. In summary, further study is needed before the use of prophylactic bisphosphonates to attenuate bone loss can be recommended in renal transplant recipients. PMID:22797188
Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.
Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045
Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroe; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Fukui, Shinya; Tsujiya, Noriko; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nojima, Michio
to evaluate the strategy for open heart surgery after renal transplantation performed in a single institution in Japan. we reviewed 6 open heart surgeries after renal transplantation in 5 patients, performed between January 1992 and December 2012. The patients were 3 men and 2 women with a mean age of 60 ± 11 years (range 46-68 years). They had old myocardial infarction and unstable angina, aortic and mitral stenosis, left arterial myxoma, aortic stenosis, and native valve endocarditis followed by prosthetic valve endocarditis. Operative procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting, double-valve replacement, resection of left arterial myxoma, 2 aortic valve replacements, and a double-valve replacement. Renal protection consisted of steroid cover (hydrocortisone 100-500 mg or methylprednisolone 1000 mg) and intravenous immunosuppressant infusion (cyclosporine 30-40 mg day(-1) or tacrolimus 1.0 mg day(-1)). 5 cases were uneventful and good renal graft function was maintained at discharge (serum creatinine 2.1 ± 0.5 mg dL(-1)). There was one operative death after emergency double-valve replacement for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-associated prosthetic valve endocarditis. Although the endocarditis improved after valve replacement, the patient died of postoperative pneumonia on postoperative day 45. careful perioperative management can allow successful open heart surgery after renal transplantation. However, severe complications, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, may cause renal graft loss. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
The feasibility and applications of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring, thromboelastography and transit-time flow measurement in living-related renal transplantation surgery: results of a prospective pilot observational study
Introduction Delayed graft function (DGF) remains a significant and detrimental postoperative phenomenon following living-related renal allograft transplantation, with a published incidence of up to 15%. Early therapeutic vasodilatory interventions have been shown to improve DGF, and modifications to immunosuppressive regimens may subsequently lessen its impact. This pilot study assesses the potential applicability of perioperative non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM), transit-time flow monitoring (TTFM) of the transplant renal artery and pre-/perioperative thromboelastography (TEG) in the early prediction of DGF and perioperative complications. Methods Ten consecutive living-related renal allograft recipients were studied. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring commenced immediately following induction of anaesthesia and was maintained throughout the perioperative period. Doppler-based TTFM was performed during natural haemostatic pauses in the transplant surgery: immediately following graft reperfusion and following ureteric implantation. Central venous blood sampling for TEG was performed following induction of anaesthesia and during abdominal closure. Results A single incidence of DGF was seen within the studied cohort and one intra-operative (thrombotic) complication noted. NICOM confirmed a predictable trend of increased cardiac index (CI) following allograft reperfusion (mean CI - clamped: 3.17 ± 0.29 L/min/m2, post-reperfusion: 3.50 ± 0.35 L/min/m2; P < 0.05) mediated by a significant reduction in total peripheral resistance. Reduced TTFM at the point of allograft reperfusion (227 ml/min c.f. mean; 411 ml/min (95% CI: 358 to 465)) was identified in a subject who experienced intra-operative transplant renal artery thrombosis. TEG data exhibited significant reductions in clot lysis (LY30 (%): pre-op: 1.0 (0.29 to 1.71), post reperfusion 0.33 (0.15 to 0.80); P = 0.02) and a trend towards increased clot initiation following
McDonald, T J; Zincke, H; Anderson, C F; Ott, N T
Six patients (five men and one woman) with Alport's syndrome underwent successful renal transplantation (four received kidneys from cadaver donors and two received allografts from living, related donors). One patient who had received a cadaver kidney had substantial hearing improvement and the others had stabilization of hearing. Hearing loss in Alport's syndrome is progressive. The reversal of deafness in one of our patients and stabilization in the others made us wonder whether an inherited enzymopathy had been reversed, which then mitigated the deafness.
Mohan, Sumit; Campenot, Eric; Chiles, Mariana C; Santoriello, Dominick; Bland, Eric; Crew, R John; Rosenstiel, Paul; Dube, Geoffrey; Batal, Ibrahim; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Sandoval, P Rodrigo; Guarrera, James; Stokes, M Barry; D'Agati, Vivette; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Markowitz, Glen
Biopsy findings at the time of procurement of deceased donor kidneys remain the most common reason cited for kidney discard. To determine the value of renal allograft histology in predicting outcomes, we evaluated the significance of histologic findings, read by experienced renal pathologists, in 975 postreperfusion biopsy specimens collected from 2005 to 2009 after living donor (n=427) or deceased donor (n=548) renal transplant. We evaluated specimens for the degree of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and vascular disease; specimens with a score of 0 or 1 (scale, 0-3) for each parameter were considered optimal. Overall, 66.3% of living donor kidneys and 50.7% of deceased donor kidneys received an optimal histology score (P<0.001). Irrespective of donor status, suboptimal kidneys came from older donors with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity and a higher mean kidney donor risk index (all P<0.001). Death-censored outcomes after transplant differed significantly between optimal and suboptimal kidneys only in the deceased donor transplants (P=0.02). Regardless of histologic classification, outcomes with deceased donor kidneys were inferior to outcomes with living donor kidneys. However, 73.2% of deceased donor kidneys with suboptimal histology remained functional at 5 years. Our findings suggest that histologic findings on postreperfusion biopsy associate with outcomes after deceased donor but not living donor renal transplants, thus donor death and organ preservation-related factors may be of greater prognostic importance. Discarding donated kidneys on the basis of histologic factors may be inappropriate and merits further study. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Mohsin, N; Al-Busaidy, Q; Al-Marhuby, H; Al-Lawati, J; Daar, A S
The Oman Renal Transplantation Program was established in 1988 as a joint venture between Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Health. It began with both living related donor (LRD) and deceased donor (DD) transplants. Over the next nine years, while the LRD programme progressed relatively well, there were only thirteen DD transplants. Two of the DD kidneys were obtained from overseas via an active collaboration with the Euro-transplant organisation, and one DD kidney was obtained from Saudi Arabia within the Gulf Cooperative Council exchange programme. The rest of the DD kidneys were obtained in Oman. The Omani DD programme, although it was a pioneering effort in the Gulf region at the time, was not entirely sustainable. In this paper we focus on the challenges we encountered. Among the major challenges was the absence of resources to establish a dedicated DD programme and particularly the failure to develop a cadre of dedicated transplant coordinators.
Arze Aimaretti, L; Arze, S
Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage chronic renal disease. Assuming that it is more advisable if performed early, we aimed to show the clinical, social, and economic advantages in 70% of our patients who were dialyzed only for a short period. For this purpose, we retrospectively collected data over 28 years in 142 kidney transplants performed in patients with <6 weeks on dialysis. 66% of our patients were 30-60 years old; 98% of the patients had living donors. At transplantation, 64% of our patients had no public support; however, 64% of them returned to work and got health insurance 2 months later. Full rehabilitation was achieved in all cases, including integration to the family, return to full-time work, school and university, sports, and reproduction. Immunosuppression consisted of 3 drugs, including steroids, cyclosporine, and azathioprine or mycophenolate. The cost in the 1st year, including patient and donor evaluation, surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up, was $13,300 USD versus $22,320 for hemodialysis. We conclude that preemptive renal transplantation with <6 weeks on dialysis is the best therapeutic option for end-stage renal failure, especially in developing countries such as Bolivia, where until last year, full public support for renal replacement therapy was unavailable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N
19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060
Makroo, Raj Nath; Nayak, Sweta; Chowdhry, Mohit; Jasuja, Sanjiv; Sagar, Gaurav; Rosamma, N. L.; Thakur, Uday Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Our study presents an analysis of the trends of ABO antibody titers and the TPE (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange) procedures required pre and post ABO incompatible renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nine patients underwent ABO incompatible renal transplant during the study period. The ABO antibody titers were done using the tube technique and titer reported was the dilution at which 1+ reaction was observed. The baseline titers of anti-A and anti-B antibodies were determined. The titer targeted was ≤8. Patients were subjected to 1 plasma volume exchange with 5% albumin and 2 units of AB group FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma) in each sitting. TPE procedures post-transplant were decided on the basis of rising antibody titer with/ without graft dysfunction. RESULTS: The average number of TPE procedures required was 4-5 procedures/patient in the pretransplant and 2-3/patient in the post-transplant period. An average titer reduction of 1 serial dilution/procedure was noted for Anti-A and 1.1/procedure for Anti-B. Number of procedures required to reach the target titer was not significantly different for Anti-A and Anti-B (P = 0.98). Outcome of the transplant did not differ significantly by reducing titers to a level less than 8 (P = 0.32). The difference in the Anti-A and Anti-B titers at 14th day post-transplant was found to be clinically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: With an average of 4-5 TPE procedures pretransplant and 2-3 TPE procedures post transplants, ABO incompatible renal transplantations can be successfully accomplished. PMID:28316440
Paster, Erin R; Mehl, Margo L; Kass, Philip H; Gregory, Clare R
To report the prevalence of hypophosphatemia after renal transplantation in a historical cohort of cats. Case series. Cats (n=86) that received a renal allograft. Medical records (January 200-June 2006) were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, pre- and postoperative diet, pre- and postoperative clinicopathologic variables, renal histopathology, and outcome were retrieved. Prevalence, onset, duration, treatment and associated clinical signs of hypophosphatemia were recorded. A chi(2) test was used to compare hemolysis frequency between cats with normal serum phosphorus concentration or a single spurious low serum phosphorus concentration for <24 hours duration (group 1) and confirmed hypophosphatemia for >24 hours (group 2). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the effects of hypophosphatemia on survival while controlling for other potentially confounding variables (age, sex, weight, body condition score, and pre- and 24 hours postoperative clinicopathologic variables). Eighty-six cats (mean age, 7.7 years) were identified. Hypophosphatemia occurred in 32 cats (37%), with a median onset of 2 days and median duration of 4 days. Treatment was initiated in 48 (56%) of hypophosphatemic cats. Survival and hemolysis frequency was not significantly different between groups, and no risk factors were identified. Hypophosphatemia occurs in cats after renal transplantation and does not affect survival. The clinical importance of hypophosphatemia in renal transplant recipients remains unknown.
Bavanandan, Sunita; Yap, Yok-Chin; Ahmad, Ghazali; Wong, Hin-Seng; Azmi, Soraya; Goh, Adrian
Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the cost and health outcomes of transplantation have not been assessed in a middle-income nation with a low volume of transplantation, such as Malaysia. This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Cost-effectiveness measures were cost per life year (LY) and cost per quality-adjusted LYs. The time horizon was the lifetime of the transplant recipient from transplant to death. Records of 206 KT recipients (118 adults and 88 children) were obtained for microcosting. In adults, discounted cost per LY was US $8609(Malaysian Ringgit [RM]29 482) and US $13 209(RM45 234) for living-donor kidney transplant (LKT) and deceased donor kidney transplant (DKT), respectively, whereas in children, it was US $10 485(RM35 905) and US $14 985(RM51 317), respectively. Cost per quality-adjusted LY in adults was US $8826 (RM30 224) for LKT and US $13 592(RM46 546) for DKT. Total lifetime discounted costs of adult transplants were US $119 702 (RM409 921) for LKT, US $147 152 (RM503 922) for DKT. Total costs for pediatric transplants were US $154 841(RM530 252) and US $159 313(RM545 566) for the 2 categories respectively. Both LKT and DKT are economically favorable for Malaysian adult and pediatric patients with ESRD and result in improvement in quality of life.
Bavanandan, Sunita; Yap, Yok-Chin; Ahmad, Ghazali; Wong, Hin-Seng; Azmi, Soraya; Goh, Adrian
Background Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the cost and health outcomes of transplantation have not been assessed in a middle-income nation with a low volume of transplantation, such as Malaysia. Aim and Methods This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Cost-effectiveness measures were cost per life year (LY) and cost per quality-adjusted LYs. The time horizon was the lifetime of the transplant recipient from transplant to death. Results Records of 206 KT recipients (118 adults and 88 children) were obtained for microcosting. In adults, discounted cost per LY was US $8609(Malaysian Ringgit [RM]29 482) and US $13 209(RM45 234) for living-donor kidney transplant (LKT) and deceased donor kidney transplant (DKT), respectively, whereas in children, it was US $10 485(RM35 905) and US $14 985(RM51 317), respectively. Cost per quality-adjusted LY in adults was US $8826 (RM30 224) for LKT and US $13 592(RM46 546) for DKT. Total lifetime discounted costs of adult transplants were US $119 702 (RM409 921) for LKT, US $147 152 (RM503 922) for DKT. Total costs for pediatric transplants were US $154 841(RM530 252) and US $159 313(RM545 566) for the 2 categories respectively. Conclusions Both LKT and DKT are economically favorable for Malaysian adult and pediatric patients with ESRD and result in improvement in quality of life. PMID:27500211
Rees, L; Greene, S A; Adlard, P; Jones, J; Haycock, G B; Rigden, S P; Preece, M; Chantler, C
Longitudinal height data and physical development were assessed in 45 boys and 34 girls after renal transplantation. All children received alternate day steroids and either azathioprine or cyclosporin A for immunosuppression. There was a significant increase in growth velocity after transplantation in prepubertal children. Growth velocity declined at the expected age of the normal pubertal growth spurt, however, with delay in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Overnight hormone profiles in 17 adolescent subjects with short stature or maturational delay, or both, showed blunting of growth hormone and gonadotrophin pulsatility. It is likely that long term steroid treatment after renal transplantation induces the clinical and endocrine picture of delayed puberty. Failure of growth to accelerate at this time is a cause of short stature, which may have an effect on adult height. PMID:3060022
Martinez-Mier, G; Enriquez-De Los Santos, H; Méndez-López, M T; Avila-Pardo, S F; Budar-Fernandez, L F; Gonzalez-Velazquez, F
Long-term graft function and survival are of particular importance in children assuming that they have a longer transplantation life span than most adults. Because acute rejection episodes (ARE) continue to have a serious impact on graft loss, we analyzed the effects of ARE on 5-year survival and function in our population. Fifty-seven living donor kidney transplant recipients (34 males) younger than 18 years of age (13.5 ± 2.6 years; range, 5-17) were follow up for at feast 12 months using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid therapy with or without induction treatment between February 2003 and December 2010. ARE incidence during the first 12 months following transplantation was 14%. One-, 3- and 5-year serum creatinine values were 1.24 ± 0.39, 2.16 ± 2.39, and 1.76 ± 0.9 mg/dL, respectively. Mean calculated creatinine clearances (Schwartz) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 82.5 ± 24.8, 64.7 ± 24.1, and 67 ± 27.5 mL/min*1.73 m(2), respectively. Patient/graft survival rates were 96/85%, 90/72%, and 88/65% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Patients who experienced an ARE within 12 months following transplantation displayed a reduced 5-year graft survival rate (37.5%) versus those who did not (78%; P = .005). Patients who did not have an ARE during 60 months had a higher graft survival rate (76%) than those who had ARE (33%; P = .001). Patient without basiliximab induction showed a lower 5-year graft survival rate (61% vs 100%; P = not significant [NS]). ARE is an important risk factor for graft loss in the pediatric kidney transplant population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta
Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function
Prabahar, M R; Soundararajan, P
Transplantation of human organs is undoubtedly one of the greatest medical breakthroughs of this century. However, few Indian patients are able to benefit from this medical advance. It is estimated that in India every year over 152,000 people are diagnosed to have end-stage renal failure needing renal transplantation. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act passed by the Indian parliament in 1994 was subsequently ratified by the state legislature of Tamil Nadu in May 1995. It accepted brain death as a form of death and prohibited commerce in organs. The first cadaveric kidney transplant in Sri Ramachandra medical college was performed in 1995 with 68 cadaveric kidney transplants thereafter. The mean age of the donors was 36 +/- 12.8 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 5.6 +/- 3.2 hours. As many as 14 donors displayed acute renal failure (serum creatinine more than 1.2 mg/dL). Immediate graft function was established in 34 patients (50%). Four had graft rupture, two of which were successfully repaired. Postoperatively 12 patients (17.6%) displayed delayed graft function requiring dialysis. During the first year, 18 patients (26.4%) experienced acute rejection episodes, of which 14 were cellular and four vascular rejection types. As many as eight patients were lost to follow-up within one year; the mean follow-up time was 968 +/- 86 days. Patient survival at 1 year was 88.2% and that of the graft 73.5%. The 5-year patient and graft survival rates were 61.7% and 58.8%, respectively. The mean serum creatinine of patients currently followed is 2.2 +/- 0.86 mg/dL. The rate of cadaver kidney transplantation in India is low despite initiatives by our university to promote donation. Creating a positive public attitude, early brain death identification, and certification, prompt consent for organ donation, adequate hospital infrastructure, and support logistics are prerequisites for successful organ transplantation.
Marinaki, Smaragdi; Kolovou, Kyriaki; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Boletis, John N; Delladetsima, Ioanna K
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a significant challenge for both dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients despite its decreasing rates, especially in developed countries. The best preventive method is vaccination. Patients with chronic renal disease should ideally be vaccinated prior to dialysis, otherwise, reinforced vaccination practices and close antibody titer monitoring should be applied while on dialysis. HBV infected dialysis patients who are renal transplant candidates must be thoroughly examined by HBV-DNA, and liver enzyme testing and by liver biopsy. When needed, one must consider treating patients with tenofovir or entecavir rather than lamivudine. Depending on the cirrhosis stage, dialysis patients are eligible transplant recipients for either a combined kidney-liver procedure in the case of decompensated cirrhosis or a lone kidney transplantation since even compensated cirrhosis after sustained viral responders is no longer considered an absolute contraindication. Nucleoside analogues have led to improved transplantation outcomes with both long-term patient and graft survival rates nearing those of HBsAg(-) recipients. Moreover, in the cases of immunized HBsAg(-) potential recipients with concurrent prophylaxis, we are enabled today to safely use renal grafts from both HBsAg(+) and HBsAg(-)/anti-HBc(+) donors. In so doing, we avoid unnecessary organ discarding. Universal prophylaxis with entecavir is recommended in HBV kidney recipients and should start perioperatively. One of the most important issues in HBV(+) kidney transplantation is the duration of antiviral prophylaxis. In the absence of robust data, it seems that prophylactic treatment may be discontinued in selected stable, low-risk recipients during maintenance immunosuppression and should be reintroduced when the immune status is altered. All immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation can be used in HBV(+) recipients. Immunosuppression is intimately associated with increased
Cellular or replicative senescence is classically seen as the key element of aging. In renal disease and after kidney transplantation, there is increasing evidence that replicative senescence pathways (p53 and p16) play a central role in disease progression and graft outcome, independent of chronological age. In this review, we summarize the current concepts in the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence, and correlate these theories with the available literature on aging of native kidneys, kidney diseases, and outcome of renal allografts. Recent data illustrate the complex biology of senescence in vivo, and disprove the concept that senescence is an intrinsic injury process with immanent deleterious consequences. Senescence acts as a homeostatic mechanism that can even limit renal fibrosis, at least in animal studies. In a human setting, it remains to be investigated whether cellular senescence plays an active or a bystander role in fibrogenesis and atrophy of renal tissue.
Kausman, Joshua Yehuda; Powell, Harley Robert; Jones, Colin Lindsay
The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of anemia in stable pediatric renal transplant recipients and to examine the association of anemia with renal function, immunosuppressants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and growth, as well as iron, vitamin B(12), and folate stores. This is a cross-sectional study of the 50 renal transplant recipients currently followed at our center. Patient data were collected regarding hematological parameters, growth, medications, renal function, underlying renal disease, delayed graft function, episodes of rejection, and iron or erythropoietin therapy post transplantation. The mean hemoglobin level (Hb) was 110 g/l and the overall prevalence of anemia was 60%, including 30% who were severely anemic (Hb<100 g/l). There was a high rate of iron deficiency (34%) and serum iron was the parameter of iron metabolism most closely associated with anemia. Hb in patients with low serum iron was 90.7 g/l versus 114.4 g/l in those with normal serum iron ( P<0.01). Both univariate and multiple linear regression determined tacrolimus dose and creatinine clearance to be significant factors associated with anemia. Tacrolimus dose correlated with a 10 g/l reduction in Hb for every increase of tacrolimus dose of 0.054 mg/kg per day ( P=0.001). The dose of mycophenolate was positively correlated with Hb, but this was likely to be confounded by our practice of dose reduction in the setting of anemia. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor use was not associated with anemia. Severely anemic patients tended to be shorter, with a mean Z-score for height of -1.8 compared with -0.9 for those with normal Hb ( P=0.02). Anemia is a significant and common problem in pediatric renal transplant patients. Deteriorating renal function is an important cause, but other factors like iron deficiency and immunosuppression are involved. Definition of iron deficiency is difficult and serum iron may be a valuable indicator. Medication doses
Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Alpoim, Patrícia Nessralla; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Braga Gomes, Karina; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna
Kidney transplantation is the key for patients with end-stage renal disease, improving quality of life and longer survival. However, kidney transplant triggers an intense inflammatory response and alters the hemostatic system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are not completely understood. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to investigate hemostatic biomarkers in Brazilian renal transplanted patients according to renal function and time after transplantation. A total of 159 renal transplanted patients were enrolled and D-Dimer (D-Di), Thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels were assessed by ELISA. An increase of D-Di was observed in patients with higher levels of creatinine. ADAMTS13 levels were associated with creatinine plasma levels and D-Di levels with Glomerular Filtration Rate. These results suggested that D-Di and ADAMTS13 can be promising markers to estimate renal function. ADAMTS13 should be investigated throughout the posttransplant time to clarify the participation of this enzyme in glomerular filtration and acceptance or rejection of the graft in Brazilian transplanted patients. PMID:26229221
Chandrakantan, Arun; de Mattos, Angelo M; Naftel, David; Crosswy, Apryl; Kirklin, James; Curtis, John J
The use of cyclosporine and tacrolimus therapy in nonrenal (heart, heart/lung, lung, and liver) transplantation has resulted in improved patient and graft survival. Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects of tacrolimus and cyclosporine therapy and may lead to ESRD. The trend of referral of nonrenal solid-organ transplant recipients for kidney transplant evaluation at a large multiorgan transplant center was examined. Records of all patients who were referred for renal transplantation at the University of Alabama between January 1, 1993, and June 30, 2004, were reviewed. Eighty (0.96%) of 8318 individuals had previously undergone a nonrenal solid-organ transplant and were included in the study. The majority (72%) of patients had their nonrenal transplants performed at the University of Alabama. Twenty-two patients had their nonrenal transplant performed elsewhere and had fewer data available for analysis. From the period 1993-1996 to 2001-2004, an 11-fold increase in the absolute number of referrals of patients with nonrenal transplants was noted. Of patients who were referred for transplant evaluation, 25 became recipients of kidney transplants with a predominance of living-donor transplants. Referral for kidney transplant evaluation among nonrenal solid-organ transplant recipients is increasing and will exacerbate the existing shortage of deceased-donor kidneys that are available for transplantation. There was a trend for liver transplant recipients compared with other solid-organ recipients to develop ESRD at a greater rate.
Osorio-Arango, Karime; Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Arias-Murillo, Yazmín; Prieto, Franklyn; Robayo, Adriana
The Red Nacional de Donación y Trasplantes of the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud reported that in 2014, 1,059 organ transplants were performed, of which 761 were kidney transplants, and 643 (84.5%) of these were from cadaveric organ donors. To describe the socio-demographic characteristics of patients who received renal transplants, as well as their outcomes in terms of survival. National kidney transplants were analyzed through an observational retrospective cohort study. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The survival curves by sex, age, type of donor, type of insurance, and time on the waiting list were compared utilizing the log rank hypothesis and a Cox regression. A total of 3,980 patients were included, of whom 338 died according to the Registry of Affiliates. The median follow-up time was 49 months, overall survival was 6.35 years (95% CI: 6.30 to 6.40), the one-year survival following transplantation was 97.2%, the three-year survival, 93.2%, and the five-year survival, 90.8%. The survival rate was higher in patients under 50 years of age, receptors of living donor transplants, and with less than six months on the waiting list. The results obtained serve as the basis for future studies with strict monitoring of survival among kidney transplant recipients in Colombia.
Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio
Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.
Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Wen, Mei-Chin; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung
Tinea capitis rarely occurs in renal transplant recipients. We report this living-related renal transplant patient receiving cyclosporine-based therapy who initially presented with severe exfoliation of the scalp with yellowish-white scales and marked hair loss. The lesions extended to the frontal area and both cheeks, resulting in several skin ulcers with perifocal erythematous inflammatory changes, and palpable cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy of a skin lesion revealed fungal infection and culture yielded Microsporum canis. The patient mentioned an outbreak of ringworm in her breeding dogs during this period. After adequate treatment of the patient and her infected animals with griseofulvin and disinfection of the environment, her skin lesions resolved dramatically, with regrowth of hair.
Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Yard, Benito A; Seelen, Marc A
Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function after transplantation. Brain death (BD) was induced in Fisher rats by inflation of an epidurally placed balloon catheter and ventilated for 6h. BD animals were treated with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) 1h before or 1h after BD. Kidney transplantation was performed and 7 days after transplantation animals were sacrificed. Plasma creatinine and urea were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after transplantation. Renal function was significantly better at day 1 after transplantation in recipients receiving a sCR1 pre-treated donor kidney compared to recipients of a non-treated donor graft. Also treatment with sCR1, 1h after the diagnosis of BD, resulted in a better renal function after transplantation. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta and TGF-beta were significantly lower in renal allografts recovered from treated donors. This study shows that targeting complement activation, during BD in the donor, leads to an improved renal function after transplantation in the recipient.
Teo, T T; Hossain, M M; Zinna, S; Liew, Y P; Tan, J
Brunei Darussalam is a small Muslim country with a high prevalence and incidence of kidney disease. At present, there is no local transplant program for patients on the renal replacement therapy program. In order to assess feasibility of a local transplant program, we decided to conduct a survey to assess public opinion on renal transplantation. The majority of the 300 respondents (78.7%) were willing to donate their kidneys if needed. Even after learning of the small theoretical risks of kidney failure, 72.33% of all respondents were still willing to proceed with transplantation. Respondents who had relatives on dialysis and who had a higher education level were more willing to donate their kidneys. There was no significant difference between Muslims and non-Muslims. Most respondents (59.7%) preferred to have transplantation done locally. This study shows that most Bruneians are receptive of the idea of living related kidney donations, which augurs well for the sustainability of a new program. More work is needed to overcome other barriers like the availability of surgical expertise and facilities and cost-benefit considerations.
Sahin, S; Manga Sahin, G; Turkmen, A; Sever, M S
Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. However, its application is limited due to inadequate organ supply, mainly because many dialysis patients do not have suitable living donors. The increasing discrepancy between organ supply and demand has forced many transplant centers to consider using organs procured from marginal donors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether utilization of kidneys from living related elderly donors is safe for the recipients in the long term. We analyzed the clinical results of 296 consecutive recipients of living related renal transplants, among whom 44 recipients received kidneys from donors over 60 years of age. By the end of 12 months, the mean serum creatinine level of the recipients who were transplanted from the older donors was higher (1.55 +/- 0.45 mg/dL) than that from other donors (1.21 +/- 0.3 mg/dL), but the difference was not significant (P = .08). In the long term (60 months), the graft function was similar (1.88 +/- 0.55 vs 1.52 +/- 0.38) for both groups. The similarity in outcomes of ideal versus older donors as shown less in the present series has encouraged us to utilize elderly living donors. We concluded that transplantations performed from the elderly donors yielded similar results to those of conventional donors. The long waiting list for transplantation, the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, should encourage us to be more flexible about donor selection.
In summary, I have attempted to review with you some of Dr Starzl's numerous clinical and scientific contributions that have cut across the spectrum of the field of renal transplantation. It is thus not surprising that Dr Starzl was elected the first President of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons, singular recognition from his own peers for the many contributions and leadership that he has provided during the formative and developmental years of organ transplantation. In addition, Dr Starzl has been recognized with a number of other prestigious awards, among which was the David M. Hume Memorial Award, the highest honor bestowed by the National Kidney Foundation. Careful analysis of Dr Starzl's work therefore clearly indicates that many of his contributions since 1960 have been uniquely innovative, have provided many firsts, and have reflected the science and technology of transplantation as it is today, in 1987. Thus, it can be truly said that Dr Starzl, the surgeon-scientist, was not only a pioneer but also a leader and subsequently a giant in the field of clinical renal transplantation. He has left a lasting and indelible impact on the field, the Starzl influence, for which all of us, both patient and physician, are extremely grateful. Thank you very much, Dr Starzl.
Wilczek, H; Kallings, I; Nyström, B; Hoffner, S
A cluster of five cases of Legionnaires' disease in renal transplant patients is described. They were treated with erythromycin and rifampicin, and all five survived. Two of them had rejected their grafts prior to their Legionella pneumonia; two rejected their transplants after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy to combat the infection. L pneumophila was present in the water distribution system of the hospital. Eradication measures included flushing the water pipes to the transplantation ward with hot and hyperchlorinated water, raising the warm water temperature to 60 degrees C, and installing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation units on the warm and cold water pipes to the ward. These measures were successful in that no new cases of legionellosis occurred after wards. L pneumophila could subsequently not be demonstrated by culture in plastic shower hoses supplied with UV-irradiated water. L pneumophila could be demonstrated by direct fluorescent antibody technique, but nonspecific reactions cannot be excluded. A higher prevalence of elevated L pneumophila antibody titers was observed in patients nursed for more than four weeks in the hospital than in patients with a shorter hospital stay, in hospital staff members, or in the general population. It seems that, with appropriate control measures, transplantation activities need not be discontinued in the presence of a minor cluster of Legionnaires' disease in renal transplant patients.
Kidney transplantation offers best hope to women with end-stage renal disease who wish to become pregnant. Pregnancy in a kidney transplant recipient continues to remain challenging due to side effects of immunosuppressive medication, risk of deterioration of allograft function, risk of adverse maternal complications of preeclampsia and hypertension, and risk of adverse fetal outcomes of premature birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. The factors associated with poor pregnancy outcomes include presence of hypertension, serum creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL, and proteinuria. The recommended maintenance immunosuppression in pregnant women is calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus/cyclosporine), azathioprine, and low dose prednisone; and it is considered safe. Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil should be stopped 6 weeks prior to conception. The optimal time to conception continues to remain an area of contention. It is important that counseling for childbearing should start as early as prior to getting a kidney transplant and should be done at every clinic visit after transplant. Breast-feeding is not contraindicated and should not be discouraged. This review will help the physicians in medical optimization and counseling of renal transplant recipients of childbearing age. PMID:28042483
Cantasdemir, Murat; Kantarci, Fatih; Numan, Furuzan; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kalender, Betul
We report the use of a metallic stent in a transplant ureteral stenosis. A 28-year-old man with chronic renal failure due to chronic pyelonephritis, who received a living-donor renal transplant, presented with transplant ureteral stenosis. The stenosis was unresponsive to balloon dilation and was treated by antegrade placement of a self-expanding Memotherm stent. The stentedureter stayed patent for 3 years. It may be reasonable to treat post-transplant ureteral stenosis resistant to balloon dilation with self-expanding metallic stents. However, long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment.
Wong, Timothy; Laing, Chris; Ekong, Rosemary; Povey, Sue; Unwin, Robert J.
Polydipsia and polyuria are common symptoms in patients with diabetes insipidus (DI), which can be due to inadequate vasopressin production (cranial DI) or vasopressin insensitivity (nephrogenic DI). Clinical diagnosis of the subtypes of DI can be tricky. We present a 44-year-old man with a strong family history of DI who had been diagnosed with autosomal dominant nephrogenic DI from infancy. At the age of 40, he had progressed to end-stage renal failure. When he experienced unresolving severe polyuria after renal transplant, further investigations revealed that he was misdiagnosed and that he had a novel mutation causing autosomal dominant cranial DI. PMID:26985366
Peeples, W.J.; Wombolt, D.G.; El-Mahdi, A.M.; Turalba, C.I.
Forty-four renal transplant patients were given radiation therapy for severe rejection phenomena. The 29 patients who had only one course of irradiation had a 52.3% successful function rate. Fifteen patients received from two to four courses of irradiation with an ultimate 60% rate of sustained function. Fifty patients who received only steroid and other medical management but no irradiation had a 60% rate of successful renal function. In the irradiation group, no patient whose creatinine level did not respond to radiation therapy maintained a functioning kidney. The data indicate that the overall successful function rate is maintained by radiation therapy in patients who show severe allograft rejection phenomena.
Swamy, MN Chidananda; Mukherjee, Aninditha; Rao, Latha L; Pandith, Sushmitha
We describe a patient with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension scheduled to undergo live-related renal transplantation. We emphasise on meticulous anaesthetic management and early renal transplantation to prevent the progression of disease which would become refractory to treatment, leading to right ventricular failure. Regional (continuous epidural) anaesthesia has been used as technique of choice, where the selective advantages of this technique have been put to good use. PMID:28250487
Evidence is accumulating indicating a role for uric acid in the genesis and progression of kidney disease, and a few studies are beginning to show a possible beneficial effect of urate-lowering therapy. Whether this holds true for renal allograft recipients is not clear. In this short review evidence from epidemiological as well as intervention studies is summarized and discussed, with some practical considerations presented at the end. PMID:26167455
Casolino, V; Paraluppi, G; Manolitsi, O; Fontana, I; Antonucci, A; Tommasi, G V; Arcuri, V; Valente, U
The development in the number of patients for renal transplants has not been matched to the kidneys supplied. On this subject the authors think that this chronic deficit could be improved by making use of all the organs by using a series of technical means during bench surgery; which enable optimisation of use of kidneys with vascular abnormalities or those injured upon removal. The authors report their experience of 450 renal transplants operated between January 1981 and December 1985 and of the evolution vascular bench surgical techniques which enable use of a considerable number of kidneys which would otherwise have been discarded. Moreover, it helped the implant, shortened surgery time without prolonging hot ischemia, and did not increase the number of complications.
Seculini Patiño, Carina E; Tabares, Aldo H; Laborie, Maria V; Diller, Ana
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) accounts for nearly 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Its association with renal transplantation is not frequent. Approximately 95% of GIST show staining for CD177. DOG1 is a recently described monoclonal antibody that shows positivity even in the absence of CD177 staining. The diagnosis of GIST should be pursued because of the availability of very effective treatments with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with renal transplant who presented a small bowel GIST and weak positivity for CD177, treated initially with surgery. Tumor recurrence was documented 3 years later and histopatology showed loss of CD177 staining and positivity for DOG1. She was treated with imatimib without further recurrence after five years of follow up.
Garbiras, M; Shabaka, A; Calvo, N; Martin, L; Moreno, M A; Lopez de la Manzanara, V; Sanchez-Fructuoso, A I
Whooping cough is a respiratory infection with a severity that varies with age, immune status, and probably with other factors such as the degree of exposure and the virulence of the organism. The most frequent microorganism responsible for whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis. We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis.
Madhoun, P; Wissing, M; Broeders, N; Ghisdal, L; Hoang, A; Loi, P; Michalsky, D; Bollens, R; Donckier, V; Hooghe, L; Janssen, F; Hall, M; Depierreux, M; Kinnaert, P; Vereerstraeten, P; Abramowicz, D
Since 1965, more than 2000 renal transplantations (including more than 100 living-donor transplantations) have been performed at the University of Brussels. An end-stage renal disease patient candidate to renal transplantation will be therefore followed from his enrolment on the waiting list to the long-term post-transplant period. Improvement in the outcome of renal transplantation is achieved due to better knowledge in many fields of medicine, such as immunology, infectious disease, metabolic diseases (hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus), pharmacology, use of immunosuppressive regimen, a more adequate cardiovascular prevention and treatment. If the best results were achieved with kidneys from living donors, the graft survival rate at the University of Brussels was nearly 80% for the last period (2000-2006). Unfortunately, renal transplantation cannot cure certain comorbid conditions and even may promote them: infectious diseases, neoplasia, metabolic disorders (e.a diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia). Many efforts have to be done to develop less toxic and more immune selective therapeutic strategies. Living donation and extension of the pool of cadaveric donors will reduce the length of time spent on the waiting list and will significantly impact on mortality and morbidity after kidney transplantation.
