Science.gov

Sample records for living things by characteristics

  1. Primary students' conceptions of living things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legaspi, Britt Anne

    Elementary school teachers are pressed for time throughout the instructional day to teach all curricular areas as expected by states and districts because of the current focus on reading and mathematics. Thus, foundational science concepts may be overlooked. For example, students' understandings of living and nonliving things may be overlooked by teachers, yet is useful in understanding the nature of living things. In this qualitative study, K-3 grade students were asked to sort objects as either living or nonliving and to give rationales for their choices. It was found that K-3 students readily used physical characteristics, such as having body parts, and physical abilities, such as being able to move, as criteria for living things. Students in grades 1 through 3 were able to articulate their reasons with more adult-like logic based on Jean Piaget' s research on developmental stages.

  2. The Concept of Living and Non-Living Things in the World of Primary School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal how the concepts of living and non-living things are in the world of the primary school (4th and 5th classes) students, what they remember when they are told about living and non-living things and what the characteristics of living and non-living things are according to them. The research is a descriptive…

  3. Children's Conceptions of Plants as Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Naomi; Stavy, Ruth

    In this study, the attitudes of Israeli children aged 6 to 15 years were surveyed regarding their conceptions of plants as living things. It was desired to find out whether children consider plants to be alive, the knowledge differences between the different age groups in the study, how children classify plants according to biological criteria and…

  4. Demonstrating the Influence of UV Rays on Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment that introduces students to the different types of UV rays and their effects on living things by using appropriate teaching materials and equipment. Demonstrates the effects of exposure to UV-B (fluorescent) and UV-C (germicidal) lamps by using bananas, duckweed, and the fruit fly. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. Young Chinese Children's Justifications of Plants as Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to explore how Chinese preschool children categorize plants into either living or nonliving things. The research was framed within the interpretive paradigm and was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Participants were children 4 to 6 years of age from 3 kindergartens in Jiangsu…

  6. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  7. Mathematics and Living Things. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Norman J.; And Others

    This document is designed for grade eight to enrich and supplement the usual courses of instruction. Mathematics and Living Things (MALT) utilizes exercises in biological science to derive data through which mathematical concepts and principles may be introduced and expanded. Chapters included are: (1) Leaves and Natural Variation: Measurement of…

  8. How to Care for Living Things in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Grace K.

    In this National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) publication, the advantages of having living things in the classroom are discussed. Also given is a brief description of the facilities and environments required for various common mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and plants. (CP)

  9. Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure about "Living Thing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of "living thing" through revealing their conceptual framework. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. A free word association test was used as a data collection…

  10. Evaluating ITV Production Techniques: Community of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Lawrence E.

    Effective production techniques for an ITV series, "Community of Living Things," are evaluated in this paper. The program is part of a junior high life science series. Five basic practices, chosen for their student interest and instructional value, were utilized: (1) rapidity of visualization, (2) few teacher appearances, (3) repetitive film…

  11. How Do Young Children Deal with Hybrids of Living and Non-Living Things: The Case of Humanoid Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a…

  12. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  13. Exploring Korean young children's ideas about living things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Re

    This qualitative study explored concepts of living things that five- and six-year-old Korean children held prior to formal instructional interventions and how their concepts were changed and developed over one semester in a kindergarten classroom. Six focal children in a class of 30 were interviewed in two phases and their hands-on classroom activities and teacher-children interactions were observed. The teacher's journal was also used to gather data. As the study was conducted, a number of alternative concepts related to the children's perceptions of living things were identified and described. The researcher interviewed the children to determine their initial ideas, using an informal interview guide; they responded whether certain objects were living or not, and how they told if the particular objects were living or not. The classroom activities were also observed in large/small groups and individually. An assisting observer viewed the classroom activities and simultaneously recorded science-related teacher-children interactions and the children's hands-on activities. Later the researcher made a transcription of the observer's notes. The data were also collected from the teacher's journal, in which she recorded everyday classroom activities and reflected on teaching and learning. Finally, after 8 weeks of the 16-week instructional intervention, the researcher interviewed the children, using a formal interview guide, as to how their concepts of living things had changed and developed. The researcher interviewed the children as to whether particular objects were plants or animals, neither or both, and the criteria they used to decide. The study showed that the kindergarten children had solid and unique ideas based on their everyday experience with living and non-living things prior to the formal instructional inventions. In the classroom activities, the children showed that they rejected or changed several of their own concepts of living things. The instructional

  14. Parent-child talk about the origins of living things.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Hohenstein, Jill M

    2016-10-01

    This study examined relations between 124 British children's and their parents' endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, and plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n=64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution, and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children's endorsements were correlated with their parents' endorsements for all three living things. Children's endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents' endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children's endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children's appropriation of scientific content.

  15. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  16. How do young children deal with hybrids of living and non-living things: the case of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Megan M; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-11-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a familiar complex artifact (a camera). Results demonstrated that 4-year-olds tended to treat the category-defying entities like members of the inanimate group, while 3-year-olds showed more variability in their responding. This finding suggests that preschoolers' ability to classify complex artifacts that cross the living-non-living divide becomes more stable between the ages of 3 and 4 and that children at both ages draw on a range of properties when classifying such entities.

  17. An Internet of Things platform architecture for supporting ambient assisted living environments.

    PubMed

    Tsirmpas, Charalampos; Kouris, Ioannis; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Giokas, Kostas; Iliopoulou, Dimitra; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2016-11-18

    Internet of Things (IoT) is the logical further development of today's Internet, enabling a huge amount of devices to communicate, compute, sense and act. IoT sensors placed in Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) environments, enable the context awareness and allow the support of the elderly in their daily routines, ultimately allowing an independent and safe lifestyle. The vast amount of data that are generated and exchanged between the IoT nodes require innovative context modeling approaches that go beyond currently used models. Current paper presents and evaluates an open interoperable platform architecture in order to utilize the technical characteristics of IoT and handle the large amount of generated data, as a solution to the technical requirements of AAL applications.

  18. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  19. Young Children Learning about Living Things: A Case Study of Conceptual Change from Ontological and Social Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady

    2004-01-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative…

  20. Young children learning about living things: A case study of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady

    2004-05-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative data-collection methods to investigate the process of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives when Year 1 (5- and 6-year-old) students were learning about living things. Most students were found to think about living things with either stable, nonscientific or stable, scientific framework theories. Transitional phases of understanding also were identified. Patterns of conceptual change observed over the 5-week period of instruction included theory change and belief revision as well as reversals in beliefs. The predominant pattern of learning, however, was the assimilation of facts and information into the students' preferred framework theory. The social milieu of the classroom context exposed students' scientific and nonscientific beliefs that influenced other individuals in a piecemeal fashion. Children with nonscientific theories of living things were identified as being least able to benefit from socially constructed, scientific knowledge; hence, recommendations are made for teaching that focuses on conceptual change strategies rather than knowledge enrichment.

  1. The disparity mutagenesis model predicts rescue of living things from catastrophic errors

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    In animals including humans, mutation rates per generation exceed a perceived threshold, and excess mutations increase genetic load. Despite this, animals have survived without extinction. This is a perplexing problem for animal and human genetics, arising at the end of the last century, and to date still does not have a fully satisfactory explanation. Shortly after we proposed the disparity theory of evolution in 1992, the disparity mutagenesis model was proposed, which forms the basis for an explanation for an acceleration of evolution and species survival. This model predicts a significant increase of the mutation threshold values if the fidelity difference in replication between the lagging and leading strands is high enough. When applied to biological evolution, the model predicts that living things, including humans, might overcome the lethal effect of accumulated deleterious mutations and be able to survive. Artificially derived mutator strains of microorganisms, in which an enhanced lagging-strand-biased mutagenesis was introduced, showed unexpectedly high adaptability to severe environments. The implications of the striking behaviors shown by these disparity mutators will be discussed in relation to how living things with high mutation rates can avoid the self-defeating risk of excess mutations. PMID:25538731

  2. Genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strains carried by adolescents living in Milan, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Terranova, Leonardo; Montinaro, Valentina; Scala, Alessia; Ansuini, Valentina; Principi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Before a protein vaccine is introduced into a country, it is essential to evaluate its potential impact and estimate its benefits and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis B (NmB) in the pharyngeal secretions of 1375 healthy adolescents aged 13–19 y living in Milan, Italy, in September 2012, and the possible protection offered by the two currently available NmB protein vaccines. Ninety-one subjects were Nm carriers (6.6%), 29 (31.9%) of whom carried the NmB capsular gene. The 29 identified strains belonged to eight clonal complexes (CCs), the majority of which were in the ST-41/44/Lin.3 CC (n = 11; 37.9%). All of the identified strains harboured ƒHbp alleles representing a total of 15 sub-variants: the gene for NHBA protein was found in all but three of the studied strains (10.3%) with 13 identified sub-variants. There were 15 porA sub-types, seven of which were identified in just one CC. The findings of this study seem to suggest that both of the protein vaccines proposed for the prevention of invasive disease due to NmB (the 4-protein and the 2-protein products) have a composition that can evoke a theoretically effective antibody response against the meningococcal strains currently carried by adolescents living in Northern Italy. The genetic characteristics of NmB strains can be easily evaluated by means of molecular methods, the results of which can provide an albeit approximate estimate of the degree of protection theoretically provided by the available vaccines, and the possible future need to change their composition. PMID:23880917

  3. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-08-04

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application.

  4. A Cloud-Based Internet of Things Platform for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application

  5. Different Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets.] Unit 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) help students develop an elementary understanding of how living things can be…

  6. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  7. "Trees and Things That Live in Trees": Three Children with Special Needs Experience the Project Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Susan; Elgas, Peg; Konerman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on research conducted during a project investigation undertaken with preschool children, ages 3-5. The report focuses on three children with special needs and the positive outcomes for each child as they engaged in the project Trees and Things That Live in Trees. Two of the children were diagnosed with developmental delays, and…

  8. LED and Semiconductor Photo-effects on Living Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyasu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takemitsu; Fujiyasu, Kentarou; Ujihara, Shirou; Watanabe, Naoharu; Sunayama, Shunji; Ikoma, Shuuji

    We have studied LED irradiation effects on plants and animals in the visible to UV region of light from GaN LEDs. The results are as follows. Blue light considers to be effective for pearl cultivation or for attraction of small fishes living in near the surface of sea such as Pompano or Sardine, white light radiation is effective for cultivation of botanical plankton for shells. Other experiments of UV light irradiation attracting effect on baby sea turtle and the germination UV effect of mushroom, green light weight enhance effect on baby pigs, light vernalization effect of vegitable and Ge far infrared therapic effect on human body are also given.

  9. Science K-12, Living Things Are Products of Their Heredity and Their Environment. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, health, general science, physical science) and grade level. Concepts regarding characteristics of living things are stressed in objectives for the primary grades (K-5), and reproductive biology is covered…

  10. Invitations to Interdependence: Caught in the Web. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about ecosystems which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  11. Invitations to Heredity: Generation to Generation. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about heredity and genetics which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish),…

  12. Invitations to Cells: Life's Building Blocks. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about cells which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  13. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  14. Invitations to Evolving. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about evolution which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  15. A progressive category-specific semantic deficit for non-living things.

    PubMed

    Moss, H E; Tyler, L K

    2000-01-01

    We report a longitudinal study of a patient, ES, with a progressive degenerative disorder resulting from generalised cerebral atrophy. Across a range of tasks, ES showed a greater difficulty in recognising and naming artifacts than living things. This deficit for artifacts emerged over time, as she became more severely impaired. In one task, picture naming, there was a crossover from an initial deficit for living things to the later artifact deficit. All materials were carefully controlled to rule out potential confounding factors such as concept familiarity or age of acquisition. There was no evidence that ES's deficit for artifacts was associated with a greater loss of functional than visual information. The pattern of results are consistent with a recently proposed distributed connectionist model, in which a deficit for artifact concepts can emerge as the result of severe, general damage to semantic memory.

  16. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants’ wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment. PMID:27869682

  17. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-11-17

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants' wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment.

  18. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  19. Neighborhood Intimacy as Perceived by Women Living in Urban Areas and its Association with Personal and Social Network Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to determine association between personal, family, neighborhood, and social network characteristics and perceived intimacy in the neighborhood by the women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we applied a two-stage sampling method to choose a representative sample of 150 married women and housewives, aged 15 to 49 years, who had education between six and twelve years and lived in the urban areas of the Khorasan-e-Razavi province of Iran. Association between personal, family, neighborhood, and social network variables, with the perceived neighborhood intimacy, was assessed through univariate and multiple linear regression. Results: Based on the multiple model, there were significant associations between neighborhood intimacy as perceived by the women and their education level (Standardized Beta=–0.190, P=0.019), length of residence (Standardized Beta=0.175, P=0.029), self-rated health status (Standardized Beta=0.177, P=0.029), and their individual social network size (Standardized Beta=0.211, P=0.030). Conclusion: The potential predictors including length of residence, self-rated health, and size of the respondents’ personal social networks had a direct association with the women's perceived neighborhood intimacy, while the education level of the respondents had an inverse association with the neighborhood intimacy, as another potential predictor. Neighborhood intimacy could express the social health condition of the community members. PMID:22708028

  20. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  1. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  2. Remembrance of things past: modelling the relationship between species' abundances in living communities and death assemblages.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Thomas D

    2012-02-23

    Accumulations of dead skeletal material are a valuable archive of past ecological conditions. However, such assemblages are not equivalent to living communities because they mix the remains of multiple generations and are altered by post-mortem processes. The abundance of a species in a death assemblage can be quantitatively modelled by successively integrating the product of an influx time series and a post-mortem loss function (a decay function with a constant half-life). In such a model, temporal mixing increases expected absolute dead abundance relative to average influx as a linear function of half-life and increases variation in absolute dead abundance values as a square-root function of half-life. Because typical abundance distributions of ecological communities are logarithmically distributed, species' differences in preservational half-life would have to be very large to substantially alter species' abundance ranks (i.e. make rare species common or vice-versa). In addition, expected dead abundances increase at a faster rate than their range of variation with increased time averaging, predicting greater consistency in the relative abundance structure of death assemblages than their parent living community.

  3. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history.

  4. Can We Make Definite Categorization of Student Attitudes? A Rough Set Approach to Investigate Students' Implicit Attitudinal Typologies toward Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of analyzing educational data using the theory of rough sets which is mostly employed in the fields of data analysis and data mining. Data were collected using an open-ended conceptual understanding test of the living things administered to first-year high school students. The responses of randomly selected…

  5. Interdependence of Living Things: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development--Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    An episodic and activity oriented approach is employed in this unit that illustrates the theme of interdependence of living things. Concepts related to dependence, competition, community, and ecosystems are developed through a case study of a raccoon problem. Various means of solving the raccoon problem are explored within a societal context. Five…

  6. Living with a Grandparent and Parent in Early Childhood: Associations with School Readiness and Differences by Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of three-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (N∼6,550), this study investigates the associations between three-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differ by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between three-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderate the associations; whereas maternal age, relationship status and poverty do not. The findings suggest that three-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian and Black children, but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, three-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behavior. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather three-generation family households. Overall the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between three-generation coresidence and school readiness. PMID:25365124

  7. Selective impairment of living things and musical instruments on a verbal 'Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire' in a case of apperceptive visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and

  8. Confidence, tolerance, and allowance in biological engineering: the nuts and bolts of living things.

    PubMed

    Porcar, Manuel; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity is generally context-dependent, thereby undermining the re-usability of parts, and predictability of function, necessary for manufacturing new biological objects. Tolerance (acceptable limits within the unavoidable divergence of a nominal value) and allowance (deviation introduced on purpose for the sake of flexibility and hence modularity, i.e. fitting together with a variety of other components) are key aspects of standardization that need to be brought to biological design. These should endow functional building blocks with a pre-specified level of confidence for bespoke biosystems engineering. However, in the absence of more fundamental knowledge, fine-tuning necessarily relies on evolutionary/combinatorial gravitation toward a fixed objective. Also watch the Video Abstract.

  9. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  10. Arctic Land Animals: A Language Development Unit for Science Life and the Environment Living/Non-Living Things. Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Cathy, Ed.; Gilmour, Margy

    Successful bilingual education requires good teaching in both languages. For many years northern Canadian educators have wrestled with the difficulties of teaching English with inappropriate commercial materials from the south. These units were developed by the Department of Education using the Language Development Approach, which is seen as the…

  11. Disaster's Aftermath: Rebuilding Schools Is One Thing--Rebuilding Children's Lives Is Quite Another.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Children who experience disasters such as Hurricane Andrew in southern Florida, are prone to severe and debilitating stress. Districts can prepare by designating a disaster management commander, a search-and-rescue team, and a reuniting team. Planning should include drills, recovery, and restoration elements. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH)

  12. Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.