Young, J S; Rohr, M S
The increasing use of living-related donors has increased the incidence wherein the transplant surgeon is required to use special vascular surgical techniques to transplant kidneys with anomalous arterial anatomy. One of the most commonly encountered arterial anomalies is the presence of a lower pole renal artery. In many cases, this artery can be anastomosed to the main renal artery, and the main renal artery can then be anastomosed into the recipient vessel. However, there are cases where the lower pole renal artery is too distant from the main renal artery to allow an anastomosis to be performed. The lower pole renal artery of the graft must be revascularized to avoid ischemic injury to the ureter. Thus, alternate methods for the revascularization of this vessel must be found. We describe the use of the recipient inferior epigastric artery as an arterial supply for the donor lower pole artery. In our case report, this method provided excellent flow to the lower kidney and was documented by later studies.
Meyers, W C; Harris, N; Stein, S; Brooks, M; Jones, R S; Thompson, W M; Stickel, D L; Seigler, H F
A computer analysis of post renal transplantation gastrointestinal problems was performed to identify important associated clinical factors. Thirty-seven per cent of all transplant recipients developed one or more significant problems. Hemorrhage, nondiverticular intestinal perforation, and esophagitis occurred most frequently in hospitalized patients. Pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and gastroduodenal perforation occurred characteristically in long-term survivors with well functioning allografts. Eleven of 32 HLA identical recipients treated with maintenance corticosteroids during stable kidney function developed gastrointestinal disease while only one of 13 HLA identical recipients not given maintenance steroids developed a problem, which strongly suggests a causal role for steroids in the development of late complications. The association of preexisting peptic ulcer and diverticular disease with hemorrhage and perforation supports previous recommendations that documented peptic ulcer disease or diverticulitis should be corrected surgically prior to transplantation. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:384945
Sampathkumar, K.; Mahaldar, A. R.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Prabahar, S.
A variety of skin infections are encountered in postrenal transplant setting. Though bacterial and fungal infections are more common, surprises are in store for us sometimes. We describe a patient who underwent renal transplant two years ago, presenting with a painless, mildly pruritic expanding skin rash over abdomen. Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed that stratum corneum had multiple burrows containing larvae and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient was treated with ivermectin 12 mg weekly once for 2 doses along with topical 5% permethrin and permethrin soap bath. There was remarkable improvement in the skin lesions with complete resolution in two weeks. Norwegian or crusted scabies is caused by massive infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. It can be rarely encountered in the post-transplant setting, which underscores the importance of early diagnosis and treatment before secondary bacterial infection sets in. PMID:20835323
McQuarrie, Emily P; Fellström, Bengt C; Holdaas, Hallvard; Jardine, Alan G
Renal transplant recipients have a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population, although considerably lower than that of patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. CVD in transplant recipients is poorly characterised and differs from the nonrenal population, with a much higher proportion of fatal to nonfatal cardiac events. In addition to traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes and smoking, there are additional factors to consider in this population such as the importance of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and uraemic cardiomyopathy. There are factors specific to transplantation such immunosuppressive therapies and graft dysfunction which contribute to this altered risk profile. However, understanding and treatment is limited by the absence of large randomised intervention trials addressing risk factor modification, with the exception of the ALERT study. The approach to managing these patients should begin early and be multifactorial in nature.
Rodríguez-Faba, O; Breda, A; Villavicencio, H
The indication and timing of nephrectomy in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remain controversial, especially in patients who are candidates to renal transplantation (RT). The main surgical options such as unilateral vs. bilateral nephrectomy, nephrectomy before vs. after RT, or simultaneous nephrectomy and transplantation, are herein discussed. Evidence acquisition of the best surgical management available for ADPKD in the context of kidney transplantation. Systematic literature review in PubMed from 1978 to 2013 was conducted. Articles selected included:randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Furthermore, well designed ADPKD reviews were considered for this study. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in ADPKD is a safe procedure with an acceptable complication rate. Unilateral nephrectomy has advantages over the bilateral one regarding the perioperative complication rate. Although the timing of nephrectomy is controversial, it seems that simultaneous nephrectomy and renal transplantation does not increase surgical morbidity neither affect graft survival. Simultaneous nephrectomy and RT appears to be an acceptable alternative to conventional two-stage procedure without any increased morbidity, in the context of ADPKD. Furthermore, laparoscopic nephrectomy performed in experienced centres is a safe alternative to conventional approach. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Orlando, Giuseppe; Hematti, Peiman; Stratta, Robert J.; Burke, George W.; Di Cocco, Pierpaolo; Pisani, Francesco; Soker, Shay; Wood, Kathryn
In solid organ transplantation, the achievement of an immunosuppression (IS)-free state [also referred to as clinical operational tolerance (COT)] represents the ultimate goal. Although COT is feasible and safe in selected cases after liver transplantation, it is an exceptional finding after other types of solid organ transplantation. In the field of renal transplantation (RT), approximately 100 cases of COT have been reported to date, mainly in patients who were not compliant with their immunosuppressive regimens or in individuals who had previously received a bone marrow transplant for hematological disorders. On the basis of promising results obtained in animal models, several tolerogenic protocols have been attempted in humans, but most have failed to achieve robust and stable COT after RT. Molecule-based regimens have been largely ineffective, whereas cell-based regimens have provided some encouraging results. In these latter regimens, apart from standard IS, patients usually receive perioperative infusion of donor bone marrow–derived stem cells, which are able to interact with the immune cells of the host and mitigate their response to engraftment. Unfortunately, most renal transplant patients who developed acute rejection—occurring either during the weaning protocol or after complete withdrawal of IS—eventually lost their grafts. Currently, the immune monitoring necessary for predicting the presence and persistence of donor-specific unresponsiveness is not available. Overall, the present review will provide a conceptual framework for COT and conclude that stable and robust COT after RT remains an elusive goal and that the different strategies attempted to date are not yet reproducibly safe or effective. PMID:21107102
Korsch, B M; Fine, R N; Negrete, V F
Fourteen patients (13 of them adolescents) interrupted immunosuppressive treatment following renal transplantation. Twelve were girls and two were boys. Six subsequently lost their allografts and eight had impaired renal function. Noncompliance was suspected when diminution in cushingoid features, unexplained weight loss, or changes in renal function occurred. Noncompliance was comfirmed by interview with psychosocial staff. Available psychosocial data from family interview and personality test obtained earlier as part of systematic follow-up study were analyzed to explore the reasons for noncompliance. Non compliant patient families had lower incomes, more fatherless households, and comunication difficulties within the family and with the medical establishment. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, a discriminant function was derived which selected 13 of 14 noncompliant patients. Noncompliance may be a preventable cause of allograft failure. These data can aid in identifying high-risk patients and planning intervention programs.
David, V G; Yadav, B; Jeyaseelan, L; Deborah, M N; Jacob, S; Alexander, S; Varughese, S; John, G T
Blood pressure (BP) control at home is difficult when managed only with office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM). In this prospective study, the reliability of BP measurements in renal transplant patients with OBPM and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) was compared with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) as the gold standard. Adult patients who had living-related renal transplantation from March 2007 to February 2008 had BP measured by two methods; OBPM and ABPM at pretransplantation, 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), and 9(th) months and all the three methods: OBPM, ABPM, and HBPM at 6 months after transplantation. A total of 49 patients, age 35 ± 11 years, on prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate were evaluated. A total of 39 were males (79.6%). Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) measured by OBPM were higher than HBPM when compared with ABPM. When assessed using OBPM and awake ABPM, both SBP and DBP were significantly overestimated by OBPM with mean difference of 3-12 mm Hg by office SBP and 6-8 mm Hg for office DBP. When HBPM was compared with mean ABPM at 6 months both the SBP and DBP were overestimated by and 7 mm Hg respectively. At 6 months post transplantation, when compared with ABPM, OBPM was more specific than HBPM in diagnosing hypertension (98% specificity, Kappa: 0.88 vs. 89% specificity, Kappa: 0.71). HBPM was superior to OBPM in identifying patients achieving goal BP (89% specificity, Kappa: 0.71 vs. 50% specificity Kappa: 0.54). In the absence of a gold standard for comparison the latent class model analysis still showed that ABPM was the best tool for diagnosing hypertension and monitoring patients reaching targeted control. OBPM remains an important tool for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in renal transplant recipients. HBPM and ABPM could be used to achieve BP control.
Walzer, Y; Bear, R A
In a diabetic renal transplant recipient a nephrocutaneous fistula developed after percutaneous renal graft biopsy, and ureteral obstruction due to Candida albicans fungus balls was demonstrated. Local irrigation with amphotericin B, systemic antifungal therapy, and rigid blood sugar control led to rapid clearing of the fungal infections. This cause of renal transplant insufficiency should be considered prior to renal biopsy in diabetic patients with yeast forms in the urine.
Basic-Jukic, N; Novosel, D; Juric, I; Kes, P
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in access to kidney transplantation worldwide. The Roma people are often socially deprived, uneducated, and unemployed. We investigated all dialysis centers in Croatia to determine number of Roma people on dialysis as well as their access and reasons for eventual failure to enter the waiting list. There are 9463 registered Roma people in Croatia, however, the estimated number reaches 40,000. Twenty-five Roma patients required renal replacement therapy, giving a prevalence of 830 per million people (pmp), compared with 959 pmp among the general population. Average age at the start of dialysis was 29 vs 67 years; waiting time to kidney transplantation was 48.9 vs 53.5 months; mean age at the time of transplantation was 33.18 vs 48.01 years in Roma versus the general population respectively. One patient received a kidney allograft from a living unrelated spousal donor, and all others from deceased individuals. Patients were followed for 51.5 months (range, 6-240). The most frequent post-transplant complications were urinary tract infections. One patient lost a graft due to severe acute rejection caused by noncompliance. Two young patients were also noncompliant with immunosuppressive medications. One patient died with a functioning graft at 20 years after transplantation due to cardiovascular disease. Among 14 Roma patients currently been treated with hemodialysis in Croatia, 10 are old with clinical contraindications for transplantation; 1 is on the waiting list; 1 left hospitalization for pretransplant evaluation twice; 1 refused evaluation; and 1 is currently being evaluated for the waiting list. The Roma people have excellent access to renal transplantation in Croatia. Many of them refuse evaluation. More efforts should be invested in their education to improve compliance and their post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pankhurst, Laura; Hudson, Alex; Mumford, Lisa; Willicombe, Michelle; Galliford, Jack; Shaw, Olivia; Thuraisingham, Raj; Puliatti, Carmelo; Talbot, David; Griffin, Sian; Torpey, Nicholas; Ball, Simon; Clark, Brendan; Briggs, David; Fuggle, Susan V.; Higgins, Robert M.
Background ABO and HLA antibody incompatible (HLAi) renal transplants (AIT) now comprise around 10% of living donor kidney transplants. However, the relationship between pretransplant factors and medium-term outcomes are not fully understood, especially in relation to factors that may vary between centers. Methods The comprehensive national registry of AIT in the United Kingdom was investigated to describe the donor, recipient and transplant characteristics of AIT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare survival of AIT to all other compatible kidney transplants performed in the United Kingdom. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to determine which pretransplant factors were associated with transplant survival in HLAi and ABOi separately. The primary outcome was transplant survival, taking account of death and graft failure. Results For 522 HLAi and 357 ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplants, 5-year transplant survival rates were 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66-75%) for HLAi and 83% (95% CI, 78-87%) for ABOi, compared with 88% (95% CI, 87-89%) for 7290 standard living donor transplants, and 78% (95% CI, 77-79%) for 15 322 standard deceased donor transplants (P < 0.0001). Increased chance of transplant loss in HLAi was associated with increasing number of donor specific HLA antibodies, center performing the transplant, antibody level at the time of transplant, and an interaction between donor age and dialysis status. In ABOi, transplant loss was associated with no use of IVIg, cytomegalovirus seronegative recipient, 000 HLA donor-recipient mismatch; and increasing recipient age. Conclusions Results of AIT were acceptable, certainly in the context of a choice between living donor AIT and an antibody compatible deceased donor transplant. Several factors were associated with increased chance of transplant loss, and these can lead to testable hypotheses for further improving therapy. PMID:28706984
Pankhurst, Laura; Hudson, Alex; Mumford, Lisa; Willicombe, Michelle; Galliford, Jack; Shaw, Olivia; Thuraisingham, Raj; Puliatti, Carmelo; Talbot, David; Griffin, Sian; Torpey, Nicholas; Ball, Simon; Clark, Brendan; Briggs, David; Fuggle, Susan V; Higgins, Robert M
ABO and HLA antibody incompatible (HLAi) renal transplants (AIT) now comprise around 10% of living donor kidney transplants. However, the relationship between pretransplant factors and medium-term outcomes are not fully understood, especially in relation to factors that may vary between centers. The comprehensive national registry of AIT in the United Kingdom was investigated to describe the donor, recipient and transplant characteristics of AIT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare survival of AIT to all other compatible kidney transplants performed in the United Kingdom. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to determine which pretransplant factors were associated with transplant survival in HLAi and ABOi separately. The primary outcome was transplant survival, taking account of death and graft failure. For 522 HLAi and 357 ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplants, 5-year transplant survival rates were 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66-75%) for HLAi and 83% (95% CI, 78-87%) for ABOi, compared with 88% (95% CI, 87-89%) for 7290 standard living donor transplants, and 78% (95% CI, 77-79%) for 15 322 standard deceased donor transplants (P < 0.0001). Increased chance of transplant loss in HLAi was associated with increasing number of donor specific HLA antibodies, center performing the transplant, antibody level at the time of transplant, and an interaction between donor age and dialysis status. In ABOi, transplant loss was associated with no use of IVIg, cytomegalovirus seronegative recipient, 000 HLA donor-recipient mismatch; and increasing recipient age. Results of AIT were acceptable, certainly in the context of a choice between living donor AIT and an antibody compatible deceased donor transplant. Several factors were associated with increased chance of transplant loss, and these can lead to testable hypotheses for further improving therapy.
Hernández, Gonzalo; de Arriba, Lorenzo; de Andrés, Amado
Objectives: Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent oral lesion in renal transplant patients (RTPs). Despite the increased prevalence of OC in RTPs, no study has examined related risk factors. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for OC in RTPs compared with age- and gender-matched healthy control group (HC) as well as determine the incidence of OC after transplantation. Study Design: We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors of OC in a group of 500 RTPs (307 men, 193 women, mean age 53.63 years) and 501 HC subjects (314 men, 187 women, mean age 52.25 years). Demographic and pharmacological data were recorded for all subjects. Incident cases of OC were ascertained retrospectively from outpatient clinical records only in the RTP group. Results: The prevalence of OC was 7.4% in RTPs compared with 4.19% in HC (P<0.03). The most frequent type of OC in the two groups was denture stomatitis. Statistical association was found between OC and age, mycophenolate mofetil dose and blood levels, dentures and tobacco. The multiple logistic regression model only chose for denture variable. According to the outpatient clinical records, 24 RTPs suffered OC during the first moth post-transplant. Severe lesions affecting the oral cavity and pharynx appeared in 79% of the OC cases. Conclusions: This study shows a lower prevalence of OC in RTPs than previous reports. Denture stomatitis was the most frequent OC prevalence form described in RTPs. Severe candidiasis is more frequent in the immediate posttransplant period. The presence of denture is an important risk factor of OC. These results emphasise the importance of adequate pre- and post-transplant oral health and denture cleaning and adjustment is recommended for these subjects to prevent this infection. Key words:Oral candidiasis, immunosuppressive therapy, renal transplantation. PMID:23385511
Kapoor, Anil; Kwan, Kevin G.; Whelan, J. Paul
Background: Canada, akin to other developed nations, faces the growing challenges of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Even with expanded donor criteria for renal transplantation (the treatment of choice for ESRD), the supply of kidneys is outpaced by the escalating demand. Remuneration for kidney donation is proscribed in Canada. Without an option of living-related transplantation (biological or emotional donors), patients often struggle with long waiting lists for deceased donor transplantation. Accordingly, many patients are now opting for more expedient avenues to obtaining a renal transplant. Through commercial organ retrieval programs, from living and deceased donors, patients are travelling outside Canada to have the procedure performed. Methods: Between September 2001 and July 2007, 10 patients (7 males, 3 females) underwent commercial renal transplantation outside Canada. We describe the clinical outcomes of these patients managed postoperatively at our single Canadian transplant centre. Results: Six living unrelated and 4 deceased donor renal transplantations were performed on these 10 patients (mean age 49.5 years). All procedures were performed in developing countries and the postoperative complications were subsequently treated at our centre. The mean post-transplant serum creatinine was 142 μmol/L. The average follow-up time was 29.8 months (range: 3 to 73 months). One patient required a transplant nephrectomy secondary to fungemia and subsequently died. One patient had a failed transplant and has currently resumed hemodialysis. Acute rejection was seen in 5 patients with 3 of these patients requiring re-initiation of hemodialysis. Only 1 patient had an uncomplicated course after surgery. Discussion: Despite the kidney trade being a milieu of corruption and commercialization, and the high risk of unconventional complications, patients returning to Canada after commercial renal transplantation are the new reality. Patients are often arriving without any
Adler, Joel T; Sethi, Rosh K V; Yeh, Heidi; Markmann, James F; Nguyen, Louis L
To evaluate the impact of market competition on patient mortality and graft failure after kidney transplantation. Kidneys are initially allocated within 58 donation service areas (DSAs), which have varying numbers of transplant centers. Market competition is generally considered beneficial. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database was queried and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), a measure of market competition, was calculated for each DSA from 2003 to 2012. Receipt of low-quality kidneys (Kidney Donor Profile Index ≥ 85) was modeled with multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards models were created for graft failure and patient mortality. A total of 127,355 adult renal transplants were performed. DSAs were categorized as 7 no (HHI = 1), 17 low (HHI = 0.52-0.97), 17 medium (HHI = 0.33-0.51), or 17 high (HHI = 0.09-0.32) competition. For deceased donor kidney transplantation, increasing market competition was significantly associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.11, P = 0.01], graft failure (HR: 1.18, P = 0.0001), and greater use of low-quality kidneys (odds ratio = 1.39, P < 0.0001). This was not true for living donor kidney transplantation (mortality HR: 0.94, P = 0.48; graft failure HR: 0.99, P = 0.89). Competition was associated with longer waitlists (P = 0.04) but not with the number of transplants per capita in a DSA (P = 0.21). Increasing market competition is associated with increased patient mortality and graft failure and the use of riskier kidneys. These results may represent more aggressive transplantation and tolerance of greater risk for patients who otherwise have poor alternatives. Market competition should be better studied to ensure optimal outcomes.
Dolan, Niamh; Waldron, Mary; O'Connell, Marie; Eustace, Nick; Carson, Kevin; Awan, Atif
We report two cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema as a complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric renal transplant patients identified following a retrospective review of all pediatric renal transplant cases performed in the National Paediatric Transplant Centre, Childrens University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-eight renal transplantations, of which five were living-related (LRD) and 23 were from deceased donors (DD), were performed in 28 children between 2003 and 2006. In six cases, transplantations were pre-emptive. Immunosuppression was induced pre-operatively using a combination of basiliximab, tacrolimus and methylprednisolone in all patients. Basiliximab induction was initiated 2 h prior to surgery in all cases and, in 26 patients, basiliximab was re-administered on post-operative day 4. Two patients, one LRD and one DD, aged 6 and 11 years, respectively, developed acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 36 h of surgery. Renal dysplasia was identified as the primary etiological factor for renal failure in both cases. Both children required assisted ventilation for between 4 and 6 days. While both grafts had primary function, the DD transplant patient subsequently developed acute tubular necrosis and was eventually lost within 3 weeks due to thrombotic microangiopathy and severe acute antibody-mediated rejection despite adequate immunosuppression. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a potentially devastating post-operative complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric patients following renal transplantation. Early recognition and appropriate supportive therapy is vital for patient and, where possible, graft survival.
Hadi, Riad Abdel; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Ribeiro, Adriana Reginato; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti
Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression has been sporadically reported in the literature. The cases include non-adherent patients who discontinued their immunosuppressive medications, transplantation between identical twins, kidney transplantation after a successful bone marrow graft from the same donor and simultaneous bone marrow and kidney transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma with associated renal failure. There are also ongoing clinical trials designed to induce donor specific transplant tolerance with infusion of hematopoietic cells from the same kidney donor. Here we describe two cases of renal transplantation without immunosuppression as examples of situations described above.
Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Tan, Si Yen; Ahmed, Dalinatul; Zinna, Shaukat; Chong, William
Objectives. Brunei Darussalam has a high prevalence and incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Up until 2012, all renal transplantations were performed in overseas centres, either as government-sponsored (living-related transplantation) or as self-sponsored (commercialized transplantation) ones. We hypothesize that graft and patient survival of Brunei renal transplant patients are on a par with international standards. Materials and Methods. Data of all renal transplant patients in Brunei were analysed over a twenty-year period from registry records and case notes. Comparative survival data from other countries were obtained from PubMed-listed literature. Results. A total of 49 transplantation procedures were performed in foreign centres between 1993 and 2012. 29 were government-sponsored and 20 were self-sponsored transplantations. The 5- and 10-year overall patient survival rates were 93.3% and 90.1%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall graft survival rates were 91.1% and 81.2%. There is no difference in the survival outcomes of government-sponsored and self-sponsored patients. Living-related (government-sponsored) and commercialised (self-sponsored) grafts had equivalent survival to those reported in the literature. Conclusion. Our survival data was on par with those achieved in many countries. We hope to use this information to convince local stakeholders and patients to favour transplantation as the preferred modality of RRT. PMID:25478205
Butani, Lavjay; Berg, Gerre; Makker, Sudesh P
The renal transplant (Tx) recipient is at risk for developing various complications including urolithiasis, the only manifestation of which may be hematuria. However, there are no data on the prevalence of microscopic hematuria in renal Tx recipients. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of microhematuria in our pediatric Tx patients and to investigate the causes of microhematuria. Records of all pediatric renal Tx recipients followed at our center from September 1999 to September 2000 were retrospectively reviewed; of the 21 patients, seven (33%) had persistent microscopic hematuria that was first noted 2.9 years post-Tx. Patients with and without hematuria had similar baseline characteristics. Only one patient had pre-existing hematuria that continued post-Tx. The etiology of hematuria in the other six patients was: recurrent IgA nephropathy (one patient), CMV nephritis (one patient), and unexplained (four patients). None had renal calculi or hypercalciuria. Three of the four patients with unexplained hematuria have chronic allograft nephropathy, and the fourth (original disease dysplasia) has hypocomplementemia. At their last follow-up, 5.3 years after onset of hematuria, all patients are alive with stable allograft function. In conclusion, microscopic hematuria is not uncommon in pediatric renal Tx recipients. While causes of post-Tx hematuria are diverse, stones are not commonly seen. Whether chronic allograft nephropathy per se can be implicated as a cause of hematuria remains to be determined. Renal biopsies should be considered at the onset of hematuria if proteinuria and/or deterioration in renal function are seen concomitantly, to look for recurrent or de novo glomerulonephritis.
Molmenti, E P; Varkarakis, I M; Pinto, P; Tiburi, M F; Bluebond-Langner, R; Komotar, R; Montgomery, R A; Jarrett, T; Kavoussi, L R; Ratner, L E
We evaluated a technique for implantation of right kidneys with short renal veins without the need for venous reconstruction. The technique of iliac vein transposition was performed in six recipients who received right kidneys with short renal veins. Two cases were living related donors, two were living unrelated, one was an autotransplant, and one was a cadaver kidney recipient. The common and external iliac veins and arteries of the recipient were thoroughly mobilized, allowing for the lateral transposition of the external iliac vein with respect to the external iliac artery. The renal vessels were subsequently implanted in an end to side fashion onto the corresponding transposed external iliac vessels. After implantation, the iliac vein remained lateral with respect to the iliac artery. The technique described allows for the implantation of right kidneys without the need for venous reconstruction. Such an approach is especially useful in cases of grafts with short veins.
Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long
The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT.
Segoloni, G P
A kidney transplant before the start of dialysis or after only a short period of dialysis is acknowledged as the best therapeutic option for the uremic patient. However, the number of patients in Italy waiting for a kidney is stable (around 6,400 at the latest report) and the annual number of transplants is not increasing (a slight decrease is forecast for 2007). Opening the deceased-donor waiting list to patients who are not yet on dialysis remains a matter of debate and has been possible only in Tuscany thanks to the high rate of kidney procurement in this region. As far as the Piedmont region is concerned, the balance between performed transplants and new candidates for transplantation is stable, with a mean waiting time of nearly 2 years. Taking into account also the current decline in donations, the possibility of placing pre-dialytic patients on the waiting list requires further evaluation. Nevertheless, some strategies may be within reach. Above all, the use of kidneys from living donors, which represents the ideal condition for preventive transplantation, should be extended. For patients lacking a suitable living donor, a program of earlier admission to waiting lists should be activated.
Huh, Kyu Ha; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Kyung Ock; Kiml, Beom Seok; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Kill
Exchange-donor programs may prevent the current loss of many suitable living donors. Both incompatible donor-recipient pairs--with ABO incompatibility or positive cross-matches--and compatible pairs who wish to locate more suitable donors should be encouraged to participate in exchange-donor programs. Advantages and limitations of exchange-donor programs must be carefully explained to prevent interfamilial conflict. Exchange-donor programs may relieve shortages of donor organs and offer good posttransplant outcomes. Therefore, this program should be widely implemented.
Nampoory, Naryanan; Gheith, Osama; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Halim, Medhat; Nair, Prasad; Said, Tarek; Mosaad, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Zakareya; Alsayed, Ayman; Yagan, Jude
We report a case of slow graft function in a renal transplant recipient caused by uremic acute pericardial effusion with tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis was done with an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis, and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in consideration of causes of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome in renal transplant recipients.
Alves da Silva, Avelar; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; de Castro Cintra Sesso, Ricardo; Esmeraldo, R M; Costa de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria; Fernandes, P F C B C; Oliveira, R A; Silva, L S V; Carvalho, Valencio P; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in renal transplant recipients and to analyze the impacts of this disease on graft success and patient health. This retrospective, case-control study examined 120 renal transplant patients in a VL endemic area. The treatment group included patients (n=20) who developed VL after transplantation, and the control group (n=100) was composed of renal transplant recipients without VL. This study evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables. Bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify potential risk factors. The average time between transplantation and Leishmania infection in the treatment group was 29.4 months. Seventeen (85%) patients were cured and 3 (15%) died. In 95% of the cases, a myelogram was used for initial identification of Leishmania forms. The significant risk factors for VL in renal transplant recipients were cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation (odds ratio [OR], 5.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-21.97) and living with cats (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.15-28.76). Bacterial infection after transplantation (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 0.96-9.37) and unpaved streets in the neighborhood (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.71-6.43) tended to increase the risk of VL, whereas a negative Rh factor tended to protect against VL (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06-1.02). Cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation and living with cats increased the risk of VL in renal transplant recipients living in VL endemic areas.
Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Perico, Norberto
Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 μg/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8–152.0) to 63.3 (52.0–79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and
Borrego, J; Burgos, F J; Galmes, I; Orofino, L; Rodríguez Luna, J M; Marcen, R; Fernández, E; Escudero, A; Ortuño, J
Exposition of results obtained from the review of the surgical complications found in a series of 479 renal transplantations performed between 1978 and 1992 in our centre, although some of them lack clinical relevance. There was fluid accumulation in 69 patients, distributed between 31 perirenal haematoma. 17 lymphocele, 13 urinoma, 5 perirenal abscesses and 3 mixed. 27.7% required no action. Frequency of renal rupture was 18 cases, 9 due to acute rejection and 9 to vascular thrombosis. Incidence of urinary obstruction was 4.8% with 5.8% of urinary fistula. With regard to the surgical wound, 9 infections, 7 haematomas, 1 eventration and 1 necrotizing fasciitis were observed. Vascular complications consisted in 10 arterial thrombosis, 10 venous thrombosis, 5 mixed thrombosis and 31 arterial stenosis. Treatment instituted for the various cases, its evolution, and an statistical study of risk factors are illustrated.
Chocair, P R; Ianhez, L E; de Paula, F J; Sabbaga, E; Arap, S
From 1969 to 1987, 35 pregnancies occurred in 31 women with renal transplant. Four of them were still pregnant when this study was concluded. There was one ectopic pregnancy. All patients received azathioprine and prednisone. In the majority of patients the glomerular filtration rate increased in a way similar to normal pregnant women. In five cases there was a progressive loss in renal function. In four of them this was attributed to preexistent renal damage. No toxemia occurred. Anemia developed during 11 pregnancies and blood transfusion was required for five women. Four patients had urinary tract infection which was easily controlled with antibiotics. One patient had severe arterial hypertension, secondary to chronic rejection. One patient developed jaundice reverted with reduction in azathioprine doses. One woman died of septicemia secondary to fetal death, during the 6th month of pregnancy. Twenty children were born with no abnormalities, although many of them were underweighted. Two thirds of pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section. No harm to the pelvic allograft occurred in vaginal deliveries. There have been 4 abortions (2 of them were induced with no medical indication). Four pregnancies (26 to 39 gestational weeks) ended in stillborn babies: the mothers had impaired renal function associated with hypertension and proteinuria. One newborn died of pulmonary infection two days after delivery. Another was born with microcephaly and polydactilia and survived 6 years. No breast feeding was allowed.
Oates, Aris; Ahuja, Saveen; Lee, Marsha M; Phelps, Andrew S; Mackenzie, John D; Courtier, Jesse L
This review provides a comprehensive and practical approach to pediatric percutaneous renal transplant biopsies, highlighting techniques and strategies to optimize adequate sample yield and ensure patient safety. In children with end-stage renal disease, transplantation is the preferred choice of therapy, providing for overall lower long-term morbidity and mortality compared with dialysis. In the ongoing management of renal transplant patients, core tissue sampling via a percutaneous renal biopsy remains the gold standard when transplant dysfunction is suspected. Indications for renal transplant biopsy and techniques/tools for adequate sample yield are discussed. Strategies for common challenges such as poor visualization and renal transplant mobility are addressed. We discuss the clinical signs, techniques and imaging findings for common complications including hematomas, arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoaneurysms. Although the percutaneous renal transplant biopsy procedure is generally safe with rare complications, care must be taken to ensure major complications are promptly recognized and treated. Adequate tissue samples obtained via renal biopsy are imperative to promptly identify transplant rejection to provide valuable information for patient diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Radiologist and nephrologist attention to proper ultrasound techniques and optimal biopsy tools are critical to ensure tissue adequacy and minimize complications.
Ashry Ahmed Gheith, Osama
Hepatitis C virus, which usually starts during dialysis therapy, is currently the main cause of chronic liver disease in such population. The majority of patients acquired the disease through intravenous drug use or blood transfusion, with some risk factors identified. In this review we are dealing with the effect of renal transplantation on HCV infection and HCV-related complications after renal transplantation. Moreover, we are discussing the therapeutic options of HCV infection before and after renal transplantation, the best immunosuppressive protocol and lastly graft and patient survival in patients who underwent pretransplant management vs. those who were transplanted without treatment. PMID:21660304
Iezzi, Roberto; la Torre, Michele Fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Roberta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; Citterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management.
la Torre, Michele Fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Roberta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; Citterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management. PMID:25995689
Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Karparvar, Zahra Yeganeh; Ghahramani, Mehrdad; Shrivastava, Pritika
To explore the relation between nephrologists' characteristics and their views of transplant as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, preemptive transplant, and transplant of older patients. A comprehensive international Web-based survey explored the relation between nephrologists' characteristics and their views of transplant as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, preemptive transplant, and transplant of older patients. A total of 1448 nephrologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents agreed with transplant as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (75%), preemptive transplant (71%), and transplant for patients > 60 years of age (59%). The likelihood of agreement was higher among transplant and academic nephrologists, and practice at hospitals with ≥ 50 transplants per year. Urban location and ≥ 10 years in practice were associated with higher likelihood of viewing transplant as treatment of choice and favoring preemptive transplant. Demographic and practice characteristics influence nephrologists' attitudes about transplant as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, preemptive transplant, and transplant as an option for older patients. Detailed studies exploring the determinants of nephrologists' attitudes are likely to identify sources of variations in perceptions of patient suitability for transplant. Our findings underscore the need for continuing educational programs addressing evolving aspects of transplant particularly targeting nephrologists practicing within nonacademic centers and in rural areas.
Iyer, S P; Movva, K; Wiebel, M; Chandrasekar, P; Alangaden, G; Carron, M; Tranchida, P; Revankar, S G
Cryptococcal meningitis is a relatively common invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical presentation typically includes fever, headache, photophobia, neck stiffness, and/or altered mental status. Unusual presentations may delay diagnosis. Therapy is challenging in renal transplant patients because of the nephrotoxicity associated with amphotericin B, the recommended treatment. We present a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a renal transplant recipient presenting as acute sinusitis with successful treatment using fluconazole as primary therapy.
Wilson, Colin H; Bhatti, Aftab A; Rix, David A; Manas, Derek M
Major urological complications (MUCs) after kidney transplantation contribute to patient morbidity and compromise graft function. Ureteric stents have been successfully used to treat such complications and a number of centers have adopted a policy of universal prophylactic stenting, at the time of graft implantation, to reduce the incidence of urine leaks and ureteric stenosis. In conjunction with the Cochrane Renal Group we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists of articles, books and abstracts and contacted companies, authors and experts to identify randomized controlled trials examining the use of stents in renal transplantation. The primary outcome was the incidence of MUCs and data on this statistic was pooled and analyzed using a random effects model. Seven randomized controlled trials (1154 patients) of low or moderate quality were identified. The incidence of MUCs was significantly reduced (relative risk [RR] 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.77; P=0.02; number needed to treat = 13) by prophylactic ureteric stenting. Urinary tract infections were more common in stented patients (RR 1.49), unless the patients were prescribed 480 mg cotrimoxazole once daily. With this antibiotic regime the incidence of infection was equivalent between the two groups (RR 0.97). Stents appeared generally well tolerated, although trials using longer stents (> or = 20 cm) for longer periods of time (>6 weeks) reported more problems with encrustation and migration. Universal prophylactic stenting reduces the incidence of MUCs and should be recommended on the basis of currently available randomized controlled trials.
Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Okubo, Patrícia; Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; Veríssimo da Silva Junior, Waldir; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Bedendo, João
Patients who undergo dialysis treatment or a renal transplant have a high risk of blood-borne viral infections, including the Torque teno virus (TTV). This study identified the presence of TTV and its genome groups in blood samples from 118 patients in dialysis and 50 renal-transplant recipients. The research was conducted in a hospital in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná. The viral DNA, obtained from whole blood, was identified by using two nested Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). The frequencies of TTV were 17% and 36% in dialysis patients using the methodology proposed by Nishizawa et al . (1997) and Devalle and Niel (2004) , respectively, and 10% and 54% among renal-transplant patients. There was no statistically significant association between the frequency of the pathogen and the variables: gender, time in dialysis, time since transplant, blood transfusions, and the concomitant presence of hepatitis B, for either the dialysis patients or the renal-transplant recipients. Among dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients, genogroup 5 was predominant (48% and 66% respectively), followed by genogroup 4 (37% and 48%) and genogroup 1 (23% and 25%). Genogroup 2 was present in both groups of patients. Some patients had several genogroups, but 46% of the dialysis patients and 51% of the renal-transplant recipients had only a single genogroup. This study showed a high prevalence of TTV in dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients.
Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011
Douthat, Walter Guillermo; Chiurchiu, Carlos Raul; Massari, Pablo Ulises
The persistence and severity of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) post-renal transplantation is relatively frequent and primarily associated with the timing and its magnitude in the pre-transplant period and with the presence of parathyroid adenomas. HPT after renal transplantation is clinically manifested with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone pain, fractures, and in more serious cases with cardiovascular calcifications that affect the survival. The primary clinical objective for patients with secondary HPT after renal transplantation is to obtain a level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) adequate to the renal transplanted function and to normalize levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. In many cases during this period, the development of hypercalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia makes it necessary to take different therapeutic measures. The use of vitamin D or its analogues has been extrapolated from the management of pre-transplant HPT obtaining variable outcomes, although its use is limited by its capacity to produce hypercalcemia. Calcimimetics are drugs that have proven be effective in reducing PTH levels in patients with HPT on dialysis and has been effective in reducing up to 50% PTH levels in moderate to severe HPT in post-renal transplantation.When HPT persists after renal transplantation and does not respond to medical treatment, invasive management by percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of parathyroid glands or parathyroidectomy should be considered. The emergence of new methods for the management of HPT expands the availability of therapeutic tools for transplant patients. PMID:24175195
Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L
The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.
Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.
Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented. PMID:22231130
Frassetto, Lynda A.; Tan-Tam, Clara; Stock, Peter G.
HIV infection has been a major global health problem for almost three decades. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in 1996, and the advent of effective prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, AIDS mortality has decreased markedly. In developed countries, this once fatal infection is now being treated as a chronic condition. As a result, rate of morbidity and mortality from other medical conditions leading to end-stage liver, kidney and heart disease is steadily increasing in individuals with HIV. Presence of HIV infection used to be viewed as a contraindication to transplantation for multiple reasons:,concerns for exacerbation of an already immunocompromised state by administration of additional immunosuppressants; the use of a limited supply of donor organs with unknown long-term outcomes; and, the risk of viral transmission to the surgical and medical staff. This Review examines open questions on kidney transplantation in patients infected with HIV-1 and clinical strategies that have resulted in good outcomes. It also describes the clinical concerns associated with the treatment of renal transplant recipients with HIV. PMID:19776780
Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Vahed, Sepideh Zununi
Gaining long-term graft function and patient survival remain a critical challenge following kidney transplantation. Genetic and environmental factors do not completely account for the individual's graft outcome. Recently, it is reported that gut microbial community (microbiota) is associated with complications in kidney allograft recipients, as well. Commensal microbiota plays a significant role in the immunomodulation of transplant recipient responses. Different factors can disrupt the reciprocal interaction between microbiota and the host immune responses and lead to infection and rejection complications in the organ recipient. In this review, we address the relation between microbiota and immune system along with their possible roles in renal graft outcome. We next highlight the beneficial effects of probiotics on the management of kidney diseases and solid organ transplantation. Finally, we reflect on the potential impacts of probiotics on host physiology. Hopefully, a deeper understanding of the function and composition of microbiota can help clinics develop strategies to restore the normal microbiota and facilitate the clinical management of grafts in the forthcoming future.
Mohiuddin, M K; El-Asir, L; Gupta, A; Brown, A; Torpey, N; Ward, M; Talbot, D; Ahmed, S
There is no consensus on the usage of erythropoietin in the immediate postoperative period to prevent anemia and delayed graft function. A retrospective case note audit of renal transplants included hemoglobin (Hb) and serum creatinine (Scr) values preoperatively as well as at days 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Patients were categorized as those receiving erythropoietin during the first 6 months posttransplant (Epo+ve) and those not receiving any erythropoietin (Epo-ve). Hb decreased from 12.4 +/- 1.6 g/L preoperatively to 9.5 +/- 1.5 g/L at day 14 and then rose to 10.5 +/- 1.6 g/L at 1 month and 12.4 +/- 1.7 g/L at 3 months. There was no difference in absolute Hb values in three transplant groups. Scr decreased from 597.0 +/- 200.1 mmol/L preoperatively to 254.1 +/- 196.9 mmol/L at day 14 and continued to fall to 163.8 +/- 98.9 mmol/L at 1 month and 147.8 +/- 66.9 mmol/L at 3 months. There was no difference in absolute Hb values and delayed graft function in the three transplant groups. With respect to anemia and delayed graft function, the use of erythropoietin in the first 3 months had little impact. We suggest that such an expensive medication may be safely omitted in the immediate postoperative period.
Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara; Stock, Peter G
HIV infection has been a major global health problem for almost three decades. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, and the advent of effective prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, AIDS mortality has decreased markedly. In developed countries, this once fatal infection is now being treated as a chronic condition. As a result, rates of morbidity and mortality from other medical conditions leading to end-stage liver, kidney and heart disease are steadily increasing in individuals with HIV. Presence of HIV infection used to be viewed as a contraindication to transplantation for multiple reasons: concerns for exacerbation of an already immunocompromised state by administration of additional immunosuppressants; the use of a limited supply of donor organs with unknown long-term outcomes; and, the risk of viral transmission to the surgical and medical staff. This Review examines open questions on kidney transplantation in patients infected with HIV-1 and clinical strategies that have resulted in good outcomes. It also describes the clinical concerns associated with the treatment of renal transplant recipients with HIV.
Keown, P A; Balshaw, R; Krueger, H; Baladi, J F
Basiliximab is a chimeric monoclonal directed against the alpha-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. International studies have shown that it is highly effective in preventing acute rejection in patients receiving Neoral, and causes no measurable incremental toxicity, but its economic value remains unknown. This study employed an economic model to examine the potential economic benefit of basiliximab. Parameter estimates were derived from a randomized, prospective, double-blind study conducted in 21 renal transplant centers in seven countries in which 380 adult primary allograft recipients were randomized within center to receive basiliximab (20 mg i.v.) on days 0 and 4 or placebo in addition to dual immunosuppression with Neoral and steroids. Key clinical events included primary hospitalization, immunosuppressive drug use, patient and graft survival, graft rejection, treatment of rejection, dialysis, and repeat hospitalization. Health resources were valued via a comprehensive electronic cost dictionary, based upon a detailed economic evaluation of renal transplantation in Canada. Medication costs were calculated from hospital pharmacy acquisition costs; basiliximab was assessed a zero cost. The average estimated cost per patient for the first year after transplant was $55,393 (Canadian dollars) for placebo and $50,839 for basiliximab, rising to $141,690 and $130,592, respectively, after 5 years. A principal component of the cost in both groups was accrued during the initial transplant hospitalization ($14,663 for standard therapy and $14,099 for basiliximab). An additional $15,852 and $14,130 was attributable to continued care, graft loss, and dialysis in the two groups, whereas follow-up hospitalization consumed an additional $15,538 for placebo and $13,916 for basiliximab. The mean incremental cost of dialysis was $5,397 for placebo compared with $3,821 for basiliximab, whereas incremental costs of graft loss were $2,548 compared with $2,295 in the two treatment
Brown, E D; Chen, M Y; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E
Following renal transplantation, patients are often evaluated with ultrasonography (US) or radionuclide imaging to assess renal function and the presence of possible complications. Both modalities are inexpensive, noninvasive, and nonnephrotoxic. A basic understanding of the surgical techniques commonly used for renal transplantation is useful when imaging these patients in order to recognize complications and to direct further imaging or intervention. The most frequent complications of renal transplantation include perinephric fluid collections; decreased renal function; and abnormalities of the vasculature, collecting system, and renal parenchyma. Perinephric fluid collections are common following transplantation, and their clinical significance depends on the type, location, size, and growth of the fluid collection, features that are well-evaluated with US. Causes of diminished renal function include acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and toxicity from medications. Radionuclide imaging is the most useful modality for assessing renal function. Vascular complications of transplantation include occlusion or stenosis of the arterial or venous supply, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Although the standard for evaluating these vascular complications is angiography, US is an excellent noninvasive method for screening. Other transplant complications such as abnormalities of the collecting system and renal parenchyma are well-evaluated with both radionuclide imaging and US.
Kher, Ajay; Mandelbrot, Didier A.
Summary Living kidney donor evaluations and follow-up have previously been addressed mostly by transplant physicians and surgeons. However, this area is significantly informed by basic principles of renal physiology and is of increasing clinical interest to general nephrologists. The general nephrology community is increasingly involved in evaluating the suitability of potential donors and in following them after donation when questions are raised about low GFR, hypertension, and other renal concerns. This article focuses on some of the most central and common issues that arise in evaluating potential donors and attempts to provide guidance on the basis of our review of the living donor literature, extrapolations from the general nephrology literature, and our own clinical experience. PMID:22223615
Kher, Ajay; Mandelbrot, Didier A
Living kidney donor evaluations and follow-up have previously been addressed mostly by transplant physicians and surgeons. However, this area is significantly informed by basic principles of renal physiology and is of increasing clinical interest to general nephrologists. The general nephrology community is increasingly involved in evaluating the suitability of potential donors and in following them after donation when questions are raised about low GFR, hypertension, and other renal concerns. This article focuses on some of the most central and common issues that arise in evaluating potential donors and attempts to provide guidance on the basis of our review of the living donor literature, extrapolations from the general nephrology literature, and our own clinical experience.
Pavleska-Kuzmanovska, Svetlana; Popov, Zivko; Ivanovski, Ognen; Ristovska, Vesna; Masin-Spasovska, Jelka; Rambabova-Busljetic, Irena; Ivanovski, Ninoslav
Hyperkalemia is an electrolyte disorder that may occur during the first few months after a renal transplant, in patients undergoing cyclosporine immunosuppression. We present our experience with cyclosporine-associated hyperkalemia in living-donor renal transplant recipients, with isolated clinically relevant hyperkalemia soon after surgery. We report 4 living-donor renal recipients with hyperkalemia soon after transplant. Severe unexpected hyperkalemia (7.5- 9.4 mmol/L) was noted in our patients 12, 20, 22, and 34 days after transplant. The C2 cyclosporine concentration was within recommended range or slightly greater than 1200 ng/mL. The hypertonic glucose/insulin treatment along with potassium diet was without results. A reduction in daily cyclosporine dosages, along with 1- to 2-week administration of fludrocortisone was effective. The patients became normokalemic taking a standard, triple-drug immunosuppression protocol, and were discharged home with normal renal function. There were no repeat episodes of hyperkalemia in any of the patients during 12 months of follow-up. Cyclosporine should be considered a cause of hyperkalemia in renal transplant recipients. Successful treatment with fludrocortisone confirms that transitional pseudohypoaldosteronism has a potential nephrotoxic effect of cyclosporine. We recommend close monitoring of the cyclosporine concentration and administering fludrocortisone when treating hyperkalemia in renal transplant recipients.
Okumi, Masayoshi; Unagami, Kohei; Kakuta, Yoichi; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Toshio; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari
To compare transplant outcomes among elderly (aged ≥60 years) and non-elderly recipients, and to evaluate the acceptability of elderly living donor kidney transplantation in practice after consideration of living donor type. We included 830 adult patients with living donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2011 in this retrospective cohort study. We compared death-censored graft survival, patient survival, biopsy-proven rejection, complications, and renal function in elderly (n = 119) and non-elderly recipients (n = 278). There was no significant difference in 10-year death-censored graft survival (P = 0.980). Corresponding patient survival rates in the elderly and non-elderly groups were 84.1% and 98.1%, respectively (hazard ratio 6.15, 95% confidence interval 2.12-17.82, P < 0.001). Elderly patients had more complications and chronic T-cell-mediated rejection. Factors associated with death in elderly recipients with functioning grafts were residual advanced recipient age (hazard ratio 1.39), decreased hemoglobin (hazard ratio 4.10), hepatitis B virus (hazard ratio 7.89), hepatitis C virus (hazard ratio 13.12) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (hazard ratio 1.13). Elderly living donor kidney transplantation seems to provide adequate acceptable outcomes. However, physicians should be cautious when evaluating elderly patients with hepatitis, and further studies are required to improve long-term outcomes. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.
Massy, Z A; Kandoussi, A M; Mamzer-Bruneel, M F; Kreis, H; Drüeke, T; Lacour, B
Human apolipoprotein (apo) AIV might play a role in post-transplant reverse cholesterol transport, which appears to be comparable to that seen in healthy subjects. However, there may be subtle differences between healthy individuals and renal transplant recipients, given the other abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in the latter. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes of serum apo AIV levels in renal transplant recipients, and to evaluate potential factors influencing these levels. Total and free serum apo AIV was determined in 36 clinically stable renal transplant recipients and in 20 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. Mean total serum apo IV concentrations (+/- SD) were significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than in control subjects (202 +/- 102 vs 79 +/- 45 mg/l, p < 0.01). The percentage of lipoprotein-free fractions of apo AIV was comparable in both groups. The elevated total serum concentrations of apo AIV were mainly related to creatinine clearance and partially to serum triglyceride levels in renal transplant recipients. Our data suggest that the observed elevation of serum apo AIV concentrations in renal transplant recipients is essentially related to the presence of impaired renal function.
Banas, Miriam C; Banas, Bernhard; Wolf, Johanna; Hoffmann, Ute; Krüger, Bernd; Böger, Carsten A; Orth, Stephan R; Krämer, Bernhard K
Smoking is the most important remediable cardiovascular risk factor, and an independent risk factor for the progression of renal diseases. To date, only limited information about changes in cigarette-smoking habits before and after renal transplantation is available. In a comprehensive cross-sectional single centre study, we analysed smoking habits of patients registered on the waiting list for renal transplantation and patients that had received an allograft. Of 230 patients (76.1%), 175 on the waiting list and of 264 allograft recipients (87.5%), 231 were non-smokers at the time of investigation (P <0.01). Among the non-smoking waiting list patients, only 71 (30.9%) had never smoked, whereas 108 (40.9%) patients of the allograft recipients were never-smokers. Of former smoking patients, 27.6% (n = 34) had stopped smoking after transplantation. Patients <55 years of age and females were more likely to stop smoking than patients >55 years of age or males. A data analysis revealed that smokers had a significantly lower probability to attain renal transplantation. We conclude that renal transplantation is a strong incentive for patients to stop smoking. Reasons for changes in smoking behaviour after renal transplantation may be an intense contact of the patients with their physicians, the fear of a premature loss of the transplanted organ with continued smoking and the psychological support during post-transplantation patient care.
Delucchi B, Angela; Valenzuela A, Marcela; Ferrario B, Mario; Lillo D, Ana María; Guerrero G, José Luis; Rodríguez S, Eugenio; Cano Sch, Francisco; Cavada Ch, Gabriel; Godoy L, Jorge; Rodríguez H, Jorge; González G, Gloria; Buckel B, Erwin; Contreras M, Luis
Cardiovascular risk, growth failure and the new immunosuppressive drugs, have encouraged steroid withdrawal or total avoidance with promising results in renal transplant (Tx) immunosuppression. To evaluate a new immunosuppressor protocol with early withdrawal of steroids in pediatric kidney transplant. Prospective study in pediatric patients older than 1 year and low immunological risk. Group A (n =28): steroids in decreasing doses until day 7 post Tx, tacrolimus (FK) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Group B (n =28) control: steroids, cyclosporine and azathioprine or steroids, FK and MMF. In both groups the induction therapy included basiliximab. Anthropometric and biochemical variables (renal function, lipid profile, hematological, blood glucose and acid-base equilibrium), acute rejection and CMV infection, were evaluated. Mean values and variations for continuous variables were calculated at months 1, 6, 12 and 18. Two children were withdrawn before month 2, one had an untreatable diarrhea and the second died due to Aspergillus septicemia. Mean values at months 1, 6, 12 and 18 for groups A and B: Creatinine clearance (ml/min): 85.4 vs 89; 79.9 vs 83; 89 vs 80; 79.8 vs 80.6 (p: ns); hematocrit (%): 28.8 vs 30.4; 31.7 vs 34.4; 34.4; 32.4 vs 34.8; 34.4 vs 35.5 (p: ns). Total cholesterol (mg/dl): 151 vs 206; 139 vs 174; 138 vs 186; 140 vs 180 (p <0.05). Mean delta height/age Z score at the first year: 0.5 vs 0.15; 0.7 vs 0.22; 0.97 vs 0.25 (p <0.05). Mean systolic blood pressure Z score: 0.9 vs 1.5; 0.5 vs 0.9; -0.3 vs 0.8; 0.1 vs 1.0 (p <0.05). The height/age Z score was significantly superior in patients without steroids. A normalization of growth patterns at month 18 was observed (< 0.05). Both groups presented a negative variation of creatinine clearance during the follow-up, but it was minor in the study group (p <0.05). Two acute rejections were found in each group, and no difference in CMV infections was observed. Early steroid withdrawal in pediatric renal
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
Axelrod, D A; Schnitzler, M A; Xiao, H; Naik, A S; Segev, D L; Dharnidharka, V R; Brennan, D C; Lentine, K L
Kidney transplantation has become more resource intensive as recipient complexity has increased and average donor quality has diminished over time. A national retrospective cohort study was performed to assess the impact of kidney donor and recipient characteristics on transplant center cost (exclusive of organ acquisition) and Medicare reimbursement. Data from the national transplant registry, University HealthSystem Consortium hospital costs, and Medicare payments for deceased donor (N = 53 862) and living donor (N = 36 715) transplants from 2002 to 2013 were linked and analyzed using multivariate linear regression modeling. Deceased donor kidney transplant costs were correlated with recipient (Expected Post Transplant Survival Score, degree of allosensitization, obesity, cause of renal failure), donor (age, cause of death, donation after cardiac death, terminal creatinine), and transplant (histocompatibility matching) characteristics. Living donor costs rose sharply with higher degrees of allosensitization, and were also associated with obesity, cause of renal failure, recipient work status, and 0-ABDR mismatching. Analysis of Medicare payments for a subsample of 24 809 transplants demonstrated minimal correlation with patient and donor characteristics. In conclusion, the complexity in the landscape of kidney transplantation increases center costs, posing financial disincentives that may reduce organ utilization and limit access for higher-risk populations.
Tsai, Meng-Kun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lee, Po-Huang
Despite the objections to transplant tourism raised by the transplant community, many patients continue travel to other countries to receive commercial transplants. To evaluate some long-term complications, we reviewed medical records of 215 Taiwanese patients (touring group) who received commercial cadaveric renal transplants in China and compared them with those of 321 transplant recipients receiving domestic cadaveric renal transplants (domestic group) over the same 20-year period. Ten years after transplant, the graft and patient survival rates of the touring group were 55 and 81.5%, respectively, compared with 60 and 89.3%, respectively, of the domestic group. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The 10-year cumulative cancer incidence of the touring group (21.5%) was significantly higher than that of the domestic group (6.8%). Univariate and multivariate stepwise regression analyses (excluding time on immunosuppression, an uncontrollable factor) indicated that transplant tourism was associated with significantly higher cancer incidence. Older age at transplantation was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk; however, the risk of de novo malignancy significantly decreased with longer graft survival. Thus, renal transplant tourism may be associated with a higher risk of post-transplant malignancy, especially in patients of older age at transplantation. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology
Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892
Motoyama, Osamu; Kawamura, Takeshi; Aikawa, Atushi; Hasegawa, Akira; Iitaka, Kikuo
Growth impairment, microcephaly and developmental delay in young children with chronic renal failure improve after successful renal transplantation. There have been few reports on head circumference (HC) and development after transplantation. Standard deviation scores (SDS) of height and HC and developmental quotient (DQ) after successful renal transplantation were evaluated in 12 recipients under 5 years of age. At the time of transplantation their mean age was 2.5 years and mean bodyweight was 9.0 kg. Mean height SDS was -3.0 at transplantation and increased to -2.3 at 1 year after transplant (P = 0.002). Mean HC-SDS increased from -1.4 to -0.9 at 1 year after transplant (P = 0.02). As for each category of DQ examined 1 year after transplant, mean scores of gross motor function, basic practice, personal relations, speech and recognition increased from 69 to 90 (P = 0.007), from 77 to 102 (P = 0.02), from 87 to 103 (P = 0.04), from 71 to 90 (P = 0.0006), and from 88 to 101 (P = 0.03), respectively. In young children, physical growth, HC growth and DQ scores increased 1 year after transplantation. Dialysis and transplantation program should be planned in young children with end-stage renal failure in anticipation of growth and development of each patient.
Wang, H-K; Chiou, S-Y; Lai, Y-C; Cheng, H-Y; Lin, N-C; Loong, C-C; Chiou, H-J; Chou, Y-H; Chang, C-Y
The objective of this study was to explore the donor and recipient factors related to the spectral Doppler parameters of the transplant kidney in the early posttransplantation period. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent renal transplantation assessed using Doppler ultrasonography (US) on the first postoperative day. We compared spectral Doppler parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and resistive index [RI]) of the segmental artery of the transplant kidney according to the type of renal transplant, level of serum creatinine (SCr) of donor prior to organ donation, and donor/recipient age. RI was significantly higher in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) as compared with living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT; 0.73 ± 0.10 vs 0.66 ± 0.11; P = .007). In the DDKT recipients, multivariate analysis showed donor SCr was the only factor affecting PSV (P = .023), whereas recipient age was the only factor affecting RI (P = .035). In the LDKT recipients, multivariate analysis showed recipient age was the only factor affecting both PSV (P = .009) and RI (P = .018). Spectral Doppler parameters in the early posttransplantation period are related to the type of renal transplant, donor renal function, and recipient age. These factors should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of spectral Doppler US. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khuroo, Mehnaaz S
Strongyloidiasis is infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is known to occur in immunocompetent individuals while hyperinfection and dissemination occurs in selective immunosuppressed hosts particularly those on corticosteroid therapy. We report two cases of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients and document endoscopic and pathological changes in the involved small bowel. One patient presented with features of dehydration and malnutrition while another developed ileal obstruction and strangulation, requiring bowel resection. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and thickened duodenal mucosal folds. Histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies revealed S. stercoralis worms, larvae and eggs embedded in mucosa and submucosa. Wet mount stool preparation showed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in both cases. Patients were managed with anthelmintic therapy (ivermectin/albendazole) and concurrent reduction of immunosuppression. Both patients had uneventful recovery. Complicated strongyloidiasis should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts who present with abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:25150235
Churak, Joanne M.
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in renal transplantation. The causes are multifactorial and include but are not limited to racism, socioeconomic status and class, unfavorable geographical location, lack of organ donation by minority groups, and differences in social networks, health beliefs culture and HLA typing. These disparities affect blacks, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Alaskan natiives and Asians. Elimination of these disparities is difficult, since many of the causes are intertwined, and it is difficult todiscern attributable disparity risk associated with the various factors. The possible solutions and recommendations are numerous. Since it is difficult to identify which may be successsful, thorough evaluation is required to determine which should be implemented. Some recommendations may not be easily implemented. Those selected for implementation must be continuously monitored for the expected results and effects. PMID:15712778
Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Small, William C; Torres, William E; Mittal, Pardeep K
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Living related kidney donation is the major source of renal grafts due to limited availability of cadaveric kidneys. Open nephrectomy was used to harvest donor kidneys. However, the laparoscopic approach is associated with less postoperative pain and quick recovery. So, most centers now prefer a laparoscopic approach to explant donor kidneys. Laparoscopic approach is technically challenging due to limited operative visibility. Hence, accurate preoperative detection of renal arterial and venous anomalies is imperative to avoid inadvertent vascular injury and bleeding. The preoperative workup of renal donors includes clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging. Traditionally, the renal donors were evaluated with conventional imaging techniques, which included renal catheter angiography and intravenous urography. However, conventional imaging is invasive, expensive, and less accurate for evaluation of complex renal venous anomalies, small calculi, and diffuse or focal renal parenchymal lesions. The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) revolutionized the CT technology by enabling isotropic resolution with faster scan coverage in a single, short breath-hold. Consequently, MDCT has now replaced conventional imaging for comprehensive imaging of potential living renal donors. MDCT is a minimally invasive technique that can accurately detect urolithiasis, renal arterial and venous anomalies, renal parenchymal lesions, and urinary tract anomalies. Renal vascular anomalies detected by MDCT can help the surgeon in planning donor nephrectomy. MDCT with three-dimensional CT angiography enables accurate preoperative renal vascular mapping. This article reviews the role of MDCT in preoperative evaluation of potential laparoscopic renal donors.
Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007
Pesavento, Todd E
Kidney transplantation has dramatically evolved from a life-saving yet unproven therapy for patients with renal failure to a mature field that is the preferred treatment for those suffering from ESRD. Patients who receive a transplant experience a 68% lower risk of death compared with those waiting on dialysis for a transplant. This benefit is afforded to all patient subgroups including the elderly (> or =70 yr), and diabetics, who can gain 11 yr of extra life with transplantation. Prolonged transplant wait times result in a higher risk of death but this can be ameliorated with preemptive transplantation. Future challenges will focus on appropriate organ allocation and addressing long-term renal function and comorbid conditions so patients can enjoy the full benefits of transplantation.
Ebbert, Kirsten; Chow, Josephine; Krempien, Jennifer; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Dionne, Janis
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric CKD population. Recognizing that renal transplant recipients have CKD, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients, compared to a healthy pediatric population. We prospectively studied 25(OH)D levels in 29 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 45 control patients over one yr. The overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was common in both populations, at 76% (95% CI: 61, 87%) in the pediatric renal transplant recipients and 91% (95% CI: 80, 98%) in the control group. In the paired renal transplant samples, the mean 25(OH)D level was 52.3 ± 17.9 nmol/L in the winter and 65.6 ± 18.8 nmol/L in the summer (95% CI diff.: 3.9, 22.7), in keeping with a significant seasonal difference. The mean dietary intake of vitamin D in the renal transplant recipients, assessed by three-day dietary record, was 5.7 μg/day, with a vitamin D intake below the EAR in the majority. We did not find an association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D levels in this study, likely due to the low dietary intake of vitamin D within the transplant population, identifying a potential area for intervention and improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hutchinson, C; Beckett, M; Kiratli, P; Gordon, I; Trompeter, R S; Rees, L
Since December 1995, pediatric renal transplant recipients in our unit have received a DMSA scan as soon as possible post-transplant in order to provide a baseline for comparison in the event of subsequent complications. We retrospectively reviewed the case notes and DMSA scans of the 45 patients who underwent a scan within 9 wk of their transplant to see if pre or peri-transplant factors or post-transplant complications were associated with defects on scanning. Forty percentage of scans had defects. The presence of defects was not associated with potential predisposing factors such as patient or donor age, cadaveric or live donation, cold ischemia time, multiple donor vessels, the use of non-heart beating donors, the mean time to scan, the serum creatinine, or the presence of structural renal tract anomalies predisposing to UTI. However, 87% of patients had complications before the scan, including UTI, rejection, acute tubular necrosis, transplant biopsy and drug toxicity. Children with no clinical complications had a significantly reduced risk of a defect (p = 0.035), while biopsy was associated with the presence of defects (p = 0.0034). Twenty patients had one or more follow up DMSA scans: one patient developed a new focal defect. In conclusion, renal transplant defects are frequently found on DMSA scanning even early after transplantation and are non-specifically associated with many different complications.
Sainsaulieu, Yoël; Sambuc, Cléa; Logerot, Hélène; Bongiovanni, Isabelle; Couchoud, Cécile
Successful organ transplantation relies on several ancillary activities such as the identification of a compatible donor, organ allocation and procurement and the coordination of the transplant process. No existing study of the overall costs, in France, of these additional transplantation activities could be identified. This study determines the total additional costs of ancillary transplantation activities by comparing the costs of kidney transplantations with living donors against those using deceased donors. The data used are drawn from the 2013 public healthcare tariff calculations, PMSI recorded activity and transplant activity in 2012 as assessed and reported by the Agence de la biomédecine. The results show that, in 2012, additional transplant costs varied from 13835.44 € to 20050.67 € for a deceased donor and were 13601.66 € for a living donor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that all the costs covered by National Health Insurance need to be taken into account in the economic impact evaluation of renal transplantation and during the development of this national priority activity. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Terpstra, Anniek M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Foster, Bethany J; Strife, C Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L; Leonard, Mary B
The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure.
Terpstra, Anniek M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Foster, Bethany J.; Strife, C. Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L.
The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure. PMID:22282589
Barley, Fay L.; Kessel, David Nicholson, Tony; Robertson, Iain
We report on the successful treatment of hypertension by occlusion of a large iatrogenic renal transplant arteriovenous fistula using detachable embolization coils with concomitant flow reduction by occlusion balloon in two patients.
Successful third renal transplantation in a child with an occluded inferior vena cava: A novel technique to use the venous interposition between the transplant renal vein and the infrahepatic inferior vena cava.
Muramatsu, Masaki; Shishido, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Hamasaki, Yuko; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nihei, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Aikawa, Atsushi
A girl aged 11 years and 3 months with occlusion of the inferior vena cava had experienced two renal transplant graft failures since birth. The third renal transplant from a live donor was carried out. Preoperative evaluation showed that the arteries from the right common to the right external iliac artery were absent, and the ilio-caval vein was occluded below the level of the renal vein. The donor's renal artery was anastomosed to the aorta. The donor's ovarian and large saphenous veins were used to extend the transplant renal vein to the recipient's patent inferior vena cava. The present report concludes that the extension of a short donor renal vein using other donor veins is a viable therapeutic option for pediatric patients with vascular occlusions.
Manfro, R C; Lee, J Y; Lewgoy, J; Edelweiss, M I; Gonçalves, L F; Prompt, C A
Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an useful tool for diagnostic and therapeutic orientation in renal transplantation. PURPOSE--To evaluate the current role of PRB in post-transplant acute renal dysfunction (ARD) of renal allografts. METHODS--Sixty-five renal transplant patients were submitted to 95 valid renal biopsies with no major complications. RESULTS--There was disagreement between the clinical and the pathological diagnosis in 28 occasions (29.5%). In 36 cases (37.9%) the results of the pathological examination led to a modification in patient's management. These modifications were most commonly the avoidance or witholding of a steroid pulse (8 cases); nephrectomy of the renal allograft (8 cases); witholding or decrease of cyclosporine dosage (6 cases); giving a steroid pulse (5 cases) and giving antibiotics to treat acute pyelonephritis in 4 cases. The use of kidneys from cadaveric donors was significantly associated with an increased number of biopsies (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--These results demonstrate that even though several less invasive procedures are currently employed, renal biopsy is still an indispensable method to the management of ARD in renal transplant patients.
Mazaris, Evangelos M; Crane, Jeremy S; Warrens, Anthony N; Smith, Glenn; Tekkis, Paris; Papalois, Vassilios E
Development of live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) programs has intensified debate regarding acceptability of certain donor categories and potential commercialization. Concerning these issues, we surveyed the views of medical and nursing staff caring for patients with renal failure and renal transplant recipients and donors. Participants were recruited from a tertiary transplant unit and invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Four hundred and sixty-four participants completed the questionnaire (42% response). One hundred and sixty-eight (36.2%) were health care professionals and 296 (63.8%) patients; 85.6% of participants were willing to donate to their children, 80.2% to siblings, 80.8% to parents, 72% to a non-blood-related relative or friend, and 15.3% to a stranger. If participants had hypothetical renal failure, they were prepared to accept a kidney from a parent (79.5%), sibling (78.7%), child (56.3%), a non-blood-related relative or friend (79.3%), or stranger (54.1%). Regarding commercialization, responders' attitudes were that the donor should not accept financial reward (29.1%), be compensated for expenses only (60.6%), or should receive a direct financial reward (10.1%). For non-directed donation, 23.5%, 55.6%, and 20.7% were not in support of reward, compensation only, and financial reward, respectively. While live kidney donation was accepted by the majority of individuals surveyed, only the minority approved of commercialization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Hershman, Eli; Hadash, Amir; Attias, Ori; Ben-Ari, Josef
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a history of hyperoxaluria type 1 and renal failure. The patient presented for a second renal transplantation 17 years after her first combined liver and kidney transplantation. Postoperative shock was highly resistant to fluids and required massive pharmacologic hemodynamic support. Vasoplegic shock was the presumed diagnosis, and methylene blue was utilized as a rescue therapy, with a rapid hemodynamic response and no apparent side effects.
Georgiou, G K; Dounousi, E; Harissis, H V
Renal transplantation and restoration of renal function are associated with significant favourable changes regarding the reproductive capacity of male patients with previous end-stage renal disease. However, there is evidence that some of the immunosuppressive agents may impair male fertility after all. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK506), which constitute the cornerstone of immunosuppression regimen following renal transplantation, have been implicated in causing an overall decline in the fertilisation capacity of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs). In this review, data from human clinical studies are collectively presented in an effort to estimate the potential adverse effects of CNIs on the masculine reproductive organs, the hormonal axis of males, the process of spermatogenesis and generally the male RTRs capacity to fertilise. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Kun
Desensitization regimens including use of intravenous immune globulin and rituximab have been reported to overcome renal transplant hyperacute rejection. A retrospective case-control study was performed to assess the results and complications of renal transplantation with desensitization therapy for donor-specific antibody (DSA) in a transplant center in Asia, where donor exchange was usually not allowed. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 22 patients with DSA received live-donor renal transplantation after desensitization (DSA group). During the same period, the DSA group was compared to the NSA group (152 renal transplants) who had no specific antibody to the donors (66 from deceased donors and 86 from living relatives). Rejection, renal function, graft and patient survival rates, infection, and cancer incidence were reviewed and analyzed from medical records. The DSA group (46.8%) had significantly higher acute rejection rates than the NSA group (13.7%) at the 1-year follow-up. The estimated renal function, 5-year graft, and patient survival rates were comparable between the groups. The DSA group (19.6%) had significantly higher 5-year de novo cancer incidence than the NSA group (8.5%; p = 0.028); three patients of the DSA group developed urothelial carcinoma 17.0 ± 3.0 months after transplantation. By using stepwise Cox regression analysis, desensitization therapy was identified as the sole independent risk factor for post-transplant urothelial carcinoma. When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless, LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient-care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative. PMID:18176956
Yuzawa, K; Takahara, S; Kanmochi, T; Takahashi, K; Teraoka, S
Following The Declaration of Istanbul 2008, a registration committees of The Japan Society for Transplantation and The Japanese Society for Clinical Renal Transplantation planned to establish a new registry and tracking system for renal transplant recipients and donors supported by a Health Labor Sciences Research Grant by The Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. In place of the previous paper-based system, we established the new registry and tracking system, JARTRE (Japan Renal Transplantation Registry), using USB memory in 2009. Recipient and donor data were inputted into the USB memory at the transplantation centers. The memory was reviewed a yearly by committees. The recipient and donor registration included details from both. The tracking is performed centrally 3 months, 1 year, and every year after the operation. The advantages of this system are the ease of input, adequacy of the data, and rapid statistical processing. In 2009, we registered 97.9% of new renal transplantation recipients and donors; in 2008 it was more than 81.9% of all past renal transplantation recipients in Japan.
Graversen, Mette Elneff; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Jespersen, Bente; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz
Urinary tract infection is the most common infectious disease requiring hospitalisation following renal transplantation. However, the risk and outcome of post-transplant pyelonephritis remains unclear. This population-based cohort study was conducted from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2009. Each member of a Danish population-based, nationwide cohort of first-time renal transplant recipients was matched by age and gender with up to 19 population controls. Information on hospital discharge diagnosis, emigration, and mortality was obtained from nationwide administrative databases. Individuals were observed from the date of first renal transplantation and until graft loss, emigration, or death. Risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression. The incidence rate (IR) of first-time hospitalisation for pyelonephritis was 18.5 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 16.4-20.9) per 1,000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) among renal transplant recipients (N = 2,656) and 0.26 (CI: 0.21-0.31) per 1,000 PYFU among population controls (N = 49,226) yielding an incidence rate-ratio (IRR) of 72.0 (95 % CI: 57.8-89.7). Among renal transplant recipients, the risk of pyelonephritis decreased during the entire study period and was lowest in 2005-09 (IRR = 0.46, CI: 0.31-0.68). The highest risk of pyelonephritis was observed within the first six months post-transplantation (IR = 69.9 per 1,000 PYFU; CI: 56.4-86.7). Other risk factors for post-transplant pyelonephritis included female gender, high Charlson comorbidity index score, HLA-DR mismatch, cause of renal failure, and calendar period. Interestingly, we found that the combined risk of graft loss and death was 45 %, (CI: 19-77 %) higher in renal transplant recipients following post-transplant pyelonephritis compared to those who had no admission due to pyelonephritis. The risk of first-time hospitalisation for pyelonephritis among renal transplant recipients is high. Further, post-transplant pyelonephritis was
Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Araújo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mônica
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation.