    This book examines children's many connections to animals and their developmental significance, exploring the growth of the human animal connection, and showing how children's innate interest in animals is shaped by their families and their social worlds, and may in turn shape the kind of people they will become. Chapter 1 documents how theory and…

  13. What things are important in people's lives? A survey of the public's judgements to inform scales of health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A

    1995-11-01

    The research presented here aimed to obtain population norms on pertinent domains of quality of life and health related quality of life, and the relative importance of these domains to people. The OPCS Omnibus Survey was used as the vehicle for the study. This is a monthly survey of a random sample of 2000 adult members of the population in Great Britain, based on a random sample of households. The data was collected for a one month period. The response rate to the survey was 77%. In response to a generic question about the five (priority ordered) most important things in their lives (good or bad), respondents were most likely to freely mention as the first most important thing in their lives relationships with family or relatives, followed by their own health, the health of another (close) person and finances/standard of living/housing. When responses relating to respondents' priority ranked areas 1-5 were combined, the most frequently mentioned area of life was finances/standard of living/housing, followed by relationships with family and friends, own health, the health of close others and social life/leisure activities. Thus, different distributions were obtained depending on whether priority ordering or frequency with which item was mentioned was analysed. Of those who reported a longstanding illness, the conditions which were most likely to be reported as affecting their lives were respiratory conditions, joint disorders and heart and circulatory diseases. The most commonly freely mentioned first most important effects of the longstanding illness on their lives were (in order of frequency) ability to get out and about/stand/walk/go out shopping, being able to work/find a job and effects on social life/leisure activities (based on office coding from verbatim responses recorded on the questionnaire). When the responses relating to respondents' priority ranks 1-5 were combined, the most frequently mentioned area of life affected was ability to get out and about

  14. Becoming a nurse faculty leader: taking risks by doing the right thing.

    PubMed

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Pardue, Karen; Young, Patricia K; Morales, Mary Lou; Halstead, Judith; Pearsall, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is a key aspect of academic leadership essential to meeting the challenges and opportunities in higher education. What are the practices of risk taking in nurse faculty leaders? This interpretive phenomenological study examines the experience and meaning of risk taking among nurse leaders. The theme of doing the right thing is brought forth through in-depth hermeneutic analysis of 14 individual interviews and two focus group narratives. The practice of doing the right thing is propelled and captured by leaders through a sense professional responsibility, visioning the future, and being true to self and follow one's core values. This study develops an evidence base for incorporating ways of doing the right thing in leadership development activities at a time when there is tremendous need for highly effective leaders in academic settings. Examining the practices of doing the right thing as a part of leadership development lays a foundation for building the next generation of nursing leaders prepared to navigate the ever-changing and complex academic and health care environments.

  15. Discourse as Medium of Knowledge: Transmission of Knowledge by Transmission of Discourse People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on discourse as medium of knowledge. Informal education is a system of transmission of knowledge by transmission of discourse people live by. In the humanities and social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language. Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; it…

  16. Losing Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five children's books that deal with the theme of losing things and the feelings that can accompany it. Also discusses the loss of intangible things, such as talent, concentration, temper, or patience, and presents five creative activities that deal more with the loss of objects. (LRW)

  17. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.

  18. Science K-12, Living Things in Continuous Change. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, general science, physical science, earth science) and grade level. In grades K-6, objectives for topics of science study include conditions for plants and animals to live, adaptation, conservation,…

  19. Nature, Education and Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  20. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  1. Using the Real Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gwendy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program to bring farm animals into the classroom. Topics discussed include using the senses, health and safety for both children and animals, and rewards of using animals in special situations. Talks given include "Similarities and Differences of Living Things"; "From a Sheep to a Ball of Wool"; and "Food from…

  2. Hydroxyflutamide alters the characteristics of live boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zarzycka, Marta; Kotwicka, Malgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Skibinska, Izabela; Kotula-Balak, Malgorzata; Bilinska, Barbara

    2014-10-15

    induced a rapid increase in sperm intracellular calcium ion concentration. Altogether, the altered in vitro characteristics of live boar spermatozoa provide new insight into direct effects of OH-Flu on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide anion production, translocation of membrane phosphatidylserine, free calcium ion dynamics, and sperm motility.

  3. Texts of Our Institutional Lives: Translucency, Coursepacks, and the Post-Historical University--An Investigation into Pedagogical Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflugfelder, Ehren Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary university's reliance on coursepacks, whether they take print or digital form, is illuminated by Bruno Latour's theories and by consideration of a nineteenth-century copyright case involving noted textbook author William McGuffey. In particular, these contexts remind individuals that coursepacks are situated within shifting…

  4. Living and non-living categories. Is there a "normal" asymmetry?

    PubMed

    Capitani, E; Laiacona, M; Barbarotto, R; Trivelli, C

    1994-12-01

    A picture naming task and a semantic memory verbal questionnaire were given to normal subjects to assess the possible asymmetry between knowledge for non-living and living things. We first examined 60 elderly subjects with low education. Asymmetry between non-living and living things was found in the semantic knowledge questionnaire and living things fared worse. This difference was not explained by discrepancy in item frequency, familiarity or prototypicality. Using the same questionnaire, we analysed difficulty judgements given by younger, better-educated subjects: questions about living things were slightly, but significantly more difficult than questions regarding non-living things. In order to check for a possible sample bias, we submitted another verbal questionnaire with an analogous structure to different judges and replicated the previous results. These findings are discussed with regard to the selective semantic memory deficit for living things observed in patients. We suggest that the cognitive pattern presented by these cases may be linked to, but not fully explained by the greater difficulty living things present for normal subjects.

  5. Internet of "printed" Things: low-cost fabrication of autonomous sensing nodes by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    "What if electronics devices are printed using an inkjet printer even at home?" "What if those devices no longer need a battery?" I will introduce two enabling technologies for the Internet of Things concept. 1. Instant Inkjet Circuits: A low cost, fast and accessible technology to support the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. We demonstrated that "sintering-free" silver nano particle ink with a commodity inkjet printer can be used to fabricate printed circuit board and high-frequency applications such as antennas and sensors. The technology is now commercialized by AgIC, Inc. 2. Wireless Power: Although large amounts of data can be exchanged over a wireless communication link, mobile devices are still tethered by power cables. We are trying to solve this problem by two different approaches: energy harvesting. A simple circuitry comprised of diodes and capacitor can convert ambient radio signals into DC current. Our research revealed the signals from TV tower located 6.5km apart could be used to feed 100 microwatts to power microcontrollers.

  6. Compact Planar Ultrawideband Antennas with 3.5/5.2/5.8 GHz Triple Band-Notched Characteristics for Internet of Things Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jian; Li, Qianqian; Deng, Lianwen

    2017-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) antennas, as core devices in high-speed wireless communication, are widely applied to mobile handsets, wireless sensor networks, and Internet of Things (IoT). A compact printed monopole antenna for UWB applications with triple band-notched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The antenna has a very compact size of 10 × 16 mm2 and is composed of a square slotted radiation patch and a narrow rectangular ground plane on the back of the substrate. First, by etching a pair of inverted T-shaped slots at the bottom of the radiation patch, one notched band at 5–6 GHz for rejecting the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is generated. Then, by cutting a comb-shaped slot on the top of the radiation patch, a second notched band for rejecting 3.5 GHz Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is obtained. Further, by cutting a pair of rectangular slots and a C-shaped slot as well as adding a pair of small square parasitic patches at the center of the radiating patch, two separate notched bands for rejecting 5.2 GHz lower WLAN and 5.8 GHz upper WLAN are realized, respectively. Additionally, by integrating the slotted radiation patch with the narrow rectangular ground plane, an enhanced impedance bandwidth can be achieved, especially at the higher band. The antenna consists of linear symmetrical sections only and is easy for fabrication and fine-tuning. The measured results show that the designed antenna provides a wide impedance bandwidth of 150% from 2.12 to 14.80 GHz for VSWR < 2, except for three notched bands of 3.36–4.16, 4.92–5.36, and 5.68–6.0 GHz. Additionally, the antenna exhibits nearly omnidirectional radiation characteristics, low gain at the stopbands, and flat group delay over the whole UWB except at the stopbands. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed antenna can provide good frequency-domain and time-domain performances at desired UWB frequencies and be an attractive candidate for portable Io

  7. Compact Planar Ultrawideband Antennas with 3.5/5.2/5.8 GHz Triple Band-Notched Characteristics for Internet of Things Applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Li, Qianqian; Deng, Lianwen

    2017-02-10

    Ultrawideband (UWB) antennas, as core devices in high-speed wireless communication, are widely applied to mobile handsets, wireless sensor networks, and Internet of Things (IoT). A compact printed monopole antenna for UWB applications with triple band-notched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The antenna has a very compact size of 10 x 16 mm2 and is composed of a square slotted radiation patch and a narrow rectangular ground plane on the back of the substrate. First, by etching a pair of inverted T-shaped slots at the bottom of the radiation patch, one notched band at 5-6 GHz for rejecting the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is generated. Then, by cutting a comb-shaped slot on the top of the radiation patch, a second notched band for rejecting 3.5 GHz Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is obtained. Further, by cutting a pair of rectangular slots and a C-shaped slot as well as adding a pair of small square parasitic patches at the center of the radiating patch, two separate notched bands for rejecting 5.2 GHz lower WLAN and 5.8 GHz upper WLAN are realized, respectively. Additionally, by integrating the slotted radiation patch with the narrow rectangular ground plane, an enhanced impedance bandwidth can be achieved, especially at the higher band. The antenna consists of linear symmetrical sections only and is easy for fabrication and fine-tuning. The measured results show that the designed antenna provides a wide impedance bandwidth of 150% from 2.12 to 14.80 GHz for VSWR < 2, except for three notched bands of 3.36-4.16, 4.92-5.36, and 5.68-6.0 GHz. Additionally, the antenna exhibits nearly omnidirectional radiation characteristics, low gain at the stopbands, and flat group delay over the whole UWB except at the stopbands. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed antenna can provide good frequency-domain and time-domain performances at desired UWB frequencies and be an attractive candidate for portable Io

  8. [Kidney donation by living donors. Surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Baier, P K; Pisarski, P; Wimmenauer, S; Kirste, G

    1999-01-01

    The living donation of kidneys is gaining importance as a possible way to give a transplant to patients with terminal renal insufficiency. However we do not yet have experience with all the possibilities arising from this method. In particular, there is caution caused by the risks of the donor operation. In this context, the method is discussed according to the literature and our own experience of 89 living kidney donations. In our own practice with living donations, we have a success rate with 96% after 4 years and 82% after 16 years. We observed complications including wound infections (10.7%), haemorrhage, hernia and neurological complications (each 2.7%). When performed by specialists, the donor operation is safe and is a responsible alternative to the transplantation of cadaver kidneys, which opens up new possibilities in these times of organ shortage.

  9. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE INITIAL QUESTION IN THE TITLE IS ANSWERED THROUGH SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS FOR CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. MUSCLES, RUNNING, WATER, WIND, STEAM, FAST BURNING AND ELECTRICITY ARE FOUND TO "MAKE THINGS GO." USING THESE BASIC DISCOVERIES, VOCABULARY IS BUILT UP BY WORKING WITH DIFFERENT WORDS RELATING TO THE…

  10. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  11. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture.

  12. On the Surface of Things: Images of the Extraordinary in Science (by Felice Frankel and George M. Whitesides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmeier, J. A.

    1998-11-01

    But more of the mystery comes from looking up close at small things. Part of the image maker's talent is to help us see things that are usually beneath our notice. Surfaces imply interfaces and this book is both of and by interfaces. Felice Frankel is an artist-in-residence and a scientific researcher at MIT; her work has been supported by both the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Science Foundation. She is a photographer, an explorer of landscape architecture who has turned her attention from macro- to microvistas. In both cases, Frankel's work shows us the hand and mind of man working to shape the stuff of nature. In the present book her foil is George Whitesides, Professor of Chemistry at Harvard. He is a leader in shaping our understanding of science and technology. Frankel and Whitesides met at the surface of things and have worked to find ways to make their subjects accessible to others. Frankel's color images awaken interests that are undisturbed by conventional black and white diagrams and other abstracted representations. Images can play tricks on us, however, and I like Frankel's willingness to tell us how she made the images and Whitesides' details about the subject (both are given in a Notes and Readings section at the end). I also like Whitesides' struggle to find words and constructions that open up the underlying science and technology to curious nonspecialists.

  13. Doing the right thing by incorporating evidence and professional goals in the ethics consult.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Anita

    2013-07-01

    Classic ethical decision-making models are discussed, and two recommendations are provided. The author proposes applying evidence-based position statements to ethical deliberation and suggests acknowledging the differing philosophical underpinnings and goals of various stakeholders, including nurses, physicians, families, institutions, and the nation. Examples are provided throughout. When combined with evidence-based information and consideration of group goals, traditional ethical analysis may help nurses "do the right thing."

  14. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL); emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI); disease self-management (PAM); and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC). 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing. PMID:22216947

  15. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  16. 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emails CDC Features 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and families living with CP. Early Signs of CP From birth to 5 years of age, a ...

  17. The internet of things for personalized health.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) enable new personalized health care concepts which are often characterized by four "P" terms, i.e. personalized, predictive, preventive and participatory. However, real world implementations of the complete 4P spectrum hardly exist today. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined as an extension to the current Internet that enables pervasive communication between the physical and the virtual world. Smart devices and enabling elements like Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology already exist and increasingly will be a mainstream element of our lives. This future vision paper attempts to assess if and how the Internet of Things for personalized health (IoT4pH) can help to facilitate the 4P healthcare paradigm and discusses related challenges and opportunities.

  18. Live cell imaging by multifocal multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Straub, M; Lodemann, P; Holroyd, P; Jahn, R; Hell, S W

    2000-10-01

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) permits parallel multiphoton excitation by scanning an array of high numerical aperture foci across a plane in the sample. MMM is particularly suitable for live cell investigations since it combines advantages of standard multiphoton microscopy such as optical sectioning and suppression of out-of-focus phototoxicity with high recording speeds. Here we describe several applications of MMM to live cell imaging using the neuroendocrine cell line PC12 and bovine chromaffin cells. Stainings were performed with the acidophilic dye acridine orange and the lipophilic dyes FM1-43 and Fast DiA as well as by transfection of the cells with GFP. In both bovine chromaffin and PC12 cells structural elements of nuclear chromatin and the 3-D distribution of acidic organelles inside the cells were visualized. In PC12 cells differentiated by nerve growth factor examples of neurites were monitored. Stainings of membranes were used to reconstruct the morphology of cells and neurites in three dimensions by volume-rendering and by isosurface plots. 3-D reconstructions were composed from stacks of about 50 images each with a diameter of 30-100 microm that were acquired within a few seconds. We conclude that MMM proves to be a technically simple and very effective method for fast 3-D live cell imaging at high resolution.

  19. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  20. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  1. Live Chat” Clients at Kids Help Phone: Individual Characteristics and Problem Topics

    PubMed Central

    Haner, Dilys; Pepler, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Young people in Canada prefer to use the Internet over face-to-face contact when seeking help for problems of daily living and mental health problems. Kids Help Phone (KHP) provides on-demand, anonymous help to young people via telephone and Live Chat technologies. Methods Two hundred thirty-two phone clients and 230 Live Chat clients responded to a questionnaire at this otherwise anonymous service, providing previously inaccessible data about their individual characteristics and characterizations of the problems for which they sought help. Results There was a larger proportion of weighty problems (mental health and suicide) among chatters than callers. There were also more non-heterosexual youth, and those who identified as Asian and Black African or Caribbean, using Live Chat than phone. Conclusions Implications for training Live Chat counsellors to respond effectively to chatters are discussed. PMID:27924143

  2. Long-lived polarization protected by symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yesu; Theis, Thomas; Wu, Tung-Lin; Warren, Warren S.; Claytor, Kevin

    2014-10-07

    In this paper we elucidate, theoretically and experimentally, molecular motifs which permit Long-Lived Polarization Protected by Symmetry (LOLIPOPS). The basic assembly principle starts from a pair of chemically equivalent nuclei supporting a long-lived singlet state and is completed by coupling to additional pairs of spins. LOLIPOPS can be created in various sizes; here we review four-spin systems, introduce a group theory analysis of six-spin systems, and explore eight-spin systems by simulation. The focus is on AA′X{sub n}X′{sub n} spin systems, where typically the A spins are {sup 15}N or {sup 13}C and X spins are protons. We describe the symmetry of the accessed states, we detail the pulse sequences used to access these states, we quantify the fraction of polarization that can be stored as LOLIPOPS, we elucidate how to access the protected states from A or from X polarization and we examine the behavior of these spin systems upon introduction of a small chemical shift difference.

  3. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  4. "MSN Was the next Big Thing after Beanie Babies": Children's Virtual Experiences as an Interface to Their Identities and Their Everyday Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author explores the seamlessness between children's online and offline worlds. For children, there is no dichotomy of online and offline, or virtual and real; the digital is so much intertwined into their lives and psyche that the one is entirely enmeshed with the other. Despite early research pointing to the differences that…

  5. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  6. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  7. [Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li-Fang; Da, Xing; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Pei, Yi-Hui

    2009-02-01

    In order to non-invasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity in real time with good temporal resolution, the present study firstly introduced a new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). FCS is a kind of single-molecule technique with high temporal and spatial resolution to analyze the dynamics of fluorescent molecules in nanomolar concentration. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique in conjunction with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining nucleoplasmic viscosity in terms of Stokes-Einstein equation as well as its corresponding analysis of the diffusion coefficient for EGFP in the nucleus. The results showed that nucleoplasmic viscosity of ASTC-a-1 cells and HeLa cells were respectively (2.55 +/- 0.61) cP and (2.04 +/- 0.49) cP at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, consistent with the results by traditional methods, and nucleoplasmic viscosity was found to be larger than cytoplasmic viscosity. Meanwhile, the real-time analysis of nucleoplasmic viscosity in living cells exposed to hypotonic media proved that FCS could be used to track the changing rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm in living cells. Taken together, this study suggests that FCS provides an accurate and non-invasive method to investigate the microenvironment in living cells on the femtoliter scale and it can be used as a powerful tool in researches on the dynamical processes of intracellular molecules.

  8. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  9. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry.

  10. “All of Those Things We Don't Eat”: A Culture-Centered Approach to Dietary Health Meanings for Asian Indians Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Christopher J.; Dutta, Mohan J.; Kandula, Namratha; Palaniappan, Latha

    2015-01-01

    This article applies a culture-centered approach to analyze the dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States. The data were collected as part of a health promotion program evaluation designed to help Asian Indians reduce their risk of chronic disease. Community members who used two aspects of the program participated in two focus groups to learn about their health care experiences and to engage them in dialogue about how culture impacts their overall health. Using constructionist grounded theory, we demonstrate that one aspect of culture, the discourses around routine dietary choice, is an important, but under-recognized, aspect of culture that influences community members’ experiences with health care. We theorize community members’ dietary health meanings operate discursively through a dialectic tension between homogeneity and heterogeneity, situated amid culture, structure, and agency. Participants enacted discursive homogeneity when they affirmed dietary health meanings around diet as an important means through which members of the community maintain a sense of continuity of their identity while differentiating them from others. Participants enacted discursive heterogeneity when they voiced dietary health meanings that differentiated community members from one another due to unique life-course trajectories and other membership affiliations. Through this dialectic, community members manage unique Asian Indian identities and create meanings of health and illness in and through their discourses around routine dietary choice. Through making these discursive health meanings audible, we foreground how community members’ agency is discursively enacted and to make understandable how discourses of dietary practice influence the therapeutic alliance between primary care providers and members of a minority community. PMID:22364189

  11. "All of those things we don't eat": a culture-centered approach to dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher J; Dutta, Mohan J; Kandula, Namratha; Palaniappan, Latha

    2012-01-01

    This article applies a culture-centered approach to analyze the dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States. The data were collected as part of a health promotion program evaluation designed to help Asian Indians reduce their risk of chronic disease. Community members who used two aspects of the program participated in two focus groups to learn about their health care experiences and to engage them in dialogue about how culture impacts their overall health. Using constructionist grounded theory, we demonstrate that one aspect of culture, the discourses around routine dietary choice, is an important, but underrecognized, aspect of culture that influences community members' experiences with health care. We theorize community members' dietary health meanings operate discursively through a dialectic tension between homogeneity and heterogeneity, situated amid culture, structure, and agency. Participants enacted discursive homogeneity when they affirmed dietary health meanings around diet as an important means through which members of the community maintain a sense of continuity of their identity while differentiating them from others. Participants enacted discursive heterogeneity when they voiced dietary health meanings that differentiated community members from one another due to unique life-course trajectories and other membership affiliations. Through this dialectic, community members manage unique Asian Indian identities and create meanings of health and illness in and through their discourses around routine dietary choice. Through making these discursive health meanings audible, we foreground how community members' agency is discursively enacted and to make understandable how discourses of dietary practice influence the therapeutic alliance between primary care providers and members of a minority community.

  12. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-11-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  13. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  14. The Educational Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Thomas Aastrup

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that education should be conceived of as a thing in itself. To lift this view, I present aspects of Graham Harman's philosophy, a speculative realism that can be seen as a radical break with social constructivism and similar approaches. Next, I attempt to outline a rough sketch of an educational "thing", drawing on concepts…

  15. A Few New Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    2008-01-01

    Citing the website "43 Things" (http://www.43things.com/) and derivatives Learning 2.0 (http://plcmcl2-about.blogspot.com/) and California's School Library Learning 2.0 (http://www.schoollibrarylearning2.blogspot.com/), the author suggests other activities to help librarians and teacher-librarians train themselves for leadership in new information…

  16. Simple Things You Can Do To Help All Children Read Well and Independently by the Third Grade. America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatis, Corey; Thompson-Hoffman, Susan; de Kanter, Adriana; Moles, Ollie; Steele, Shirley; Howes, Sarah; Doyle, Michelle; Colmenares, Margarita; Vosburgh, Leah; Herman, Menahem; Ballen, Jennifer; Arnold, Chandler

    This booklet presents suggestions for things people can do to help meet the America Reads Challenge of having all children read well and independently by the end of third grade. One of the ways to meet this challenge is through the research-based community reading initiative, called READ*WRITE*NOW!, which encourages students to read and write at…

  17. Selective Impairment of Living Things and Musical Instruments on a Verbal "Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire" in a Case of Apperceptive Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…

  18. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRODY, LARRY; AND OTHERS

    SIX FIFTH-GRADE SCIENCE UNITS ARE PRESENTED--SOUND AND LIGHT IN COMMUNICATION, LIVING THINGS, WEATHER, EARTH AND ITS RESOURCES, MOTION AND FOREIGN TRANSPORTATION, AND ELECTROMAGNETS. THE INTEREST LEVEL IS APPROPRIATE FOR FIFTH-GRADERS, BUT THREE READING ABILITY LEVELS, GRADES 1, 3, AND 5, ARE PROVIDED. THE TEACHER IS THUS ENABLED TO MOTIVATE…

  19. The Things They Carried: Vietnam War Literature by and about Women in the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of Vietnam War literature by and about women and provides ideas for incorporating it into the reading/English language arts curriculum. Provides a rationale for such literature; discusses types of Vietnam War literature by and about women; and addresses pedagogical aspects. (RS)

  20. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  1. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science.

  2. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile.

  3. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives.…

  4. The World of Tiny Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karstaedt, Debbrah A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the culturing of microorganisms as a laboratory activity emphaszing the growth of microorganisms in food. Provides background and safety information, procedures, and additional ideas. The complete unit (teacher's guide, student worksheets, evaluation and assessment, and resources for students and teachers) is available from the author.…

  5. Differences in Living Things, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of this series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. The purpose of this particular unit is to prove that…

  6. How We like to Live when We Have the Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deguara, Marthese; Jelassi, Omar; Micallef, Brian; Callus, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written by a group of persons with intellectual disability, which is called the Consultative Committee of Persons with Intellectual Disability. This group works in Malta. The article is about how we would like to live. It looks at two things: "where we would like to live" and "going out in the community".…

  7. Associations Among Neighborhood Characteristics and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Black and White MSM Living in a Major Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James E; Cerda, Magdalena; Rundle, Andrew; Quinn, James W; Sheehan, Daniel; Ompad, Danielle C; Van Tieu, Hong; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2017-03-01

    Identifying neighborhood characteristics associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) living in urban areas may inform the development of policies and programs to reduce risk and subsequently HIV prevalence in urban areas. New York City M2M was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics associated with sexual risk behaviors among MSM living in New York City. This paper presents results of an analysis of neighborhood-level indicators of three distinct social theories of influence of the neighborhood environment on human behavior: physical disorder, social disorganization and social norms theories. Using multilevel modeling on a sample of 766 MSM stratified by race/ethnicity, we found little support for the role of social disorganization on the sexual risk behavior of MSM, whereas different indicators of physical disorder exerted negative effects across race groups. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of housing stock maintenance and general neighborhood physical orderliness and cleanliness may have positive effects beyond those traditionally studied for African American MSM and that the field needs novel theorizing regarding whether and how neighborhood or virtual community-level factors relate to sexual behavior among MSM.

  8. The challenges faced by living stock collections in the USA

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Kevin; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Gunnell, Gregg F; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Polihronakis Richmond, Maxi; Yoder, Anne D; Zeigler, Daniel R; Zehr, Sarah; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Many discoveries in the life sciences have been made using material from living stock collections. These collections provide a uniform and stable supply of living organisms and related materials that enhance the reproducibility of research and minimize the need for repetitive calibration. While collections differ in many ways, they all require expertise in maintaining living organisms and good logistical systems for keeping track of stocks and fulfilling requests for specimens. Here, we review some of the contributions made by living stock collections to research across all branches of the tree of life, and outline the challenges they face. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24611.001 PMID:28266913

  9. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.05) of males but not females. The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01) from 0 to 49 d but improved adjusted feed conversion ratio (AdjFCR) from 35 to 49 d (P<0.05). Male broilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01), and improved FCR (P<0.01), but with increased mortality (P<0.05). The inclusion of CC increased relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased relative proventriculus weight (P<0.01) at 49 d. Experiment 2 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 CC levels (0 or 50%) and 2 litter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (P<0.01). New litter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (P<0.01). At 49 d, the birds fed the CC diet had reduced excreta nitrogen (P<0.05) and litter moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, 50% CC inclusion initially produced negative effects on live performance that became positive as BW increased. The effects of CC became evident at an earlier age for males. New litter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance.

  10. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard

    This book is a collection of 66 "How Things Work" columns from the journal "The Physics Teacher," 1983-1991. All the devices and phenomena are ones that are met in everyday life, involve physics principles, and require explanations that are not immediately obvious. Topics include: touch panels in elevators, liquid crystal…

  11. Career Counseling: 101+ Things You Can Do with a Degree in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Biology is the science of life and of how living things work. Our students choose to major in biology in college because of a fascination with understanding how living things function, but often they have difficulty in identifying a career that uses their foundation in biology despite the variety of biology-based careers available. The purpose of…

  12. Altered social behavior and sexual characteristics in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) living downstream of a paper mill.

    PubMed

    Toft, Gunnar; Baatrup, Erik; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-12-10

    Several environmental contaminants have been found in paper mill effluent including substances with androgenic properties. The presence of androgenic substances in paper mill effluent was also indicated in the present study which demonstrated masculinized anal fins of female mosquitofish from the paper mill effluent contaminated Fenholloway River. In addition, when compared to the nearby Econfina River, which does not receive paper mill effluent, fewer females from the contaminated river were pregnant, they were smaller and their estradiol concentration exhibited greater variation. Males from the Fenholloway River and the Econfina River had similar sperm counts, but the testes were larger and greater variation in testosterone concentration was observed in male fish from the Fenholloway River. In males and females from the Fenholloway River, liver weights were increased and computer-aided behavior analysis demonstrated a reduction in their social behavior when compared to reference fish. We conclude that a number of sexual characteristics were affected in mosquitofish living in the paper mill contaminated Fenholloway River, with possible adverse effects on the reproduction of this population.

  13. A Microfinance Program Targeting People Living with HIV in Uganda: Client Characteristics and Program Impact.

    PubMed

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Buzaalirwa, Lydia; Balya, James; Wagner, Glenn

    2016-09-14

    HIV has disproportionately affected economically vulnerable populations. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy, successfully restores physical health but can be insufficient to achieve social and economic health. It may therefore be necessary to offer innovative economic support programs such as providing business training and microcredit tailored to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, microfinance institutions have shown reluctance to reach out to HIV-infected individuals, resulting in nongovernment and HIV care organizations providing these services. The authors investigate the baseline characteristics of a sample of medically stable clients in HIV care who are eligible for microcredit loans and evaluate their business and financial needs; the authors also analyze their repayment pattern and how their socioeconomic status changes after receipt of the program. The authors find that there is a significant unmet need for business capital for the sample under investigation, pointing toward the potentially beneficial role of providing microfinance and business training for clients in HIV care. HIV clients participating in the loans show high rates of repayment, and significant increases in (disposable) income, as well as profits and savings. The authors therefore encourage other HIV care providers to consider providing their clients with such loans.

  14. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Enhancing Live Practical Demonstration by Using Engagement Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Campbell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines some engagement or "showmanship" devices that can enhance the impact of live practical demonstrations. The fifteen engagement techniques described herein are used by the author in his spectacular chemistry demonstration shows in theaters, but they can also be useful in the classroom environment. Many of the…

  16. Progress in ambient assisted systems for independent living by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqi, Riyad; Mourshed, Monjur; Rezgui, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of the ageing population in many countries is the efficient delivery of health and care services, which is further complicated by the increase in neurological conditions among the elderly due to rising life expectancy. Personal care of the elderly is of concern to their relatives, in case they are alone in their homes and unforeseen circumstances occur, affecting their wellbeing. The alternative; i.e. care in nursing homes or hospitals is costly and increases further if specialized care is mobilized to patients' place of residence. Enabling technologies for independent living by the elderly such as the ambient assisted living systems (AALS) are seen as essential to enhancing care in a cost-effective manner. In light of significant advances in telecommunication, computing and sensor miniaturization, as well as the ubiquity of mobile and connected devices embodying the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT), end-to-end solutions for ambient assisted living have become a reality. The premise of such applications is the continuous and most often real-time monitoring of the environment and occupant behavior using an event-driven intelligent system, thereby providing a facility for monitoring and assessment, and triggering assistance as and when needed. As a growing area of research, it is essential to investigate the approaches for developing AALS in literature to identify current practices and directions for future research. This paper is, therefore, aimed at a comprehensive and critical review of the frameworks and sensor systems used in various ambient assisted living systems, as well as their objectives and relationships with care and clinical systems. Findings from our work suggest that most frameworks focused on activity monitoring for assessing immediate risks, while the opportunities for integrating environmental factors for analytics and decision-making, in particular for the long-term care were often overlooked. The potential for

  17. Detection and Classification of Live and Dead Escherichia coli by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, P.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Taleh, L.; Biddle, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A common goal for astrobiology is to detect organic materials that may indicate the presence of life. However, organic materials alone may not be representative of currently living systems. Thus, it would be valuable to have a method with which to determine the health of living materials. Here, we present progress toward this goal by reporting on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to study characteristics of live and dead cells using Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain K12 cells as a model organism since its growth and death in the laboratory are well understood. Our goal is to determine whether LIBS, in its femto- and/or nanosecond forms, could ascertain the state of a living organism. E. coli strain K12 cells were grown, collected, and exposed to one of two types of inactivation treatments: autoclaving and sonication. Cells were also kept alive as a control. We found that LIBS yields key information that allows for the discrimination of live and dead E. coli bacteria based on ionic shifts reflective of cell membrane integrity. Key Words: E. coli—Trace elements—Live and dead cells—Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—Atomic force microscopy. Astrobiology 15, 144–153. PMID:25683088

  18. Live cell isolation by laser microdissection with gravity transfer.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V

    2013-05-01

    Laser microdissection by pulsing ultraviolet laser allows the isolation and recultivation of live cells based on morphological features or/and fluorescent labelling from adherent cell cultures. Previous investigations described only the use of the laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) for live cell isolation. But LMPC requires complex manipulations and some skill. Furthermore, single-cell cloning using laser microdissection has not yet been demonstrated. The first evidence of successful application of laser microdissection with gravity transfer (LMDGT) for capturing and recultivation of live cells is presented. A new strategy for LMDGT is presented because of the failure to reproduce the manufacturer's protocol. Using the new strategy, successful capturing and recultivation of circle-shaped samples from confluent monolayer of HeLa cells was demonstrated. It was found that LMDGT is easier than LMPC because it doesn't require personal participation of investigator in transferring of isolated samples to final culture dishes. Moreover, for the first time, the generation of clonal colonies from single live cells isolated by laser microdissection was demonstrated. Data obtained in this study confirm that LMDGT is a reliable and high-yield method allowing isolation and expansion of both cell clusters and single cells from adherent cell cultures.

  19. Some Things Must Not Change.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The past three months have been a season of tremendous change, and many of us have been surprised by the political events that have taken place. January heralds a change in administration for the United States, and the future seems uncertain. I sense that change is going to be the new normal, and we have to be able to cope with it-and with each other-for a long time. What I want to talk about is those things that do not change and how we, as nurses and scientists, must remain true to our roots.
.

  20. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic-resistance characteristics of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from free-living and captive raptors in Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee; Whittington, Julia K; Mitchell, Mark; Hoyer, Lois L; Maddox, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Due to their predatory nature, raptor species may serve as important indicators of environmental contamination with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Raptors prey on small rodents and birds that have diverse habitat ranges, including urban and rural environments, and their intestinal microflora can reflect that of the animals on which they feed. Enterococcus spp. were selected as target organisms because they have been isolated from the avian gastrointestinal tract, can be conferred by prey items, and because they are capable of multiple resistance patterns. They are also a concerning source of human antimicrobial resistance. In this study fecal cultures were obtained from 15 May 2004 to 31 August 2004, from 21 free-living raptors and four captive raptors. Enterococcus was isolated from 21 (84%) of the 25 birds, and 54 isolates were chosen for further study based upon unique colony morphology. The most common isolate recovered was Enterococcus faecalis (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 89-100). One bird in the study was determined to have Enterococcus gallinarum. Two distinct ribotypes of E. faecalis were identified, one with unique bands at 11 and 13 kb and the other with unique bands at 14 and 20 kb. Both ribotypes were found in free-living and captive birds. The Enterococcus isolates in this study demonstrated a variety of antimicrobial-resistance characteristics, including almost complete resistance to amikacin, first-generation cephalosporins, spectinomycin, and sulphadimethoxime. Isolates demonstrated variable resistance to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and ticarcillin. No phenotypically vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates were recovered from any of the raptors; three isolates had intermediate level susceptibility. A significantly higher number of isolates collected from captive birds demonstrated resistance to chloramphenicol than those obtained from free-living birds. This trend was not duplicated with any of the remaining

  2. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program.

  3. Detecting Nanodomains in Living Cell Membrane by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

    2011-05-01

    Cell membranes actively participate in numerous cellular functions. Inasmuch as bioactivities of cell membranes are known to depend crucially on their lateral organization, much effort has been focused on deciphering this organization on different length scales. Within this context, the concept of lipid rafts has been intensively discussed over recent years. In line with its ability to measure diffusion parameters with great precision, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements have been made in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane of living cells. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of the cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level and have provided compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. We review these FCS-based studies and the characteristic structural features of raft nanodomains. We also discuss the findings in regards to the current view of lipid rafts as a general membrane-organizing principle.