Sreejith, P; Kuthe, S; Jha, V; Kohli, H S; Rathi, M; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, V
Tuberculosis is a common cause of pericarditis in the developing countries and constrictive pericarditis is a serious sequel. There are only three cases of constrictive pericarditis in kidney transplant recipients previously reported in literature. Here, we report a case of constrictive pericarditis developing in a renal transplant recipient while on antituberculous therapy for tuberculous pleural effusion.
Sreejith, P.; Kuthe, S.; Jha, V.; Kohli, H. S.; Rathi, M.; Gupta, K. L.; Sakhuja, V.
Tuberculosis is a common cause of pericarditis in the developing countries and constrictive pericarditis is a serious sequel. There are only three cases of constrictive pericarditis in kidney transplant recipients previously reported in literature. Here, we report a case of constrictive pericarditis developing in a renal transplant recipient while on antituberculous therapy for tuberculous pleural effusion. PMID:21072157
Duty, Brian D.; Conlin, Michael J.; Fuchs, Eugene F.; Barry, John M.
Introduction. Complications following renal transplantation include ureteral obstruction, urinary leak and fistula, urinary retention, urolithiasis, and vesicoureteral reflux. These complications have traditionally been managed with open surgical correction, but minimally invasive techniques are being utilized frequently. Materials and Methods. A literature review was performed on the use of endourologic techniques for the management of urologic transplant complications. Results. Ureterovesical anastomotic stricture is the most common long-term urologic complication following renal transplantation. Direct vision endoureterotomy is successful in up to 79% of cases. Urinary leak is the most frequent renal transplant complication early in the postoperative period. Up to 62% of patients have been successfully treated with maximal decompression (nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent, and Foley catheter). Excellent outcomes have been reported following transurethral resection of the prostate shortly after transplantation for patients with urinary retention. Vesicoureteral reflux after renal transplant is common. Deflux injection has been shown to resolve reflux in up to 90% of patients with low-grade disease in the absence of high pressure voiding. Donor-gifted and de novo transplant calculi may be managed with shock wave, ureteroscopic, or percutaneous lithotripsy. Conclusions. Recent advances in equipment and technique have allowed many transplant patients with complications to be effectively managed endoscopically. PMID:24023541
Lee, D. M.; Yeoman, R. R.; Battaglia, D. E.; Stouffer, R. L.; Zelinski-Wooten, M. B.; Fanton, J. W.; Wolf, D. P.
Radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may render women with cancer prematurely sterile, a side-effect that would be avoided if ovarian tissue that had been removed before treatment could be made to function afterwards. Live offspring have been produced from transplanted ovarian tissue in mice and sheep but not in monkeys or humans, although sex steroid hormones are still secreted. Here we describe the successful transplantation of fresh ovarian tissue to a different site in a monkey, which has led to the birth of a healthy female after oocyte production, fertilization and transfer to a surrogate mother. The ectopically grafted tissue functions without surgical connection to major blood vessels and sets the stage for the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in humans.
Living donor kidney transplantation is considered an established treatment for end-stage renal failure and is accepted in different transplant forums, nationally and internationally, while ensuring the safety of the donation, the information, the motivation and caring, the free consent and the absence profit. the living donor nephrectomy is not extent of risks so a good assessment of the donor's health status and psychosocial situation must be performed to evaluate if the benefits to donor and recipient outweigh the risks assumed. Information and Consent: to be considered ethically acceptable, the donor must be able to give his free consent to the donation after understanding the information provided, accepting the risks and benefits of organ donation, knowing the treatment alternatives for the recipient and the long-term consequences of his decision The absence of profit: offering or receiving money for an organ or other human tissue violates the principles of justice and equity and it is considered ethically and legally unacceptable it is important to make a good psychosocial assessment to identify whether the motivation is altruistic or not and, in other terms, to detect any kind of coercion (ex, in the family). Living donation must not be offered in desperate family situations so it is important to assess family relationships to rule out the absence of freedom in donor's choice.The Role of Health Care Ethics Committees: there exists a normative in our country that regulates living donation and establishes that the hospital ethics committees should participate in the process of living donation in all cases. Their job is to assess the process and develop a report on the donor free consent to donation. The responsible person of the living transplant program should provide the documentation necessary to the committee. An interview with the potential donor can be required in some cases.
Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )
Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.
Saliem, Sara; Patenaude, Valerie; Abenhaim, Haim A
The purpose of our study is to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with a functioning renal transplant and women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2006 to 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted effect of functioning renal transplant vs. ESRD requiring dialysis on pregnancy outcomes. We identified 264 birth records to women with a functional renal transplant and 267 birth records to women with ESRD on dialysis among 5,245,452 births. As compared to women with ESRD on dialysis, renal transplant recipients were less likely to have placental abruption [odds ratio, OR 0.23 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.08-0.70)], to receive blood transfusions [OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.30)], and to have growth-restricted and small-for-gestational-age babies [OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.23-0.85)]. Renal transplant recipients were more likely to have an instrumental delivery [OR 15.38 (95% CI 1.92-123.3)]. Among renal transplant women, there was a trend towards delivery by cesarean section as compared to patients with ESRD [OR 1.31 (95% CI 0.93-1.85)]. However, these results were not statistically significant. Fetal deaths were less likely to occur in women with a renal transplant [OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.17-0.96)]. There were four maternal deaths among patients with ESRD on dialysis and no maternal deaths among renal transplant patients. Patients with a functional renal graft had an overall lower rate of morbidity and adverse pregnancy complications when compared to patients with ESRD on dialysis.
Zavos, G; Moris, D; Vernadakis, S; Bokos, J; Lionaki, S; Mamarelis, G; Panagiotellis, K; Zavvos, V; Boletis, I
One of the most common malignancies in kidney transplant recipients is Kaposi sarcoma. The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, which develops after renal transplantation, is 400-500 times higher than that in the general population. The aims of this study were to review the experience with Kaposi sarcoma in the highest-volume transplantation Unit in Greece and to analyze clinical characteristics and response to treatment, with respect to both the patients' survival and the renal graft function. The records of 2008 renal graft recipients between March 1983 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Kaposi sarcoma was diagnosed based on clinical, laboratory, radiological, endoscopic, and histopathologic examinations. The disease was staged according to the classification of Al-Khader et al. The prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma was 1.2% in our renal transplant population. Of these, 1006 recipients underwent living-donor renal transplantation, whereas 1002 received their graft from deceased donors. Post-transplantation malignancy developed in 153 patients, among which, Kaposi sarcoma has been found in 24 cases. Of the 24 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, lesions were mainly cutaneous in 14 cases, visceral and cutaneous in 8, and concomitant visceral and lymph node involvement was observed in 2 patients. With regard to the final outcome, 20 patients (83.3%) showed remission of the disease, whereas 4 patients with visceral involvement (16.6%) did not respond to chemotherapy and discontinuation of immunosuppression and died. Moreover, 8 deaths occurred due to apparently unrelated causes. Kaposi sarcoma is an important part (15.7%) of all post-transplantation neoplasias in our series. Furthermore, our findings confirmed the previously described close association between human herpesvirus-8 and post-transplantation Kaposi sarcoma. Reduction of immunosuppression or discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors results in remission of the disease in most of the cases. Prognosis in patients with
de Fata Chillón, F Ramón; Núñez Mora, C; García Mediero, J M; Alonso Dorrego, J M; Hidalgo Togores, L; de la Peña Barthel, J J
Donor graft lithiasis is a unusual complication of renal transplantation, however, it is associated to a high morbidity. This pathology is due to several causes such us: metabolic factors, infectious disease, drugs, foreign bodies or transferred in the donor graft. The objective of the treatment is to remove the lithiasis without damaging the renal unit. We report the successful percutaneous anterograde treatment of an ureteral obstructive hard calculi, in renal allograft.
Gašpar, Marija; Glavina, Ana; Grubišić, Kristina; Sabol, Ivan; Bušić, Mirela; Mravak, Marinka
Aim Patients with a solid organ transplant can have many different complications in the mouth, as a result of immunosuppression and side effects of drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and type of oral lesions in renal transplant patients, dental status, oral hygiene, oral lesions related to drugs which patients take and the time of transplantation as well as the frequency of patient’s visits to the dentist in the post-transplant period. Material and methods The study was performed in a period of two years and included 100 subjects with a renal transplant during their regular control visits to the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 100 randomly selected control subjects at the Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb. Results Results showed a significantly higher incidence of oral lesions in patients with renal transplant (31%) compared to control subjects. The most frequent were erythematous (inflammatory changes), keratotic lesions and gingival hyperplasia. The average DMFT index was significantly lower in patients with renal transplant than in the control group. One third of patients had a subjective feeling of dry mouth. Oral hygiene was poor overall, and only a small number of subjects used the additional sustainers for oral hygiene. Most patients did not visit the dentist after the transplantation. Conclusion Renal transplant patients need a comprehensive and regular dental care during the pre- and post-transplant period and a doctor of dental medicine should be part of a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists. PMID:27688404
Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S
Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole.
Grimaldi, A; Barletta, A; Rascente, M; Pisani, F; Iaria, G; Maccarone, D; Maira, E; D'Angelo, M; Famulari, A
The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of infectious diseases in a group of patients who underwent kidney transplantation from January 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004, including 121 operations, with 119 from cadaveric and 2 from living donors. The protocol sought herpes viruses (CMV, VZV, and EBV), hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, T. gondii, M. tubercolosis, and T. pallidum. Therapy for CMV was used both as prophylaxis in immunoglobulin (Ig)G-negative recipients from IgG-positive donors and preemptive therapy, that is, before the appearance of clinical symptoms, but after viremia reached borderline levels. For VZV infections, the treatment started after the appearance of papulo-vesicular cutaneous eruptions and antibody positivity. The treatment for pneumonia consisted of empirical therapy after radiography; for pyelonephritis, antibiotic therapy was based on the results of kidney echography, blood culture, and urine culture. Infectious complications appeared in 25 patients (20.7%), 3 of the which were polymicrobic: 12 CMV infections, 9 VZV infections, 3 pneumoniae, 4 pyelonephritis, and 1 salmonellosis. The most frequent infection was CMV, which occurred in the first 3 months after transplantation in 9 of 12 cases. This study showed that a knowledge of infection prevalence can help the physician to establish a more specific, efficacious antimicrobial therapy, despite the laboratory response not being available in a short time.
Goldmannova, Dominika; Karasek, David; Krystynik, Ondrej; Zadrazil, Josef
Diabetes mellitus is a very common metabolic disease with a rising incidence. It is both a leading cause of chronic renal disease and one of the most serious comorbidities in renal transplant recipients. New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT) is associated with poor graft function, higher rates of cardiovascular complications and a poor prognosis. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of NODAT including risk factors, diagnosis and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to retrieve both original and review articles addressing the epidemiology, risk factors, screening and management of NODAT. We also focused on microRNAs as potential biomarkers of NODAT. Understanding the risk factors (both modifiable-e.g. obesity, viruses, and unmodifiable-e.g. age, genetics) may help reduce the incidence and impact of NODAT using pre- and post-transplant management. This can lead to better long-term graft function and general transplant success.
Brix, Silke R; Iking-Konert, Christof; Stahl, Rolf A K; Wenzel, Ulrich
Opportunistic infections are a major concern in renal and transplant medicine. We present the case of a renal transplant recipient with a generalised Mycobacterium haemophilum infection after an increase in immunosuppressive therapy and treatment with a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor. Infection involved skin and soft tissue, joints and bones, as well as the renal transplant with an interstitial nephritis. Rapid diagnosis using PCR and DNA sequencing allowed early appropriate treatment. Triple antibiotic therapy and reduction in immunosuppression resulted in a slow but sustained recovery. Immunosuppression causes severe opportunistic infections. TNF-α inhibitors are very effective and well tolerated but have an increased susceptibility to infections with mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections represent a significant clinical risk to transplant recipients because of their aggressive clinical course and the need for complex toxic antibiotic treatments. In these patients, M. haemophilum is a cause of skin infections.
Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, Claus
A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results. A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone tapering after 289 ± 58 days. Three patients died during follow-up, and four patients lost graft function. None of these adverse events were rejection related. Eleven patients experienced rejections; seven were on prednisolone and four were after weaning from prednisolone. All patients responded well to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 μmol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal transplantations with a steroid sparing protocol. However, a longer follow-up of a lager cohort is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
Foster, Clarence E; Philosophe, Benjamin; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Colonna, John O; Farney, Alan C; Jarrell, Bruce; Anderson, Leslie; Bartlett, Stephen T
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the strategies instituted by the authors' center to decrease the time to transplantation and increase the rate of transplantation for African-Americans, consisting of a formal education program concerning the benefits of living organ donation that is oriented to minorities; a laparoscopic living donation program; use of hepatitis C-positive donors in documented positive recipients; and encouraging vaccination for hepatitis B, allowing the use of hepatitis B core Ab-positive donors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The national shortage of suitable kidney donor organs has disproportional and adverse effects on African-Americans for several reasons. Type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension, major etiologic factors for end-stage renal disease, are more prevalent in African-Americans than in the general population. Once kidney failure has developed, African-Americans are disadvantaged for the following reasons: this patient cohort has longer median waiting times on the renal transplant list; African-Americans have higher rates of acute rejection, which affects long-term allograft survival; and once they are transplanted, the long-term graft survival rates are lower in this population than in other groups. METHODS From March 1990 to November 2001 the authors' center performed 2,167 renal transplants; 944 were in African-Americans (663 primary cadaver renal transplants and 253 primary Living donor renal transplants). The retransplants consisted of 83 cadaver transplants and 17 living donor transplants. Outcome measures of this retrospective analysis included median waiting time, graft and patient survival rates, and the rate of living donation in African-Americans and comparable non-African-Americans. Where applicable, data are compared to United Network for Organ Sharing national statistics. Statistical analysis employed appropriate SPSS applications. RESULTS One- and 5-year patient survival rates for living donor kidneys were 97.1% and 91.3% for non
Huh, Kyu Ha; Kim, Myoung Soo; Ju, Man Ki; Chang, Hye Kyung; Ahn, Hyung Joon; Lee, Su Hyung; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Soon Il; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Kiil
The shortage of donor organs is one of the major barriers to transplantation worldwide. After the success of the direct exchange donor (swap) program in Korea since 1991, we have developed a swap-around program. However, reports on the long-term outcomes of exchange donor programs are scarce. From September 1995 to September 2006, we performed 1193 cases of renal transplantation, including 398 cases from living-unrelated donors. The living-unrelated donors included 129 exchange donors and 269 nonexchange donors. We compared the outcomes of the exchange program with that of the nonexchange program, and examined the merits and limitations of the exchange program. The reasons for the exchange program were ABO incompatibility (n=84, 65.1%), human leukocyte antigen mismatching beyond our criteria (n=39, 30.2%), or positive lymphocyte crossmatch (n=6, 4.7%). The overall 10-year graft survival (86.3%) of exchange transplantation was comparable with that of nonexchange (82.3%) or one- haplotype matched living-related (81.2%) transplantation (P=0.2994). In multivariate analysis, exchange versus nonexchange donors did not affect graft survival. The proportion of blood-type O donors was much lower in the exchange group (29.5%) than in the nonexchange group (42.4%; P=0.026). Blood-type O kidneys were preferentially allocated to blood-type O recipients (78.9%) in the exchange group as compared with the nonexchange group (54.4%; P=0.007). We achieved excellent outcomes by using a donor exchange program as an option to reduce the donor organ shortage. However, the exchange donor program has no added benefit for blood-type O recipients.
Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Yildiz, Demet; Buyukkoyuncu, Nilufer; Celik, Huseyin; Tufan, Fatih; Kılıç, Ahmet Kasım; Gul, Bulent; Yildiz, Abdulmecid
Restless legs syndrome is a disorder in which patients have irresistible urge to move legs during rest. Restless legs syndrome seems to be common in end-stage renal disease. After a successful renal transplant, symptoms ameliorate with renal function improvement and restless legs syndrome is seen less in this population. Here, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome frequency and associated factors in renal transplant patients. In a cross-sectional study with 193 patients (116 hemodialysis patients, 45 transplant patients, and 32 controls), the presence of restless legs syndrome was assessed using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Medical history, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patients were questioned about the presence of restless legs syndrome using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Patients were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for depression and Pittsburgh tests for sleep disturbances. While the rate of restless legs syndrome was similar between transplants and controls, it was significantly greater in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients and controls had similar depression scores that were higher compared with transplant patients. Pittsburgh score was similar in transplant patients and controls and significantly increased in the hemodialysis patients. The rate of insomnia was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients compared with the other 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent correlates of restless legs syndrome as insomnia, Beck depression score, and being on hemodialysis. Linear regression analysis showed that independent correlates of higher Pittsburgh score were higher depression score, higher age, and presence of restless legs syndrome. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is significantly lower in transplant patients than it is in patients on maintenance dialysis. In renal transplant patients, restless legs syndrome frequency was
Although the demand of organ re-transplantation has increased, the organ shortage from brain-dead donor raises an ethical controversy about the fairness of organ allocation for re-transplantation. Living donor lobar lung transplantation has become an alternative therapeutic option to brain-dead donor lung transplantation for not only pediatric but also adult patients. Lung re-transplantation using lobes from living donors have the potential to alleviate the ethical problems. This review focused on indications, surgical techniques, perioperative care and postoperative follow-up of living donor lobar lung re-transplantation.
Dooldeniya, M D; Dupont, P J; He, X; Johnson, R J; Joshi, T; Basra, R; Johnston, A; Warrens, A N
Membership of some ethnic groups has an effect on renal transplant outcome but little is known about the impact of Indo-Asian ethnicity, despite this group's high incidence of renal disease. We compared outcomes in Indo-Asians and Caucasians at the Hammersmith Hospital (Indo-Asians, N = 46; Caucasians, N = 90), in the Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Surveillance (LOTESS) database of cyclosporin-treated renal transplant recipients (Indo-Asians, N = 254; Caucasians, N = 4262) and the National Transplant Database held by UK Transplant (Indo-Asians, N = 459; Caucasians, N = 4831). The baseline demographic and co-morbid characteristics of the two ethnic groups were comparable, save for more diabetes in the Indo-Asian community. Following transplantation, the incidence of delayed graft function and steroid-resistant acute rejection were also comparable, as were graft and patient survival (out to 5 years) and graft function. In addition, post-transplant blood pressure, levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and exposure to corticosteroids and cyclosporin were comparable. However, when patients who were not diabetic before transplantation were studied separately, there was an increased incidence of diabetes in the Indo-Asian community (Hammersmith data: Indo-Asians 10.9% vs. Caucasians 3.3%, p = 0.02; LOTESS data Indo-Asians 5.5% vs. Caucasians 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Subsequent management of this group should pursue immunosuppressive regimens less likely to impair post-transplant glucose tolerance.
Matter, Yasser Elsayed; Nagib, Ayman M; Lotfy, Omar E; Alsayed, Ahmed Maher; Donia, Ahmed F; Refaie, Ayman F; Akl, Ahmed I; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Abuelmagd, Mohammed M; Shaeashaa, Hussein A; Shokeir, Ahmed A
Background Renal transplantation is the ideal method for management of end-stage renal disease. The use of living donors for renal transplantation was critical for early development in the field and preceded the use of cadaveric donors. Most donors are related genetically to the recipients, like a parent, a child, or a sibling of the recipient, but there are an increasing percentage of cases where donors are genetically unrelated like spouses, friends, or altruistic individuals. Donor shortages constitute the major barrier for kidney transplantation, and much effort has been made to increase the supply of living donors. The impact of donor source on the outcome of renal transplantation is not adequately studied in our country. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of donor source on the outcome of live donor kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods From March 1976 to December 2013, the number of patients that underwent living renal transplantation sharing at least one HLA haplotype with their donors was 2,485. We divided these patients into two groups: (1) 2,075 kidney transplant recipients (1,554 or 74.9% male and 521 or 25.1% female) for whom the donors were living related, (2) 410 kidney transplant recipients (297 or 72.4% male and 113 or 27.6% female) for whom the donors were living unrelated. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy, consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and prednisolone. We compared acute rejection and complication rates, as well as long-term graft and patient survival of both groups. Demographic characteristics were compared using the chi-square test. Graft survival and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The percentages of patients with acute vascular rejection were significantly higher in the unrelated group, while percentages of patients with no rejection were significantly higher in the related group, but there were no significant
Chopra, G S; Narula, A S; Reddy, P S; Bhardwaj, J R
A total of 86 renal transplant patients who were transplanted with live related donor (LRD) and live unrelated donor (LURD) kidneys were studied for opportunistic infections. Immune diagnosis of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes-simplex virus type II (HSV-2), Aspergillosis and Tuberculosis was carried out in these patients along with sputum examination, CSF studies and biopsy of lymphnode and other tissues in few cases. A high degree of Toxoplasma, CMV & HSV-2 positivity was seen in transplanted patients. However sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculos was found to be low with standard criteria, which increased significantly when modified criteria were used. It is concluded that regular immunological monitoring should be carried out in transplanted patients so as to reach an early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.
Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.
Traino, Heather M
Many patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have reported difficulties initiating and managing discussions about kidney transplantation, particularly live donor transplantation (LDT). Limited communication has demonstrable impact on patients' access to transplantation, the duration of dialysis treatments, and the length of time awaiting a transplantable kidney. This formative study sought to identify the specific communicative and conversational elements impeding ESRD patients' discussions about transplantation to inform the design of an educational program facilitating transplant-related discussions. From March to July 2012, semi-structured telephone interviews (n=63) were conducted with ESRD patients waitlisted for kidney transplantation at one mid-Atlantic transplant center. Although 85.7% (n=54) of patients reported holding discussions about transplantation, qualitative analyses of open-ended responses revealed that the majority (66.7%) had limited conversations. Patients reported difficulties managing a variety of logistical and content-related aspects of LDT discussions. Moderate levels of communication self-efficacy were also found (mean=19.2 out of 28); self-efficacy was highest among respondents having held discussions and was significantly related to perceived magnitude of difficulty handling conversational aspects. Results support comprehensive communication skills training for ESRD patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Potential topics to be included in such training are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D
Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.
Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N
From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.
Ackoundou-N'Guessan, C; Gnionsahe, D A; Dekou, A H; Tia, W M; Guei, C M; Moudachirou, A M
The outcomes of transplanted kidney recipients from "transplant tourism" have been reported to be alarming. The present study was an attempt to examine the results of renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad returning home for follow-up. This retrospective analysis includes renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad between 1995 and 2009 and followed up by our nephrology clinic. We collected pre- and posttransplant parameters for statistical analyses. The 16 patients had a median age of 48 years (range = 32.5-53.75). The median age of kidney donors was 44 years (range = 30.75-51.25). Initial kidney disease was hypertension in 10 patients (62.5%) and diabetes in three patients (18.8%). They received organs from living donors (37.5% related [LRD] and 37.5% unrelated [LURD]). Initial immunosuppression consisted of induction (72.7%), tacrolimus (75%), and mycophenolate mofetil (100%). Two patients (12.5%) experienced late acute rejections, resulting in graft loss. The overall graft survival was 93% at 1 year and 80% at 5 years. Five patients died over the study period, corresponding to an overall mortality rate of 9.25/100 patient-years. The overall median patient survival was 6.25 years (range = 4.19-7.58). Patient survivals at 1 and 5 years were 93% and 53%, respectively. No factors seemed to influence survival (either graft or patient) upon multivariate analysis. Comparison between LRD and LURD recipients revealed no statistical difference among posttransplant characteristics and survivals. Mortality of renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad is high. Financial exhaustion after transplantation renders follow-up precarious. A local kidney transplantation program in the Ivory Coast appears more urgent than ever. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Yogesh N V; Lunawat, Deepika; Abraham, Georgi; Matthew, Milly; Mullasari, Ajith; Nagarajan, Prethivee; Reddy, Yuvaram N V
The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in a cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prior to and following renal transplantation and to identify the possible risk factors. Of the 425 renal transplantations performed between 2001 and 2007, Doppler echocardiographic findings were available in 124. The echocardiographic data, collected both pre- and post-transplant, included the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy. The data analyzed included age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, along with blood urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, hemodialysis duration, urine albumin, arterio-venous access and body mass index (BMI). Chi-square test was used for discrete variables and ANOVA was used for continuous variables. Of the patients studied, males comprised 72%; the mean age was 43.3 ± 13.02 years; 87% were hypertensive, 30% were diabetic and 4% were smokers. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction of the PAP, irrespective of its severity, following renal transplantation (P <0.05). The PAP had no significant correlation with any of the parameters analyzed, with the exception of BMI (P <0.05). Our study suggests that the PAP gets reduced in patients with ESRD after renal transplantation.
Bardapure, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Ajay; Hammad, Abdul
Ureteric stents are widely used in renal transplantation to minimize the early urological complications. Ureteric stents are removed between two and 12 weeks following trans-plantation, once the vesico-ureteric anastomosis is healed. Ureteric stents are associated with considerable morbidity due to complications such as infection, hematuria, encrustations and migration. Despite the patient having a regular follow-up in the renal transplant clinic, ureteric stents may be overlooked and forgotten. The retained or forgotten ureteric stents may adversely affect renal allograft function and could be potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised transplant recipients with a single transplant kidney. Retrieving these retained ureteric stents could be challenging and may necessitate multimodal urological treatments. We report three cases of forgotten stents in renal transplant recipients for more than four years. These cases emphasize the importance of patient education about the indwelling ureteric stent and possibly providing with a stent card to the patient. Maintaining a stent register, with a possible computer tracking system, is highly recommended to prevent such complications.
Alvarez-Elías, A C; García-Roca, P; Velásquez-Jones, L; Valverde, S; Varela-Fascinetto, G; Medeiros, M
CYP3A5 gene polymorphism rs776746 has been associated with lower tacrolimus dose requirements and bioavailability in both adults and children. This variant causes a loss of CYP3A5 activity owing to a splice site variant leading to a truncated inactive enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine if the rs776746 gene polymorphism is related to the time to reach tacrolimus therapeutic levels in renal transplant children. A prospective study was performed in renal transplant children receiving tacrolimus as part of their immunosuppressive regime. CYP3A5 genotype was determined by direct sequencing. Tacrolimus trough levels and serum creatinine at 1 week and 1 month after renal transplantation was obtained from clinical chart. A total of 42 patients were included; 19 (45.2%) were female, 23 (54.8%) received living-donor transplants, and 21 patients expressed CYP3A5*1/*1 or CYP3A5*1/*3. Tacrolimus dose was higher in expressers at week 1 (0.13 vs 0.10 mg/kg/d; P = .011), and week 4 after transplantation (0.17 vs 0.09 mg/kg/d; P < .0001). At 4 weeks after renal transplantation, only 9 patients from the expressers group (42.8%) had levels ≥7 ng/mL, in contrast to 18 in the nonexpressers group (85.7%; Fisher exact P = .008). Tacrolimus dose was significant higher in functional CYP3A5 expressers. Only 42.8% of such expressers had tacrolimus trough levels ≥7 ng/mL at 1 month after transplantation despite dose adjustments. Long-term follow up is needed to address the consequences of early post-transplantation bioavailability differences due to CYP3A5 genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romano, G; Simonella, R; Falleti, E; Bortolotti, N; Deiuri, E; Antonutto, G; De Vita, S; Ferraccioli, G F; Montanaro, D
Several studies demonstrated the benefits of rehabilitation in uraemic patients. This study evaluates physical and psychosocial effects of exercise on renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Eight RTRs were evaluated before and after an exercise training consisting of thirty 40-minute sessions, three times a week, performed with the interval training technique. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) significantly decreased (p<0.04 and <0.008, respectively). Quality of life mean scores (SF-36 test) significantly increased (p<0.000). No differences were recorded for muscle and fat mass, maximal explosive power of the lower limbs, alkaline and acid phosphatase, parathormone (PTH), myoglobin, lipoprotein-A, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), at rest heart rate, and cardiac troponin. IL-6 decreased from 2.8±0.6 to 1.7±0.5 pg/mL (p<0.01). Resting MAP fell from 112±4 to 99±3 mmHg (p<0.02). The metabolic threshold rose from 33±4 to 43±5% (p<0.033). The blood lactate level at peak exercise increased from 5.2±0.9 to 6.2±0.7 mmol/L (p<0.012). The maximum oxygen uptake increased from 1200±210 to 1359±202 mL/min (p<0.05), iso-load oxygen uptake decreased from 1110±190 to 1007±187 mL/min (p<0.034). The maximum working capacity increased from 90±14 to 115±15 watts (p<0.000). This study suggests that an appropriate dose of physical training is a useful, safe and non-pharmacologic contribution to RTR treatment. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Aitken, E; Ramjug, S; Buist, L; Kingsmore, D
Peripheral vascular disease and major extremity amputation are common in patients with established renal failure and are associated with considerable morbidity. Several studies have shown high rates of amputation following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, but there is minimal literature on the incidence of amputation following renal transplantation. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the best method of predicting which patients might be at risk of developing peripheral vascular complications after transplantation. We undertook a 5 year follow-up on the cohort of patients who were on our renal transplant waiting list 5 years ago (January 2007). At this time, it was standard practice within our unit for all patients to have routine pelvic x-rays to assess for vascular calcification of the iliac vessels at the time of activation onto the transplant waiting list. Any patients with moderate/severe calcification on x-ray, which may complicate transplantation, were referred for computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of their aorto-iliac vessels. Mortality, transplantation outcomes, and amputation rates at 5 years were correlated with the severity of calcification on preoperative imaging. One hundred eighty-seven patients were on the waiting list for renal transplantation in January 2007 (92 men; mean age, 58.3 +/- 6.2 years). Ninety-three patients received a transplant during the subsequent 5 years. By January 2012, 82 patients had a functioning transplant, 45 remained on the waiting list (5 suspended), 40 patients had died, and 20 were alive but no longer on the waiting list. Seventy-three (39.5%) had moderate or severe calcification on plain x-ray and went on to have CTA. Of these patients, 16 (21.9%) had extensive calcification affecting all the iliac vessels and were removed from the waiting list as a result. Preoperative imaging was useful in determining the side for surgery in a further 18 patients (24.3%). Twenty-two patients developed
Waterman, Amy D; Morgievich, Marie; Cohen, David J; Butt, Zeeshan; Chakkera, Harini A; Lindower, Carrie; Hays, Rebecca E; Hiller, Janet M; Lentine, Krista L; Matas, Arthur J; Poggio, Emilio D; Rees, Michael A; Rodrigue, James R; LaPointe Rudow, Dianne
Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) offers better quality of life and clinical outcomes, including patient survival, compared with remaining on dialysis or receiving a deceased donor kidney transplant. Although LDKT education within transplant centers for both potential recipients and living donors is very important, outreach and education to kidney patients in settings other than transplant centers and to the general public is also critical to increase access to this highly beneficial treatment. In June 2014, the American Society of Transplantation's Live Donor Community of Practice, with the support of 10 additional sponsors, convened a consensus conference to determine best practices in LDKT, including a workgroup focused on developing a set of recommendations for optimizing outreach and LDKT education outside of transplant centers. Members of this workgroup performed a structured literature review, conducted teleconference meetings, and met in person at the 2-day conference. Their efforts resulted in consensus around the following recommendations. First, preemptive transplantation should be promoted through increased LDKT education by primary care physicians and community nephrologists. Second, dialysis providers should be trained to educate their own patients about LDKT and deceased donor kidney transplantation. Third, partnerships between community organizations, organ procurement organizations, religious organizations, and transplant centers should be fostered to support transplantation. Fourth, use of technology should be improved or expanded to better educate kidney patients and their support networks. Fifth, LDKT education and outreach should be improved for kidney patients in rural areas. Finally, a consensus-driven, evidence-based public message about LDKT should be developed. Discussion of the effect and potential for implementation around each recommendation is featured, particularly regarding reducing racial and socioeconomic disparities in
Daar, A S
There continues to be a shortage of kidneys for transplantation even in countries with developed cadaver donor programmes. It is becoming clearer that cadaver donation will probably never satisfy the demand for kidneys, and living donor transplants are bound to play an important role in transplantation, more so in developing countries. Living non-related donation played a significant role in the early days of clinical renal transplantation, but fell into disrepute partly because of the activities of a few individuals and a few transplant centers that profited from commerce in human organs. However, it has always been recognised that living non-related donor (LNRD) renal transplantation per se was ethically acceptable. With the improvement in the results of renal transplantation, the persistent shortage has led to a reassessment of LNRD transplantation. Evidence indicates that both the public and the profession are in favour of this source of donation, although many transplant units are still reluctant to use it. However, more and more units, in both the developed and the developing world, are now performing such transplants. Where this is done ethically, the results appear to be excellent. We strongly believe that spouses, distant relatives and genetically non-related individuals who have an enduring relationship should be permitted to donate.
Lønning, Kjersti; Midtvedt, Karsten; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Reisæter, Anna V; Line, Pål-Dag; Hartmann, Anders; Heldal, Kristian
Elderly patients are the fastest growing group in need of renal transplantation. This study puts focus on renal transplant recipients in their eightieth year or older at time of engraftment. Is there evidence to support an absolute upper age limit for renal transplantation? Recipients in their eightieth year or older, transplanted between 1983 and 2015, were included. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Renal Registry in the end of October 2015. Graft and patient survival were compared to recipients aged 70-79 years at transplantation. 47 patients older than 79 years were transplanted in the defined period. Median age 80.1 years, 81 % were male. Median time on dialysis prior to transplantation was 18.5 months. All patients received an allograft from a deceased donor (median donor age 61.8 years). In the death censored graft survival model, there was no statistical difference between the groups. We found improved patient and graft survival after introduction of mycophenolate mofetil and induction with basiliximab. Patients transplanted before 2000 had increased risk of death compared to those transplanted after 2000; HR 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.7). Median uncensored graft survival for patients transplanted after the year 2000 was 5.0 year (95% CI 2.4-7.6). Median patient survival was 5.0 years (3.1-6.9) and five year patient survival was 55 %. Age by itself should not be an absolute contraindication against renal transplantation. An estimated five years survival rate of 55 % post-engraftment for an 80 years old patient is in our opinion more than acceptable.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
Rezvani, Gita; Davarmanesh, Mehdy; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Salehipour, Mehdy; Sedaghat, Razieh; Karimi, Fatemeh; Pazhoohi, Neda; Ansari, Elham; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani
Renal transplantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. In this study, the prevalence of oral lesions was studied in a cohort of renal transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Fifty-nine kidney transplant recipients were examined one week before and four months after transplantation. The information gathered included age, sex, smoking history, duration on dialysis, drugs and their doses. There were 41 males (69.5%) and 18 females (30.5%) with a mean age of 37 years. Before surgery, two patients had non-specific lesions and two other patients had leukoedema. Following transplantation, 24 patients (40.7%) did not have any specific lesion. In six patients, we observed non-specific erythematous lesions (10.2%). Other recorded observations are as follows: Gingival hyperplasia in five patients (8.5%), oral candidiasis of the erythematous type in five patients (8.5%), hairy leukoplakia in four patients (6.8%) and leukoedema in seven patients (11.9%). In our study patients, the prevalence of oral lesions increased after transplantation, although it was lower than that reported in other studies. This could be due to the differences in sample size, differences between Iranian race and other races and different pharmaceutical formulation of the drug produced in Iran.
In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003
Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim
In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.
Safi, A M; Kwan, T; Rachko, M; Salciccioli, L; Clark, L T
Renal transplantation is one of the preferred modes of replacement therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and renal transplant recipients. The authors describe a patient with end-stage renal disease who developed unstable angina before renal transplantation. Emergent cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention served as a bridge to his successful renal transplantation without complications.