  4. Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Feng, Chenghong; Quan, Weimin; Chen, Xiaofeng; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-06-01

    Correlation of heavy metals in the tissues of typical organisms (i.e., fishes and crabs) and those in their living environments (i.e., surface water, bottom water, and sediment) in Yangtze River Estuary has been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Metal levels followed the trend: sediments > Eriocheir sinensis > Eriocheir leptognathus > benthic fish > pelagic fish > bottom water > surface water. Tissues in fishes and crabs of different species and sizes had diverse metal bioaccumulation characteristics, which was significantly affected by environment factors and their living habits. Metal levels in legs of crabs, and heads and skins of fishes showed significant correlations with those in their living environments. Collichthys lucidus is an effective bioindicator for assessing metal levels in water. No significant health risk was identified by the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients analyses.

  5. Bioremediation of oxytetracycline in seawater by living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Santaeufemia, Sergio; Torres, Enrique; Mera, Roi; Abalde, Julio

    2016-12-15

    Due to its use, a large amount of Oxytetracycline (OTC) is released into water, which has a detrimental impact on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Although there are different physicochemical methods (mainly photodegradation) to remove OTC, there is increasing interest in the use of bioremediation. The sorption characteristics of OTC using living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum have been investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherms and maximum elimination capacity were tested and discussed. Kinetic studies showed that the OTC removal by living biomass followed a sigmoidal model. However, the dead biomass followed a pseudo-first order model. The living biomass showed higher efficiency than the dead biomass with maximum sorption capacities of 29.18mgg(-1) and 4.54mgg(-1), respectively. Combination of living biomass and photodegradation under the culture conditions eliminated 13.2mgL(-1) of OTC during 11h of culture and with an initial OTC concentration of 15mgL(-1). With an initial OTC concentration of 2.5mgL(-1), 97% of OTC was removed. This removal was mainly caused by bioremediation than by photodegradation. The results proved the potential practical application of the living P. tricornutum biomass for a low-cost and efficient removal of OTC from seawater.

  6. Considerations in video playback design: using optic flow analysis to examine motion characteristics of live and computer-generated animation sequences.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin L; Rieucau, Guillaume

    2008-07-01

    The increasing use of the video playback technique in behavioural ecology reveals a growing need to ensure better control of the visual stimuli that focal animals experience. Technological advances now allow researchers to develop computer-generated animations instead of using video sequences of live-acting demonstrators. However, care must be taken to match the motion characteristics (speed and velocity) of the animation to the original video source. Here, we presented a tool based on the use of an optic flow analysis program to measure the resemblance of motion characteristics of computer-generated animations compared to videos of live-acting animals. We examined three distinct displays (tail-flick (TF), push-up body rock (PUBR), and slow arm wave (SAW)) exhibited by animations of Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) that were compared to the original video sequences of live lizards. We found no significant differences between the motion characteristics of videos and animations across all three displays. Our results showed that our animations are similar the speed and velocity features of each display. Researchers need to ensure that similar motion characteristics in animation and video stimuli are represented, and this feature is a critical component in the future success of the video playback technique.

  7. Characteristic zonal winds and long-lived vortices in the atmospheres of the outer planets.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Reta

    1994-06-01

    The cameras on board the NASA Voyager spacecraft provided a survey of cloud systems within the atmospheres of the giant planets and allowed determination of zonal wind patterns, which constrain long-lived cloud systems. The basic atmospheric circulations are compared and long-lived cloud features are reviewed. The basic structure of the Great Red Spot is reviewed and the tendency of the spot to drift at -4 m s(-1) or -2 m s(-1) is presented.

  8. Estimating Sediment Mass Fluxes on Surfaces Sheltered by Live Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Voegeli, Christian; Horender, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    We present a simple model based on already existing and widely used equations for estimating particle mass fluxes on surfaces sheltered by live vegetation. Wind-tunnel measurements of vertical profiles of mass flux in three different dense live plant canopies, and as a function of the spatially averaged skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , provide the baseline set of data. For the bare-sand surface, the total mass flux Q shows the typical b({u_τ }' - {u_{τ t}}')^{3 } increase with increasing skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , where b is a constant and {u_{τ t}}' is the threshold at the onset of particle erosion. Similar relations, however, with different values for b and {u_{τ t}}' compared to the bare-sand surface were found for experiments with 5.25 and 24.5 plants m^{-2} and can be explained by the spatial variations of u_{τ } for the canopy cases. Based on the resulting parameters b and {u_{τ t}}' , which are found to be functions of the roughness density λ , we present a final simple relation Q(λ , {u_{τ }}') used for estimating the total mass flux for surfaces sheltered by live vegetation.

  9. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lauren R; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A; Lewis, James W

    2009-10-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places-categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and sub-cortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with "embodied" and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may underlie

  10. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Lauren R.; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A.; Lewis, James W.

    2009-01-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places—categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left-lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and subcortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with “embodied” and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may

  11. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families. PMID:25435641

  12. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  13. Embryo production by ovum pick up from live donors.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Crotti, G; Notari, C; Turini, P; Duchi, R; Lazzari, G

    2001-04-01

    Embryo production by in vitro techniques has increased steadily over the years. For cattle where this technology is more advanced and is applied more, the number of in vitro produced embryos transferred to final recipients was over 30,000 in 1998. An increasing proportion of in vitro produced embryos are coming from oocytes collected from live donors by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (ovum pick up, OPU). This procedure allows the repeated production of embryos from live donors of particular value and is a serious alternative to superovulation. Ovum pick up is a very flexible technique. It can be performed twice a week for many weeks without side effects on the donor's reproductive career. The donor can be in almost any physiological status and still be suitable for oocyte recovery. A scanner with a sectorial or convex probe and a vacuum pump are required. Collection is performed with minimal stress to the donor. An average of 8 to 10 oocytes are collected per OPU with an average production of 2 transferable embryos. The laboratory production of embryos from such oocytes does not differ from that of oocytes harvested at slaughter as the results after transfer to final recipients. For other species such as buffalo and horses OPU has been attempted similarly to cattle and data will be presented and reviewed. For small ruminants, laparotomy or laparoscopy seems the only reliable route so far to collect oocytes from live donors.

  14. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities.

  15. Age-related characteristics of brain development in children living in the north.

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Burykh, E A; Sidorenko, G V

    2006-09-01

    The morphofunctional age-related development of the brain was studied in schoolchildren living in the difficult climatological-geographic and socioeconomic conditions of the north (Arkhangel'sk region). Of the 62 students in country middle schools, EEG amplitude-frequency, time, and spatial measures corresponded to age norms (European norms) in only 10 cases (16%). A further 26 children (53%) showed minor abnormalities in the form of an inadequate degree of organization of the temporospatial EEG pattern, mainly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, with increases in the levels of the theta and delta rhythms, and the absence of any marked "functional nucleus" in the alpha rhythm. In the remaining 14 children (29%), EEG measures showed more marked delays in mental development (DMD), which were combined with learning difficulties and abnormal behavior. The retardation in the morphofunctional development of the brain in northern children averaged 1.5-2 years, which coincides with delays in hormonal and physical development described by other authors.

  16. Detection and classification of live and dead Escherichia coli by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Fernández-Bravo, A; Taleh, L; Biddle, J F; Melikechi, N

    2015-02-01

    A common goal for astrobiology is to detect organic materials that may indicate the presence of life. However, organic materials alone may not be representative of currently living systems. Thus, it would be valuable to have a method with which to determine the health of living materials. Here, we present progress toward this goal by reporting on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to study characteristics of live and dead cells using Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain K12 cells as a model organism since its growth and death in the laboratory are well understood. Our goal is to determine whether LIBS, in its femto- and/or nanosecond forms, could ascertain the state of a living organism. E. coli strain K12 cells were grown, collected, and exposed to one of two types of inactivation treatments: autoclaving and sonication. Cells were also kept alive as a control. We found that LIBS yields key information that allows for the discrimination of live and dead E. coli bacteria based on ionic shifts reflective of cell membrane integrity.

  17. Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles.

    PubMed

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, significant advances in microscopy techniques and the introduction of a novel technology to label living cells with genetically encoded fluorescent proteins revolutionized the field of Cell Biology. Our understanding on cell dynamics built from snapshots on fixed specimens has evolved thanks to our actual capability to monitor in real time the evolution of processes in living cells. Among these new tools, single particle tracking techniques were developed to observe and follow individual particles. Hence, we are starting to unravel the mechanisms driving the motion of a wide variety of cellular components ranging from organelles to protein molecules by following their way through the cell. In this review, we introduce the single particle tracking technology to new users. We briefly describe the instrumentation and explain some of the algorithms commonly used to locate and track particles. Also, we present some common tools used to analyze trajectories and illustrate with some examples the applications of single particle tracking to study dynamics in living cells.

  18. Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal

    PubMed Central

    Levner, Daniel; Ittah, Shmulik; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems are collections of discrete molecular objects that move around and collide with each other. Cells carry out elaborate processes by precisely controlling these collisions, but developing artificial machines that can interface with and control such interactions remains a significant challenge. DNA is a natural substrate for computing and has been used to implement a diverse set of mathematical problems1-3, logic circuits4-6 and robotics7-9. The molecule also naturally interfaces with living systems, and different forms of DNA-based biocomputing have previously been demonstrated10-13. Here we show that DNA origami14-16 can be used to fabricate nanoscale robots that are capable of dynamically interacting with each other17-18 in a living animal. The interactions generate logical outputs, which are relayed to switch molecular payloads on or off. As a proof-of-principle, we use the system to create architectures that emulate various logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOT, CNOT, and a half adder). Following an ex vivo prototyping phase, we successfully employed the DNA origami robots in living cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) to control a molecule that targets the cells of the animal. PMID:24705510

  19. Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal.

    PubMed

    Amir, Yaniv; Ben-Ishay, Eldad; Levner, Daniel; Ittah, Shmulik; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2014-05-01

    Biological systems are collections of discrete molecular objects that move around and collide with each other. Cells carry out elaborate processes by precisely controlling these collisions, but developing artificial machines that can interface with and control such interactions remains a significant challenge. DNA is a natural substrate for computing and has been used to implement a diverse set of mathematical problems, logic circuits and robotics. The molecule also interfaces naturally with living systems, and different forms of DNA-based biocomputing have already been demonstrated. Here, we show that DNA origami can be used to fabricate nanoscale robots that are capable of dynamically interacting with each other in a living animal. The interactions generate logical outputs, which are relayed to switch molecular payloads on or off. As a proof of principle, we use the system to create architectures that emulate various logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOT, CNOT and a half adder). Following an ex vivo prototyping phase, we successfully used the DNA origami robots in living cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) to control a molecule that targets their cells.

  20. IV: When Things Get Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Mahoney, Meg Robson; Jordan, Kim; Jackson, Spoon; Gabel, Bonnie; Adams, Holly; Plemons, Anna

    2014-01-01

    It is definitely easier to write about work when things are going well, but it is even more important to write about what happens when things get challenging. The act of writing about the challenging times can be challenging in itself but can also provide invaluable insights into the process of teaching: important for the writer and just as…

  1. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  2. Sharing Roles, Sharing Custody? Couples' Characteristics and Children's Living Arrangements at Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juby, Heather; Le Bourdais, Celine; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article examines children's living arrangements when parents separate, during a period of rapid increase in shared physical custody in the 1990s. With prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N= 758 families) and a sample of families experiencing parental separation between successive survey cycles, we use…

  3. Fluorescence and lasing characteristics of some long-lived flashlamp-pumpable, oxazole dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Henry, R. A.; Kubin, R. F.; Hollins, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of dye structure, cover gas, and solvent are all shown to be critical to laser output and lifetime. The N-methyl tosylate salt of 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl) oxazole in ethanol under argon is found to be the longest-lived, moderate output, laser dye solution of any that have been reported.

  4. Apoptosis as a mechanism of cytolysis of tumor cells by a pathogenic free-living amoeba.

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, H; Pidherney, M S; McCulley, J P; Niederkorn, J Y

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lysed a variety of tumor cells in vitro. Tumor cells undergoing parasite-mediated lysis displayed characteristic cell membrane blebbing reminiscent of apoptosis. The present investigation examined the role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in Acanthamoeba-mediated tumor cell lysis. The results showed that more than 70% of tumor cell DNA was fragmented following exposure to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. By contrast, only 7% of untreated control cells underwent DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation increased significantly in a dose-dependent fashion following concentration of the parasite extract. Apoptosis was also confirmed by DNA ladder formation. Characteristic DNA ladders, consisting of multimers of approximately 180 to 200 bp, were produced by tumor cells exposed to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. The morphology of tumor cell lysis was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Tumor cells exposed to parasite extract displayed morphological features characteristic of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies, and nuclear condensation. By contrast, similar effects were not found in tumor cells exposed to extract similarly prepared from normal mammalian cells (i.e., human keratocytes). The results suggest that at least one species of pathogenic free-living amoeba is able to lyse tumor cells by a process that culminates in apoptosis. Images PMID:8132336

  5. Health-related characteristics of men who have sex with men: a comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, T C; Stall, R; Pollack, L; Paul, J P; Binson, D; Canchola, J; Catania, J A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the limitations of probability samples of men who have sex with men (MSM), limited to single cities and to the areas of highest concentrations of MSM ("gay ghettos"). METHODS: A probability sample of 2881 MSM in 4 American cities completed interviews by telephone. RESULTS: MSM who resided in ghettos differed from other MSM, although in different ways in each city. Non-ghetto-dwelling MSM were less involved in the gay and lesbian community. They were also less likely to have only male sexual partners, to identify as gay, and to have been tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: These differences between MSM who live in gay ghettos and those who live elsewhere have clear implications for HIV prevention efforts and health care planning. PMID:11392945

  6. Relative microelastic mapping of living cells by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    A-Hassan, E; Heinz, W F; Antonik, M D; D'Costa, N P; Nageswaran, S; Schoenenberger, C A; Hoh, J H

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of the mechanical properties of living cells reflect complex underlying physiological processes. Following these changes should provide valuable insight into the biological importance of cellular mechanics and their regulation. The tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to indent soft samples, and the force versus indentation measurement provides information about the local viscoelasticity. By collecting force-distance curves on a time scale where viscous contributions are small, the forces measured are dominated by the elastic properties of the sample. We have developed an experimental approach, using atomic force microscopy, called force integration to equal limits (FIEL) mapping, to produce robust, internally quantitative maps of relative elasticity. FIEL mapping has the advantage of essentially being independent of the tip-sample contact point and the cantilever spring constant. FIEL maps of living Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells show that elasticity is uncoupled from topography and reveal a number of unexpected features. These results present a mode of high-resolution visualization in which the contrast is based on the mechanical properties of the sample. PMID:9512052

  7. Quantitative intracellular magnetic nanoparticle uptake measured by live cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ying; Mal, Niladri; Williams, P. Stephen; Mayorga, Maritza; Penn, Marc S.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles have been used successfully as an intracellular contrast agent for nuclear MRI cell tracking in vivo. We present a method of detecting intracellular SPIO colloid uptake in live cells using cell magnetophoresis, with potential applications in measuring intracellular MRI contrast uptake. The method was evaluated by measuring shifts in mean and distribution of the cell magnetophoretic mobility, and the concomitant changes in population frequency of the magnetically positive cells when compared to the unmanipulated negative control. Seven different transfection agent (TA) -SPIO complexes based on dendrimer, lipid, and polyethylenimine compounds were used as test standards, in combination with 3 different cell types: mesenchymal stem cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and cultured KG-1a hematopoietic stem cells. Transfectol (TRA) -SPIO incubation resulted in the highest frequency of magnetically positive cells (>90%), and Fugene 6 (FUG) -SPIO incubation the lowest, below that when using SPIO alone. A highly regular process of cell magnetophoresis was amenable to intracellular iron mass calculations. The results were consistent in all the cell types studied and with other reports. The cell magnetophoresis depends on the presence of high-spin iron species and is therefore expected to be directly related to the cell MRI contrast level.—Jing, Y., Mal, N., Williams, P. S., Mayorga, M., Penn, M. S., Chalmers, J. J., Zborowski, M. Quantitative intracellular magnetic nanoparticle uptake measured by live cell magnetophoresis. PMID:18725459

  8. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  9. "First Things First" Shows Promising Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

  10. The Pleasure of Finding Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loxley, Peter

    2005-01-01

    "The pleasure of finding things out" is a collection of short works by the Nobel Prize winning scientist Richard Feynman. The book provides insights into his infectious enthusiasm for science and his love of sharing ideas about the subject with anyone who wanted to listen. Feynman has been widely acknowledged as one of the greatest physicists of…

  11. Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight Qualities of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Maurice Sykes has made advocating for and advancing high-quality early childhood education his life's work. Through mentorships, presentations, and personal example, Maurice challenges and inspires educators to become effective leaders who make a difference in children's lives. He does the same in "Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight…

  12. Where the Wild Things Are: Informal Experience and Ecological Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel "diseases" or "insides" from one…

  13. Five Foul Things That Are Also Good for You

    MedlinePlus

    ... That Are Also Good for You Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Five Foul Things That Are Also ... more: NIH Human Microbiome Project This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  14. Humpty Dumpty Reconsidered: Seeing Things Whole in Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    For education to make a lasting difference in people's lives, it must touch all dimensions of being human in ways that are integrated or holistic. Content and instructional methods, such as those of Kurt Hahn and Charity James, that are based on images of the intact human being see things whole from the beginning. But our school experience and the…

  15. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  16. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    PubMed

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

  17. Of atoms, oaks, and cannibals; or, more things that talk.

    PubMed

    Walls, Laura Dassow

    2010-09-01

    While literary works are often treated as museum pieces, an alternative Romantic/ Pragmatic aesthetic emphasizes instead the rootedness of all texts in lived experience. This suggests that both literary and scientific texts may be approached as performances that weave together discursive and material elements, giving language to matter, both making, and becoming, "things that talk." Three authors are contrasted: Emerson uses natural objects as metaphors to complete his thought; Thoreau uses natural objects as mediators who enroll him to speak for them in the name of a wider ecology; Humboldt attempts to enroll nonhumans, namely cannibals, into the global civil community by asking them to speak for themselves. The resulting quandary unsettles the Cartesian boundary between human and nonhuman, subject and object; as scholars divided by this boundary, we must multiply our own relations, the better to understand the ties that bind us into the common project of building the Cosmos.