Smith, Daniel; Chudgar, Avni; Daly, Barry; Cooper, Matthew
To determine the safety, clinical yield, and cost of computed tomography angiography (CTA) use in the workup of potential renal transplant recipients. Single-site, retrospective review of medical, surgical, and radiologic records. Large university tertiary care center. Potential recipients of transplants from living donors. Computed tomography with and without 100 mL of iodixanol intravenous contrast enhancement as part of the preoperative workup. Mean pre- and post-CTA estimated glomerular filtration rate and number of patients requiring emergent dialysis after CTA, number of patients who had their treatment changed by CTA findings, patient predictors of significant CTAs, and cost per significant CTA. From July 20, 2006, through December 10, 2010, a total of 179 transplant candidates underwent CTA. Forty-two patients were predialysis at the time of CTA. Mean (SD) serum creatinine levels in this group were unchanged after CTA (5.06 [2.13] mg/dL vs 5.00 [2.28] mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4], P = .49), and no patients required subsequent emergent dialysis. Forty-one patients (22.9%) had their treatment changed by CTA findings. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed 3 patient history and physical criteria that predicted significant CTA findings: chronic infection (odds ratio, 10.91; 95% CI, 2.72-43.69; P < .001), patient weight less than 69 kg (3.11; 1.49-6.51; P < .001), and ventral torso surgical scarring (4.13; 1.57-10.84; P < .001). Diagnostic cost per significant CTA study was $2660, with an estimated reduced cost of $1480 per significant study with screening using 1 of the 3 predictors. Diagnostic CTA is a safe and cost-effective procedure for both operative planning and screening for potentially prohibitive abdominal disease.
Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Manns, Braden; Pylypchuk, George; Bohm, Clara; Yeates, Karen; Gourishankar, Sita; Gill, John S.
Background Despite the increase in the number of Aboriginal people with end-stage renal disease around the world, little is known about their health outcomes when undergoing renal replacement therapy. We evaluated differences in survival and rate of renal transplantation among Aboriginal and white patients after initiation of dialysis. Methods Adult patients who were Aboriginal or white and who commenced dialysis in Alberta, Saskatchewan or Manitoba between Jan. 1, 1990, and Dec. 31, 2000, were recruited for the study and were followed until death, transplantation, loss to follow-up or the end of the study (Dec. 31, 2001). We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of race on patient survival and likelihood of transplant, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Of the 4333 adults who commenced dialysis during the study period, 15.8% were Aboriginal and 72.4% were white. Unadjusted rates of death per 1000 patient-years during the study period were 158 (95% confidence interval [CI] 144–176) for Aboriginal patients and 146 (95% CI 139–153) for white patients. When follow-up was censored at the time of transplantation, the age-adjusted risk of death after initiation of dialysis was significantly higher among Aboriginal patients than among white patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.30). The greater risk of death associated with Aboriginal race was no longer observed after adjustment for diabetes mellitus and other comorbid conditions (adjusted HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77–1.02) and did not appear to be associated with socioeconomic status. During the study period, unadjusted transplantation rates per 1000 patient-years were 62 (95% CI 52–75) for Aboriginal patients and 133 (95% CI 125–142) for white patients. Aboriginal patients were significantly less likely to receive a renal transplant after commencing dialysis, even after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.35–0.53). In an additional analysis that
Elola-Olaso, A Moreno; Gonzalez, E Moreno; Diaz, J C Meneu; Garcia García, I; Usera, M Abradelo; Romero, J; Perez-Saborido, B; Fraile, M; Manrique, A
Living donor liver transplantation has emerged as a response to the cadaveric graft shortage, especially for adult recipients. Both right and left liver grafts are widely used, although some technical problems remain unresolved. Herein we describe our technique for reconstruction of the venous outflow in living donor liver transplantation. From April 1986 to September 2004, 1012 liver transplantations were performed including 30 living donor liver transplantations between April 1995 and September 2004. We have selected the first 28 cases to ensure a mean follow-up of 21.07 +/- 13.11 months. We transplanted 18 right lobe grafts, 7 left lobe grafts, and 3 left lateral segment grafts. A surgical technique is described herein. No venous outflow obstruction developed among living donor liver transplantation recipients. We recommend reconstruction of the hepatic veins in living donor liver transplantation including joining together the three hepatic veins in the recipient to avoid venous outflow obstruction.
Fontana, I; Santori, G; Fazio, F; Valente, U
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation recipients live longer and have better quality of life than patients on dialysis. Hypothalamic gonadal dysfunction in females who have ESRD may be reversed within the first few months after kidney transplantation, such as the ability to have children. Despite thousands of successful pregnancies in transplantation recipients, there is limited information about it. In this study, we evaluated the pregnancy rates and live birth rates in women (n = 133) who underwent kidney transplantation in our center from 1983 to 2010. Recipients of a second kidney transplantation and recipients of multiorgan transplantations were excluded. We observed 33 pregnancies with 11 live births (33.3%), 12 spontaneous abortions (36.36%), and 10 therapeutic abortions (30.3%). The pregnancy rate was 18%. The live birth rate was 33.3%. Therapeutic abortions were 36.3%, and the pregnancies resulting in fetal loss were 30.3%. The pregnancies were identified in 32 women. The majority of women (n = 32; 96.9%) had a single pregnancy, whereas 1 woman (3.1%) had two pregnancies. In our series, the pregnancy rates for kidney transplantation recipients were markedly lower and decreased more rapidly than those reported in the general population.
Freitas, Cristina; Silva, Hugo; Aguiar, Pedro; Farrajota, Pedro; Almeida, Manuela; Pedroso, Sofia; Martins, La Salete; Dias, Leonídio; Vizcaíno, José Ramón; Castro Henriques, António; Cabrita, António
Tuberculosis is a disease relatively frequent in renal transplant patients, presenting a wide variety of clinical manifestations, often involving various organs and potentially fatal. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis, although rare in the general population, is about 50 times more frequent in renal transplant patients. Intestinal tuberculosis has a very difficult investigational approach, requiring a high clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. Therapeutic options may be a problem in the context of an immunosuppressed patient, requiring adjustment of maintenance therapy. The authors report two cases of isolated gastro-intestinal tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients that illustrates the difficulty of making this diagnosis and a brief review of the literature on its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic approach. PMID:24558621
Background There is a relative lack of recent information about late post kidney transplantation anaemia (PTA), especially in the developing countries; data are scarce about the prevalence and risk factors of PTA. Sudan was a leading country in Africa and Arab world in kidney transplantation. The first kidney transplantation in Sudan was in 1973. Methods This is a cross-sectional hospital analytic study enrolling all kidney transplanted recipients following in the transplant referral clinics at Ahmed Gassim, Selma and Ibn Sina Hospitals, Khartoum/Sudan, in the period from 1/8/2010 to 1/9/2010, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 114 patients, anaemia was defined as Hb levels of < 13 g/dl for male patients and < 12 g/dl for female patients, exclusion criteria were pregnancy, below 18 years old patients, multiple organ transplantation, and patients with less than one year from the transplantation. Results The study showed that 39.5% of the patients were anaemic. Univariate analysis showed that late PTA is significantly associated with not using Erythropoietin (EPO) in the pre-transplant period (p = < 0.001), history of rejection (p = 0.003), longer time from transplantation (p = 0.015), and eGFR (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that eGFR (p = < 0.001) and not use of EPO in the pre transplant period (p < 0.001) are strong predictors of PTA. The use of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotensin receptors blockers (ACEI/ARB), immunosuppressive treatments, presence or absence of co-morbidities, donor type and donor age are not significantly associated with late PTA. Conclusion The study concluded that late PTA is common and under recognized. Risk factors for late PTA include renal dysfunction, history of rejection, longer duration of transplantation and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period. Renal dysfunction and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period are major predictors of late PTA. PMID:21827693
Shirota, Tomoki; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Kubota, Kouji; Shimizu, Akira; Ohno, Yasunari; Mita, Atsuyoshi; Urata, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Iwaya, Mai; Miyagawa, Shinichi
A 20-year-old woman was admitted to an emergency hospital after ingesting 66 g of acetylsalicylic acid in a suicide attempt. Although she was treated with gastric lavage, oral activated charcoal, and intravenous hydration with sodium bicarbonate, her hepatic and renal function gradually deteriorated and serum amylase levels increased. Steroid pulse therapy, plasma exchange, and continuous hemodiafiltration did not yield any improvement in her hepatic or renal function, and she was transferred to our hospital for living donor liver transplantation. Nine days after drug ingestion, she developed hepatic encephalopathy: thus, we diagnosed the patient with acute liver failure with hepatic coma accompanied by acute pancreatitis due to the overdose of acetylsalicylic acid. Living donor liver transplantation was immediately performed using a left lobe graft from the patient's mother. Following transplantation, the patient's renal and hepatic function and consciousness improved, and she was discharged. In this report, we describe a rare case of acetylsalicylic acid-induced acute liver failure with acute hepatic coma and concomitant acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure, which were treated successfully with emergency living donor liver transplantation.
Giglia, Lucy; Chan, Howard; Chan, Anthony K.
The number of children undergoing successful renal transplantations has been increasing steadily and as a result; general pediatricians are now more likely to encounter children with a kidney allograft in their practice. Although the medical care immediately after transplantation is mostly provided by transplant teams, more and more outpatient care will eventually be performed at the patient’s local community. Medical care from general pediatricians is particularly important, especially for children who are residing far from transplant centers. As these children require prolong immunosuppressive therapies and are susceptible to various specific clinical problems, it is imperative for their primary care providers and pediatricians to be knowledgeable about their specific needs and be competent in providing care. This article highlights the roles and common practice related issues that pertain to general pediatricians in the care of pediatric renal allograft recipients. PMID:26835261
Edvardsson, V O; Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Palmer, J A; Quien, R; Baluarte, H J
A retrospective review was conducted to determine the incidence, etiology, natural history and complications of hyperuricemia after pediatric renal transplantation. Of 81 active transplant recipients aged 10.1 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) years being followed by St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, 57 (70%) were males and 59 (73%) Caucasian. Their immunosuppression consisted of azathioprine, cyclosporine A and prednisone. Mean serum uric acid concentrations peaked at 6 months post transplantation (6.2 +/- 2.6 mg/dl), when 39% of the patients had hyperuricemia and 60% were receiving diuretics, and decreased thereafter. At 30 months, 23% of the patients had hyperuricemia and 17% required diuretics. When we compared 42 normouricemic (group A) with 24 hyperuricemic (group B) patients at 18 months post transplantation, we found that patients in group B were older (11.6 +/- 4.2 vs. 8.6 +/- 5.2 years, P = 0.01), had worse renal function (77 +/- 25 vs. 96 +/- 36 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.03) and required diuretics more frequently (63% vs. 21%, P = 0.001), but had identical blood levels of cyclosporine A (82 +/- 28 vs. 84 +/- 35 ng/ml, P = 0.78). A family history of gout did not affect the prevalence of hyperuricemia after transplantation. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is common following pediatric renal transplantation and is more likely attributable to reduced renal function and diuretic therapy than to the known hyperuricemic effect of cyclosporine A. Of these variables, only diuretic therapy is readily controllable and should be closely regulated following pediatric renal transplantation.
Rosenberg, J C; Bernstein, J; Rosenberg, B
Chronic renal failure in patients with tuberous sclerosis may be secondary to diffuse cystic disease, a lesion less common than the better known hamartomatous angiomyolipomas. Uremia, in the case of a nineteen-year old female with end-stage renal disease, was associated with severely atrophic kidneys that contained numerous collapsed and scarred cysts. No hamartomas were present. The patient survived for more than three years following cadaveric renal transplantation.
el-Agroudy, Amgad E; Donia, Ahmed F; Bakr, Mohamed A; Foda, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A
Dialysis is not only associated with morbidity, it is also expensive. In developing countries, preemptive renal transplantation (Tx) may be a cost-effective option, offering an additional benefit to conventional renal Tx. Between March 1976 and March 2001, 1,279 first living-donor Txs were performed in our center. The 82 patients (6.4%) who underwent Tx without prior dialysis were compared with 1,197 patients who had been dialyzed before Tx. The dialysis-dependent group received more blood transfusions (65% vs. 30%) before Tx. Actuarial graft and patient survival at 5 years was comparable in both groups (P =0.2 and P =0.8, respectively). The incidence of acute and chronic rejection was not different between the two groups. Mortality rate was also similar in the two groups. The main cause of death with a functioning graft was cardiovascular in the preemptive Tx group and chronic liver disease and infection in the control group. In the context of a developing country, preemptive Tx offers comparable patient and graft survival to conventional renal Tx and eliminates the complications, inconvenience, and cost of dialysis.
Rankin, R. N.; Keown, P. A.; Ulan, R. A.; Stiller, C. R.
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been applied to the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis in 3 patients, 2 with severe hypertension resistant to medical therapy, and one with graft dysfunction related to the presence of the stenosis in the early post-transplant period. The clinical courses of the patients before and after angioplasty are illustrated and the usefulness of the technique in this difficult situation stressed. PMID:6458031
de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Andrade, Marcos C.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; dos Santos, A. M. M.
We describe here our initial experience with the digital image processing of histopathological aspects from multiple renal biopsies of transplanted kidney in a patient treated with Cyclosporine (CsA), a powerful immunosupressor drug whose use has improved the chances of a successful vascularized organ transplantation (Tx). Unfortunately, CsA promotes morphological alterations to the glomerular structure of the kidneys. To characterize this process, glomeruli, tufts, and lumen areas distributions are measured. The results are presented in form of graphics.
Baghban, Adam; Azar, Marwan Mikheal; Bernardo, Raffaele Mario; Malinis, Maricar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents unique challenges in the peritransplant period. Here, we describe a case of disseminated tuberculosis following renal transplantation with alemtuzumab induction immunosuppression in a patient with remotely treated pulmonary tuberculosis and ongoing risk factors for re-infection. We also review the available literature regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis infection following solid organ transplant and management of high-risk patients, including the role for isoniazid preventative therapy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Sreejith, P.; Jha, V.; Kohli, H.S.; Rathi, M.; Gupta, K.L.; Sakhuja, V.
Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients and is disseminated in nature in one-third of patients. Genito urinary tuberculosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. We report a patient presenting 5 years after renal transplantation with disseminated tuberculosis and allograft and prostatic involvement. PMID:20535270
Sreejith, P; Jha, V; Kohli, H S; Rathi, M; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, V
Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients and is disseminated in nature in one-third of patients. Genito urinary tuberculosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. We report a patient presenting 5 years after renal transplantation with disseminated tuberculosis and allograft and prostatic involvement.
de Souza Rodrigues, Thalyta; Amorim de Albuquerque, Ana Letícia; de Oliveira Cosme, Fillipe Agra; de Oliveira, José Ayrton Macedo Guimarães; Magalhães, Indalécio; Teles, Flávio; Pedrosa, André Falcão
The increase in candidates for kidney transplant has led to growth in the number of living donor transplants. Therefore, studies that adequately evaluate the possible long-term consequences of elective transplant nephrectomy are needed. To evaluate the possible long-term adverse effects of transplant nephrectomy on the renal function of living kidney donors. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three living kidney donors registered in the transplant programme of a centre in Alagoas, Brazil. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, clinical data and biomarkers (creatinine, eGFR, microalbuminuria, cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured. Creatinine clearance was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulae. Of the 33 individuals, 63.63% were female, and the median age was 45 years. Additionally, 24.24% of these individuals had altered blood pressure, 39.39% had altered abdominal circumference (AC) and 36.36% were obese, with a body mass index ≥30. Furthermore, 33.33% of these individuals had elevated triglyceride levels. The average eGFR was 97.33 (33.03-175.9) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (CG) and 84.14 (29.4-131) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (MDRD). The microalbuminuria level was altered in 12.12% patients. Kidney donation is unquestionably a safe procedure. However, a better understanding of the long-term consequences of living donor kidney transplantation is still needed. This knowledge may have important implications for the follow-up of these patients. Our study has demonstrated a non-negligible presence of an early marker of glomerular injury and a decrease in the GFR of some patients, thereby reinforcing the proposal for long-term follow-up of living kidney donors. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Majoni, S W; Abeyaratne, A
Chronic kidney disease causes high morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory (NT). Studies have shown chronic kidney disease rates of 4-10 times higher in indigenous than non-indigenous Australians and prevalent dialysis rates of 700-1200 per million population. For most patients with end-stage renal failure, renal transplantation provides the optimal treatment for people with end-stage renal disease. It reduces morbidity and mortality, and improves survival and quality of life. Graft and patient survival rates of over 80% at 5 years depending on the donor source (deceased vs living donor) are expected worldwide. However, this is not the case in Indigenous Australians of the NT where graft and patient survival are both around 50% at 5 years suggesting death with functioning graft as the most common cause of graft loss. It would provide the best treatment option for indigenous people most of who live in remote (18%) and very remote communities (63%). Many have to relocate from their communities to urban or regional centres for dialysis. Available options to avoid relocation include peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis and community health centre dialysis, but the acceptance rates for these are low, hence renal transplantation would provide the best option. There is evidence of identified barriers to renal transplantation for indigenous people of the NT. This review explores published data on why rates of renal transplantation in indigenous people of the NT are low and the reasons for poor outcomes highlighting possible areas of improvement. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Jin, Zhankui; Xu, Cuixiang; Duan, Wanli; Yang, Jiangcun; Tian, Puxun
Objective To investigate the expressions of serum soluble human leukocyte antigen G (sHLA-G) and soluble CD30 (sCD30) in renal transplant recipients at different time after transplantation, and explore the relationship between the expressions of serum sHLA-G, sCD30 and the time after renal transplantation. Methods Eleven kidney transplant recipients and 10 healthy donors were selected, in which the dynamic changes of serum sHLA-G and sCD30 were detected by ELISA before transplantation and 1 year after transplantation; 33 kidney transplant recipients with normal renal graft were selected and divided into three groups: 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10 years post-transplantation. The expressions of serum sHLA-G and sCD30 in the recipients were tested over one year after transplantation. Results The level of serum sHLA-G before transplantation was not significantly different from that of the control group. There was no significant difference between pre-transplantation, 1 week and 1 month after transplantation. Serum sHLA-G level of renal transplant recipients at 3 months after transplantation was higher than that 1 month after transplantation. There was no significant change in serum sHLA-G level among 3, 6 and 12 months after transplantation. The level of serum sHLA-G in the group of transplant time >10 years was significantly higher than that in the group of transplant time ≤5 years. The serum sHLA-G level was significantly associated with the time after renal transplantation. The level of serum sCD30 before transplantation was higher than that in the control group and decreased in 1 week after transplantation. There were no significant differences in sCD30 level between 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after transplantation, and similarly, there were also no significant differences between the groups of transplant time ≤5 years, 5-10 years and 10 years after transplantation. The level of sCD30 was significantly associated with the time within 1 month after renal
Nadarajah, L; Ashman, N; Thuraisingham, R; Barber, C; Allard, S; Green, L
Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is an immune-mediated hemolysis. It occurs following ABO blood group mismatched solid organ and/or bone marrow transplantation between donor and recipient. We report two cases of PLS occurring after renal transplantation. Both recipients received live related kidney transplants; one from his mother and the other from his brother. The direction of blood group transfer, from donor to recipient, was O Rh D+ to A Rh D+ in both cases. Approximately 12 days after transplantation, both recipients showed a rapid fall in their hemoglobin levels with no identifiable bleeding source. DAT positive hemolysis was confirmed and anti-A antibodies were detected in recipient sera, confirming a diagnosis of PLS. Both cases required blood transfusion support to maintain their hemoglobin and both had good renal outcomes. We have identified 99 PLS cases following renal transplant in the English literature. Previous ABO sensitization, donor blood group O to recipient blood group A or B transfer, and ciclosporin treatment have been identified as risk factors for PLS. Clinical outcomes in general are good; nonetheless, cases of graft failure and deaths have been reported. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important in at risk individuals.
Pitt, Susan C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Doyle, Maria B; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William C; Anderson, Christopher D; Shenoy, Surendra; Wellen, Jason R
The 2005 revised allocation scheme for pediatric renal transplantation made the decision of whether to transplant an available living-donor (LD) kidney or use a deceased-donor (DD) kidney controversial. The aim of this study was to examine kidney allograft utilization, sensitization, and outcomes of pediatric transplant recipients. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 91 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients (<20 yr) were transplanted. The LD (n = 38) and DD (n = 53) groups were similar in age, gender, dialysis status at transplant, warm ischemia time, and overall patient survival. LD recipients were more likely to be Caucasian (92 vs. 69%), receive older allografts (39 ± 10 vs. 23 ± 9 yr), and have fewer human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.01 for all). Graft survival at one, three, and five yr post-transplant was longer for LD recipients (97%, 91%, 87% vs. DD 89%, 79%, 58%, respectively, p < 0.05). At the time of transplant, 17 (33%) DD recipients had an available LD (mean age 40 yr). A greater proportion of all patients were moderately (PRA 21-79%) sensitized post-transplant (p < 0.05). A multivariable analysis of graft survival indicated that the advantage in LD organs was likely due to fewer HLA mismatched in this group. Nonetheless, LD organs appear to provide optimal outcomes in pediatric renal transplants when considering the risk of becoming sensitized post-transplant complicating later use of the LD kidney. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brennan, Todd V.; Lunsford, Keri E.; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Bostrom, Alan; Ma, Michael; Feng, Sandy
It is unclear whether a concomitant kidney transplant grants survival benefit to liver transplant (LT) candidates with renal dysfunction (RD). We retrospectively studied LT candidates without RD (n = 714) and LT candidates with RD who underwent either liver transplant alone (RD-LTA; n = 103) or simultaneous liver–kidney transplant (RD-SLKT; n = 68). RD was defined as renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement or modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD)-glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 mL/min/1.73 m2. RD-LTAs had worse one-yr post-transplant survival compared to RD-SLKTs (79.6% vs. 91.2%, p = 0.05). However, RD-LTA recipients more often had hepatitis C (60.2% vs. 41.2%, p = 0.004) and more severe liver disease (MELD 37.9 ± 8.1 vs. 32.7 ± 9.1, p = 0.0001). Twenty RD-LTA recipients died in the first post-transplant year. Evaluation of the cause and timing of death relative to native renal recovery revealed that only four RD-LTA recipients might have derived survival benefit from RD-SLKT. Overall, 87% of RD-LTA patients recovered renal function within one month of transplant. One yr after RD-LTA or RD-SLKT, serum creatinine (1.5 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.63) and prevalence of stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; 5.9% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.11) were comparable. Our series provides little evidence that RD-SLKT would have yielded substantial short-term survival benefit to RD-LTA recipients. PMID:25328090
Côté, J M; Zhang, X; Dahhou, M; Sapir-Picchadze, R; Foster, B; Cardinal, H
The aim of this study was to determine whether kidney transplantations performed after previous non-renal solid organ transplants are associated with worse graft survival when there are repeated HLA mismatches (RMM) with the previous donor(s). We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Our cohort comprised 6, 624 kidney transplantations performed between January 1(st) 1990 and January 1(st) , 2015. All patients had previously received one or more non-renal solid organ transplants. RMM were observed in 35.3% of kidney transplantations and 3, 012 grafts were lost over a median follow-up of 5.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we found no association between overall graft survival and either RMM in class 1 (hazard ratio (HR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.07) or class 2 (HR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.85- 1.06). Results were similar for the associations between RMM, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Our results suggest that the presence of RMM with previous donor(s) does not have an important impact on allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients who have previously received a non-renal solid organ transplant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tomson, Charles R V; Owen-Smith, Amanda
Objectives Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation. Design A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Participants Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy. Methods Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. Results Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor. Conclusions Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both
Nephrotic-range proteinuria has been known for years to be associated with poor renal outcome. Newer evidence indicates that early (1-3 months after transplantation) low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria (1) provide information on the graft in terms of donor characteristics and ischemia/reperfusion injury, (2) may occur before the development of donor-specific antibodies, (3) predict the development of diabetes and cardiovascular events, and (4) are associated with reduced long-term graft and patient survivals. Low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria are also predictive of diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity, and death in nontransplanted populations, which may help us to understand the pathophysiology of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria in renal transplantation. The impact of immunosuppressive medications, including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, on graft survival is still discussed, and the effect on proteinuria is crucial to the debate. The fact that chronic allograft rejection may exist as early as 3 months after renal transplantation indicates that optimal management of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria should occur very early after transplantation to improve long-term renal function and the overall outcome of renal transplant recipients. The presence of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria early after transplantation must be taken into account to choose adequate immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medications. Limited information exists regarding the benefit of therapeutic interventions to reduce low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria. Whether renin angiotensin blockade results in optimal nephroprotection in patients with low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria is not proven, especially in the absence of chronic allograft nephropathy. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials yield conflicting results. Finally, randomized clinical trials are urgently needed.
Lehmann, G; Ott, U; Stein, G; Steiner, T; Wolf, G
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. It corrects most of the metabolic abnormalities that cause renal osteodystrophy. Nevertheless, renal osteodystrophy persists in many transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and histomorphometric pattern of bone disease after renal transplantation. Bone biopsy specimens were taken from the iliac crest of 57 patients, including 28 women (26-70 years old) and 29 men (27-67 years old). Indications for biopsy were hypercalcemia, elevation of parathyroid hormone, and, in 19 cases, without suspected bone abnormalities based on laboratory parameters. The mean time of dialysis prior to renal transplantation was 43 months (range, 6-91 months in women and 10-111 months in men) and the mean interval between transplantation and bone biopsy was 53.5 months (range, 4-191 months in women and 5-90 months in men). Fourteen patients were treated with either 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and/or 1-alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, 3 with phosphate-binding agents. The immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. The cumulative dosage of corticosteroids was 5569+/-5305 mg. For static and dynamic histomorphometry, we used American Society of Bone and Mineral Research nomenclature. Mild osteitis fibrosa and osteitis fibrosa, the most frequent forms of renal osteodystrophy, were observed in 13. (22.8%) and 14 patients (24.6%), respectively. Mixed uremic osteodystrophy was found in 7 patients (12.3%), adynamic renal bone disease in 3 patients (5.3%), and osteomalacia in 2 patients (3.5%). In 13 patients (22.8%), reduced bone mass and structural damage without typical signs of renal osteodystrophy, such as endosteal fibrosis or osteoclasia, were detected, and 5 patients (8.7%) showed normal histomorphometric parameters. We concluded that renal osteodystrophy, especially forms with high bone turnover, persisted in many patients
Freiberg, Mónica; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Capra, Raúl; Eckhardt, Andrea; De La Fuente, Jorge; Douthat, Walter; De Arteaga, Javier; Massari, Pablo U
A considerable percentage of patients exhibit anemia post kidney transplant. Its origin is multifactorial and the main causes involved depend on the post transplant period considered. We studied in a group of 134 consecutive patients the associated factors and the clinical implications of "late anemia" (6 months post transplant). Multiple regression analysis showed that post transplant oliguria and acute rejection episodes were significantly associated with anemia. Graft survival at 36 months was significantly reduced in the anemic group (83 % versus 96%, p < 0.01). No differences in patients survival or rate of cardiovascular events were observed. We concluded that anemia at 6 months post transplant is independently and significantly associated with events that reduced functioning renal mass and kidney survival.
Orzel, J.A.; Jaffers, G.J.
Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.
Orzel, J A; Jaffers, G J
Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.
... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant
Chang, Peter C; Saha, Sharmeela; Gomes, Amanda M; Padiyar, Aparna; Bodziak, Kenneth A; Poggio, Emilio D; Hricik, Donald E; Augustine, Joshua J
In living-donor kidney transplantation, various donor factors, including gender, age, and baseline kidney function, predict allograft function and recipient outcomes after transplantation. Because higher phosphorus is predictive of vascular injury in healthy adults, the effect of donor phosphorus levels on recipient renal function after transplantation was investigated. Phosphorus levels in 241 living donors were analyzed from a 7-year period, and recipient renal function and acute rejection at 1 year posttransplantation were examined controlling for other influencing factors, including multiple donor variables, HLA matching, and acute rejection. Female and African-American donors had significantly higher phosphorus levels predonation. By multivariable analysis, higher donor phosphorus correlated with higher recipient serum creatinine (slope=0.087, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004 to 0.169, P=0.041) and lower recipient estimated GFR (slope=-4.321, 95% CI: -8.165 to -0.476, P=0.028) at 12 months. Higher donor phosphorus also displayed an independent correlation with biopsy-proven acute rejection and delayed or slow graft function after transplantation. In a cohort of living kidney donors, higher donor phosphorus correlated with female gender and African-American ethnicity and was an independent risk factor for early allograft dysfunction after living-donor kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology
Guleria, S; Kamboj, M; Singh, P; Sharma, M; Pandey, S; Chatterjee, A; Dinda, A K; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S K; Tiwari, S C; Dash, S C
The safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in transplantation is well established. However, tacrolimus has only recently been available in India. We report an initial experience using tacrolimus as de novo therapy in a living related renal transplant program. Fifty-two consecutive recipients of living renal allografts were treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and steroids. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted to keep trough levels at 10 to 12 ng/mL in the first 3 months, 8 to 10 ng/mL in the next 3 months, and 5 to 8 ng/mL thereafter. Any evidence of graft dysfunction was evaluated by graft biopsy. The effect of this regimen on the lipid profile as well as the incidence of posttransplant diabetes mellitus was evaluated in an Indian population. All patients were followed for periods ranging from 6 to 72 weeks (mean = 29 weeks). The incidence of acute rejection was 3.84%; 17.3% developed posttransplant diabetes mellitus. Graft and patient survivals at the current follow-up were 100% and 96.26%. In conclusion, tacrolimus is a safe and effective immunosuppressant in a living related renal transplant program.
Budgeon, Casey; Hardie, Robert J; McAnulty, Jonathan F
To evaluate the feasibility of a Carrel patch method in feline renal transplantation. Descriptive case series. Nine healthy donor cats and 9 client recipient cats with chronic renal failure. Renal transplantation was performed in 9 cats with chronic renal failure after collection of a donor's left kidney with a Carrel patch technique. A patch of donor aortic wall was removed with either 2 or 1 renal artery (ies) (n = 1 and 8 cats, respectively) central to the patch, with a cuff of tissue (≤1 mm) protruding from the base of the vessels. The Carrel patch was implanted in recipient cats with an end-to-side artery-to-aorta anastomosis, in a simple-continuous pattern of 9-0 nylon. The renal vein and ureter were implanted as previously described. All donors and recipients survived surgery without vascular complication. The Carrel patch is a novel approach allowing the harvest of kidneys with multiple renal arteries. The technique also simplified the implant procedure, potentially decreasing the risks of bleeding and thrombosis. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Bakr, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A
Our objective was to evaluate our overall experience in pediatric renal transplantation. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1,600 live-donor kidney transplantations were carried out in our center; 216 of the patients were 18 years old or younger (mean age 12.9 years). There were 136 male patients and 80 female patients. The commonest causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were renal dysplasia (22%), nephrotic syndrome (20%), hereditary nephritis (16%), and obstructive uropathy (16%). Of the donors, 94% were one-haplotype matched and the rest were identical. Pre-emptive transplantation was performed in 51 (23%) patients. Triple-therapy immunosuppression (prednisone + cyclosporine + azathioprine) was used in 78.2% of transplants. Rejection-free recipients constituted 47.7%. Hypertension (62%) was the commonest complication. A substantial proportion of patients (48%) were short, with height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88. The overall infection rate was high, and the majority (53%) of infections were bacterial. The graft survival at 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 93.4%, 73.3% and 48.2%, respectively, while the patients' survival at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.6%, 87.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Despite long-term success results of pediatric renal transplantation in a developing country, there is a risk of significant morbidity.
Schulz, Tim; Pries, Alexandra; Kapischke, Matthias
Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Delayed kidney graft function Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor kidney transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Delayed graft function is a clinical term to describe the failure of the transplanted kidney to function immediately after transplantation. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman suffered from a rare case of delayed graft function lasting 148 days after unrelated living donor kidney transplantation. Until now, 15 years after transplantation, organ function is still good, with serum creatinine levels about 1.4 to 2.0 mg/dl. Conclusions: Even after prolonged graft dysfunction, good graft function can be achieved. PMID:26915643
Kuntz, Kristin K; Bonfiglio, Diane B V
The comorbidity of psychological disorders with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) presents challenges for renal transplantation, including increased likelihood of medication noncompliance and poorer quality of life. Estimates of rates and severity of affective and anxiety disorders have varied significantly across studies of renal transplant patients, possibly due in part to variation in the methodology and timing of evaluations. To this point, few researchers have examined the psychological condition of patients who are newly referred for renal transplantation. This study examined rates of psychological distress using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in a sample of 518 ESRD patients at the specific time point of first contact with the transplant center. In this sample, 15.1% of patients endorsed symptoms consistent with a depressive condition and 7.6% of patients endorsed an anxiety condition. These rates were lower than expected, which may be due to decreased distress in this sample, selection biases, or underreporting of symptoms due to patients' motivation to present themselves positively.
Cariello, Paloma F; Wickes, Brian L; Sutton, Deanna A; Castlebury, Lisa A; Levitz, Stuart M; Finberg, Robert W; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Daly, Jennifer S
Prepatellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. A fungal cause is rarely identified. We describe a 61-year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coelomycete.
Wickes, Brian L.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Levitz, Stuart M.; Finberg, Robert W.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Daly, Jennifer S.
Prepatellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. A fungal cause is rarely identified. We describe a 61-year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coelomycete. PMID:23196359
Pre-patellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. Rarely is a fungal cause identified. We describe a 61 year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coe...
Zayas, Carlos; Mulloy, Laura; Jagadeesan, Muralidharan
Acute Page Kidney (APK) phenomenon is a rare cause of secondary hypertension, mediated by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Timely intervention is of great importance to prevent any end organ damage from hypertension. We present a unique case of three episodes of APK in the same renal transplant allograft. PMID:27725836
Kapoor, Rajan; Zayas, Carlos; Mulloy, Laura; Jagadeesan, Muralidharan
Acute Page Kidney (APK) phenomenon is a rare cause of secondary hypertension, mediated by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Timely intervention is of great importance to prevent any end organ damage from hypertension. We present a unique case of three episodes of APK in the same renal transplant allograft.
Chen, Wei; Kayler, Liise K; Zand, Martin S; Muttana, Renu; Chernyak, Victoria; DeBoccardo, Graciela O
Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention.
Wells, S R; Kuller, J A; Thorp, J M
Patients with Goodpasture syndrome have classically had decreased fertility and associated pregnancy wastage. Renal transplantation can increase the likelihood of successful pregnancy. We describe a patient who carried a pregnancy into the third trimester and had a good neonatal outcome. However, she developed superimposed preeclampsia with subsequent graft rejection.
Le, Jade; Durand, Christine M; Agha, Irfan; Brennan, Daniel C
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpesvirus associated with diseases ranging from asymptomatic viremia to post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV specifically is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), in kidney transplant recipients, with increased risk in EBV seronegative patients with EBV seropositive donors on intensified immunosuppression. The diagnosis of PTLD relies on clinical suspicion plus tissue biopsy with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of blood currently used for risk determination in high-risk recipients. Therapeutic strategies for PTLD include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy and rituximab, and consideration of sirolimus-based immunosuppression. Antivirals such as ganciclovir are used to prevent reactivation of cytomegalovirus and other herpes viruses but are not onco-therapeutic. Radiation therapy or surgery is indicated for bulky, disseminated or recalcitrant disease. Prognosis varies depending on the type of malignancy identified and stage of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Langsford, David; Obeyesekere, Varuni; Vogrin, Sara; Teng, Jessie; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Ward, Glenn; Alford, Frank; Dwyer, Karen M.