  18. Where the wild things are: informal experience and ecological reasoning.

    PubMed

    Coley, John D

    2012-01-01

    Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel diseases or insides from one species to an ecologically or taxonomically related species; they were also surveyed about hobbies and activities. Frequency of ecological inferences increased with age and with reports of informal exploration of nature, and decreased with population density. By age 10, children preferred taxonomic inferences for insides and ecological inferences for disease, but this pattern emerged earlier among rural children. These results underscore the importance of context by demonstrating effects of both domain-relevant experience and environment on biological reasoning.

  19. Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams…

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  1. Internalization of ferromagnetic nanowires by different living cells

    PubMed Central

    Prina-Mello, Adriele; Diao, Zhu; Coey, John Michael David

    2006-01-01

    The ability of living cells, either adherent or suspended, to internalize nickel nanowires is demonstrated for MC3T3-E1, UMR106-tumour and Marrow-Stromal cells. Nanowires were produced by electrodeposition, 20 μm long and 200 nm in diameter. Cell separation and manipulation was achieved for the three cell types. Applied magnetic field successfully oriented the internalized nanowires but no clear anisotropy is induced on the adherent cells. Nanowires tend to bind to cytoplasm metalloproteins and trigger lysosome reorganization around the nucleus. This work demonstrates the applications of nanowires in adherent and suspended cells for cell separation and manipulation, and further explore into their role in nanobiotechnology. PMID:16953891

  2. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  3. Family Theory versus the Theories Families Live By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Argues that there is significant disjunction between the way that families live their lives and the way that professionals theorize about families. Using the metaphor of positive and negative spaces, argues that there are many negative spaces in our theorizing--everyday family activities that take up considerable time, energy, and attention but…

  4. Substance Use Behaviors of College Students: Differences by Living Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Marcus B.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional-age college students are continuing to live with their parents at higher percentages than at any time during recent history. However, little research has been conducted during the last 15 years on multiple substance use behaviors of this population and how those behaviors compare to traditional-age students who live in residence halls…

  5. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo D'Ottone, Marcela; Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro, Oscar; Karstensen, Johannes; Gallegos, Mauricio; Correa-Ramirez, Marco; Silva, Nelson; Farias, Laura; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (< 2 µmol kg-1 of O2), subsurface layer (200-400 m) was detected ˜ 900 km off the Chilean shore (30° S, 81° W). The core of the eddy's suboxic layer had a temperature-salinity signature characteristic of Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and "source water" on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP

  6. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis

  7. Live cell opto-injection by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, J.; Bintig, W.; Ngezahayo, A.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging of cells and cell organelles requires labeling by fluorophores. The labeling of living cells is often done by transfection of fluorescent proteins. Viral vectors are transferring the DNA into the cell. To avoid the use of viruses, it is possible to perforate the cell membrane for example by electro-shocks, the so called electroporation, so that the fluorescent proteins can diffuse into the cell. This method causes cell death in up to 50% of the treated cells because the damage of the outer membrane is too large. A less lethal perforation of the cell membrane with high efficiency can be realized by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. Transient pores are created by focusing the laser beam for some milliseconds on the membrane. Through this pore, the proteins can enter into the cell. This was demonstrated in a proof of principle experiment for a few cells, but it is essential to develop an opto-perforation system for large numbers of cells in order to obtain statistically significant samples for biological experiments. The relationship between pulse energy, irradiation time, repetition rate and efficacy of the transfer of a chromophor into the cells as well as the viability of the cells was analysed. The cell viability was observed up to 90 minutes after manipulation.

  8. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  9. F-pili dynamics by live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Margaret; Maddera, Lucinda; Harris, Robin L; Silverman, Philip M

    2008-11-18

    Bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms for cell-cell communication, many of which have important consequences for human health. Among these is conjugation, the direct transfer of DNA from one cell to another. For gram-negative bacteria, conjugation requires thin, flexible filaments (conjugative pili) that are elaborated by DNA donor cells. The structure, function, and especially the dynamics of conjugative pili are poorly understood. Here, we have applied live-cell imaging to characterize the dynamics of F-pili (conjugative pili encoded by the F plasmid of Escherichia coli). We establish that F-pili normally undergo cycles of extension and retraction in the absence of any obvious triggering event, such as contact with a recipient cell. When made, such contacts are able to survive the shear forces felt by bacteria in liquid media. Our data emphasize the role of F-pilus flexibility both in efficiently sampling a large volume surrounding donor cells in liquid culture and in establishing and maintaining cell-cell contact. Additionally and unexpectedly, we infer that extension and retraction are accompanied by rotation about the long axis of the filament.

  10. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  11. Precise microinjection into living cells by summation of fluorescence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taninaka, Kiyoshi; Yabuki, A.; Ito, A.; Harada, T.

    2007-02-01

    It is difficult to introduce a specific amount of a substance into cells by existing injection methods because there is no appropriate method of directly measuring the quantity of the injected substance. Although radioisotopes can be used, there is currently no apparatus that can practically handle such radioisotopes. The measurement of the diameter of a liquid droplet in air or oil is affected by surface tension if the liquid droplet is very small; but this issue does not occur with microinjection, in which a water solution is discharged under pressure through a capillary and into a cell. It is also difficult to measure the density or mass of the injected substance because of the low discharge rate, unlike the case of inkjet printers. To solve these problems, we propose a method of precise microinjection by summation of fluorescence intensity. In addition, we developed a new pressure pulse injection device that generates pressure with a rectangular waveform and a precise amplitude and pulse width to improve controllability of the discharge amount. Lastly, when the above device and method are combined, the coefficient of correlation between the specified number of pressure pulses per unit of time and the actual discharge amount exceeded 0.999. This research paper describes in detail the measurement system, standalone performance, and quantities of substances introduced into living cells.

  12. Cadmium biosorption by non-living aquatic macrophytes Egeria densa.

    PubMed

    Módenes, A N; de Abreu Pietrobelli, J M T; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R

    2009-01-01

    In this work the removal potential on Cd(2+ ) by the non-living Egeria densa biomass has been studied. The influence of the metal solution pH, the plant drying and the metal solution temperature, and biosorbent grain size was previously studied in batch systems. The cadmium adsorption rate has increased when the pH was increasing, but at pH 5, the cadmium precipitation has begun to occur, avoiding such high pH values in other tests. The cadmium removal was around 70% at 30 degrees C biomass dried and solution temperatures, assuming as the best temperature conditions. No significant influence was observed in cadmium removal due to the grain size effect. The biosorption kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order model. The equilibrium time in experiments was around 45 min with a 70% Cd removal. The equilibrium data at pH 5 were described rather better by the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich one, with an adsorption rate and maximum metal content values of 0.40 L g(-1) and 1.28 meq g(-1), respectively, for Langmuir model. The kinetic parameter values are near to other biosorbents, indicating that the macrophytes E. densa could be used as biosorbent material in industrial effluent treatment system.

  13. Detecting light long-lived particle produced by cosmic ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Shou-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting light long-lived particle (LLP) produced by high energy cosmic ray colliding with atmosphere. The LLP may penetrate the atmosphere and decay into a pair of muons near/in the neutrino telescope. Such muons can be treated as the detectable signal for neutrino telescope. This study is motivated by recent cosmic electron/positron observations which suggest the existence of O(TeV) dark matter and new light O(GeV) particle. It indicates that dark sector may be complicated, and there may exist more than one light particles, for example, the dark gauge boson A‧ and associated dark Higgs boson h‧. In this work, we discuss the scenario with A‧ heavier than h‧ and h‧ is treated as LLP. Based on our numerical estimation, we find that the large volume neutrino telescope IceCube has the capacity to observe several tens of di-muon events per year for favorable parameters if the decay length of LLP can be comparable with the depth of atmosphere. The challenge here is how to suppress the muon backgrounds induced by cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos.

  14. Microenvironments and different nanoparticle dynamics in living cells revealed by a standard nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Pack, Chan Gi; Song, Mi Ryoung; Tae, Eunju Lee; Hiroshima, Michio; Byun, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Sako, Yasushi

    2012-11-10

    For quantitative analysis of nanoparticle diffusions and submicro-environments in living cells, use of newly synthesized silica-based fluorescent nanoparticle (Si-FNP) as a standard nanoprobe is successfully demonstrated. The appropriate characteristics of a standard probe were fully analyzed in vitro by single molecule detection, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Using fluorescence correlation analysis in single living cells, we quantitatively compared the diffusional properties of the standard Si-FNP with a diameter of 50 nm, peptide coated Si-FNP, streptavidin coated Qdot, and GFP molecule which have different sizes and surface properties. The result demonstrates that the standard Si-FNP without coat is minimally trapped in the vesicles in the process of cellular endocytosis. Interestingly, a large proportion of Si-FNP introduced into the cells by electroporation diffuses freely in the cells during a cell cycle suggesting free diffusing NPs are hardly trapped in the vesicles. The simple but highly sensitive method will provide insight into strategies to understanding the hydrodynamic process of nanoparticle delivery into living cells as well as the cellular microenvironment in the view of submicro-size.

  15. Implementation of the Internet of Things on Public Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kesheng; Li, Xichun

    The development of the Internet of Things will occur within a new ecosystem that will be driven by a number of key players. The public security as one of the key players is going to make real-time communications will be possible not only by humans but also by things at anytime and from anywhere. This research will present the advent of the Internet of Things to create a plethora of innovative applications and services, which will enhance quality of life and reduce inequalities.

  16. The Geoscience Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.

    2012-04-01

    Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and

  17. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech.

  18. Learning by Living: Life-Altering Medical Education through Nursing Home-Based Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliucci, Marilyn R.; Weiner, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine Learning by Living Project (referred to as Learning by Living) was piloted in 2006 as an experiential medical education learning model. Since its inception, medical and other health professions students have been "admitted" into nursing homes to live the life of an older adult nursing…

  19. Immunity and protection by live attenuated HIV/SIV vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated virus vaccines have shown the greatest potential to protect against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunity against the vaccine virus is thought to mediate protection. However, it is shown computationally that the opposite might be true. According to the model, the initial growth of the challenge strain, its peak load, and its potential to be pathogenic is higher if immunity against the vaccine virus is stronger. This is because the initial growth of the challenge strain is mainly determined by virus competition rather than immune suppression. The stronger the immunity against the vaccine strain, the weaker its competitive ability relative to the challenge strain, and the lower the level of protection. If the vaccine virus does protect the host against a challenge, it is because the competitive interactions between the viruses inhibit the initial growth of the challenge strain. According to these arguments, an inverse correlation between the level of attenuation and the level of protection is expected, and this has indeed been observed in experimental data. PMID:18586297

  20. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  1. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1999-01-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:10503301

  2. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, H

    1999-09-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior.

  3. Great Things Have Been Done by a Few Men: Operational Art in Clark’s Illinois Campaign of 1778 - 1779

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    diplomacy when possible. His efforts correspond directly to the strategic context. The Proclamation of 1763 followed by The Quebec Act of 1774 dashed...Britain and the Illinois Country 1763- 1774 , (Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1910) 2-3. 43 France ceded the Louisiana Territory to Spain in...and Indians commonly attacked trespassers. 45 Tensions rose from 1772- 1774 as Virginia and Pennsylvania fiercely competed for western lands. Both

  4. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  5. The Negotiation of Lived Spaces by Unauthorized College Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the United States, undocumented students live in constant fear of their legal status being disclosed, and despite their educational success and professional objectives, face uncertainty and an unknown future. This study has put forward the question of what are the effects of the symbiotic relationship of a historical anti-Mexican…

  6. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  7. Effects of live and killed vaccines against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D

    2014-06-01

    Different vaccine strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been used on multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect birds against virulent field-strain infections. Use of the F-strain of M. gallisepticum (FMG), as an overlay vaccine during lay, may be necessary because of the lower level of protection afforded by M. gallisepticum vaccines of low virulence given before lay. Two replicate trials were conducted to investigate effects of live and killed M. gallisepticum vaccines administered individually and in combination before lay, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak egg production (EP), on the performance characteristics of commercial layers. The following treatments were utilized at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccinations); 2) ts11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccine; 3) M. gallisepticum-Bacterin vaccine (MG-Bacterin); and 4) ts11MG and MG-Bacterin vaccines combination. At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. Hen mortality, BW, egg weight, percentage hen-day EP, egg blood spots, and egg meat spots were determined at various time periods between 18 and 52 woa. The data from each trial were pooled. Treatment did not affect performance in interval I (23 to 45 woa). However, during interval II (46 to 52 woa), the EP of control and MG-Bacterin-vaccinated birds that later received an FMG vaccine overlay was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment application reduced bird BW during interval II. Despite the effects on BW and EP, no differences were observed for egg blood or meat spots among the various treatments. It is suggested that the vaccination of commercial layers before lay with ts11MG, but not MG-Bacterin, may reduce the negative impacts of an FMG overlay vaccination given during lay. These results establish that the vaccination of pullets with ts11MG in combination with the vaccination of hens with an FMG overlay, for continual protection against field-strain M

  8. Mechanics of living cells measured by laser tracking microrheology.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, S; Wirtz, D; Kuo, S C

    2000-01-01

    To establish laser-tracking microrheology (LTM) as a new technique for quantifying cytoskeletal mechanics, we measure viscoelastic moduli with wide bandwidth (5 decades) within living cells. With the first subcellular measurements of viscoelastic phase angles, LTM provides estimates of solid versus liquid behavior at different frequencies. In LTM, the viscoelastic shear moduli are inferred from the Brownian motion of particles embedded in the cytoskeletal network. Custom laser optoelectronics provide sub-nanometer and near-microsecond resolution of particle trajectories. The kidney epithelial cell line, COS7, has numerous spherical lipid-storage granules that are ideal probes for noninvasive LTM. Although most granules are percolating through perinuclear spaces, a subset of perinuclear granules is embedded in dense viscoelastic cytoplasm. Over all time scales embedded particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior and are not merely tethered by molecular motors. At low frequencies, lamellar regions (820 +/- 520 dyne/cm(2)) are more rigid than viscoelastic perinuclear regions (330 +/- 250 dyne/cm(2), p < 0.0001), but spectra converge at high frequencies. Although the actin-disrupting agent, latrunculin A, softens and liquefies lamellae, physiological levels of F-actin, alone (11 +/- 1.2 dyne/cm(2)) are approximately 70-fold softer than lamellae. Therefore, F-actin is necessary for lamellae mechanics, but not sufficient. Furthermore, in time-lapse of apparently quiescent cells, individual lamellar granules can show approximately 4-fold changes in moduli that last >10 s. Over a broad range of frequencies (0.1-30, 000 rad/s), LTM provides a unique ability to noninvasively quantify dynamic, local changes in cell viscoelasticity. PMID:10733956

  9. Tierless Programming for the Internet of Things

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Brett

    2015-02-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is about Internet-addressability and connectivity for everyday devices. The goal of this project was to create a framework to allow developers to more easily control IoT devices and turn their interactions into meaningful applications. We leveraged a tierless approach for Software Defined Networking (SDN) to build this framework. We expanded Flowlog, a tierless programming language for SDN controllers, to support IoT devices developed by Spark IO to build this framework.

  10. Formation of Long-Lived Fireballs by Plasma Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I.

    2001-10-01

    Results of the long-lived plasma structure and fireball formation (so called ``plasmoids") investigations in the atmosphere have been presented and discussed. Lifetimes of these objects considerably (by several orders of magnitude) exceed typical times of their generation by power sources and of plasma decay time. Experiments on the formation of these objects have been carried out by means of different types of pulse erosive plasma injectors in a wide range of energy (100 J - 100 kJ) putted into the plasmoid. Acrylic glass, fabric-based laminate, caprolon, and different organic materials (waxes, paraffines, resins with natural fillers, wood, lignin, etc.) have been used as plasma forming materials. Injection was made both into undisturbed air and into air saturated by organic vapors. It is shown that the formation of plasmoids of different forms (spherical, torus -type, cylindrical and others) with typical sizes 10-20 cm and their lifetime up to ~1 s takes place during pulse plasma injection into the air. In so doing the time of energy input ranged from 10 mcs to 10 ms. Typical temperature's value at the initial stage of the plasmoid existence is 7 - 10 kK. Initial value of the electron concentration reaches ten in (16-17) power per cubic cm. Obtained plasma radiation spectra and their temporary evolution is under the analysis. It is shown that at late stages of the existence of fireballs their radiation spectra correspond to the radiation of solid carbon and metallic oxide particles, and to spectra of burning of organic materials. It is shown that different structures have been formed at the application of the organic plasma forming materials and /or at the injection of plasma jet into the air saturated by organic vapors. One of them with typical sizes 10-20 cm and temperature ~2000 K has a lifetime up to 0.5 s. Undertaken experimental and theoretical investigations have shown a possibility of different ball lightning type realization in nature in the result of

  11. Metabolic Characteristics and Response to High Altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), a Lizard Dwell at Altitudes Higher Than Any Other Living Lizards in the World

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yang; Liang, Shiwei; He, Jianzheng; Wang, Ningbo; Ma, Ming; Chen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m) and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS) ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1α and PPAR-γ in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2. PMID:23951275

  12. Metabolic characteristics and response to high altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), a lizard dwell at altitudes higher than any other living lizards in the world.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yang; Liang, Shiwei; He, Jianzheng; Wang, Ningbo; Ma, Ming; Chen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m) and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS) ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1α and PPAR-γ in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2.