Background Dysglycemia (encompassing impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus) arising after renal transplantation is common and confers a significant cardiovascular mortality risk. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of posttransplant dysglycemia is not well described. The aim of this study was to prospectively and comprehensively assess glucose handling in renal transplant recipients from before to 12 months after transplantation to determine the underpinning pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Intravenous and oral glucose tolerance testing was conducted before and at 3 and 12 months posttransplantation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was also performed on day 7 posttransplantation. We followed up 16 transplant recipients for 3 months and 14 recipients for 12 months. Insulin secretion, resistance and a disposition index (DI (IV)), a measure of β cell responsiveness in the context of prevailing insulin resistance, were also determined. Results At 12 months, 50% of renal transplant recipients had dysglycemia. Dysglycemia was associated with a dramatic fall in DI (IV) and this loss in β cell function was evident as early as 3 months posttransplantation (23.5 pretransplant; 6.4 at 3 months and 12.2 at 12 months posttransplant). Differences in the β cell response to oral glucose challenge were evident pretransplant in those destined to develop dysglycemia posttransplant (2-hour blood glucose level 5.6 mmol/L versus 6.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01). Conclusions Dysglycemia after renal transplantation is common, and the loss of insulin secretion is a major contributor. Subclinical differences in glucose handling are evident pretransplant in those destined to develop dysglycemia potentially heralding a susceptible β cell which under the stressors associated with transplantation fails. PMID:27826600
Messa, Piergiorgio; Alfieri, Carlo Maria; Montanari, Emanuele; Ferraresso, Mariano; Cerutti, Roberta
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the first genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of these patients who are listed for or receive a kidney transplant (KTx) is continuously increasing over time. Hence, nephrologists are involved not only in the handling of ADPKD patients during the long course of the disease, but also in programming and performing a renal transplant. The handling of all these processes implies the complete awareness of a number of critical points related to the decisions to be taken both before and after the transplant intervention. In the present review, we will briefly deal with the main critical points related to the clinical handling of the patients both before and after KTx.
Rosenthal, J. Thomas; Hakala, Thomas R.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers W.; Starzl, Thomas E.
The first clinical trials of renal transplantation with cyclosporine therapy were reported four years ago by Calne and associates (1, 2) who recommended from their experience that the drug should be used alone. In our own pilot trials (3, 4), the alternative was developed of combining cyclosporine with steroid therapy which was administered in large doses on the day of the operation and rapidly reduced to relatively low maintenance levels. Although the results were encouraging, they were not conclusive since there were no patients for comparison who were treated during the same period with conventional immunosuppression. We report herein upon a second trial of cadaveric renal transplantation, in which the results using cyclosporine-steroid therapy for primary cadaveric transplantation could be compared with those in patients treated contemporaneously with azathioprine and prednisone. Experience was also acquired with patients who underwent cadaveric retransplantation. PMID:6353643
Schover, L R; Novick, A C; Steinmuller, D R; Goormastic, M
A questionnaire on sexual function and fertility was completed by 54 men and 36 women, at an average of 3 years after successful renal transplant. Sexual desire increased significantly compared to reports of levels 6 months pretransplant. Men also had improved erectile function and ability to reach noncoital orgasms. About a quarter of men and women remained sexually dysfunctional, however. The frequency of sexual activity and overall sexual satisfaction did not improve significantly. Marital status and satisfaction were in the normal range for this group, except that those who became ill before adulthood were less likely to have married or have had children. Infertility was a major concern for 10% of the sample. Regular menstrual cycles were present in 64% of women under age 50, representing a significant improvement after transplantation. Three men fathered a child and two women became pregnant after transplantation. Most patients wanted more information on sexuality, fertility, and renal disease.
Trubian, Alessandra; Zaza, Gianluca; Rugiu, Carlo; Tomei, Paola; Lupo, Antonio
Kidney transplant is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as it improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients compared with maintenance dialysis. Additionally, evidence from the literature suggests that renal function, endocrine status and libido rapidly improve after kidney transplant, and one in 50 women of childbearing age become pregnant. Therefore, it seems clear that pregnancy after transplant is a great challenge for physicians involved in this field. The available information on pregnancy outcomes is largely derived from case reports and single-center series, which are unlikely to be representative. Moreover, poor results are less likely to be reported. Many of the reports on long-term outcome show the results of past medical, obstetric, and neonatal care, which may be very different from current practice. Attempts are being made to provide more up-to-date, representative data through national transplantation pregnancy registries. A great number of researchers worldwide have analyzed the biological and endocrinological machinery associated with this event. Additionally, several strategies have been introduced to avoid unplanned pregnancies and to minimize maternal and fetal complications in renal transplant recipients. It seems evident that the return to fertility soon after transplant is often associated with unplanned pregnancy, which can expose both mother and fetus to considerable risks. This underpins the necessity to recommend contraceptive counseling and start clinical follow-up in order to early identify possible pregnancy-related risk factors. In general, pregnancy should not be recommended within the first year after kidney transplant because the risk of acute rejection is greatest and immunosuppressive therapy the most aggressive. It should be planned when organ function and immunosuppressive therapy are stabilized and there is no sign of rejection, hypertension, or chronic infection. Additionally
Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun
Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values.
Lunn, Andy; Ravenscroft, Jane; Watson, Alan R
Cutaneous warts occur in 3.9-4.9% of children in the UK. The incidence is increased in organ transplant recipients and may be increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), since uraemia reduces the immune system's function. We surveyed the records from our CKD and renal transplant clinic to ensure patients with warts were identified and appropriately treated. Data were collected by questionnaire. The presence of warts, location, treatment, levels of pain and emotional upset were recorded. Nine of 49 (18.4%) pre-transplantation patients (33 male, median age 12.1 years) were currently suffering from warts compared with 17 of 60 (28.3%) post-transplantation patients (34 male, median age 13.9 years). A further 14 pre-transplantation and 16 post-transplantation patients had previously suffered from warts which had resolved. Forty-one patients had sought treatment for warts, mainly from primary care. Five patients, all having received transplants, were seen by a dermatologist. Self-rated levels of pain and emotional upset were generally low, apart from those of four adolescent patients who expressed significant emotional upset. We concluded that cutaneous warts are more common among CKD patients. Appropriate information and treatment are required before and after transplantation. The majority of warts can be treated in primary care, but selected patients with extensive warts that cause distress need early referral for dermatology opinion.
Shoham, S; Hinestrosa, F; Moore, J; O'Donnell, S; Ruiz, M; Light, J
'Transplant tourism,' the practice of traveling abroad to acquire an organ, has emerged as an issue in kidney transplantation. We treated a patient who developed invasive aspergillosis of the allograft vascular anastomosis after receiving a kidney transplant in Pakistan, prompting us to review the literature of invasive mycoses among commercial organ transplant recipients. We reviewed all published cases of infections in solid organ transplant recipients who bought their organs abroad and analyzed these reports for invasive fungal infections. Including the new case reported here, 19 cases of invasive fungal infections post commercial kidney transplant occurring in 17 patients were analyzed. Infecting organisms were Aspergillus species (12/19; 63%), Zygomycetes (5/19; 26%), and other fungi (2/19; 5%). Invasive mold infections were present at the transplanted graft in 6/17 patients (35%) with graft loss or death in 13/17 (76%) of patients and overall mortality (10/17) 59%. Invasive fungal infections, frequently originating at the graft site, have emerged as a devastating complication of commercial renal transplant and are associated with high rates of graft loss and death.
Danovitch, Gabriel M
The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.
Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E
Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p < 0.001). Competing risks analysis indicated that KASOT recipients more often experienced graft loss due to patient death (p < 0.001), whereas allograft failure per se was more common in PKT recipients (p = 0.01). To study more recent outcomes, kidney transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p < 0.001). We conclude that despite decreased patient survival, kidney allograft outcomes in pediatric KASOT recipients are comparable to those of PKT recipients.
Kanagarajah, Prashanth; Ekwenna, Obi; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Burk, George W.; Ciancio, Gaetano
We present a case in which a deceased donor kidney with a large simple cyst was successfully unroofed and transplanted to a 61-year-old male. The donor was a 62-year-old male with a history of hypertension for 2 years; cerebral vascular accident was the cause of death. A large 8-cm cyst distorting the renal hilum was identified upon the procurement of the deceased donor kidney. Prior to transplantation, the large cyst was unroofed from the allograft; the frozen section confirmed a benign cyst and the transplant was performed. Postoperatively, the serum creatinine level was 1.4 mg/ml at 22-month follow-up and the patient was normotensive. Deceased donor kidneys with giant cysts distorting the renal hilum can be effectively transplanted. PMID:24049388
Carlini, R G; Rojas, E; Weisinger, J R; Lopez, M; Martinis, R; Arminio, A; Bellorin-Font, E
Renal osteodystrophy may persist during the early years after renal transplantation. However, information on bone status after a successful long-term renal transplantation is limited. We examined biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone histomorphometry in 25 asymptomatic men with normal renal function after 7.5 +/- 5.7 years of a renal transplantation. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels and urinary calcium level and cyclic andenosine monophosphate excretion were within normal range in all patients. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated in 11 subjects (133.6 +/- 78 pg/mL) and normal in the other 14 subjects (47.9 +/- 13.6 pg/mL). Mean BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was low in the entire group. However, it progressively increased as time after transplantation increased, approaching normal values after 10 years. Bone histomorphometric analysis showed bone resorption, osteoid volume, and osteoid surface greater than normal range in the majority of patients. Bone formation rate and mineralization surface were low, and mineralization time was delayed in most patients. These lesions were more severe in patients after 3 to 4 years of transplantation but improved with time and approached normal values after a period of 10 years. PTH values did not correlate with bone histological characteristics or BMD. These results show that the bone alterations observed after long-term renal transplantation consist of a mixed bone disease in which features of high bone turnover coexist with altered bone formation and delayed mineralization. These findings may result from the combined effect of preexisting bone disease and immunosuppressive therapy.
Olthoff, Kim M.; Smith, Abigail R.; Abecassis, Michael; Baker, Talia; Emond, Jean C.; Berg, Carl L.; Beil, Charlotte A.; Burton, James R.; Fisher, Robert A.; Freise, Christopher E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Grant, David R.; Humar, Abhi; Kam, Igal; Merion, Robert M.; Pomfret, Elizabeth A.; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham
Objective To compare long-term survival of living donor liver transplant (LDLT) at experienced transplant centers to outcomes of deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) and identify key variables impacting patient and graft survival. Summary Background Data The Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) is a prospective multicenter NIH study comparing outcomes of LDLT and DDLT and associated risks. Methods Mortality and graft failure for 1427 liver recipients (963 LDLT) enrolled in A2ALL transplanted between 1/1/1998 and 1/31/2014 at 12 North American centers with median follow-up 6.7 years were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models. Results Survival probability at 10 years was 70% for LDLT and 64% for DDLT. Unadjusted survival was higher with LDLT (HR=0.76, p=0.02) but attenuated after adjustment (HR=0.98, p=0.90) as LDLT recipients had lower mean MELD (15.5 vs 20.4) and fewer were transplanted from ICU, inpatient, on dialysis, ventilated, or with ascites. Post-transplant ICU days were less for LDLT. For all recipients female gender and primary sclerosing cholangitis were associated with improved survival, while dialysis and older recipient/donor age were associated with worse survival. Higher MELD score was associated with increased graft failure. Era of transplantation and type of donated lobe did not impact survival in LDLT. Conclusions LDLT provides significant long-term transplant benefit resulting in transplantation at a lower MELD score, decreased death on waitlist, and excellent post-transplant outcomes. Recipient diagnosis, disease severity, renal failure, and ages of recipient and donor should be considered in decision-making regarding timing of transplant and donor options. Clinical Trials ID NCT00096733. PMID:26258315
Leventhal, J.R.; Mathew, J.M.; Salomon, D.R.; Kurian, S.M.; Friedewald, J.J.; Gallon, L.; Konieczna, I.; Tambur, A.R.; charette, j.; Levitsky, J.; Jie, C.; Kanwar, Y. S.; Abecassis, M. M.; Miller, J.
We previously described early results of a non-chimeric operational tolerance protocol in HLA identical living donor renal transplants and now update these results. Recipients given alemtuzumab, tacrolimus/MPA with early sirolimus conversion were multiply infused with donor hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells. Immunosuppression was withdrawn by 24 months. Twelve months later operational tolerance was confirmed by rejection-free transplant biopsies. Five of the first 8 enrollees were initially tolerant one year off immunosuppression. Biopsies of 3 others after total withdrawal showed Banff 1A acute cellular rejection without renal dysfunction. With longer follow-up including 5 year post-transplant biopsies 4 of the 5 tolerant recipients remain without rejection while one developed Banff 1A without renal dysfunction. We now add 7 new subjects (2 operationally tolerant), and demonstrate time-dependent increases of circulating CD4+CD25+++CD127−FOXP3+ Tregs vs. losses of Tregs in non-tolerant subjects (p< 0.001). Gene expression signatures, developed using global RNA expression profiling of sequential whole blood and protocol biopsy samples, were highly associative with operational tolerance as early as 1 year post-transplant. The blood signature was validated by an external ITN data set. Our approach to non-chimeric operational HLA identical tolerance reveals association with Treg immunophenotypes and serial gene expression profiles. PMID:26227106
Doerfler, Arnaud; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Tillou, Xavier
We describe a surgical technique to manage anastomotic transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). TRAS is one of the most common vascular complications and is usually treated by percutaneous angioplasty (PA) with good results. To our knowledge, management of early (less than a month) anastomotic TRAS with a prosthetic enlargement patch has never been described in the literature. Two men (ages 67 and 57 years) underwent deceased and living donor renal transplantation, respectively. At 1 week post-transplantation, they each presented with a tight arterial anastomotic stenosis. Because percutaneous angioplasty soon after renal transplantation has a risk of acute bleeding, it was decided that a surgical intervention should be used. Follow-up at 4 months showed that surgical addition of the prosthetic enlargement patch normalized arterial pressure and improved kidney function as documented by decreased serum creatinine levels. No surgical complications were associated with these cases. This technique provided significant benefits in terms of technical simplicity and safety. When a new anastomosis seems to be difficult to perform, this approach represents a good alternative if percutaneous angioplasty is not available or is medically unadvisable.
Hymes, Leonard C; Warshaw, Barry L
We report our experience with sirolimus in children during the first 6 months after renal transplantation. From July 2000 to January 2004, 66 children received 33 deceased donor and 33 living donor transplants. Maintenance immunosuppression included sirolimus 3 mg/m(2) in addition to prednisone and tacrolimus or cyclosporine. Patient survival was 100% and graft survival was 65 of 66. Seven children experienced acute rejection episodes. All were reversible with increased doses of corticosteroid. One case of graft failure was caused by ischemic renal injury. Adverse events included Epstein-Barr viremia (8 patients) with three cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), cytomegalovirus viremia (4 patients), poor wound healing (4 patients), pneumonitis (3 patients), nephrotic syndrome (3 patients), perinephric abscess (1 patient) and insulin-dependant diabetes (2 patients). Sirolimus was discontinued in 13 children for adverse events predominantly for wound dehiscence and pneumonitis. Cholesterol levels >200 mg/dL were observed in 33 children. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <140 000) was not observed. We concluded that early outcomes with sirolimus were acceptable with 98% graft survival and 11% incidence of acute rejection. Medication was discontinued in 20% for adverse events which included poor wound healing and non-infectious pneumonitis. Infections with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, and PTLD were also significant early complications. Therefore, a sirolimus-based regimen that is combined with both an interleukin-2 receptor antibody and a calcineurin inhibitor may be excessive immunosuppression for pediatric renal transplant recipients.
Becker, Jan U
Histopathology is still an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of kidney transplant dysfunction in adult and pediatric patients. This review presents consolidated knowledge, recent developments and future prospects on the biopsy procedure, the diagnostic work-up, classification schemes, the histopathology of rejection, including antibody-mediated forms, ABO-incompatible transplants, protocol biopsies, recurrent and de novo disease, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, infectious complications and drug-induced toxicity. It is acknowledged that frequently the correct diagnosis can only be reached in consensus with clinical, serological, immunogenetical, bacteriological and virological findings. This review shall enhance the understanding of the pediatric nephrologist for the thought processes of nephropathologists with the aim to facilitate teamwork between these specialist groups for the benefit of the patient.
Savoia, Paola; Cavaliere, Giovanni; Zavattaro, Elisa; Veronese, Federica; Fava, Paolo
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Although our study shows a relatively low incidence of these pathologies in transplanted patients—in agreement with the general action of immunosuppressant therapies in reducing inflammation—we scored a different efficacy of the various immunosuppressive regimens on inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. This information can be key for designing immunosuppressive regimens and devising accurate follow-up protocols. PMID:27548160
Cukuranovic, Jovana; Ugrenovic, Sladjana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Visnjic, Milan; Stefanovic, Vladisav
Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens. PMID:22654630
Lee, Yvonne; Butani, Lavjay; Glaser, Nicole; Nguyen, Stephanie
We report a case of an adolescent boy with Down's syndrome and ESRD on hemodialysis who developed mild Graves' disease that was not amenable to radioablation, surgery, or ATDs. After 14 months of observation without resolution of Graves' disease, he successfully received a DDRT with a steroid minimization protocol. Thymoglobulin and a three-day course of steroids were used for induction and he was started on tacrolimus, MMF, and pravastatin for maintenance transplant immunosuppression. One month after transplantation, all biochemical markers and antibody profiling for Graves' disease had resolved and remain normal one yr later. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye
This study investigated the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients and the risk factors associated with malignancy. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Between 1974 and 2014, 179/3,462 (5.17 %) patients who underwent renal transplantation at our center developed malignancy. The most common site of malignancy was the urinary system, and the most common type was urothelial transitional cell carcinoma. Combined data from our center and previous reports showed malignancy in 671 (2.19 %) Chinese renal transplant recipients. The ten most common malignancies were urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (n = 283), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 68), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 63), renal cell carcinoma (n = 42), lymphoma (n = 42), lung cancer (n = 28), breast cancer (n = 19), skin cancer (n = 18), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 12), and cervical cancer (n = 10). The incidence of post-transplant malignancy in renal transplant recipients was lower in China than the reported rates in other countries, and the most common sites of malignancy were the urinary and digestive system. The relative frequency of malignancy sites differed between northern and southern China. Renal transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppressive therapy should receive careful follow-up, including annual or biannual screening for malignancy in high-risk individuals.
Borrows, Richard; Loucaidou, Marina; Chusney, Gary; Borrows, Sarah; Tromp, Jen Van; Cairns, Tom; Griffith, Megan; Hakim, Nadey; McLean, Adam; Palmer, Andrew; Papalois, Vassilios; Taube, David
Anaemia is common following renal transplantation and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). However the prevalence of anaemia in the first year following transplantation and the association between anaemia occurring early and the development of CHF have been understudied. In this study, 132 incident patients undergoing tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil-based renal transplantation were studied for the prevalence of, and risk factors for, anaemia and CHF in the early period post transplantation. Anaemia occurred in 94.5% and 53.1% of patients at 1 week and 12 months, respectively, and was associated with allograft dysfunction, hypoalbuminaemia, higher mycophenolic acid (MPA) levels, bacterial infection and hypoalbuminaemia. The association with hypoalbuminaemia may reflect the presence of chronic inflammation post-transplantation. Of patients displaying haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 41.1% and 29.4% were treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) at 1 and 12 months respectively. CHF developed in 26 patients beyond 1 month post-transplantation, with echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function preserved in all but one. CHF was associated with anaemia and lower haemoglobin, allograft dysfunction, duration of dialysis and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography prior to transplantation, suggesting the aetiology of CHF may involve the interplay of diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pre-load mismatch and after-load mismatch. Modification of risk factors may improve anaemia management post transplantation. Reducing the prevalence of anaemia may in turn reduce the incidence of CHF-these observations support the need for clinical trials to determine how anaemia management may impact CHF incidence.
Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.
A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500..mu..Ci of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection.
Gremigni, Paola; Bacchi, Francesca; Turrini, Chiara; Cappelli, Gianni; Albertazzi, Alberto; Bitti, Pio Enrico Ricci
A relationship exists between non-adherence and clinical outcomes in health care, including renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological variables associated with non-adherence to medication after renal transplantation. This cross-sectional study involved 34 patients, 38% male, with a mean age of 49 yr (range 26-70) and a mean of six yr post-transplantation. Adherence to medication was measured by two items: (i) the frequency of not taking medications and (ii) the frequency of not taking medications exactly as prescribed. The psychological variables were: dispositional coping style (COPE) and five items measuring barriers and perceived characteristics of the medication regimen. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the data. Twenty-four per cent of patients reported less than perfect adherence. Individuals who were younger, who perceived less autonomy in the management of treatment and who were characterized by an active coping style were less likely to adhere to medication. Individuals who perceived less autonomy and a higher level of interference of treatment with their life patterns were less likely to take medication exactly as prescribed. The finding of this study suggests that adherence to medications after renal transplant is associated with psychological variables, such as coping style and perceived autonomy in the management of treatment. Understanding of the patient's perspective may help to develop effective interventions to increase the levels of adherence to medications that may result in better clinical outcomes.
Skwirba, Michael; Zakrzewicz, Anna; Atanasova, Srebrena; Wilker, Sigrid; Fuchs-Moll, Gabriele; Müller, Dieter; Padberg, Winfried; Grau, Veronika
Chronic allograft injury (CAI) limits the long-term success of renal transplantation. Nestin is a marker of progenitor cells, which probably contribute to its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that nestin is induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury and acute rejection, main risk factors for CAI. Syngeneic renal transplantation was performed in Lewis rats and allogeneic transplantation in the Fischer 344 to Lewis strain combination, which results in reversible acute rejection and in CAI in the long-run. The Dark Agouti to Lewis rat strain combination was used to study fatal acute rejection. In untreated kidneys, nestin immunoreactivity was detected in glomeruli and in very few interstitial or microvascular cells. Syngeneic transplantation induced nestin expression within 4 days, which decreased until day 9 and returned to control levels on day 42. Nestin expression was strong during acute rejection and still detected during the pathogenesis of CAI on day 42. Nestin-positive cells were identified as endothelial cells and interstitial fibroblast-like cells co-expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin. A sub-population of them expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In conclusion, nestin is induced in renal grafts by ischemia/reperfusion injury and acute rejection. It is expressed by proliferating myofibroblasts and endothelial cells and probably contributes to the pathogenesis of CAI.
Cassuto, James R.; Reese, Peter P.; Sonnad, Seema; Bloom, Roy D.; Levine, Matthew H.; Naji, Ali; Abt, Peter
The disparity between the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation and the limited supply of kidney allografts has renewed interest in the benefit from kidney transplantation experienced by different groups. This study evaluated kidney transplant survival benefit in prior non-renal transplant recipients (kidney after liver, KALi; lung, KALu; heart, KAH) compared to primary isolated (KA1) or repeat isolated kidney (KA2) transplant. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit using UNOS data for patients wait listed and transplanted from 1995–2008. Compared to KA1, the risk of death on the wait list was lower for KA2 (p<0.001;HR=0.84;CI=0.81–0.88), but substantially higher for KALu (p<0.001;HR=3.80;CI=3.08–4.69), KAH (p<0.001;HR=1.92;CI=1.66–2.22), and KALi (p<0.001;HR=2.69;CI=2.46–2.95). Following kidney transplant, patient survival was greatest for KA1, similar among KA2, KALi, KAH, and inferior for KALu. Compared to the entire wait list, renal transplantation was associated with a survival benefit among all groups except KALu (p=0.017;HR=1.61;CI=1.09–2.38), where post-transplant survival was inferior to the wait list population. Recipients of KA1 kidney transplantation have the greatest post-transplant survival and compared to the overall kidney wait list, the greatest survival benefit. PMID:20977641
Aufhauser, David D.; Wang, Zhonglin; Murken, Douglas R.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Wang, Yanfeng; Ge, Guanghui; Redfield, Robert R.; Abt, Peter L.; Wang, Liqing; Reese, Peter P.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Levine, Matthew H.
Experimentally, females show an improved ability to recover from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) compared with males; however, this sex-dependent response is less established in humans. Here, we developed a series of murine renal ischemia and transplant models to investigate sex-specific effects on recovery after IRI. We found that IRI tolerance is profoundly increased in female mice compared with that observed in male mice and discovered an intermediate phenotype after neutering of either sex. Transplantation of adult kidneys from either sex into a recipient of the opposite sex followed by ischemia at a remote time resulted in ischemia recovery that reflected the sex of the recipient, not the donor, revealing that the host sex determines recovery. Likewise, renal IRI was exacerbated in female estrogen receptor α–KO mice, while female mice receiving supplemental estrogen before ischemia were protected. We examined data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to determine whether there is an association between sex and delayed graft function (DGF) in patients who received deceased donor renal transplants. A multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that there was a greater association with DGF in male recipients than in female recipients. Together, our results demonstrate that sex affects renal IRI tolerance in mice and humans and indicate that estrogen administration has potential as a therapeutic intervention to clinically improve ischemia tolerance. PMID:27088798
Aufhauser, David D; Wang, Zhonglin; Murken, Douglas R; Bhatti, Tricia R; Wang, Yanfeng; Ge, Guanghui; Redfield, Robert R; Abt, Peter L; Wang, Liqing; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Thomasson, Arwin; Reese, Peter P; Hancock, Wayne W; Levine, Matthew H
Experimentally, females show an improved ability to recover from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) compared with males; however, this sex-dependent response is less established in humans. Here, we developed a series of murine renal ischemia and transplant models to investigate sex-specific effects on recovery after IRI. We found that IRI tolerance is profoundly increased in female mice compared with that observed in male mice and discovered an intermediate phenotype after neutering of either sex. Transplantation of adult kidneys from either sex into a recipient of the opposite sex followed by ischemia at a remote time resulted in ischemia recovery that reflected the sex of the recipient, not the donor, revealing that the host sex determines recovery. Likewise, renal IRI was exacerbated in female estrogen receptor α-KO mice, while female mice receiving supplemental estrogen before ischemia were protected. We examined data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to determine whether there is an association between sex and delayed graft function (DGF) in patients who received deceased donor renal transplants. A multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that there was a greater association with DGF in male recipients than in female recipients. Together, our results demonstrate that sex affects renal IRI tolerance in mice and humans and indicate that estrogen administration has potential as a therapeutic intervention to clinically improve ischemia tolerance.
Sánchez-Escuredo, Ana; Barajas, Alberto; Revuelta, Ignacio; Blasco, Miquel; Cofan, Federic; Esforzado, Núria; Ricart, María José; Torregrosa, Vicens; Campistol, Josep Maria; Oppenheimer, Federic; Diekmann, Fritz
From a theoretical point of view, an alloimmune response can not take place, still some type of standard immunosuppression is used in about 60% of patients receiving kidney grafts from their monozygotic twins. We aimed at assessing clinical response in patients receiving renal grafts from a living monozygotic twin donor when no immunosuppressive therapy is used. This is a retrospective observational study of patients receiving kidney grafts from their monozygotic twins from 1969 to 2013. The following data were recorded: age, renal graft recipient's primary disease, renal function, renal survival and overall survival. Immunosuppressive therapy included a single intraoperative dose of methylprednisolone 500 mg and no maintenance immunosuppression. Five patients with kidney grafts from their monozygotic twins were dentified in our centre. Mean age at transplantation was 33 years (27-39). One-year overall survival and graft survival were 100%. Mean creatinine level was 0.96 ± 0.2 one year after transplantation, and 1.2 ± 0.37 mg/dl at most recent follow-up. Two patients died with a functional graft more than 15 years after kidney transplantation (causes were melanoma and cardiovascular event respectively). Follow-up was lost in a patient one year after transplantation. Two patients are alive with a functioning graft at 18 months and 42.5 years after transplantation respectively. Kidney transplantation from a living monozygotic twin is associated to outstanding clinical outcomes. Immunossuppresive therapy to suppress alloimmune response in probably unnecessary 11 zygosity has been confirmed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Žunić, Gordana; Vučević, Dragana; Tomić, Aleksandar; Drašković-Pavlović, Biljana; Majstorović, Ivana; Spasić, Slavica
The synthesis and whole body metabolism of L-arginine (Arg) are disturbed in renal diseases. Renal transplantation represents the best therapy in the end-stage of these diseases. In the present we compared alterations of plasma Arg and related compounds with renal excretory function in patients with end-stage renal disease, before and after kidney transplantation. Arg, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), citrulline (Cit), glutamine (Gln), ornithine (Orn), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), urea, creatinine, albumin, and nitrate were analyzed in patients before, immediately after (0-time) and 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days following living donors kidney transplantation. Healthy subjects were controls. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amino acid molar ratios were calculated. Before transplantation creatinine, urea, Cit, Gln, ADMA, and nitrate were above, while GFR and Arg were below controls, confirming disturbed excretory and metabolic renal functions in patients with renal disease. Renal transplantation promptly normalized creatinine, urea, GFR, Cit, and nitrate. However, regardless of increased molar Phe/Tyr ratios, indicating increased net protein catabolism in peripheral tissues, low Arg and elevated ADMA concentrations persisted throughout the examined period. Alterations of other amino acids also suggest similarly disturbed Arg metabolism in patients after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, renal transplant promptly restored its excretory function, but increased net protein catabolism, disturbed Arg metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in entire body of these patients were not improved throughout the early period after the operation. That has to be considered in their therapy.
Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI), especially recurrent UTI, is a common problem, occurring in >75% of kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. UTI degrades the health-related quality of life and can impair graft function, potentially reducing graft and patient survival. As urologists are often involved in treating UTI after KTX, previous reports were searched to elucidate underlying causes, risk factors and treatment options, as well as recommendations for prophylaxis of UTI after KTX. Methods Pubmed/Medline was searched and international guidelines and recommendations for prevention and treatment of UTI after KTX were also assessed. Results Most studies on UTI after KTX have a small sample, and are descriptive and retrospective. Many transplant- and recipient-related risk factors have been identified. While asymptomatic bacteriuria is often treated, even though some studies advise against it, symptomatic UTI should be treated empirically after collecting urine for microbiological analysis, to avoid the development of transplant pyelonephritis with a high chance of urosepsis. The duration of treatment has not been determined in studies and recommendations refer to the treatment of complicated UTI in the non-transplant population. Prophylaxis has not been the focus of studies either. Conclusion UTI after KTX is still largely an under-represented field of study, despite many recipients developing UTI after KTX. Prospective studies on this topic are urgently needed. PMID:26558020
Saito, Masazumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ishida, Masashi; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Kubo, Toshikazu
It has been suggested that avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head occurs early after systemic steroid administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risks regarding development of AVN at a very early stage after renal transplantation. The presence or absence of AVN was determined by MRI at 4 weeks, at 6-12 weeks, at 24 weeks, and at 12 months after renal transplantation in 286 patients (183 males) with a mean age of 39 (16-65) years. The relationship between AVN and age, sex, absence or presence of acute rejection (AR), type of transplanted kidney (living or cadaveric), type of immune suppressor, and total dose of orally administered steroids given in the 2-week period after transplantation was investigated. There were no statistically significant correlations between the development of AVN and age, sex, absence or presence of AR, type of transplanted kidney, or type of immune suppressor. A significant dose-response relationship was found between development of AVN and the total dose of steroid administered in the first 2 weeks after surgery. We found a relationship between AVN development and steroid dose in the early postoperative period, and we also showed a dose-response relationship.
Sánchez-Polo, V; Lou-Meda, R; Castillo, M; Herrera, C; Mollinedo, A
Guatemala is Central America's westernmost country, with a ratio of 500,000 inhabitants per nephrologist. Yearly reports show an average of 150 new end-stage renal disease patients and 40 renal transplants, which are performed at two public health care facilities. The aim of this study was to describe the results of the transplant program at one of these centers (Social Security Hospital of Guatemala). Our program began in 1986, performing an average of 17 transplants per year. Cyclosporine has been used since 1992, and since 2001, C2 has been routinely monitored. Data on 255 patients (of 293) were available for analysis. Male-to-female ratio was 7:1, with 94% having received hemodialysis as their replacement therapy. The mean age at transplant was 35 years and living related donors used in 95%. The average duration of follow-up was 7 years. The mean creatinine and C2 level at most recent visit were 1.36 mg/dL and 864 ng/mL, respectively. A significant reduction in the incidence of acute rejection episodes was seen after the initiation of C2 monitoring (3% vs 1.2%). In general, these results are similar to data in other countries. The number of transplants performed must be increased to meet the current demand, and the cadaveric source of donation is the obvious way to do so. C2 monitoring is an example of technical improvements directed to optimize available resources.
Ibrahim, K Y; Carvalho, N B; Mimicos, E V; Yeh-Li, H; Sotto, M N; França, F O S
The frequency of histoplasmosis among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients appears to be low where there are only a few case series, mostly among renal and liver transplant recipients. Herein we report a case of a 44-year-old woman who underwent a living-related renal transplant 18 years prior to evaluation, developed a nodule after followed by ulceration upon her posterior right leg and a second one upon her left leg 3 months and 2 months before her hospitalisation, respectively. The biopsy of lesion revealed the presence of Histoplasma spp. Bone marrow aspiration was performed and also revealed the same organism. She had initially received itraconazole without improvement of lesions, while a new lesion appeared on her left arm. Healing of all lesions could be observed after 40 days of liposomal amphotericin B when she was submitted to skin grafts on the legs and a surgical treatment on the arms, and the myelosuppression improved simultaneously. Histoplasmosis seems to be very uncommon among patients who underwent to organ solid transplantation. Most cases occur within 12-18 months after transplantation, although unusual cases have been presented many years post-transplant. There are cases reported in the literature, occurring from 84 days to 18 years after organ transplantation, but without cutaneous involvement. Our patient developed lesions on limbs and myelosuppression after 18 years of chronic immunosuppression medication. This case suggests that besides cutaneous histoplasmosis is an uncommon infection following iatrogenic immunosuppression and even rarer over a long period after the transplantation. Clinicians who care SOT recipient patients must bear in mind histoplasmosis infection as differential diagnosis in any case of cutaneous injury with prolonged fever and try to use as many tools as possible to make the diagnosis, once this disease presents a good prognosis if it is diagnosed and treated promptly.
Al-Bahri, Shadi; Fakhry, Tannous K; Gonzalvo, John Paul; Murr, Michel M
Obesity is a relative contraindication to organ transplantation. Preliminary reports suggest that bariatric surgery may be used as a bridge to transplantation in patients who are not eligible for transplantation because of morbid obesity. The Bariatric Center at Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. We reviewed the outcomes of 16 consecutive patients on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent bariatric surgery from 1998 to 2016. Demographics, comorbidities, weight loss, as well as transplant status were reported. Data is mean ± SD. Six men and ten women aged 43-66 years (median = 54 years) underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB, n = 12), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 3), or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 1). Preoperative BMI was 48 ± 8 kg/m(2). Follow-up to date was 1-10 years (median = 2.8 years); postoperative BMI was 31 ± 7 kg/m(2); %EBWL was 62 ± 24. Four patients underwent renal transplantation (25%) between 2.5-5 years after bariatric surgery. Five patients are currently listed for transplantation. Five patients were not listed for transplantation due to persistent comorbidities; two of these patients died as a consequence of their comorbidities (12.5%) more than 1 year after bariatric surgery. Two patients were lost to follow-up (12.5%). Bariatric surgery is effective in patients with ESRD and improves access to renal transplantation. Bariatric surgery offers a safe approach to weight loss and improvement in comorbidities in the majority of patients. Referrals of transplant candidates with obesity for bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of ESRD.
Tillou, Xavier; Chahwan, Charles; Le Gal, Sophie; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud
Surgical difficulties of renal transplantation related to prostate cancer (PC) treatment and the results of renal transplantation after radical prostatectomy are currently poorly known, as well as oncological follow-up before and after renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with PC before renal transplantation in our department. Nineteen patients were included between August 2003 and December 2013. The mean age at diagnosis of PC was 61.7 years (range 51.4-71.1). PSA mean level at diagnosis was 8.5 ng/ml (range 4.8-20). Fourteen had a retro-pubic and 5 a laparoscopic prostatectomy. Three patients underwent radiotherapy for positive surgical margins or extra-capsular extension. Fourteen patients were transplanted. The mean time lapse between prostatectomy and kidney transplantation was 32.8 months (range 14-71). Seven recipients (50%) were transplanted less than 24 months after prostatectomy. Post-transplantation surgical complications were not significantly related to dissection difficulties (p=0.2). No recurrence of PC was observed after renal transplantation, with a mean follow-up of 38 months (range 6-77.9). Prostate cancer discovered before renal transplantation should be treated by radical prostatectomy to assess recurrence risk. If the PC is at low risk of recurrence, it seems possible to shorten the 2-year period of oncologic follow-up before transplantation called for in current recommendations.
Huang, Jun; Wu, Ying; Su, Ze-xuan; Zhuo, Yu-min
To investigate the relationship between the resistance index (RI) of the renal artery and serum creatinine (Cr) level in patients early (within one month) after renal transplantation. A total of 123 patients receiving renal transplantation underwent examinations by color Doppler ultrasound for measurement of the RI of the renal artery within one month after the operation. According to the results of RI measurement, the patients were divided into RI≥0.75 and RI<0.75 groups for analyzing the correlation between RI and serum Cr level measured at the same time points. The RI and Cr levels in patients with RI≥0.75 showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05), whereas they showed an inverse correlation in patients with RI<0.75 (P<0.05). The patients with RI≥0.75 had significantly lower RI of the renal artery and Cr level than those with RI≥0.75. RI is significantly correlated to Cr, and may serve as an indicator for predicting renal graft function after transplantation.
Dousdampanis, Periklis; Trigka, Kostantina; Mouzaki, Athanasia
Kidney transplantation is recognised as the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation continues to face several challenges including long-term graft and patient survival, and the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The tendency in kidney transplantation is to avoid the side effects of immunosuppresants and induce immune tolerance. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) contribute to self-tolerance, tolerance to alloantigen and transplant tolerance, mainly by suppressing the activation and function of reactive effector T-cells. Additionally, Tregs are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, which is the leading cause of ESRD, suggesting that these cells play a role both in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease and the induction of transplant tolerance. Several strategies to achieve immunological tolerance to grafts have been tested experimentally, and include combinations of co-stimulatory blockade pathways, T-cell depletion, in vivo Treg-induction and/or infusion of ex-vivo expanded Tregs. However, a successful regimen that induces transplant tolerance is not yet available for clinical application. This review brings together certain key studies on the role of Tregs in ESRD, diabetes and kidney transplantation, only to emphasize that many more studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance and the therapeutic applications of Tregs. PMID:27683634
Waterman, Amy D; Robbins, Mark L; Paiva, Andrea L; Peipert, John D; Kynard-Amerson, Crystal S; Goalby, Christina J; Davis, LaShara A; Thein, Jessica L; Schenk, Emily A; Baldwin, Kari A; Skelton, Stacy L; Amoyal, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A
Because of the deceased donor organ shortage, more kidney patients are considering whether to receive kidneys from family and friends, a process called living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Although Blacks and Hispanics are 3.4 and 1.5 times more likely, respectively, to develop end stage renal disease (ESRD) than Whites, they are less likely to receive LDKTs. To address this disparity, a new randomized controlled trial (RCT) will assess whether Black, Hispanic, and White transplant patients' knowledge, readiness to pursue LDKT, and receipt of LDKTs can be increased when they participate in the Your Path to Transplant (YPT) computer-tailored intervention. Nine hundred Black, Hispanic, and White ESRD patients presenting for transplant evaluation at University of California, Los Angeles Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program (UCLA-KPTP) will be randomly assigned to one of two education conditions, YPT or Usual Care Control Education (UC). As they undergo transplant evaluation, patients in the YPT condition will receive individually-tailored telephonic coaching sessions, feedback reports, video and print transplant education resources, and assistance with reducing any known socioeconomic barriers to LDKT. Patients receiving UC will only receive transplant education provided by UCLA-KPTP. Changes in transplant knowledge, readiness, pros and cons, and self-efficacy to pursue LDKT will be assessed prior to presenting at the transplant center (baseline), during transplant evaluation, and 4- and 8-months post-baseline, while completion of transplant evaluation and receipt of LDKTs will be assessed at 18-months post-baseline. The RCT will determine, compared to UC, whether Black, Hispanic, and White patients receiving YPT increase in their readiness to pursue LDKT and transplant knowledge, and become more likely to complete transplant medical evaluation and pursue LDKT. It will also examine how known patient, family, and healthcare system barriers to LDKT act alone
Tillou, Xavier; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Orczyk, Clément; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud
Our objective was to clarify the clinical outcome of renal transplantation based on residual daily urine output (RDUO). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of 276 patients who underwent renal transplantation (Tx) between January 2008 and December 2012. Patients had pre-transplantation daily urine output measurement of 24-h proteinuria and were clinically re-evaluated the day before transplantation. We included patients with no daily urine output and those with residual daily urine output. Real bladder capacity was not measured. We excluded patients with a history of lower urinary tract malformation, those treated by trans-ileal conduit or enterocystoplasty, and those with early graft thrombosis or graft primary non-function. Sex ratio, age at Tx, pre-Tx MHC antibodies levels, donor age, and cold ischemia duration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Dialysis duration was longer in group I (p<0.001). The dialysis duration was correlated with the volume of residual urine output (r=0.12, p<0.0001). We found 14 (19.4%) urological complications in Group I (11 urinary leaks and 3 urethral stenosis) and 13 (6.4%) in Group II (5 urinary leaks and 8 stenosis). This difference was significant (p=0.0013 and relative risk [RR]=2.2). Absence of residual daily urine output was a risk factor of post-transplantation urinary leak (p<0.0001: RR=2.95). At 3 years, graft survival was 74.7% and 94.6%, respectively, in Group I and II (p=0.003). The absence of residual daily urine output seems to be a major risk factor for urological complications. Taking into account recipient residual daily urine output should modify surgical strategy during renal transplantation.
Schipper, Karen; Abma, Tineke A; Koops, Carina; Bakker, Ineke; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J
This qualitative study investigated the renal patients' experience of positive and negative consequences of transplantation, as well as the strategies they use to adapt to the transplantation. A qualitative design (30 participants in total), using individual interviews (18 participants) and two focus groups (12 participants in total), was used. The results showed that patients experienced a wide range of positive and negative emotions, in particular, guilt, gratefulness, and fear, partly as a result of their normative persuasions. Normative persuasions may transform inherent positive emotions into negative emotions and subsequent maladaptive behaviour. Not only physical limitations but also physical improvements were found to be related to the experience of negative emotions. Finally, the results indicated that patients mainly used adaptive coping strategies to adjust to life after transplantation, such as looking for opportunities, setting different priorities, making own choices, trying to maintain control, taking good care of oneself, and appreciating other things in life. This study offers several new insights regarding the range of experiences of renal patients after transplantation. Health professionals are invited to pay more attention to the full range of positive and negative experiences following transplantation, including the existence of normative persuasions. Health professionals may assist renal patients by helping them to recognize and acknowledge both positive and negative emotions and to encourage the use of more beneficial coping strategies. What is already known on this subject? The quality of life (QoL) of renal patients significantly improves after transplantation but the post-transplant QoL is lower compared with the QoL in healthy populations. Patients on dialysis and those who have received a donor kidney tend to use mainly emotion-focused coping strategies. What does this study add? This study offers several new insights regarding
Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a
Mäkitie, Antti A; Lundberg, Marie; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Pukkala, Eero
This study found a 0.8% incidence of non-cutaneous head and neck cancer during a mean follow-up of 10 years. The benefits of successful renal transplantation clearly outweigh the observed risk of malignancy. Increased cancer incidence after organ transplantation is well documented but few studies have reported on the rate of head and neck malignancies among these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence and specific sites of head and neck cancer in a nationwide series of renal transplant patients in Finland. Data from the National Kidney Transplant Registry and the Finnish Cancer Registry were used. A total of 2884 kidney transplant patients from the period 1964 to 1997 were followed for cancer incidence during the period from 1967 to 2003. There were 113 non-lymphomatous head and neck malignancies. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR), as compared with the general population, was 13.6, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2-16.2. The SIR was significantly elevated for cancers of the skin (47.3, 95% CI 36.3-60.7), lip (31.8, 95% CI 20.8-46.6), oral cavity (6.5, 95% CI 2.4-14.0) and thyroid (5.8, 95% CI 3.0-10.2).
Vlachopanos, Georgios; Bridson, Julie M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed
AIM To explore the benefits and harms of corticosteroid (CS) minimization following renal transplantation. METHODS CS minimization attempts to improve cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia), to enhance growth in children, to ameliorate bone disease and to lead to better compliance with immunosuppressive agents. Nevertheless, any benefit must be carefully weighed against the reduction in net immunosuppression and the potential harm to renal allograft function and survival. RESULTS Complete CS avoidance or very early withdrawal (i.e., no CS after post-transplant day 7) seems to be associated with better outcomes in comparison with later withdrawal. However, an increased incidence of CS-sensitive acute rejection has been observed with all CS minimization strategies. Among the prerequisites for the safe application of CS minimization protocols are the administration of induction immunosuppression and the inclusion of calcineurin inhibitors in maintenance immunosuppression regimens. CONCLUSION Transplant recipients at low immunological risk (primary transplant, low panel reactive antibodies) are thought as optimal candidates for CS minimization. CS avoidance may also be undesirable in patients at risk for glomerulonephritis recurrence or with severe delayed graft function and prolonged cold ischemia time. Thus, CS minimization is not yet ready for implementation in the majority of transplant recipients. PMID:28058228
Almonte, Mavel; Velásquez-Jones, Luis; Valverde, Saúl; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara
PTE is defined as hematocrit >51% or hemoglobin >17 g/dL after renal transplantation. Risk factors include native kidneys with adequate erythropoiesis pretransplant, smoking, renal artery stenosis, and cyclosporine treatment. We report the case of a 14-yr-old female kidney transplant patient, with triple therapy immunosuppression and stable graft function who developed PTE at 12 months post-transplant with hemoglobin 17.3 g/dL, hematocrit 54.2%, stable graft function, and normotensive with normal cardiac echocardiogram and erythropoietin levels. The only risk factor found was tobacco use. As she had no spontaneous improvement, enalapril treatment was started at 19 months post-transplant with a hemoglobin level of 17.5 g/dL and hematocrit 53%; by 23 months post-transplant, hemoglobin lowered to 15 g/dL and hematocrit to 44.5% and continued to be in normal range thereafter. PTE is a rare condition in childhood and can be successfully treated with enalapril.
Boly, Ahmadou; El Hassane Trabelsi, Mohamed; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabea; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohamed; Boucher, Stéphanie; El Berri, Hicham; Nejjari, Chakib; Couchoud, Cécile
Kidney transplantation is still underdeveloped in Morocco. In order to anticipate needs and discuss a possible reorganization of the provision of care, an estimate of the number of patients who would benefit from kidney transplant was conducted. This study was done in two steps. During the first step, based on the French renal replacement therapy registry (Rein), we develop a prediction score based on the likelihood of being treated by an autonomous dialysis (hemodialysis in self-care unit or peritoneal dialysis non-assisted by a nurse) and be registered on the national kidney transplant waiting list. During the second step, we apply this score to the data of the registry Magredial (Moroccan registry of renal replacement therapy, deployed in seven regions). Twelve parameters were related to autonomy and registration on the waiting list. Each of these parameters has been assigned a weight. Each patient was assigned a number of points, sum of different weights. By retaining a threshold of 21 points (80% specificity), 2260 subjects (57%) had a score less than or equal to this threshold in Magredial. With a number of patients on dialysis in Morocco estimated to 13,000 in late 2013, the estimated need for kidney transplant will be of 7410. This estimate should encourage professionals and health authorities of Morocco to engage more effort in the implementation of actions related to the transplant program.
Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Kaaroud, H; Jebali, H; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Moussa, F; Ben Hamida, F; Sfaxi, A; Blah, M; Chebil, M; Ayed, M; Bardi, R; Gorgi, Y; Kheder, A
Arterial hypertension often present after kidney transplantation is of multifactorial origin. The aim of this study was to determine the role of donor and recipient factors in the development of hypertension after renal transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 280 patients transplanted between 1985 and 2005, who still had functioning grafts at 1 year after transplantation. We recorded donor and recipient parameters. One hundred eighty-seven patients (66.8%) were hypertensive. Upon multivariate analysis of recipient factors, pretransplant hypertension (odds ratio) [OR]: 8.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5 to 16.1); serum creatinine level > 130 micromol/L at 6 months (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4,7), male gender (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.4), and chronic rejection (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.7) were independent predisposing factors. Among donor factors, age was significantly associated with arterial hypertension upon univariate analysis. In conclusion, recipient factors, especially pretransplant hypertension, contribute to the disorder in renal transplant patients.
Okada, Akira; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Kanamori, Misaki; Morikochi, Aya; Kasai, Hidefumi; Kosaka, Tadashi; Kokuhu, Takatoshi; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Keizo; Yoshimura, Norio; Sugioka, Nobuyuki
Cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation, has a narrow therapeutic window and a large variability in blood concentrations. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of CyA in living-donor renal transplant patients at a single center and identify factors influencing CyA pharmacokinetics (PK). A total of 660 points (preoperative) and 4785 points (postoperative) of blood concentration data from 98 patients who underwent renal transplantation were used. Pre- and postoperative CyA model structure and PPK parameters were separately estimated with a non-linear mixed-effect model, and subsequently, covariate analysis of postoperative data were comprehensively estimated, including preoperative PK parameters. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and absorption lag time was selected in this study. Aspartate aminotransferase, body surface area (BSA), pretransplant area under the whole blood concentration-time curve/dose, and postoperative days were identified as the covariates on oral clearance. BSA was selected as a covariate of the distribution volume of the central compartment. In addition, diabetes mellitus was selected as a covariate of the first-order absorption rate. This PPK study used the largest number of blood concentration data among previous reports of living-donor renal transplant patients. Moreover, all patients received the same immunosuppressive regimen in a single center. Therefore, the validity of the selected covariates is reliable with high precision. The developed PPK model and selected covariates provide useful information about factors influencing CyA PK and greatly contributes to the identification of the most suitable dosing regimen for CyA.
Background The best treatment option for end-stage renal disease is usually a transplant, preferably a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The most effective ways to educate kidney transplant candidates about the risks, benefits, and process of LDKT remain unknown. Methods/design We report the protocol of the Enhancing Living Donor Kidney Transplant Education (ELITE) Study, a cluster randomized trial of an educational intervention to be implemented during initial transplant evaluation at a large, suburban U.S. transplant center. Five hundred potential transplant candidates are cluster randomized (by date of visit) to receive either: (1) standard-of-care (“usual”) transplant education, or (2) intensive education that is based upon the Explore Transplant series of educational materials. Intensive transplant education includes viewing an educational video about LDKT, receiving print education, and meeting with a transplant educator. The primary outcome consists of knowledge of the benefits, risks, and process of LDKT, assessed one week after the transplant evaluation. As a secondary outcome, knowledge and understanding of LDKT are assessed 3 months after the evaluation. Additional secondary outcomes, assessed one week and 3 months after the evaluation, include readiness, self-efficacy, and decisional balance regarding transplant and LDKT, with differences assessed by race. Although the unit of randomization is the date of the transplant evaluation visit, the unit of analysis will be the individual potential transplant candidate. Discussion The ELITE Study will help to determine how education in a transplant center can best be designed to help Black and non-Black patients learn about the option of LDKT. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT01261910 PMID:24245948
Prasad, Narayan; Vardhan, Harsh; Baburaj, Vinod P; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj K; Kaul, Anupama
This study was undertaken to compare the outcomes of living donor renal transplant recipients using peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) as a bridge modality for renal replacement therapy till renal transplantation. The demographic profiles of the recipients and donors, the patients' native kidney disease (diabetic versus non-diabetic), duration on dialysis, requirement of anti-hypertensive drugs, number of blood transfusions, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch status, pre- and post-transplant infectious complications, and post-transplant outcomes of patients were compared between the two groups. The demographic features of the study patients were similar in the two groups. The duration of dialysis prior to transplant was significantly longer in the PD group than in the HD group of patients. The anti-hypertensive drug requirement was lower and the hemoglobin level and residual urine volume at the time of transplant were relatively better in the PD patients compared to the HD patients. The number of acute rejection episodes, delayed graft function, surgical complications, glomerular filtration rate at one month and at the last follow-up, were also similar in both groups. The short-term and long-term graft survival was similar in both groups of patients. The one-, two-, five-, and eight-year death-censored graft survival rates of the PD patients were 98, 95, 85, and 73%, respectively, and in the HD group of patients, they were 100, 93, 84, and 79%, respectively. The one-, two-, five-, and eight-year patient survival rates in the PD group were 97, 92, 77, and 66%, respectively, and in the HD group, they were 97, 92, 79, and 69%, respectively. Our study suggests that the outcomes of the living donor renal allograft recipients did not differ between the groups of patients who used PD or HD as renal replacement therapy prior to renal transplantation.
Abecassis, Michael; Bartlett, Stephen T.; Collins, Allan J.; Davis, Connie L.; Delmonico, Francis L.; Friedewald, John J.; Hays, Rebecca; Howard, Andrew; Jones, Edward; Leichtman, Alan B.; Merion, Robert M.; Metzger, Robert A.; Pradel, Francoise; Schweitzer, Eugene J.; Velez, Ruben L.; Gaston, Robert S.
Background and objectives: Kidney transplantation is the most desired and cost-effective modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with irreversible chronic kidney failure (end-stage renal disease, stage 5 chronic kidney disease). Despite emerging evidence that the best outcomes accrue to patients who receive a transplant early in the course of renal replacement therapy, only 2.5% of incident patients with end-stage renal disease undergo transplantation as their initial modality of treatment, a figure largely unchanged for at least a decade. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The National Kidney Foundation convened a Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) conference in Washington, DC, March 19 through 20, 2007, to examine the issue. Fifty-two participants representing transplant centers, dialysis providers, and payers were divided into three work groups to address the impact of early transplantation on the chronic kidney disease paradigm, educational needs of patients and professionals, and finances of renal replacement therapy. Results: Participants explored the benefits of early transplantation on costs and outcomes, identified current barriers (at multiple levels) that impede access to early transplantation, and recommended specific interventions to overcome those barriers. Conclusions: With implementation of early education, referral to a transplant center coincident with creation of vascular access, timely transplant evaluation, and identification of potential living donors, early transplantation can be an option for substantially more patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:18256371
Pippias, Maria; Kramer, Anneke; Noordzij, Marlies; Afentakis, Nikolaos; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Ambühl, Patrice M; Aparicio Madre, Manuel I; Arribas Monzón, Felipe; Åsberg, Anders; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; Bubic, Ivan; Caskey, Fergus J; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Cernevskis, Harijs; de Los Ángeles Garcia Bazaga, Maria; des Grottes, Jean-Marin; Fernández González, Raquel; Ferrer-Alamar, Manuel; Finne, Patrik; Garneata, Liliana; Golan, Eliezer; Heaf, James G; Hemmelder, Marc H; Idrizi, Alma; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Jarraya, Faical; Kantaria, Nino; Kolesnyk, Mykola; Kramar, Reinhard; Lassalle, Mathilde; Lezaic, Visnja V; Lopot, Frantisek; Macario, Fernando; Magaz, Ángela; Martín de Francisco, Angel L; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; Martínez Castelao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Wendy; Moreno Alia, Inmaculada; Nordio, Maurizio; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Palsson, Runolfur; Ratkovic, Marina; Resic, Halima; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Seyahi, Nurhan; Fernanda Slon Roblero, María; Spustova, Viera; Stas, Koenraad J F; Stendahl, María E; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Vazelov, Evgueniy; Ziginskiene, Edita; Massy, Ziad; Jager, Kitty J; Stel, Vianda S
Background: This article summarizes the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry's 2014 annual report. It describes the epidemiology of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 2014 within 35 countries. Methods: In 2016, the ERA-EDTA Registry received data on patients who in 2014 where undergoing RRT for ESRD, from 51 national or regional renal registries. Thirty-two registries provided individual patient level data and 19 provided aggregated patient level data. The incidence, prevalence and survival probabilities of these patients were determined. Results: In 2014, 70 953 individuals commenced RRT for ESRD, equating to an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 133 per million population (pmp). The incidence ranged by 10-fold; from 23 pmp in the Ukraine to 237 pmp in Portugal. Of the patients commencing RRT, almost two-thirds were men, over half were aged ≥65 years and a quarter had diabetes mellitus as their primary renal diagnosis. By day 91 of commencing RRT, 81% of patients were receiving haemodialysis. On 31 December 2014, 490 743 individuals were receiving RRT for ESRD, equating to an unadjusted prevalence of 924 pmp. This ranged throughout Europe by more than 10-fold, from 157 pmp in the Ukraine to 1794 pmp in Portugal. In 2014, 19 406 kidney transplantations were performed, equating to an overall unadjusted transplant rate of 36 pmp. Again this varied considerably throughout Europe. For patients commencing RRT during 2005-09, the 5-year-adjusted patient survival probabilities on all RRT modalities was 63.3% (95% confidence interval 63.0-63.6). The expected remaining lifetime of a 20- to 24-year-old patient with ESRD receiving dialysis or living with a kidney transplant was 21.9 and 44.0 years, respectively. This was substantially lower than the 61.8 years of expected remaining lifetime of a 20-year-old patient without ESRD.
We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.
Kirushnan, B.; Subbarao, B.; Prabhu, P.
ABO incompatible kidney transplant recipients receive higher dose of immunosuppression. Previous data indicate that the incidence of malignancy is not higher in these patients. Compared to the general population, renal transplant recipients are at 4.4-fold higher risk of developing myeloma. We describe a case of posttransplant multiple myeloma in an ABO incompatible renal transplant recipient of a second graft. PMID:27512301
Reese, Peter P.; Feldman, Harold I.; Bloom, Roy D.; Abt, Peter L.; Thomasson, Arwin; Shults, Justine; Grossman, Robert; Asch, David A.
Background Transplant centers vary in the proportion of kidney transplants performed using live donors. Clinical innovations that facilitate live donation may drive this variation. Methods We assembled a cohort of renal transplant candidates at 194 US centers using registry data from 1999 – 2005. We measured magnitude of live donor transplant (LDKTx) through development of a standardized live donor transplant ratio (SLDTR) at each center that accounted for center population differences. We examined associations between center characteristics and the likelihood that individual transplant candidates underwent LDKTx. To identify practices through which centers increase LDKTx, we also examined center characteristics associated with consistently being in the upper three quartiles of SLDTR. Results The cohort comprised 148,168 patients, among whom 34,593 (23.3%) underwent LDKTx. In multivariable logistic regression, candidates had an increased likelihood of undergoing LDKTx at centers with greater use of “unrelated donors” (defined as non-spouses and non-first-degree family members of the recipient; OR 1.31 for highest versus lowest use, p=0.02) and at centers with programs to overcome donor-recipient incompatibility (OR 1.33, p=0.01.) Centers consistently in the upper three SLDTR quartiles were also more likely to use “unrelated” donors (OR 8.30 per tertile of higher use, p<0.01), to have incompatibility programs (OR 4.79, p<0.01), and to use laparoscopic nephrectomy (OR 2.53 per tertile of higher use, p=0.02). Conclusion Differences in center population do not fully account for differences in the use of LDKTx. To maximize opportunities for LDKTx, centers may accept more unrelated donors and adopt programs to overcome biological incompatibility. PMID:21562451
Satyapal, K S; Kalideen, J M; Singh, B; Haffejee, A A; Robbs, J V
In addition to the superior graft survival afforded by live related transplantation, this option has assumed an important role in the management of endstage renal failure in centres confronted with a scarcity of cadaveric kidneys. In pursuing this option, it is imperative that the donor has minimal morbidity. An ongoing dilemma is which side the kidney should be harvested from. This study reviews the anatomical basis for selecting the left kidney and the impact on outcome for patient and donor. A database comprising cadaveric and clinical subsets was analysed. The total sample size analysed was 1 244 kidney pairs (305 cadaveric; 939 clinical (61 live related left kidney transplants harvested by the extraperitoneal approach)). Additional renal arteries (ARAs): Right first, second = 18.6%, 4.7%; left first, second = 27.6%, 4.4%. Additional renal veins (ARV): Right first, second = 26%, 3.3%; left first only = 2.6%. Length of renal vein (cm): Right 2.4 +/- 0.7, left 5.9 +/- 1.5. Other venous variations encountered were on the left side only (renal collar 0.3%, retro-aortic vein 0.5%). In the live related transplant series 24.6% ARAs were encountered (first 19.7%, second 4.9%). The postoperative course and outcome of both donor and recipient were not associated with increased morbidity. While greater length of the left renal vein (LRV) afforded easier technical manipulation, it is interesting to note that its length is shorter than that reported in the literature. ARVs are infrequent on the left and when encountered the smaller calibre vessel may be ligated with impunity due to rich intrarenal anastomosis. In selecting the donor kidney the surgeon has to balance the prospect of fewer ARAs on the right against the benefit of a longer LRV. The solution to this dilemma can only arise from a randomised clinical study. In our practice, consistent use of the left kidney has not affected clinical outcome.
Cassuto, James R; Levine, Matthew H; Reese, Peter P; Bloom, Roy D; Goral, Simin; Naji, Ali; Abt, Peter L
Non-renal transplant recipients who subsequently develop ESRD and undergo kidney transplantation are medically and immunologically complex due to comorbidities, high cumulative exposure to immunosuppressants, and sensitization to alloantigen from the prior transplant. Although prior non-renal transplant recipients are one of the fastest growing segments of the kidney wait list, minimal data exist to guide the use of antibody induction therapy (IT+) at the time of kidney after lung (KALu), heart (KAH), and liver (KALi) transplant. This retrospective cohort study used national registry data to examine IT use and survival after kidney transplantation. Separate multivariate Cox regression models were constructed to assess patient survival for IT+ and IT- KALu (n=232), KAH (n=588), and KALi (n=736) recipients. Use of IT increased during the study period. The percentage of patients considered highly sensitized (panel reactive antibody ≥20%) was not statistically significant between IT+ and IT- groups. IT+ was not associated with improvement in 1- and 10-year patient survival for KALu (P=0.20 and P=0.22, respectively) or for KAH (P=0.90 and P=0.14, respectively). However, IT+ among KALi was associated with inferior patient survival at 1 and 10 years (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). Use of IT for kidney transplantation among prior non-renal transplant recipients may not offer a survival advantage in KALu or KAH. However, due to limited power, these findings should be interpreted cautiously. IT+ was associated with inferior outcomes for KALi. Use of IT should be judicially reconsidered in this complex group of recipients.
Cassuto, James R.; Levine, Matthew H.; Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Goral, Simin; Naji, Ali; Abt, Peter L.
Summary Background and objectives Non-renal transplant recipients who subsequently develop ESRD and undergo kidney transplantation are medically and immunologically complex due to comorbidities, high cumulative exposure to immunosuppressants, and sensitization to alloantigen from the prior transplant. Although prior non-renal transplant recipients are one of the fastest growing segments of the kidney wait list, minimal data exist to guide the use of antibody induction therapy (IT+) at the time of kidney after lung (KALu), heart (KAH), and liver (KALi) transplant. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This retrospective cohort study used national registry data to examine IT use and survival after kidney transplantation. Separate multivariate Cox regression models were constructed to assess patient survival for IT+ and IT− KALu (n=232), KAH (n=588), and KALi (n=736) recipients. Results Use of IT increased during the study period. The percentage of patients considered highly sensitized (panel reactive antibody ≥20%) was not statistically significant between IT+ and IT− groups. IT+ was not associated with improvement in 1- and 10-year patient survival for KALu (P=0.20 and P=0.22, respectively) or for KAH (P=0.90 and P=0.14, respectively). However, IT+ among KALi was associated with inferior patient survival at 1 and 10 years (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Use of IT for kidney transplantation among prior non-renal transplant recipients may not offer a survival advantage in KALu or KAH. However, due to limited power, these findings should be interpreted cautiously. IT+ was associated with inferior outcomes for KALi. Use of IT should be judicially reconsidered in this complex group of recipients. PMID:22076872
Parvex, P; Pinsk, M; Bell, L E; O'Gorman, A M; Patenaude, Y G; Gupta, I R
Neurological complications post transplant have been described with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. Although tacrolimus may be a better immunosuppressant than cyclosporine, its neurological side effects may be worse. Two children, living-related kidney transplant recipients, were treated with antibody induction, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, and tacrolimus. Soon after transplant, they each developed an encephalopathy, which when visualized by magnetic resonance imaging showed that it affected both white and grey matter of the brain. Although the encephalopathy was associated with the use of tacrolimus, there was a complete neurological recovery without cessation of the drug.
de Gasperi, A; Mazza, E; Noè, L; Corti, A; Cristalli, A; Prosperi, M; Sabbadini, D; Savi, M C; Vai, S
To define the pharmacokinetic profile of the induction dose of propofol in chronic renal failure patients. Determination of propofol blood concentrations after the bolus dose of 2 mg.kg-1 bw injected in 30 seconds in a peripheral vein in a group of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients and in a group of normal patients (controls). 10 CRF patients (7 males, 3 females, mean age 47 +/- 8 years old, mean body weight 66 +/- 8 kg) candidates to cadaveric renal transplantation and free from major hepatic diseases (study group); 8 ASA I patients (5 males, 3 females), without major cardiorespiratory, hepatic, renal, hematologic or metabolic diseases undergoing minor elective surgical procedures lasting from 50 to 90 minutes (control group). a) propofol blood concentrations by means of HPLC; b) derived pharmacokinetic parameters (calculated by means of Siphar, version 4.0, Societé de informatique médicale, Simed, Paris, 1991); c) cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, central venous pressure, invasive arterial pressure). The decay of propofol whole blood concentrations, distribution, redistribution and elimination half lives were similar in CRF and in control patients. On the contrary, significantly different in CRF patients were propofol blood concentrations from two to ten minutes following the induction dose (lower), the area under concentration- time curve (AUC) (smaller), the mean resident time (longer), the total body clearance (greater), the volumes of distribution at steady state and during the elimination phase (larger). The larger volumes of distribution are closely correlated with the significantly lower albumin concentrations in the uremic patients. An accelerated hepatic biotransformation is one of the possible explanations for the greater total body clearance of propofol in the uraemic patients: in fact an increased glucuronyltrasferase activity and glucuronoconjugation induced by phenols has been demonstrated in uraemia. On the other hand, large volumes of
Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Murugan, S.; Jayaprakash, V.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.
Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. We report a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, headache, meningeal signs, graft dysfunction, and eschar. IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite oral doxycycline therapy for 5 days, she did not improve but responded well to intravenous azithromycin. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus as a cause of meningitis in a renal transplant recipient has not been reported so far. PMID:28356672
Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We
Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720
Ghanizadeh, A; Mansoori, Y; Ashkani, H; Fallahzadeh, M H; Derakhshan, A; Shokrpour, N; Akhondzadeh, S
This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents after renal transplantation. A total of 71 patients who had undergone renal transplantation were interviewed in person using the Farsi (Persian) version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria. Major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The rate of major depressive disorder was 2.8%; two-thirds of the patients had irritability; and approximately 40% had recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal ideation. The rate of major depressive disorder was lower than in other chronic diseases such as thallasemia or hemophilia; however, the rate of suicidal behaviors was high.
Sherif, Ali M; Refaie, Ayman F; Sheashaa, Hussein A; El-Tantawy, Abd-Elhalim; Sobh, Mohamed A
Neuromyopathy was reported to be a problem among live donor familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) amyloid kidney transplant recipients. We aimed to address this issue on a long-term basis. 14 FMF amyloid live donor kidney transplant recipients with a mean post-transplant follow-up period of 82.43 +/- 50.1 months in comparison to a control group of 19 non-amyloid renal transplant patients were subjected to thorough neurological examination, laboratory and electrophysiologic studies. Both groups were comparable with regard to mean serum creatinine levels cyclosporine doses (p > 0.05), however trough cyclosporine levels were significantly lower in the amyloidotics than the controls (p = 0.04). Serum creatine phosphokinase was comparable in both groups (p = 0.59). The amyloid patients showed significantly increased polyphasic motor unit potentials and abnormal interference patterns in the biceps brachii muscle (p = 0.03) and the abductor polices brevis muscle (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed a significant level for biceps myopathy in amyloidotics (p = 0.001). Both groups attained no difference with regard to median nerve conduction velocity. Electrophysiologically evidenced neuromyopathy is more liable to occur in long-term live donor FMF amyloidotic kidney transplant recipients than in the other non-amyloidotic kidney transplant recipients even with no clinical manifestations or high creatine phosphokinase levels. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Tent, H; Lely, A T; Toering, T J; San Giorgi, M R M; Rook, M; Lems, S P M; Hepkema, B G; Hofker, H S; Ploeg, R J; Homan van der Heide, J J; Navis, G J
Female kidneys and kidneys from small donors have been suggested to perform worse after kidney transplantation. Here, we evaluate the impact of gender and body dimensions on posttransplantation GFR in living donor transplantation. Two hundred and ninety-three donor-recipient pairs, who were transplanted at our center were evaluated. All pairs had detailed renal function measurement ((125) I-iothalamate and (131) I-hippuran) 4 months predonation in the donor and 2.5 months posttransplantation in donor and recipient. For 88 pairs, 5 years of recipient follow-up was available. Delta GFR was calculated as (recipient GFR-donor single kidney GFR). Recipients of both male and female kidneys had similar renal function at early and long term after transplantation. Male recipients had higher ERPF, ΔGFR and ΔERPF at both time points. Kidneys of donors smaller than their recipient had higher ΔGFR and ΔERPF than kidneys of larger donors at both time points (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, ΔGFR was predicted by donor/recipient BSA-ratio together with transplantation related factors (R(2) 0.19), irrespective of donor and recipient gender. In conclusion, in living donor transplantation, female kidneys perform as well as male donor kidneys. Kidneys adapt to the recipient's body size and demands, independent of gender, without detrimental effects in renal function and outcome up to mid-long term.
Paramesh, Anil S; Killackey, Mary T; Zhang, Rubin; Alper, Brent; Slakey, Douglas P; Florman, Sander S
The use of living donor kidneys has dramatically increased the number and success of kidney transplants across the world. But questions remain regarding the subjection of a healthy individual to surgery for the benefit of another. Donors do have medical and financial risks. The stigma of organ brokering remains today, with evidence of commercial transplantation in other countries. Here in the US, we are exposed to advertising for donors using the media. In the hope of increasing living donations, we run the risk of stretching altruism too far. In this manuscript, we highlight and discuss some of the current controversies surrounding living donor kidney transplantation across the world.
Fernandes, Paula Frassinetti Castelo Branco Camurça; Siqueira, Reed André; Girão, Evelyne Santana; Siqueira, Rainne André; Mota, Márcia Uchoa; Marques, Leyla Castelo Branco Fernandes; Andrade, Silvana Cristina Albuquerque; Barroso, Wilson Mendes; Silva, Sônia Leite; Rodrigues dos Santos, Bruno Gomes; de Oliveira, Claúdia Maria Costa
AIM To present clinical characteristics from renal transplant recipients with dengue fever and its impact on graft function. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 11 renal transplant recipients (RTR) with dengue infection confirmed by laboratory test, between January 2007 and July 2012, transplanted in the Renal Transplant Center of Walter Cantídio University Hospital from Federal University of Ceará. RESULTS Positive dengue serology (IgM) was found in all patients. The mean time between transplant and dengue infection was 43 mo. Fever was presented in all patients. Nine patients presented with classical dengue and two (18%) with dengue hemorrhagic fever. All cases had satisfactory evolution with complete recovery of the symptoms. The time for symptom resolution varied from 2 to 20 d, with an average of 9 d. An increase of creatinine after the infection was observed in three (27.2%) patients with no clinically impact on the kidney graft function. CONCLUSION RTR with dengue infection seems to have a clinical presentation and evolution similar to those seen in the general population, with no long-term damage to patient and to the graft. PMID:28280696
Krueger, T.C.; Tallent, M.B. Jr.; Richie, R.E.; Johnson, H.K.; MacDonell, R.C.; Turner, B.
This review examines a 20-year experience in renal transplantation at our center to determine the effects of immunosuppression on the subsequent development of malignancies. Twenty patients had 21 malignancies from primary sites other than skin, yielding an incidence of 2.5%. There were 0.65 malignancies for each 100 cumulative patient years of immunosuppression. Suppression of the host immune response is associated with an increased incidence of malignancies.