  13. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  14. One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Antonio; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad; González, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things. PMID:27754378

  15. One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Solano, Antonio; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad; González, Víctor

    2016-10-13

    The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things.

  16. Synthetic biology between technoscience and thing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Axel

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology presents a challenge to traditional accounts of biology: Whereas traditional biology emphasizes the evolvability, variability, and heterogeneity of living organisms, synthetic biology envisions a future of homogeneous, humanly engineered biological systems that may be combined in modular fashion. The present paper approaches this challenge from the perspective of the epistemology of technoscience. In particular, it is argued that synthetic-biological artifacts lend themselves to an analysis in terms of what has been called 'thing knowledge'. As such, they should neither be regarded as the simple outcome of applying theoretical knowledge and engineering principles to specific technological problems, nor should they be treated as mere sources of new evidence in the general pursuit of scientific understanding. Instead, synthetic-biological artifacts should be viewed as partly autonomous research objects which, qua their material-biological constitution, embody knowledge about the natural world-knowledge that, in turn, can be accessed via continuous experimental interrogation.

  17. The AMEL study, a cross sectional population-based survey on aging and malnutrition in 1200 elderly Lebanese living in rural settings: protocol and sample characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lebanon is faced with a particular challenge because of large socioeconomic inequality and accelerated demographic transition. Rural residents seem more vulnerable because of limited access to transport, health and social services. No information is available regarding health, nutrition and living conditions of this specific population. The purpose of the AMEL (Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese) study is to assess the nutritional status of community dwelling elderly people, aged 65 years and above, living in a rural settings in Lebanon, in line of socioeconomic factors, health and living conditions. The present paper will describe the gender specific characteristics of the study population. Methods AMEL is a cross-sectional population based study conducted between April 2011 and April 2012 including 1200 elderly individuals living in the 24 rural Caza (districts) of Lebanon. People aged greater than or equal to 65 y were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling. Subjects were interviewed at their homes by trained interviewers. The questionnaire included the following measures: socio-demographic factors, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA), health related characteristics, functional ability, cognitive status, mood and social network. Results The sample included 591 men (49.3%) and 609 women (50.8%). Mean age was 75.32 years and similar between genders. Malnutrition (MNA < 17) and risk of malnutrition (MNA between 17 and 23.5) were present in 8.0% (95%CI 4.9%-11.1%) and 29.1% (95%CI 24.0%-34.2%) respectively of the participants, and more frequent in women (9.1% and 35.3% respectively). Regarding socio-demographic status, among women the level of illiteracy and poor income was significantly higher than in men. Moreover, chronic diseases, poor self perceived health, frailty, functional disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment were particularly high and significantly more frequent in women than in

  18. It is AN Illusion to Think that 'things' Exist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    The world consists of inter-connected processes. It is an illusion to think that things exist. As argued by Alfred North Whitehead processes are ontologically fundamental. Since the building blocks do not consist of things with specific intrinsic properties, we can hope that a general science of the processes underlying and controlling the behavior of apparently very different situations, such as the evolution of an ecosystem or the performance of a piece of music by a band, may very well exist...

  19. All Things Out of Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  20. 14 Conversations about Three Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, the author tries to look forward into the 21st century to divine three things: (i) What skills will researchers in the future need to solve the most pressing problems? (ii) What are some of the most likely candidates to be those problems? and (iii) What are some current areas of research that seem mined out and should not distract…

  1. Promoting health by addressing living conditions in Norwegian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Susanne; Torp, Steffen; Helgesen, Marit; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2016-07-10

    Worldwide, inequalities in health are increasing, even in well-developed welfare states such as Norway, which in 2012, saw a new public health act take effect that enshrined equity in health as national policy and devolved to municipalities' responsibility to act on the social determinants of health. The act deems governance structures and "Health in All Policies" approaches as important steering mechanisms for local health promotion. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Norway's municipalities address living conditions - economic circumstances, housing, employment and educational factors - in local health promotion, and what factors are associated with doing so. All Norway's municipalities (n= 428) were included in this cross-sectional study, and both register and survey data were used and were subjected to descriptive and bi- and multivariate regression analyses. Eighty-two percent of the municipalities reported that they were capable of reducing inequalities in health. Forty percent of the municipalities defined living conditions as a main challenge in their local public health promotion, while 48% cited it as a main health promotion priority. Our study shows that defining living conditions as a main challenge is positively associated with size of municipality, and also its assessment of its own capability in reducing inequalities in health. The latter factor was also associated with actually prioritizing living conditions in health promotion, as was having established cross-sectorial working groups or inter-municipal collaboration related to local health promotion. This study underlines the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration to promote health and well-being.

  2. NASA CONNECT: The Measurement of All Things

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' is the first of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' students will explore the concept of measurement and the tools used in measuring things, while learning 'what' and 'how' engineers and scientists use measurement during the process of developing, designing, and testing airplanes.

  3. RoboFish: increased acceptance of interactive robotic fish with realistic eyes and natural motion patterns by live Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Tim; Bierbach, David; Nguyen, Hai; Muggelberg, Nadine; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Jens

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, simple biomimetic robots have been increasingly used in biological studies to investigate social behavior, for example collective movement. Nevertheless, a big challenge in developing biomimetic robots is the acceptance of the robotic agents by live animals. In this contribution, we describe our recent advances with regard to the acceptance of our biomimetic RoboFish by live Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We provide a detailed technical description of the RoboFish system and show the effect of different appearance, motion patterns and interaction modes on the acceptance of the artificial fish replica. Our results indicate that realistic eye dummies along with natural motion patterns significantly improve the acceptance level of the RoboFish. Through the interactive behaviors, our system can be adjusted to imitate different individual characteristics of live animals, which further increases the bandwidth of possible applications of our RoboFish for the study of animal behavior.

  4. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, M.; Bravo, L.; Ramos, M.; Pizarro, O.; Karstensen, J.; Gallegos, M.; Correa-Ramirez, M.; Silva, N.; Farias, L.; Karp-Boss, L.

    2015-09-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems are characterized by high productivity that often leads to subsurface hypoxia on the shelf. Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of circulation in these regions, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from shelves to the open ocean. In austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, a subsurface layer (200-400 m) in which the concentration of oxygen was very low (< 2 μmol kg-1 of O2) was observed in the eastern South Pacific, ~ 900 km offshore (30° S, 81° W). Satellite altimetry combined with CTD observations associated the local oxygen anomaly with an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The eddy contained Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted near the coast. Undersaturation (44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 μM) gave evidence for denitrification in this water mass. Based on satellite altimetry, we tracked the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). We estimate that the eddy formed in April 2010. Field studies conducted on the Chilean shelf in June 2010 provided approximate information on initial O2 and N2O concentrations of "source water" in the region at the time of eddy formation. Concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the offshore eddy were lower than its surroundings or "source water" on the shelf, suggesting that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. Our results show that mesoscale eddies in the ESP not only transport physical properties of the ESSW from the coast to the ocean interior, but also export and transform biogeochemical properties, creating suboxic environments in the oligotrophic

  5. The Teen Brain: 6 Things to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults For More Information Reprints Share The Teen Brain: 6 Things to Know Download PDF Download ePub ... big and important changes are happening to the brain during adolescence? Here are 6 things to know ...

  6. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  7. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  8. Designing Environment for Teaching Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Konstantin; Vujin, Vladimir; Labus, Aleksandra; Stepanic, Ðorde; Stevanovic, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    One of the new topics taught at technical universities is Internet of Things. In this paper, a workshop for organizing a lab in academic environment for the subject Internet of Things is described. The architecture of the platform, scenario and a description of components used for creating the environment for learning Internet of things are also…

  9. 101 Things to Learn in Art School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kit

    2011-01-01

    What is the first thing to learn in art school? "Art can be anything." The second thing? "Learn to draw." With "101 Things to Learn in Art School", artist and teacher Kit White delivers and develops such lessons, striking an instructive balance between technical advice and sage concepts. These 101 maxims, meditations, and demonstrations offer both…

  10. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  11. Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Berret, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01–1 rad s−1. The determination of the shear viscosity (10–100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5–20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel. PMID:26729062

  12. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression.

  13. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed.

  14. Assessment of transferrin recycling by Triplet Lifetime Imaging in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Geissbuehler, Matthias; Kadlecova, Zuzana; Klok, Harm-Anton; Lasser, Theo

    2012-01-01

    An optical method is presented that allows the measurement of the triplet lifetime of a fluorescent molecule. This is a characteristic specific to each fluorophore. Based on differences in triplet lifetimes of two fluorescent species (autofluorescence versus label), this novel approach measures relative quantities of a transmembrane receptor and associated fluorescently labeled ligand during its recycling in living cells. Similarly to fluorescence-lifetime based methods, our approach is almost insensitive to photobleaching. A simple theory for unmixing two known triplet lifetimes is presented along with validation of the method by measurements of transferrin recycling in a model system based on chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO). Transferrin is the delivery carrier for Fe3+ to the cell. PMID:23082293

  15. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient’s house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  16. A Reason To Rise Each Morning: The Meaning of Volunteering in the Lives of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Dana Burr

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value that volunteering by older adults brings to individual lives and the benefits to society. Suggests that volunteering provides an enhanced sense of purpose by doing things for others and that understanding why elders volunteer will help identify better ways to support their efforts. (JOW)

  17. Research: Putting Things Graphically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Graphs don't always show what the graphers say they do. The most notorious recent example of a misleading graph is the one produced by the U.S. Department of Education that plots National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores against total federal spending on education. This graph was taken apart by Howard Wainer and Daniel…

  18. Perceptions of the character of God as narrated by East African women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kako, Peninnah M; Kibicho, Jennifer W

    2012-01-01

    Two qualitative research studies conducted with women living with HIV in Malawi (N = 72) and Kenya (N = 54) separately revealed personal faith as a primary coping mechanism that mitigates the effects of stigma and promotes spiritual, physical, and mental health. Fourth characteristics of God emerged that sustain the women in daily life.

  19. Comparison of Reports by Relatives and Staff on Living Conditions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, Oie; Sonnander, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Proxies typically serve as information providers in studies of persons with intellectual disabilities. However, little is known about the concordance between different proxy categories and how proxy characteristics influence the information provided. We compared 89 pairs of relative and staff reports on the living conditions of persons with…

  20. Actin dynamics at the living cell submembrane imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence photobleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Sund, S E; Axelrod, D

    2000-01-01

    Although reversible chemistry is crucial to dynamical processes in living cells, relatively little is known about relevant chemical kinetic rates in vivo. Total internal reflection/fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (TIR/FRAP), an established technique previously demonstrated to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates at surfaces in vitro, is extended here to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates of actin at the cytofacial (subplasma membrane) surface of living cells. For the first time, spatial imaging (with a charge-coupled device camera) is used in conjunction with TIR/FRAP. TIR/FRAP imaging produces both spatial maps of kinetic parameters (off-rates and mobile fractions) and estimates of kinetic correlation distances, cell-wide kinetic gradients, and dependences of kinetic parameters on initial fluorescence intensity. For microinjected rhodamine actin in living cultured smooth muscle (BC3H1) cells, the unbinding rate at or near the cytofacial surface of the plasma membrane (averaged over the entire cell) is measured at 0.032 +/- 0.007 s(-1). The corresponding rate for actin marked by microinjected rhodamine phalloidin is very similar, 0.033 +/- 0.013 s(-1), suggesting that TIR/FRAP is reporting the dynamics of entire filaments or protofilaments. For submembrane fluorescence-marked actin, the intensity, off-rate, and mobile fraction show a positive correlation over a characteristic distance of 1-3 microm and a negative correlation over larger distances greater than approximately 7-14 microm. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters display a statistically significant cell-wide gradient, with the cell having a "fast" and "slow" end with respect to actin kinetics. PMID:10969025

  1. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of CAM Use among People Living with HIV and AIDS in Lebanon: Implications for Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Lebanon and to identify related issues that may affect patient care. A cross-sectional survey design was used to interview 116 PLWHA in Beirut. The questionnaire addressed sociodemographic and disease characteristics as well as CAM use. The main outcome of the study was CAM use since diagnosis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Overall, 46.6% of participants reported using one or more CAM therapies, with herbs and herbal products being the most commonly used (63%). A higher education level was associated with a 3-fold increase in the odds of CAM use. Among users, 20% used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment, 48% were not aware of CAM-drug interactions, 89% relied on nonhealth care sources for their choice of CAM, and 44% did not disclose CAM use to their physician. CAM use is prevalent among Lebanese PLWHA. Findings of this study highlighted the need to educate health care practitioners to have an open communication and a patient-centered approach discussing CAM use during routine care and to enhance awareness of PLWHA on safe use of CAM. PMID:28050191

  3. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the physics of liquid crystal displays (LCD) which is based on polarizing properties of crystals controlled by electric command. Production of alphanumerics, display control, and input are considered. (JM)

  4. Long-lived "critters" formed by hydrodynamic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Youssef, Mena; Sacanna, Stefano; Donev, Aleksandar; Chaikin, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Self-assembly in colloidal systems often requires finely tuning the interactions between particles. When colloids are active, or moving due to an external drive, the assembly is even harder to achieve. Here we show that long-lived compact motile structures, called "critters", can be formed just with hydrodynamic interactions. They naturally emerge from a recently discovered fingering instability in a system of microrollers near a floor. Our 3D large-scale simulations show that these critters are a stable state of the system, move much faster than individual rollers, and quickly respond to a changing drive. The formation of critters is robust to any initial condition and our experiments suggest that similar structures are formed even in a thermal colloidal system. We believe the critters are a promising tool for microscopic transport, flow, aggregation and mixing.

  5. Ten Tips about 23 Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Learning 2.0--aka the "23 Things"--is a self-paced online learning program that the author designed in 2006 as a one-person crusade to move an entire organization of 500-plus staff onto the Web 2.0 bandwagon. Along with numerous requests to duplicate the program, many seek insight on how to do this successfully. In this article, the author shares…

  6. The Way Things Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Tracy; Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracey

    1999-01-01

    Explores change in three mathematics environments by presenting three episodes of an activity in which students study patterns of change through tables and graphs and are asked to make a trip in three different environments that include Cuisenaire rods and meter sticks, tables of numbers on paper, and Trips software. (ASK)

  7. Remembrance of Things Partly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Wray

    1983-01-01

    By studying forgetfulness in humans and monkeys, scientists are learning about the anatomy of normal memory. Results of amnesia studies, indicating that memory collapse occurs in a selective fashion depending on the cause, may help resolve a fundamental dispute among learning theorists. (JN)

  8. It's the Little Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments are ruled by a kind of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The big-tech stuff--the operating systems, the networks, the data centers--gets the priority, food-and-shelter attention, while upgrading the backup power supplies, evaluating new projector mounts, and taming that rat's nest of classroom cords fall…

  9. 2001: Things to come.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, M L; Liu, C Y

    2001-10-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES elements in the definition of modernity and emerging futurism in neurological surgery. In particular, it describes evolution, discovery, and paradigm shifts in the field and forces responsible for their realization. It analyzes the cyclical reinvention of the discipline experienced during the past generation and attempts to identify apertures to the near and more remote future. Subsequently, it focuses on forces and discovery in computational science, imaging, molecular science, biomedical engineering, and information processing as they relate to the theme of minimalism that is evident in the field. These areas are explained in the light of future possibilities offered by the emerging field of nanotechnology with molecular engineering.

  10. Correlates of protection induced by live Aro- Salmonella typhimurium vaccines in the murine typhoid model.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J A; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Mastroeni, P; Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Hormaeche, C E

    1997-01-01

    Live attenuated salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines. The immune responses in BALB/c mice elicited by immunization with a live attenuated Aro Salmonella typhimurium vaccine given orally, intravenously or subcutaneously were compared with those elicited by killed whole-cell vaccines (acetone or heat-treated) given subcutaneously. Live vaccines given by all routes elicited higher interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses in spleen cells against an alkali-treated whole-cell salmonella lysate than did killed vaccines. Live and killed vaccines elicited high total antibody levels to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but all live vaccine regimes elicited higher IgG2a, suggesting a Th1 response. Oral and intravenous vaccination with live organisms elicited IgA against smooth LPS which subcutaneous vaccination with live or killed salmonellae failed to evoke. Western blots using rough whole-cell lysates showed that all vaccines elicited a varied anti-protein response; however, all groups immunized with live organisms recognized three unidentified bands of MW 52,000, 46,000 and 18,000 which were consistently absent in groups immunized with killed organisms. The results indicate that immunization with live aroA salmonellae elicited a Th1 type of response, including bystander T-cell help to LPS, and a response to proteins not seen in mice that received killed vaccines. Images Figure 6 PMID:9176117

  11. “First Things First”: What is the First Thing?

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This OP-ED piece comments on the down-side of an otherwise useful 12-step slogan, “First Things First,” which generally refers to staying sober (not drinking or using no matter what). While important, there are environmental, micro-social, psychiatric, and neurobiological considerations that may place other needs at an equal or higher priority than sobriety per se. That is, other changes may be needed to set the stage for, or enhance efforts at sobriety, prior to or concurrent with attempting to quit one's drug of choice. Perhaps slogans should be considered in a broader context and not be taken too literally. PMID:25774990

  12. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health.