Pérez-Bertólez, Sonia; Barrero, Rafael; Fijo, Julia; Alonso, Verónica; Ojha, Devicka; Fernández-Hurtado, Miguel Ángel; Martínez, Jerónimo; León, Eduardo; García-Merino, Francisco
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for children with ESRD offering advantages of improved survival, growth potential, cognitive development, and quality of life. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of LDKT vs DDKT performed in children at a single center. Retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who underwent kidney transplantation from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Ninety-one renal transplants were accomplished, and 31 cases (38.27%) were LDKT, and in 96.7% of the cases, the graft was obtained through laparoscopy. Thirty-four receptors weighted <25 kg. LDKT group had statistically significant lower cold ischemia times than DDKT one. Complication rate was 9.67% for LDKT and 18.33% for DDKT. eGFR was better in LDKT. Patient survival rate was 100% for LDKT and 98.3% for DDKT, and graft survival rate was 96.7% for LDKT and 88.33%-80% for DDKT at a year and 5 years. Our program of pediatric kidney transplantation has achieved optimal patient and graft survival rates with low rate of complications. Living donor pediatric kidney transplants have higher patient and better graft survival rates than deceased donor kidney transplants.
Fricke, W F; Maddox, C; Song, Y; Bromberg, J S
Recent studies demonstrate that the human microbiota, the collection of microorganisms growing on and in individuals, have numerous bidirectional interactions with the host, influencing immunity, resistance to infection, inflammation and metabolism. Little has been done to study the potential associations between microbiota composition and transplant outcome. Here, we investigated the longitudinal changes in the blood, urinary, oral and rectal microbiota of renal allograft recipients before and at 1 and 6 months after transplantation. The results showed major changes in microbiota composition as a result of the transplant episode and associated medications, and these changes persisted over time. The high interindividual variation as well as differences in response to transplantation suggested that it is unlikely that the same specific microbiota members can serve as universal diagnostic markers. Rather, longitudinal changes in each individual's microbiota have the potential to be indicative of health or disease. Use of sensitive nucleic acid-based testing showed that urine, irrespective of disease states, more often harbors a diverse microbiota than appreciated by conventional culture techniques. These results lay the groundwork to construct more comprehensive future investigations to identify microbiota characteristics that can serve as diagnostic markers for transplant health and to guide intervention strategies to improve transplant outcome.
Gill, Paul; Lowes, Lesley
Live transplantation presents many stressors for donors and recipients, yet a holistic understanding of the process, from both perspectives, is limited. Gift exchange is a theory governed by the principles of giving, receiving and reciprocating and has many similarities with the process of organ transplantation. It may therefore provide a framework for understanding donor and recipient experiences of live kidney transplantation. However, the relevance of this theory to live kidney transplantation has not previously been properly explored. To gain a theoretical understanding of the live transplantation experience from the perspectives of donors and recipients. A phenomenological, longitudinal study. All donors and their recipients undergoing live kidney transplantation in a regional renal transplant centre in South-West England (between July 2003 and February 2004) were invited to participate in this study. Of this cohort, 11 families (n=55%) volunteered to participate. Data were collected through a series of 3 recorded, semi-structured interviews with donors and recipients. Interviews were conducted pre transplant and at 3 and 10 months post transplant. Data were analysed using a process of thematic content analysis. Findings were also considered within a theoretical framework of gift exchange. All donors initially made an instantaneous, voluntary decision to donate and found the decision relatively easy to make. In contrast, recipients found accepting the donors' offer arduous, because of concern for their wellbeing. They were only able to accept the transplant after discussing the matter with their donor and establishing that it was something that they wanted to do. Recipients' lives were transformed by a successful transplant and they were subsequently very grateful to the donors for donating. Donors derived immense personal satisfaction from this outcome and it helped to confirm to them that what they had done had been worthwhile. The transplant did not have a
Boukoum, Hanen; Nahdi, Imen; Sahtout, Wissal; Skiri, Habib; Aloui, Sabra; Achour, Abdelatif; Segondy, Michel; Aouni, Mahjoub
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the rate of BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) polyomavirus infections and their influence on allograft function in Tunisian renal transplant recipients. A total of 72 renal transplant recipients were studied. BKPyV and JCPyV were detected and quantified by real-time PCR in urine and plasma. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were collected for each patient. Polyomavirus DNAuria was detected in 54 (75%) of renal transplant recipients: 26 (36%) had BKPyV DNAuria, 20 (28%) had JCPyV DNAuria, and 8 (11%) had a dual BKPyV/JCPyV DNAuria. BKPyV DNAemia was detected in four (5.5%) patients, whereas no patient had JCPyV viremia. More than 70% of BKPyV and JCPyV infections started within the first 3 months post-transplant. The risk for positive DNAemia was observed in patients with DNAuria level >10(7) copies/ml. BK Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) was observed in two patients. This study highlights the high frequency of BKPyV and JCPyV viruria during the first year post-transplant with the highest incidence observed in the third month. We identified several risk factors that were associated with BKV DNAuria including age, sex of patients, and the use of tacrolimus instead of cyclosporine A at month 3. The use of cyclosporine A instead of tacrolimus was identified as risk factor for JCV viruria in month 3. No statistical difference in the allograft function was found between BKPyV and/or JCPyV infected and uninfected patients.
Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Bubić-Filipi, Ljubica; Prgomet, Drago; Djanić Hadzibegović, Ana; Bilić, Mario; Kovac, Lana; Kastelan, Zeljko; Pasini, Josip; Mokos, Ivica; Basić-Koretić, Martina; Kes, Petar
Renal transplantation is associated with increased incidence of cancer. We reviewed a large series of renal transplant recipients to determine the incidence and outcome of patients with malignant changes located at the head and neck. A total of 1232 renal transplant recipients have been followed at Department of Dialysis University Hospital Centre Zagreb from 1972 to 2009. Demographic data, localization and disease outcome were evaluated in patients who developed cancer. Twenty one patients (1.7%) developed 27 head and neck malignancies. The average time from transplantation to development of cancer was 56.8 months. The mean length of follow-up was 9.4+/-4.8 years. Eighteen malignancies were cutaneous in origin and 9 were noncutaneous. Of cutaneous malignancies, 88.9% were basal cell carcinoma; one patient had Merkell-cell carcinoma and one patient developed squamous cell carcinoma. Six cases of basocellular skin cancer were recorded in one fair-skin patient. Noncutaneous malignancies involved the oral cavity (2 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and one pharyngeal cancer) and the thyroid gland in 3 patients each. Two patients had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring at the head and neck. One patient had brain tumor. Radical surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy were necessary in 33.3% of patients. Immunosuppression was reduced in all patients, and 12 patients were switched from the calcineurin-based immunosuppression to sirolimus. They all have stable graft function. None of the patients died from cancer. Immunosuppression was ceased in one patient with Kaposi's sarcoma who returned to dialysis and died 10 years later from heart failure. An increased incidence of cancer occurring in the head and neck was recorded. Careful skin examination and oral examination is mandatory for discovering cancer before dissemination. Sirolimus is safe alternative to calcineurin-based immunosuppression in patients who developed head and neck malignancies.
Yu, H; Kim, H S; Baek, C H; Shin, E H; Cho, H J; Han, D J; Park, S K
Post-transplantation hypertension is very common and is associated with cardiovascular complications and poor graft survival in kidney transplant recipients. This study aimed to identify risk factors for hypertension after living donor kidney transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent renal transplantation between January 2009 and April 2012. Hypertension was defined as the use of antihypertensive medications at 12 months post-transplantation. Student t test and chi-squared test were performed for univariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed for multivariate analysis. Five-hundred thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the analyses. The rate of antihypertensive medication use was 67% at 12 months. In multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-4.61), pretransplantation hypertension (OR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.14-10.11), donor hypertension (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.05-9.96), high body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29), and use of cyclosporine (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.28-3.27) were associated with post-transplantation hypertension. These data show that male recipient, hypertension before transplantation, donor hypertension, high BMI, and cyclosporine use were independent factors associated with hypertension. It would be useful to predict and prevention the hypertension after kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuo, Hsiao-Hsuan; Fan, Ran; Dvorina, Nina; Chiesa-Vottero, Andres
Antibody-mediated rejection is a major complication in renal transplantation. The pathologic manifestations of acute antibody-mediated rejection that has progressed to functional impairment of a renal transplant have been defined in clinical biopsy specimens. However, the initial stages of the process are difficult to resolve with the unavoidable variables of clinical studies. We devised a model of renal transplantation to elucidate the initial stages of humoral rejection. Kidneys were orthotopically allografted to immunodeficient mice. After perioperative inflammation subsided, donor-specific alloantibodies were passively transferred to the recipient. Within 1 hour after a single transfer of antibodies, C4d was deposited diffusely on capillaries, and von Willebrand factor released from endothelial cells coated intravascular platelet aggregates. Platelet-transported inflammatory mediators platelet factor 4 and serotonin accumulated in the graft at 100- to 1000-fold higher concentrations compared with other platelet-transported chemokines. Activated platelets that expressed P-selectin attached to vascular endothelium and macrophages. These intragraft inflammatory changes were accompanied by evidence of acute endothelial injury. Repeated transfers of alloantibodies over 1 week sustained high levels of platelet factor 4 and serotonin. Platelet depletion decreased platelet mediators and altered the accumulation of macrophages. These data indicate that platelets augment early inflammation in response to donor-specific antibodies and that platelet-derived mediators may be markers of evolving alloantibody responses. PMID:25145937
Delladetsima, Ioanna; Psichogiou, Mina; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Nikolopoulos, George; Revenas, Kostantinos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Boletis, John
Hepatocellular injury in renal transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. The suppressed immune response, in combination with increased viremia levels, provides a unique setting for the study of a potential HCV-induced apoptotic process. Liver biopsy specimens from 59 HCV-infected renal transplant recipients were examined histologically. DNA fragmentation was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-nick end labeling assay, and the CD8 T-cell count was assessed immunohistochemically.A low apoptotic index (0-2.5) was observed in 31 cases, a moderate index (2.6-5) in 16, and a high index (>5) in 12. Apoptotic cell death correlated significantly with viremia because it was demonstrated by higher HCV-RNA levels in cases with a high number of apoptotic cells (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-8.5; P = .04). No correlation was found between the apoptotic index and hepatitis necroinflammatory activity, CD8 cell count, fibrosis stage, immunosuppressive therapy, or genotype. In HCV-infected renal transplant recipients, apoptotic cell death seems to be associated with high viral load, thus providing indications of viral interference in the pathogenetic process.
El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A
To study the independent determinants of graft survival among pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1600 live donor kidney transplants were carried out in our center. Of them 284 were 20 yr old or younger (mean age 13.1 yr, ranging from 5 to 20 yr). Evaluation of the possible variables that may affect graft survival were carried out using univariate and multivariate analyses. Studied factors included age, gender, relation between donor and recipient, original kidney disease, ABO blood group, pretransplant blood transfusion, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, pretransplant dialysis, height standard deviation score (SDS), pretransplant hypertension, cold ischemia time, number of renal arteries, ureteral anastomosis, time to diuresis, time of transplantation, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), primary and secondary immunosuppression, total dose of steroids in the first 3 months, development of acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Using univariate analysis, the significant predictors for graft survival were HLA matching, type of primary urinary recontinuity, time to diuresis, ATN, acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The multivariate analysis restricted the significance to acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The independent determinants of graft survival in live-donor pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.
Archibald, S. D.; Jirsch, D. W.; Bear, R. A.
In 95 consecutive cases of cavaderic renal transplantation followed up for 1 to 83 months (mean 23.1 months) 17 complications developed in the upper gastrointestinal tract of 15 patients; these included duodenal ulcer in 12 and gastric ulcer, esophagitis, hemorrhagic gastritis, small-bowel obstruction and small-bowel perforation in 1 each. The occurrence of a complication was not related to the patient's age, sex, blood group or use of cigarettes or alcohol, the duration of hemodialysis before transplantation, the tissue match or the number of infusions of immunosuppressive medication. One patient died of the complication. The peptic ulcers that developed after transplantation were successfully managed conservatively in 69% of cases. Since surgical treatment in patients whose immune response has been suppressed is associated with an increased frequency of complications such as disruption of suture lines, it is preferable to reserve it for those in whom complications develop that are unresponsive to conservative measures. PMID:367548
Barry, J M; Lemmers, M J; Conlin, M J; Norman, D J; Bennett, W M; Meyer, M M; DeMattos, A; Wetzsteon, P; Johnson-Tomanka, M; Seely, M
What we accomplish today as a matter of routine was only imagined by a few 4 decades ago. The journey from that first successful kidney transplant in the 1950s to the multidisciplinary, multiorgan transplant program of today has been a fascinating one. Although we attribute our current results to careful recipient selection and preparation, improvements in organ procurement and preservation, refinement of surgical techniques, improvement in histocompatibility techniques and organ sharing, improvements in immunosuppression and infection control, and careful monitoring of recipients, we and our patients have benefited from significant contributions from our colleagues in government and the law. The 4 that come to mind are the provision of near-universal insurance coverage for end stage renal disease patients in 1972 under the Medicare program, the passage of brain death laws in the mid 1970s, the passage of the National Transplant Act in 1984, and the passage of the Oregon required request law in 1985.
Iwanaga, T; Ooboshi, H; Imamura, T; Mizumasa, T; Ibayashi, S; Hirakata, H; Fujishima, M
We report a patient of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a recipient of renal transplantation. A 43-year-old man suffered from generalized convulsion and consciousness disturbance followed by coma on day 53 of after the transplantation. He was receiving several immunosuppressants, and an increase of serum antigen for cytomegalovirus was observed one day before the ictus. T2 and diffusion-weighted image of MRI showed high intensity lesions in the bilateral cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid revealed elevated myelin basic protein level. The patient was diagnosed as having ADEM and was treated with methylpredonisolone pulse therapy in combination with intravenous immune globulin. He gradually recovered and became capable to eat and sit on a wheel chair. White matter lesions on MRI were also diminished. ADEM may occur in recipients of organ transplantation even if they have immunosuppressive treatment.
Akbari, Roghayeh; Rahmani Firouzi, Sedigheh; Akbarzadeh-Pasha, Abazar
Introduction: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in chronic renal failure patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary catheter removal time on transplanted kidney size and incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 109 consecutive live donor renal transplant recipients from December 2011 to July 2014. Routine ultrasound examinations were performed on donor’s kidney prior to operation and one month later. Kidney volume was calculated. UTI and bacteriuria were evaluated one month later. Patients were divided into two groups based on time of Foley catheter removal (before and after fifth day posttransplantation). Results: In this study 74 males (67.9%) and 35 females (32.1%) were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (57.92%) were in group 1. None of the patients with positive urine culture had UTI but bacteriuria occurred in all of them (21.1%). Bacteriuria time after transplantation and catheter removal was significantly later in group 1 and it was not different in female group but they were later in male group. The mean renal volume increase was positively correlated to renal transplant recipient and donor’s age and donor’s body mass index (BMI) (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the time of catheter removal after kidney transplantation does not affect incidence of UTI but increases the probability of bacteria in men whose catheter was removed within 5 days after transplantation. We also found that the renal volume change is not associated with catheter removal time and bacteriuria. PMID:28487871
Dąbrowska-Żamojcin, Ewa; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domański, Leszek; Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Sylwia
Introduction STAT4 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 4) is involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Some studies have suggested that STAT4 may be involved in the immune response after graft transplantation. Several polymorphisms in the STAT4 gene have been identified. The most commonly studied polymorphism in the STAT4 gene is rs7574865. In our study, we examined whether this polymorphism is associated with the early and late functions of renal allografts. Material and methods A total of 270 recipients of first renal transplants were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the STAT4 gene were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. Results There were no statistically significant associations between the STAT4 gene rs7574865 polymorphism and delayed graft function, acute rejection, chronic allograft dysfunction, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, or creatinine serum concentrations after transplantation. Conclusions Our results suggest a lack of association between the STAT4 rs7574865 SNP and kidney allograft function in the Polish population. PMID:27833442
Franco, M C P; Nagasako, S S; Machado, P G; Nogueira, P C K; Pestana, J O M; Sesso, R
In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often determined with serum creatinine. However, studies have shown cystatin C to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. We compared GFR estimated by plasma cystatin C with GFR estimated by serum creatinine in a sample of 50 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 24 healthy children. The correlation between GFR estimated by serum creatinine and by cystatin C was significant (r = 0.75; P < 0.001, Person's correlation); however, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, the GFR was 6.7 mL/min lower when determined using cystatin C rather than serum creatinine. Moreover, using GFR estimated by cystatin C we found that 42% of the pediatric kidney transplant recipients had an estimated GFR <60 mL.min-1.1.73 (m(2))-1, whereas when GFR was estimated by the serum creatinine formula only 16% of the children had values below this cutoff point indicative of chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001). We conclude that, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, estimation of GFR yields lower values when cystatin C is used rather than serum creatinine.
Harraz, Ahmed M; Kamal, Ahmed I; Shokeir, Ahmed A
Urolithiasis in the context of renal transplant is a quite rare event that requires keeping a higher index of suspicion and vigilance. Donors with incidentally discovered asymptomatic renal stones "donor gifted lithiasis" are potentially considered for donation should they are not recurrent stone formers and in the absence of active biochemical disorders. Stone clearance from the donors can be done before donation using shock wave lithotripsy and/or flexible ureteroscopy. Ex vivo ureteroscopy at time of transplant is equally feasible and safe. A variety of anatomical, metabolic and surgical factors contribute to de novo lithiasis after transplantation. Diagnosis is challenging as the transplanted kidney is denervated and the presentation is consequently, atypical. Endourological armamentarium is readily present within the hands of the urologists for adequately addressing the stones and including shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy. Whilst all endourological techniques have proven feasibility and safety, they are surgically demanding and requiring high-volume expertise to be adequately performed. The longterm outcome in terms of stone recurrence or the effect on graft survival is favorable. Finally, formidable counselling as well as postoperative monitoring for both donors and recipients is crucial to minimize urolithiasis-related morbidity.
Muramatsu, Masaki; Gonzalez, Hector Daniel; Cacciola, Roberto; Aikawa, Atsushi; Yaqoob, Magdi M; Puliatti, Carmelo
ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) was previously considered to be an absolute contraindication for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to hyperacute rejection related to blood type barrier. Since the first successful series of ABOi-KT was reported, ABOi-KT is performed increasingly all over the world. ABOi-KT has led to an expanded donor pool and reduced the number of patients with ESKD awaiting deceased kidney transplantation (KT). Intensified immunosuppression and immunological understanding has helped to shape current desensitization protocols. Consequently, in recent years, ABOi-KT outcome is comparable to ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT). However, many questions still remain unanswered. In ABOi-KT, there is an additional residual immunological risk that may lead to allograft damage, despite using current diverse but usually intensified immunosuppressive protocols at the expense of increasing risk of infection and possibly malignancy. Notably, in ABOi-KT, desensitization and antibody reduction therapies have increased the cost of KT. Reassuringly, there has been an evolution in ABOi-KT leading to a simplification of protocols over the last decade. This review provides an overview of the history, outcome, protocol, advantages and disadvantages in ABOi-KT, and focuses on whether ABOi-KT should be recommended as a therapeutic option of KT in the future. PMID:24669364
Florou, Evangelia; Koukoulaki, Maria; Theodoros, Theodoridis; Kalatzis, Vasileios; Vougas, Vasileios; Stamataki, Elissavet; Kokkinou, Vasiliki Christopoulou; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Drakopoulos, Spiros
Thrombophilia due to activated protein C resistance (Leiden mutation) is the most common inherited thrombophilic disorder with 5% incidence in whites. Renal transplant of these patients entails a risk of vascular thrombosis soon after the transplant; and acute rejection episodes and graft loss within the first year. We present a case of a successful living-related renal transplant in man with a recent history of repeat episodes of vascular access thrombosis attributed to inherited thrombophilia (heterozygosity for factor V mutation Q506 and homozygosity for mutation T677 for methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase). Transplant recipient was administered anticoagulation therapy with low molecular weight heparin pre- and postoperatively. No thrombotic or hemorrhagic events occurred posttransplant. A high suspicion of thrombophilic disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease with vascular access thrombotic events should be screened further to prevent failure of a subsequent renal transplant. Inherited thrombophilic disorders may not exclude living-related kidney transplant provided that anticoagulation therapy is admin-istered perioperatively.
Wetmore, James B; Calvet, James P; Yu, Alan S L; Lynch, Charles F; Wang, Connie J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), is a disorder with characteristics of neoplasia. However, it is not known whether renal transplant recipients with PKD have an increased risk of cancer. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, which contains information on all solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, were linked to 15 population-based cancer registries in the United States. For PKD recipients, we compared overall cancer risk with that in the general population. We also compared cancer incidence in PKD versus non-PKD renal transplant recipients using Poisson regression, and we determined incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis duration, and time since transplantation. The study included 10,166 kidney recipients with PKD and 107,339 without PKD. Cancer incidence in PKD recipients was 1233.6 per 100,000 person-years, 48% higher than expected in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 1.60), whereas cancer incidence in non-PKD recipients was 1119.1 per 100,000 person-years. The unadjusted incidence was higher in PKD than in non-PKD recipients (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, PKD recipients were older (median age at transplantation, 51 years versus 45 years for non-PKD recipients), and after multivariable adjustment, cancer incidence was lower in PKD recipients than in others (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91). The reason for the lower cancer risk in PKD recipients is not known but may relate to biologic characteristics of ADPKD or to cancer risk behaviors associated with ADPKD.
Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I; Sarwal, Minnie M
The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study.
Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I.
The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study. PMID:23449533
Grupper, Avishay; Grupper, Ayelet; Daly, Richard C; Pereira, Naveen L; Hathcock, Matthew A; Kremers, Walter K; Cosio, Fernando G; Edwards, Brooks S; Kushwaha, Sudhir S
Chronic kidney disease frequently accompanies end-stage heart failure and may result in consideration of simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation (SHKT). In recent years, there has been a significant increase in SHKT. This single-center cohort consisted of 35 patients who underwent SHKT during 1996 to 2015. The aim of this study was to review factors that may predict better long-term outcome after SKHT. Thirteen patients (37%) had delayed graft function (DGF) after transplant (defined as the need for dialysis during the first 7 days after transplant), which was significantly associated with mechanical circulatory support device therapy and high right ventricular systolic pressure before transplant. Most of the recipients had glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥50 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 and 3 years after transplant (21 of 26 [81%] and 20 of 21 [95%], respectively). Higher donor age was associated with reduced 1-year GFR (p = 0.017), and higher recipient pretransplant body mass index was associated with reduced 3-year GFR (p = 0.008). There was a significant association between DGF and reduced median GFR at 1 and 3 years after transplant (p <0.005). Patient survival rates at 6 months, 1, and 3 years after transplant were 97%, 91%, and 86% respectively. In conclusions, our data support good outcomes after SHKT. Mechanical circulatory support device therapy and pulmonary hypertension before transplant are associated with DGF, which is a risk factor for poor long-term renal allograft function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abbas, Fedaey Mohammed; Julie, Bridson M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed
The risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in renal transplant recipients is increased in diabetics, patients with impaired basal kidney function, patients in shock, patients presenting with acute emergency and in old age recipients. Approximately one-third of all hospitalized patients with acute kidney injury is attributed to CIN. In the United States, it is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Therefore, efforts should be directed to minimize CIN-related morbidity and mortality as well as to shorten hospital stay. While the role of peri-procedural prophylactic hydration with saline is unequivocal; the use of acetyl cysteine is not based on robust evidence. The utility of theophylline, aminophylline, calcium channel blockers, natriuretic peptide, and diuretics does not have proven role in attenuating CIN incidence. We aim to analyze the evidence for using various protocols in published literature to limit CIN-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly during surveillance of the renal allograft survival.
Abbas, Fedaey Mohammed; Julie, Bridson M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed
The risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in renal transplant recipients is increased in diabetics, patients with impaired basal kidney function, patients in shock, patients presenting with acute emergency and in old age recipients. Approximately one-third of all hospitalized patients with acute kidney injury is attributed to CIN. In the United States, it is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Therefore, efforts should be directed to minimize CIN-related morbidity and mortality as well as to shorten hospital stay. While the role of peri-procedural prophylactic hydration with saline is unequivocal; the use of acetyl cysteine is not based on robust evidence. The utility of theophylline, aminophylline, calcium channel blockers, natriuretic peptide, and diuretics does not have proven role in attenuating CIN incidence. We aim to analyze the evidence for using various protocols in published literature to limit CIN-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly during surveillance of the renal allograft survival. PMID:28058218
Reznichenko, Anna; Snieder, Harold; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H.; Damman, Jeffrey; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; van Goor, Harry; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Niesing, Jan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Seelen, Marc; Navis, Gerjan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder. As genome-wide association studies identified cubilin gene CUBN as a locus for albuminuria, and urinary protein loss is a risk factor for progressive CKD, we tested the hypothesis that common genetic variants in CUBN are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proteinuria. First, a total of 1142 patients with ESRD, admitted for renal transplantation, and 1186 donors were genotyped for SNPs rs7918972 and rs1801239 (case-control study). The rs7918972 minor allele frequency (MAF) was higher in ESRD patients comparing to kidney donors, implicating an increased risk for ESRD (OR 1.39, p = 0.0004) in native kidneys. Second, after transplantation recipients were followed for 5.8 [3.8–9.2] years (longitudinal study) documenting ESRD in transplanted kidneys – graft failure (GF). During post-transplant follow-up 92 (9.6%) cases of death-censored GF occurred. Donor rs7918972 MAF, representing genotype of the transplanted kidney, was 16.3% in GF vs 10.7% in cases with functioning graft. Consistently, a multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that donor rs7918972 is a predictor of GF, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.53, p = 0.055). There was no association of recipient rs7918972 with GF. Rs1801239 was not associated with ESRD or GF. In line with an association with the outcome, donor rs7918972 was associated with elevated proteinuria levels cross-sectionally at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, we identified CUBN rs7918972 as a novel risk variant for renal function loss in two independent settings: ESRD in native kidneys and GF in transplanted kidneys. PMID:22574174
Russcher, Marije; Nagtegaal, J Elsbeth; Nurmohamed, S Azam; Koch, Birgit C P; van der Westerlaken, Monique M L; van Someren, Eus J W; Bakker, Stephan J L; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Gaillard, Carlo A J M
Sleep disturbance is an important medical problem in patients with end-stage renal disease. It might be related to the disruption of the body's circadian clock since nocturnal levels of its key biomarker melatonin are markedly reduced. We aimed at investigating whether a change in renal function due to kidney transplantation or donation would modify sleep, melatonin levels, circadian rhythmicity, and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and living donors (LD). In KTR, we assessed saliva melatonin concentrations, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness prior to and at 2 weeks and 3 months after transplantation. In LD, we assessed these parameters prior to and at 3 months after donation. We additionally assessed 24-hour core body temperature (cBT), 24-hour blood pressure profile, and quality of life (QoL) prior to and 3 months after transplantation. Twenty-three KTR and 23 LD completed the study. Regarding sleep, the amount of nighttime awake minutes tended to be reduced in recipients after transplantation (p = 0.05). Nocturnal melatonin concentrations did not change with transplantation or donation. Blood pressure dipping profile and the two circadian markers dim-light melatonin onset and time of core body temperature minimum did not change. Nevertheless, KTR reported that daytime sleepiness and QoL had improved. Objectively nocturnal sleep quality marginally improved after transplantation. Subjectively patients reported improved QoL and daytime sleepiness scores. Changes in renal function were not associated with modified melatonin secretion or circadian rhythmicity.
Zainudin, B M; Kassim, F; Annuar, N M; Lim, C S; Ghazali, A K; Murad, Z
A renal transplant patient presented with ileal perforation due to histoplasmosis 3 years after transplantation. Mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs were also affected by the disease. She was successfully treated with amphotericin B followed by ketoconazole.
Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Kutlugun, Aysun Aybal; Aki, Tuncay; Turgan, Cetin
Drug-induced interstitial nephritis is one of the causes of graft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. Although commonly implicated as a cause of drug-induced interstitial nephritis in the general population, proton pump inhibitor-induced interstitial nephritis has not yet been reported in renal transplant recipients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is responsible for most cases of interstitial nephritis in this population. Here, we describe the first case of proton pump inhibitor-related interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient.
Boletis, J N; Pefanis, A; Stathakis, C; Helioti, H; Kostakis, A; Giamarellou, H
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare disease in renal transplant recipients. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) is known to be effective against VL. However, previously there has been no experience with administration of such treatment to renal transplant recipients. We report herein four patients with VL complicating renal transplantation who were treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B (total dose, 23-40 mg/kg). Neither adverse reactions nor clinical relapses of VL were observed.
Bataille, Aurélien; Abbas, Samia; Semoun, Oren; Bourgeois, Éric; Marie, Olivier; Bonnet, Francine; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Abboud, Imad; Losser, Marie-Reine; Jacob, Laurent
This prospective observational study aimed to assess the relevance of serial postoperative plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measurements on prediction of early renal transplant function. Plasma NGAL (pNGAL) was measured (Triage NGAL Test; Biosite Inc., Inverness Medical) in 41 patients scheduled for kidney transplantation from deceased or living donors, immediately before and after surgery, and at 12 hr, day 1, day 3, and day 7. A delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as the need for dialysis during the first week. The results were expressed as median (Q1, Q3). Of the 41 consecutive patients enrolled, all had a high preoperative pNGAL level: 453 ng/mL (382, 595). Fifteen (36.6%) presented a DGF. In patients with DGF, pNGAL was significantly higher at 12 hr (571 [467, 634] vs. 242 [158, 299] ng/mL, P<0.0001) and at day 1 (466 [356, 627] vs. 165 [91, 248] ng/mL, P<0.0001). A pNGAL higher than 400 ng/mL 12 hr after transplantation predicted DGF with a sensitivity of 93.3%, a specificity of 88.5%, and an odds ratio of 63.2 (P=0.0004). This predictive performance was higher than for plasma creatinine. pNGAL level early and accurately predicted DGF after renal transplantation. pNGAL measurements allowed monitoring of the renal function in this striking situation of ischemia-reperfusion aggression. Early identification of patients at risk of DGF, before graft lesions are consolidated, opens the field of a precise monitoring of renal injury and the impact of future protective therapeutics.
Rao, M.; Arya, N. Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J.; Loan, W.; Soong, C.V.
Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.
Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long
Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation.
Midtvedt, Karsten; Bjorang, Ola; Letting, Anne-Sofie
Pregnancy after renal transplantation has become increasingly common. Studies in non-immunocompromised patients have shown that pregnant women have increased susceptibility to infection or reactivation of latent virus such as BK virus. To what extent a renal transplant recipient is at risk for reactivation of polyoma virus during pregnancy remains unknown. We hereby report successful pregnancy outcome in a renal transplant recipient with a known history of BK virus nephropathy treated with cidofovir i.v. To our knowledge, this is the first published experience with a successful pregnancy in renal transplant recipients with known history of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy.
Guirado, Luis; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Andrés, Amado; Rengel, Manuel; Escuin, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Díaz, Joan M.; Beneyto, Isabel; Morales, José Mariá
Background. Renal re-transplants are increasing in number, due to many first renal transplant patients coming back to dialysis treatment. There are controversial opinions about the evolution of these re-transplanted patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the prognosis of patients and grafts under a renal re-transplant. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 579 renal re-transplants realized in 15 Spanish different centres in the years 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002 including all renal re-transplants realized in the above-mentioned centres during the same periods. Results. During the follow-up period, 8.81% of patients died. The actuarial patient survival was 85% at 10 years and 80% at 15 years. Principal reasons of death were the same as normal for the renal transplanted patient: cardiovascular (30.77%), infectious (13.46%) and neoplastic (13.46%). During the period of follow-up, 28.6% of the grafts were lost. The actuarial graft survival was 75% at 10 years and 58% at 15 years. Causes of graft loss are very similar to those described in literature. Conclusion. Renal re-transplant is a kind of substitute renal treatment with excellent clinical results that allow to take it as a first-order modality of treatment when the first renal transplant has failed. PMID:20508863
Reichert, Benedikt; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Becker, Thomas; Schiffer, Mario; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schrem, Harald
Transfusion requirements of blood products may provide useful prognostic factors for the prediction of short-term patient mortality and renal outcome after liver transplantation. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive liver transplants in adults were analysed retrospectively. Combined and living-related liver transplants were excluded. The amount of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) and units of platelets (UP) within the first 48 h were investigated as prognostic factors to predict short-term patient mortality and renal outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with area under the curve (AUC), Hosmer-Lemeshow tests and Brier scores were used to calculate overall model correctness, model calibration and accuracy of prognostic factors. Cut-off values were determined with the best Youden index. The potential clinical usefulness of PRBC as a prognostic factor to predict 30-day mortality (cut-off 17.5 units) and post-transplant haemodialysis (cut-off 12.5 units) could be demonstrated with AUCs >0.7 (0.712 and 0.794, respectively). Hosmer-Lemeshow test results and Brier scores indicated good overall model correctness, model calibration and accuracy. The UP proved as an equally clinically useful prognostic factor to predict end-stage renal disease (cut-off 3.5 units; AUC = 0.763). The association of cut-off levels of PRBC with patient survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test) and dialysis-free survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test) was significant (cut-off levels 17.5 and 12.5 units, respectively) as well as the association of UP with dialysis-free survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test) (cut-off level 3.5 units). The impressive discriminative power of these simple prognostic factors for the prediction of outcome after liver transplantation emphasizes the relevance of strategies to avoid excessive transfusion requirements.
Park, K; Lee, J H; Huh, K H; Kim, S I; Kim, Y S
To alleviate the organ shortage, the use of more living donors is strongly recommended world wide. A living donor exchange (swap) program was launched in Korea. After the success of a direct swap program between two families, we have developed the swap-around program to expand the donor pool by enrolling many kinds of unrelated donors. Herein, we report our results of a living donor exchange program. This retrospectively review of 978 recipients of kidney transplants from living donors, included analysis of donor-recipient relationships, mode of donor recruitment, episodes of acute rejection, and 5-year patient/graft survivals. Transplantation was performed in 101 patients (10.3%) by way of the swap program. The proportion of swap patients among the number of unrelated donor renal transplants has been increasing from 4.2% to 46.6%. The incidence of acute rejection and 5-year patient/graft survival rates were comparable between the groups. We have achieved some success in reducing the organ shortage with a swap program in addition to our current unrelated living donor programs without jeopardizing graft survival. Potentially exchangeable donors should undergo strict medical evaluation by physicians and social evaluation by social workers and coordinators as a pre-requisite for kidney transplantation. Expanding the swap around program to a regional or national pool could be an option to reduce the organ donor shortage in the future.
Fernando, Rodrigo C; Rizzatti, Edgar G; Braga, Walter M T; Santos, Melina G; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Pestana, José O M; Baiocchi, Otavio C G; Colleoni, Gisele W B
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between serum free light chains (sFLC) quantification and the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), using serum samples from a nested case-control cohort of patients with renal transplant. Ten new cases of PTLD and 46 controls were enrolled. Additional comparison groups consisted of five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, five with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma and six normal individuals. Serum κ and λ FLC concentrations were measured by nephelometry and compared with reference ranges (normal and renal ranges). κ and/or λ were above the normal range in 90% of cases and in 65% of matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups, except for λ FLC concentrations between cases of PTLD and normal individuals (p = 0.016). The κ/λ sFLC ratios of cases and controls were within the renal range and normal range. Our results suggest that sFLC are not useful to predict PTLD development in renal transplant recipients.
Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J
We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.
Grekas, D; Kassimatis, E; Makedou, A; Bacharaki, D; Bamichas, G; Tourkantonis, A
The most common cause of post-transplant dyslipidemia is the use of corticosteroids and cyclosporin-A (CyA). The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have emerged as the agents of first choice in the treatment of post-transplant hyperlipidemia in combination with low fat diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined treatment with low-dose pravastatin and fish oil in post-renal transplantation dislipidemia. Twenty-four renal transplant patients, 15 men and 9 women aged from 30 to 60 years with stable renal function were included in this study. All patients were transplanted from living related donors and were given a stable triple immunosuppressive therapy, with methylprednisolone, azathioprine and CyA. All patients were also given a standard diet containing 1 g/kg BW protein, reducing the daily fat to less than 30%, and maintaining at least a 1:1 ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated (or monounsaturated) fats. A dosage of 20 mg pravastatin (pravachol) and 1 g of fish oil (p