  13. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  14. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  15. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and litter type on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract development, apparent ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen, and intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Auttawong, S; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of 2 coarsely ground corn (CC) levels (0 or 50%) in diets of broilers reared on 2 litter types (new wood shavings or used litter) on live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen (N), and intestinal morphology. No interaction effects between CC level and litter type were observed on live performance. No litter effect was observed on live performance. Dietary inclusion of 50% CC increased BW at 35 d (P<0.01) and improved cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 35 and 49 d of age (P<0.01). The 50% CC treatment increased absolute and relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased jejunum unit weight (g/cm) (P<0.01). The new litter treatment (litter N) increased absolute and relative proventriculus weight (P<0.05) but did not affect gizzard weight. An interaction effect between CC level and litter type was observed for litter N, where the 50% CC treatment reduced litter N regardless of litter type (P<0.01), but litter N was reduced by new litter only among birds fed 0% CC (P<0.05). The 50% CC inclusion increased litter pH (P<0.05) and improved the AID of energy and N by 6.8% (P<0.01) and 3.5% (P<0.05), respectively. The 50% CC treatment increased jejunum villi tip width (P<0.05) and villi surface area (P<0.01), and decreased the muscularis layer thickness (P<0.01), whereas new litter increased jejunum villi and ileum villi height (P<0.05), jejunum villi surface area (P<0.01), and the ratio of jejunum villi height to crypt depth (P<0.01). This study showed that birds fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved BW, FCR, and AID of energy and N, in conjunction with altered morphology of the GIT and intestinal mucosa. Litter type affected some GIT traits and functions but did not affect live performance.

  16. Enzymatic Sensor Detects Some Forms of Nitric Oxide Donors Undetectable by Other Methods in Living Tissues.

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Kosenko, O V; Starkova, E S; Kondratov, G V; Borkhunova, E N; Petrov, V A; Osipov, A N

    2016-11-01

    Studies with the use of highly sensitive enzymatic sensor have shown the presence of various forms of nitrosyl iron complexes, including those undetectable by other methods, in living tissues. All these complexes are long-living compounds and constitute the major part of nitroso compounds in the blood, muscles, liquor, and amniotic fluid.

  17. Pursuing goals with others: group identification and motivation resulting from things done versus things left undone.

    PubMed

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D; Koo, Minjung

    2011-08-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing. Conversely, we propose that when individuals identify highly with a group, their contributions will compensate for others': An emphasis on things left undone will increase their own contributions, because missing contributions suggest insufficient progress toward a goal they already consider worthwhile. Five studies lend support to these predictions by measuring contributions to goals centered on idea generation and helping victims of various global disasters (earthquake in Haiti, wildfires in Southern California, rioting in Kenya).

  18. The Study of Cellular and Molecular Physiological Characteristics of Sperm in Men Living in the Aral Sea Region

    PubMed Central

    Kultanov, Berikbay Z.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Ivasenko, Svetlana A.; Tatina, Yelena S.; Kelmyalene, Assel A.; Assenova, Lyazzat H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extreme environmental situation in the Aral crisis has caused a massive chemical pollution of the territory for decades with high doses of pesticides, herbicides. Discharge of industrial waste into the rivers that feed the Aral Sea has lead to the development of various pathological processes in the human body, as well as disruption of reproductive function in young men. AIM: To evaluate the performance of molecular cellular changes in the sperm of men under the influence of dust and salt aerosols in Aral Sea region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and laboratory studies were conducted in men 5 settlements (Aralsk-city, v. Aiteke-Bi, v. Zhalagash, v. Zhusaly, v. Shieli). We have studied male ejaculate obtained after 4-5 days of abstinence, and placed it in a warm tube with a glass stopper. On the investigation proceeded ejaculate within 20-30 minutes after its preparation, during which time he was subjected to liquefaction. Isolation and quantification of ASF, RNA, DNA, and determining the fraction of histones in sperm was performed by the method of Markusheva and Savina. RESULTS: It was found that the value of ASF in the semen of men living in the zone of ecological disaster higher compared with the values of parameters in men living in the area of environmental crisis, and this trend is observed in all age groups. The study of circulating extracellular DNA and RNA in the sperm of men registered their decline with a corresponding increase of acid precursors that can be attributed to the degradation of nucleic acids under the influence of negative factors in the complex area of ecological trouble. Also, according to a study in men residing in the areas of environmental catastrophe at the age of 18-29 years, found an increased content of the H1 histone H2A lower total fraction, H3, H4 - and a sharp increase in histone H2B content - histones. CONCLUSIONS: Men living in environmentally disadvantaged areas of Kyzylorda region under the influence of dust and

  19. Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of

  20. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 1, Interdependence of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, J. Eric

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440. Each Theme is a teachers' guide to a…

  1. The Classification of Living Things: Nature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Use of a classification system in teaching biology is presented as a concept aiding students' understanding of the diversity of plants and animals. The principles of classification are summarized and six learning strategies are given to show relationships among groups. (CM)

  2. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  3. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  4. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    PubMed

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

  5. COMMUNITY DISCLOSURE BY PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV IN RURAL CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Feng, Nan; Ji, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The decision to disclose HIV serostatus is a complex and a challenging task because of potential stigma, blame, and fear associated with HIV infection. Despite continued research on HIV disclosure, literature on HIV disclosure to community is still scarce. The purpose of the study is to describe patterns of HIV status disclosure to community members in a sample of HIV-infected men and women in rural China. This study used the baseline data of a randomized controlled intervention trial for HIV-affected families in China. The data was collected between late 2011 to early 2013. In addition to demographic and HIV-related clinical characteristics, we collected the extent of HIV disclosure to members within the community. We first calculated descriptive statistics and frequencies to describe the demographics of the sample. We then compared the extents of HIV disclosure to different community members. We performed chi-square tests to determine whether the demographic and socioeconomic variables were associated with the extent of HIV disclosure to community. A total of 522 PLH were included in the study. The results show that age and family income are associated with the extent of disclosure of HIV status to members within the community, including neighbor, village leaders, people in the village, and coworkers. More disclosures were found among older age groups. People with less family income tend to disclose more to the community than those with higher family income. There is a need to explore the association of HIV disclosure to the community to help realize the public health and personal implications of disclosure. Our results underscore the potential benefits of age and socioeconomic status–specific interventions in the efforts to dispel barriers to HIV status disclosure to the community. PMID:27427924

  6. Psychological Stressors and Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents Living with and Not Living with Hiv Infection in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike O; Cáceres, Carlos F; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Stockman, Jamila K; Harrison, Abigail

    2016-09-07

    Little is known about stressful triggers and coping strategies of Nigerian adolescents and whether or not, and how, HIV infection modulates these sources of stress and coping. This study evaluated differences in stressors and coping strategies among Nigerian adolescents based on HIV status. We analysed the data of six hundred 10-19 year old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 States of Nigeria who self-reported their HIV status. Data on stressors and coping strategies were retrieved by self-report from participants, using a validated structured questionnaire. We compared results between adolescents with and without HIV with respect to identification of specific life events as stressors, and use of specific coping strategies to manage stress. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) had significantly increased odds of identifying 'having to visit the hospital regularly' (AOR: 5.85; 95 % CI: 2.11-16.20; P = 0.001), and 'having to take drugs regularly' (AOR: 9.70; 95 % CI: 4.13-22.81; P < 0.001) as stressors; and 'Seeking social support' (AOR: 3.14; 95 % CI: 1.99-4.93; p < 0.001) and 'using mental disengagement' (OR: 1.64; 95 % CI: 0.49-1.84; p = 0.001) as coping strategies. Adolescents not living with HIV had significantly increased odds of identifying 'argument with a friend or family member' as a stressor (AOR: 6.59; 95 % CI: 3.62-11.98; P < 0.001). Life events related to adolescents' HIV positive status were significant stressors for ALHIV. Providing targeted psychosocial support could help reduce the impact of such HIV status-related stressors on ALHIV.

  7. Hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea which lived in manganese stress environment and inversion model for concentration effect of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sanming; Lin, Gang; Yin, Xianyang; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Jiasheng; Liu, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary manganese deposits widely distribute in North Guangxi with the characteristic existing Celosia argentea. Celosia argentea is a kind of plant which has a strong ability to enrich manganese. In order to study the relationship between the hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea and the concentration effect of manganese in the soil, we used soil of B layer in mining area, background soil and the soil adding reagent of MnCl4 to make up experimental sample soil with 10 levels Manganese content for the same batch Celosia argentea. The levels are 0mg/kg, 4500mg/kg, 9000mg/kg, 13500mg/kg, 18000mg/kg, 18020mg/kg, 18040mg/kg, 18080mg/kg, 18160mg/kg. ASD FieldSpec-4 has been used to measure the abnormal spectrums of these Celosia argentea through a whole growth cycle. After pretreating the spectral data, we used Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) to extract the characteristic variables for extracting 1603 bands into 8 bands. Finally, the relationship between the spectral variables and the concentration of manganese was predicted by the Model of Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). The results show that the correlation coefficient-r2 are 0.8714 and 0.9141 in two sets of data. The prediction results are satisfactory, but the front 5 groups are closer to the regression line than the last 5 groups.

  8. Writing social psychology: fictional things and unpopulated texts.

    PubMed

    Billig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways.

  9. Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

    2007-01-09

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in

  10. Ethical Design in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Botterman, Maarten; Neisse, Ricardo; Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2016-01-21

    Even though public awareness about privacy risks in the Internet is increasing, in the evolution of the Internet to the Internet of Things (IoT) these risks are likely to become more relevant due to the large amount of data collected and processed by the "Things". The business drivers for exploring ways to monetize such data are one of the challenges identified in this paper for the protection of Privacy in the IoT. Beyond the protection of privacy, this paper highlights the need for new approaches, which grant a more active role to the users of the IoT and which address other potential issues such as the Digital Divide or safety risks. A key facet in ethical design is the transparency of the technology and services in how that technology handles data, as well as providing choice for the user. This paper presents a new approach for users' interaction with the IoT, which is based on the concept of Ethical Design implemented through a policy-based framework. In the proposed framework, users are provided with wider controls over personal data or the IoT services by selecting specific sets of policies, which can be tailored according to users' capabilities and to the contexts where they operate. The potential deployment of the framework in a typical IoT context is described with the identification of the main stakeholders and the processes that should be put in place.

  11. Sensing in the Collaborative Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Borges Neto, João B.; Silva, Thiago H.; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A. F.; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

    2015-01-01

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data. PMID:25808766

  12. Sensing in the collaborative Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Borges Neto, João B; Silva, Thiago H; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A F; Loureiro, Antonio A F

    2015-03-19

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data.

  13. Detection and Identification of Free-living Amoeba from Environmental Water in Taiwan by PCR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; She, C. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tseng, S. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Hartmannella all belong to free-living amoebae that are present ubiquitously in the environment including water, soil, and air. Free-living amoebae are parasites which can infect humans and can lead to serious illness and even death. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of free-living amoebae in aquatic environment in Taiwan, and to compare the differences between Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in diverse cultivation methods and conditions. In this study, we used molecular method by PCR amplification with specific primers to analyze the occurrence of free-living amoebae. We collected 176 samples from environmental water including drinking water treatment plants, stream water, and hot spring recreational areas in Taiwan. Based on the results of PCR, 43 water samples (24.4%) were detected positive for free-living amoebae. The most common Acanthamoeba genotype isolated from samples including T2, T4, T5, T12, and T15. N. australiensis and N. lovaniensis were also identified by molecular biology techniques. Furthermore, we found that both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria can be cultured by PYG in 30° C, but not all free-living amoebae can be isolated and enriched by using storage-cultivation method. Because of the widespread presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in aquatic environments, the water quality and safety of aquatic environments should be more conscious in Taiwan and worldwide. Keywords: free-living amoebae; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; Balamuthia; Hartmannella; PCR

  14. Ocular sensitization of mice by live (but not irradiated) Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.G.; Goodman, T.G.; Barsoum, I.S.

    1986-10-01

    Ocular exposure of mice to live elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A results in immunological sensitization of the mice. This reactivity is manifested by the development of early (5 h) and delayed-type (24 h) dermal reactivity and serovar-specific antibody formation against either live or irradiated (100 kilorads) elementary bodies. Parallel ocular exposure of mice to irradiated elementary bodies does not result in this sensitization. The early and late dermal immune responses induced by ocular exposure to live organisms can be transferred to unexposed mice by serum and lymphoid cell transfers, respectively. It appears that successful murine ocular sensitization by human C. trachomatis serovar A elementary bodies is an ability manifested by live organisms and not by inactivated but antigenic organisms.

  15. Cumulative live birth rates following IVF in 41- to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Disseldorp, J; Eijkemans, M J C; Klinkert, E R; te Velde, E R; Fauser, B C; Broekmans, F J M

    2007-04-01

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the total cohort, n = 144) were excluded from IVF treatment based on low antral follicle count (<5 follicles) and/or elevated basal FSH (>15 IU/l). Of those admitted, 66 (74%) actually started and completed a total of 125 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Treatment resulted in 10 live births (8% per cycle). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a realistic cumulative live birth rate after three cycles of 17%. The direct medical costs per live birth were calculated to be approximately 44,000 euro. These results show that selection towards favourable ovarian reserve status in the female age group 41-43 years yielded disappointing results in terms of cumulative live birth rates after IVF. In view of the costs raised per live birth, improvement of selection parameters for treatment in this age group is warranted.

  16. Characteristics of Work Placements Valued by Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Barbara; Flatten, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Group Feedback Strategy was used to evaluate data from 73 employers, 18 tutors, 156 students, and 45 graduates involved in work placements in a library and information science program. Respondents showed reasonably high satisfaction for the following characteristics of placements: teamwork experience, assessment of capabilities, training…

  17. Succinate transport by free-living forms of Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, C F; Lepo, J E

    1983-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the transport of succinate into the cells of Rhizobium japonicum strains USDA 110 and USDA 217 is severely inhibited by cyanide, azide, and 2,4-dinitrophenol, but not by arsenate. These results suggest an active mechanism of transport that is dependent on an energized membrane, but does not directly utilize ATP. The apparent Km for succinate was 3.8 microM for strain USDA 110 and 1.8 microM for strain USDA 217; maximal transport velocities were 1.5 and 3.3 nmol of succinate per min per mg of protein, respectively. The expression of the succinate uptake activity was inducible rather than constitutive, with succinate and structurally related compounds being the most effective inducers. The mechanism showed some specificity for succinate and similar organic acids; fumarate and L-malate were classical competitive inhibitors of the system. In general, the best competing compounds were also the best carbon substrates for induction of succinate uptake activity. EDTA inhibited the transport of succinate, implying a role for divalent cations in the system. When various divalent cations were used to reconstitute EDTA-inhibited activity, Ca2+ was most effective, followed by Mg2+, which restored activity at about half the efficiency of Ca2+. Growth media that were supplemented with increased Ca2+ concentration supported more rapid growth with succinate as the carbon substrate, and cells from such media showed higher specific activities of succinate transport. PMID:6402487

  18. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  19. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  20. What women want: social characteristics, gender-based violence and social support preferences in a cohort of women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    A total of 229 women attend Chalmers Centre (a city-centre integrated sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland) for their HIV care and treatment. Local third-sector agencies provide peer support, but anecdotally, it is not well utilised and some demographic groups are under-represented. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the background social characteristics of these women, to ascertain what issues they are affected by, and to better identify what support is required and how it should be provided/facilitated. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was developed, and all women attending HIV clinics between July and November 2015 were given the opportunity to participate. Additional data were accessed from the National Sexual Health database on cohort size and gender-based violence enquiries. Forty-four women living with HIV completed the questionnaire. 25% are unemployed. 84.6% had a combined household income of less than £30,000 per annum. 16.7% do not know anyone else, and 59.5% know only one other person, who is living with HIV. 32.6% would like to meet other/more women living with HIV, and 25.5% were unsure if they did or not. Of those who would, 42.9% would prefer a one-to-one setting, 42.9% would prefer a group setting, and 14.3% did not mind. 64.3% would prefer to meet off NHS premises. 26.8% were interested in discussion groups on women's issues, and 31.7% were unsure. The most popular suggestions for discussion group topics were stress/anxiety (nine women), HIV disclosure (eight women), diet and nutrition (seven women), and pregnancy and childbirth (six women). 26.8% were interested in attending a "women clinic" staffed by female staff, the same number were unsure if they would utilise this service or not. 50% of women had, at some point, experienced gender-based violence, 13.5% were currently experiencing gender-based violence, and four of these women have children living with them. From National Sexual Health records, only

  1. A long-lived lunar dynamo powered by core crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Breuer, D.; Aubert, J.; Morard, G.; Rückriemen, T.

    2014-09-01

    The Moon does not possess an internally generated magnetic field at the present day, but extensive evidence shows that such a field existed between at least 4.2 and 3.56 Ga ago. The existence of a metallic lunar core is now firmly established, and we investigate the influence of inner core growth on generating a lunar core dynamo. We couple the results of a 3-D spherical thermochemical convection model of the lunar mantle to a 1-D thermodynamic model of its core. The energy and entropy budget of the core are computed to determine the inner core growth rate and its efficiency to power a dynamo. Sulfur is considered to be the main alloying element and we investigate how different sulfur abundances and initial core temperatures affect the model outcomes. For reasonable initial conditions, a solid inner core between 100 and 200 km is always produced. During its growth, a surface magnetic field of about 0.3 μT is generated and is predicted to last several billion years. Though most simulations predict the existence of a core dynamo at the present day, one way to stop magnetic field generation when the inner core is growing is by a transition between a bottom-up and top-down core crystallization scheme when the sulfur content becomes high enough in the outer core. According to this hypothesis, a model with about 6 to 8 wt.% sulfur in the core would produce a 120-160 km inner core and explain the timing of the lunar dynamo as constrained by paleomagnetic data.

  2. Consent to forensic radiologic examinations by living crime victims.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Eva; Schoelzke, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether people approve radiological examinations specifically for the documentation of findings for the use in criminal proceedings. Forty two crime victims and 42 controls without a history of sustained violence were asked via telephone interview whether they would agree to forensic radiological examinations and if radiation exposure and the duration of the examination were factors influencing their consent. The consent to specifically forensic radiological examinations was high in both groups, however, higher in victims than in controls (85-96% compared to 64-77%, respectively, depending on the imaging modality). All of the victims and 93% of the controls consented to at least one of the proposed imaging modalities, i.e. X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Most of the interviewees did not consider the duration of the examination to be relevant to their consent (79% of the crime victims and 93% of the controls); however, the radiation exposure associated with the examination was relevant for 55% of the controls but only for 19% of the victims. These results show that there is a great consent to the application of radiological methods for forensic purposes. This is important for the growing field of forensic radiology as the approval of the examination by the victim is a legal prerequisite.

  3. Barriers to access to care reported by women living with HIV across 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Margaret; Samarina, Anna; Xi, He; Valdez Ramalho Madruga, José; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Loutfy, Mona; Fournelle, Marie-Josée; Norton, Michael; Van Wyk, Jean; Zachry, Woodie; Martinez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Increased access to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary in order to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Importantly, slightly over half of the people living with HIV are women. Small studies have described many barriers to accessing treatment and care among women living with HIV. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, epidemiological study assessed the prevalence of barriers to accessing care for women living with HIV across 27 countries, divided into four global regions. HIV-positive women attending routine clinical visits were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Data describing the study sites and demographic characteristics of the participating women were collected. Participating women filled out questionnaires including the Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire, on which they reported the extent to which they found each of the 12 potential barriers to accessing health care problematic. A total of 1931 women living with HIV were included in the study: 760 from Western Europe and Canada (WEC), 532 from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), 519 from Latin America (LA), and 120 from China. The mean age of participating women was 40.1 ± 11.4 years. A total of 88.2% were currently taking ART. A total of 81.8% obtained HIV treatment under a government health plan. The most prevalent barrier to care was community HIV/AIDS stigma. Community HIV/AIDS knowledge, lack of supportive/understanding work environments, lack of employment opportunities, and personal financial resources were also highly prevalent barriers to accessing care. These findings indicate that, more than 30 years after the start of the AIDS epidemic, stigma is still a major issue for women living with HIV. Continued efforts are needed to improve community education on HIV/AIDS in order to maximize access to health care among women living with HIV. PMID:26168817

  4. The Characteristics of a Model Technology Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Andrew R.; Warner, Scott A.; Buechele, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    The things that make the quality of a teacher stand out can cover a wide range of characteristics, actions, words, and experiences. The mark left on a student by a teacher, for good or bad, is written in an ink that will last a lifetime. This article describes a study that identifies the characteristics of exceptional technology education…

  5. Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination.

    PubMed

    Kner, Peter; Chhun, Bryant B; Griffis, Eric R; Winoto, Lukman; Gustafsson, Mats G L

    2009-05-01

    Structured-illumination microscopy can double the resolution of the widefield fluorescence microscope but has previously been too slow for dynamic live imaging. Here we demonstrate a high-speed structured-illumination microscope that is capable of 100-nm resolution at frame rates up to 11 Hz for several hundred time points. We demonstrate the microscope by video imaging of tubulin and kinesin dynamics in living Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in the total internal reflection mode.

  6. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  7. Putting Thought in Accordance with Things: The Demise of Animal-Based Analogies for Plant Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Miles

    Scientists' attempts to understand plant functions by ascribing animal functions to plants - the analogist tradition, derived from Aristotle - began to be superseded in Europe by an experimentalist tradition in the seventeenth century. In classrooms today, science students learning about plant functions (exemplified here by the topic of transpiration) face a parallel dilemma: the pitching of their own habitual mental processes of analogy building (enhanced by the suggestive morphology of plants)and the persuasiveness of everyday language (for example, about plants and water)against the new experimental evidence presented by the teacher. In the case oftranspiration, six practical suggestions whereby teachers can support students in thisstruggle to put their thoughts (especially everyday mental models) in accordance withthings (classroom experimental evidence) are advanced. The wider implications forhow we teach about Living Things, and how we view the status of analogies in sciencegenerally, are discussed.

  8. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Kilbourn, Michael R; Scott, Peter J H

    2016-08-24

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future?

  9. First and second things, and the operations of conscience in science.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-01-01

    Why is modern science less efficient than it used to be, why has revolutionary science declined, and why has science become so dishonest? One plausible explanation behind these observations comes from an essay First and second things published by CS Lewis. First Things are the goals that are given priority as the primary and ultimate aim in life. Second Things are subordinate goals or aims - which are justified in terms of the extent to which they assist in pursuing First Things. The classic First Thing in human society is some kind of religious or philosophical world view. Lewis regarded it as a 'universal law' that the pursuit of a Second Thing as if it was a First Thing led inevitably to the loss of that Second Thing: 'You can't get second things by putting them first; you can get second things only by putting first things first'. I would argue that the pursuit of science as a primary value will lead to the loss of science, because science is properly a Second Thing. Because when science is conceptualized as a First Thing the bottom-line or operational definition of 'correct behaviour' is approval and high status within the scientific community. However, this does nothing whatsoever to prevent science drifting-away from its proper function; and once science has drifted then the prevailing peer consensus will tend to maintain this state of corruption. I am saying that science is a Second Thing, and ought to be subordinate to the First Thing of transcendental truth. Truth impinges on scientific practice in the form of individual conscience (noting that, of course, the strength and validity of conscience varies between scientists). When the senior scientists, whose role is to uphold standards, fail to posses or respond-to informed conscience, science will inevitably go rotten from the head downwards. What, then, motivates a scientist to act upon conscience? I believe it requires a fundamental conviction of the reality and importance of truth as an essential part of

  10. Attachment Security among Mothers and Their Young Children Living in Poverty: Associations with Maternal, Child, and Contextual Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Nievar, M. Angela; Wright, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Studied variability in mother-child attachment security among high-risk families living in poverty. Maternal sensitivity and the presence of appropriate play materials were assessed. Findings indicated that maternal, child, and contextual variables were significantly associated with attachment security. Furthermore, greater cumulative assets were…

  11. Academics 2000: First Things First. Evaluation Report, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Program Evaluation.

    This evaluation report profiles Academics 2000: First Things First, the Texas initiative under the Goals 2000 Educate America Act to raise the level of academic achievement of all Texas students by ensuring that each child achieves fourth-grade mastery of the foundation subjects by the end of fourth grade. The report states that, at the local…

  12. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  13. Fast intracellular motion in the living cell by video rate reflection confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    VESELY, PAVEL; BOYDE, ALAN

    2001-01-01

    Fast intracellular motion (FIM) was first revealed by back scattered light (BSL) imaging in video rate confocal scanning laser microscopy (VRCSLM), beyond the limits of spatial and temporal resolution obtainable with conventional optical microscopy. BSL imaging enabled visualisation of intra and extracellular motion with resolution in space down to 0.2 μm and in time to 1/25th of a second. Mapping the cell space at 0.2 μm×0.2 μm (XY = in instantaneous best focal plane)×0.5 μm (Z = height/depth, optic axis direction) volume steps revealed a communication layer above the known contact layer and an integrated dynamic spatial network (IDSN) towards the cell centre. FIM was originally observed as localised quasichaotic dancing (dithering) or reflecting patches/spots in the cell centre, faster in the darker nuclear space. Later, a second type of FIM was recognised which differed by the presence of a varied proportion of centrifugal and centripetal directional movements and/or jumping of patches/spots in the cell centre and outside the nuclear space. The first type is characteristic for cells in slightly adverse conditions while the second type has so far only been found in eutrophic cells. Temporal speeding up and coarsening of FIM, followed by slowing and eventually cessation at cell death, was found on exposure to strong stressors. It was concluded that the state of FIM provides instantaneous information about individual cell reactions to actual treatment and about cell survival. A putative switch between the first and second type FIM could be considered as an indicator of timing of cellular processes. The significance of FIM for the biology of the cell is seen in the rapid assessment of the condition of an individual live cell investigated by combination of various methods. Requirements for further development of this approach are outlined. PMID:11465857

  14. Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Rostova, Ekaterina; Ben Adiba, Carine; Dietler, Giovanni; Sekatskii, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs) offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this, simultaneous excitation of s- and p-polarized surface waves with different penetration depths is realized here, permitting unambiguous separation of surface and volume contributions to the measured signal. PC-based biosensors do not require a bulk signal correction, compared to widely used surface plasmon resonance-based devices. We developed a chitosan-based protocol of PC chip functionalization for bacterial attachment and performed experiments on antibody binding to living bacteria measured in real time by the PCSW-based biosensor. Data analysis reveals specific binding and gives the value of the dissociation constant for monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b) against bacterial lipopolysaccharides equal to KD = 6.2 ± 3.4 nM. To our knowledge, this is a first demonstration of antibody-binding kinetics to living bacteria by a label-free optical biosensor. PMID:27727183

  15. The important health impact of where a child lives: neighborhood characteristics and the burden of lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Patrick M; Hauptman, Marissa; Weitzen, Sherry H; Bell, Scott; Quilliam, Daniela N; Logan, John R

    2011-11-01

    Toxins and other health threats can cause health problems, whether they are present in the child's own home, other neighborhood homes where the child spends time, or common areas such as playgrounds. We assess the impact of where a child lives on the burden of lead poisoning. Statewide lead screening data was obtained from the Rhode Island Department of Health. Block group level indicators of old housing and poverty were obtained from the US Census. Of the 204,746 study children, 35,416 (17.3%) had a blood lead level≥10 μg/dL. The proportion of study children who were lead poisoned in each block group ranged from 0.0 to 48.6%. The proportion of study children with an elevated blood lead level increased from 8% among children living in block groups in the lowest quintile of poverty to 31% for those in the highest quintile for poverty. Old housing also had an important impact on the risk of lead poisoning. The proportion of children with an elevated blood lead level increased from 7% among children living in block groups in the lowest quintile for pre-1950 housing to 27% for those in the highest quintile for pre-1950 housing. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.64 for the highest quintile of poverty and 1.77 for the highest quintile of pre-1950 housing. The findings of this large, statewide study demonstrate the powerful impact of where children live on the risk of lead poisoning. The findings have important implications for understanding the problem of lead poisoning and for planning primary prevention programs.

  16. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  17. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  18. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  19. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  20. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  1. Things I Should Have or Could Have Accomplished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    The author wishes to divide this essay into two sections, one indicating things he might have added to a few earlier works, and a second indicating a project or two that he did not complete but would like to have done. First he discusses the incomplete projects. He begins by saying that he has done a lot of work on teacher organizations and has…

  2. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon β production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1β-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1β production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  3. Role of Colonial Subjects in Making Themselves Inferior in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Chinua Achebe in his novel "Things Fall Apart" gives us a unique picture of life in Africa before the arrival of Christianity and colonization and the era afterwards. He shows how African people lost their traditional culture and values, replacing them with foreign beliefs. In this article, the way black people lived before the arrival…

  4. Teacher's Resource Book. Small Things. Grade 5. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This document introduces fifth-grade children to the microscopic world, to the instruments needed to make it accessible, and to the appearance and structure of cells in nonliving as well as living things. Aims of the unit include providing children with an instrument which extends their senses in a radical manner, and leading them in using this…

  5. Putting Thought in Accordance with Things: The Demise of Animal-Based Analogies for Plant Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Advances six practical suggestions in transpiration whereby teachers can support students in their struggle to put their thoughts, especially everyday mental models, in accordance with classroom experimental evidence. Discusses the wider implications for how to teach about living things and how to view the status of analogies in science generally.…

  6. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  7. Selection to postmenopausal therapy by women's characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Malin, M; Topo, P

    1993-03-01

    Many surveys have shown that women using postmenopausal hormone therapy have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases and lower overall mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare past and non-users with current users of hormone therapy in regard to characteristics known to, or assumed to, predict poor subsequent health (indicators). The main data source was a survey in 1989 of a random sample (n = 2000, 86% response rate) of 45-64 year-old Finnish women. Among women with their uterus, after adjusting for age and urbanism, of the 21 indicators studied, 10 suggested a poorer and none a better health prognosis for the non-users than for current users. Many differences were greater among older women, suggesting a cohort effect or long-term users being an especially selected group. Among hysterectomized women, differences between users and non-users were similar or smaller than among women with uteri. The past users were more similar to non-users than current users. Our study suggests that women with a better health prognosis are selected or select themselves for hormone therapy, and that may impede interpretation of observational studies on hormone therapy and health.

  8. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  9. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  10. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  11. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  12. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Falls in Adults with Intellectual Disability Living in a Residential Facility: A Longitudinal Study [PreFallID].

    PubMed

    Salb, Johannes; Woodward, Carol; Offenhäußer, Jens; Becker, Clemens; Sieber, Cornel; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of falls in adults with intellectual disability living in a residential care setting and to define differences between fallers and non-fallers in younger and older resident groups. In contrast to the general population, falls are a problem for both aged and younger adults with intellectual disability living in a residential care setting. Falls of 147 residents, aged between 21-89 years with different grades of ID, were recorded prospectively over a 12 months period using a digital fall report form. For all participants, a total of 140 falls were reported and high fall rates per person-year were found in the younger (0.85) as well as in the older aged residents (1.06).

  14. Standardization of (106)Ru/Rh by live-timed anticoincidence counting and gamma emission determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, C J; Rezende, E A; Poledna, R; Tauhata, L; Iwahara, A; Lopes, R T

    2017-04-01

    The absolute activity standardization measurement system of radionuclide by live-timed anticoincidence counting was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the effects of some correction factors on the determination of activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the laboratory, for example, the corrections of dead time and resolution. With the live-timed anticoincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this study was to standardize the (106)Ru activity, determine gamma emission probabilities by spectrometric method for some energies, and estimate measurement uncertainties.

  15. A Comparison of Breast Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marianne E. Ulcickas Yood, M.P.H. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry...NUMBERS A Comparison of Breast Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics DAMD17-97-1-7302 6. AUTHOR(S) Marianne E. Ulcickas Yood, M.P.H. 7... Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics (DAMD17-97-1-7302), Annual Report October, 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction

  16. Use of Hoechst 33342 stain to evaluate live fresh and frozen bull sperm by computer-assisted analysis.

    PubMed

    Tardif, A L; Farrell, P B; Trouern-Trend, V; Simkin, M E; Foote, R H

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate possible procedures for evaluating living bull sperm stained with Hoechst 33342 while in a simple medium and in commonly used complex egg yolk-glycerol-Tris (EYGT) and whole milk-glycerol (WMG) extenders. The two semen extenders provide good cryoprotection, but the latter one virtually obscures the sperm. To evaluate sperm motion characteristics when static nonsperm particles are present, a new Hamilton Thorne epifluorescent optical system (UV) with a strobe light was developed for potential use with DNA-stained sperm. This system permitted examination for the first time of sperm motion characteristics in milk. In Experiment 1 (four bull semen replicates with five dye concentrations and three incubation times), 2.5 microg/ml of Hoechst 33342 stained live and dead sperm sufficiently in a modified Tyrode's solution to measure all sperm characteristics without depressing motility, which was validated by using phase-contrast to analyze stained and unstained controls. In Experiments 2a and 2b, each using semen from four bulls with a 5 x 5 factorial arrangement, it was determined that 40 to 60 microg/ml of dye in EYGT or WMG, with UV illumination for 20 minutes, was optimal. There was no detrimental effect on sperm motility. In Experiment 3, analyses of two ejaculates, from each of eight bulls, confirmed that motion characteristics of sperm in EYGT and WMG were not depressed when the sperm were stained with Hoechst 33342. These experiments demonstrate that the dye concentrations and exposure times developed for use with the new epifluorescent optics facilitate evaluating bull sperm frozen in particle-filled whole milk and should be useful for sperm evaluation of a variety of species when nonsperm particulate matter may otherwise interfere.

  17. Increased Surface Fatigue Lives of Spur Gears by Application of a Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Cooper, Clark V.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Hansen, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Hard coatings have potential for increasing gear surface fatigue lives. Experiments were conducted using gears both with and without a metal-containing, carbonbased coating. The gears were case-carburized AISI 9310 steel spur gears. Some gears were provided with the coating by magnetron sputtering. Lives were evaluated by accelerated life tests. For uncoated gears, all of fifteen tests resulted in fatigue failure before completing 275 million revolutions. For coated gears, eleven of the fourteen tests were suspended with no fatigue failure after 275 million revolutions. The improved life owing to the coating, approximately a six-fold increase, was a statistically significant result.

  18. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  19. Energy and the Way We Live. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzberg, Melvin, Ed.; And Others

    This book of readings and a study guide on energy is part of the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Source Book (SO 012 722) and…

  20. A Sourcebook for Energy and the Way We Live. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Ann

    The guide presents teaching suggestions and lists resources to be used with the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Article…

  1. Energy and the Way We Live. Article Booklet for the Twelfth Course by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dorothy K.; And Others

    The 15 articles in this booklet were written for the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Reader/Study Guide (SO 012 724) and the…

  2. Remembering Camp Dreamcatcher: Art Therapy with Children Whose Lives Have Been Touched by HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrenko, Kathy D.

    2005-01-01

    Society calls upon art therapists to meet the needs of troubled community members. This article describes one art therapist?s experience of "giving back" to the community by volunteering to provide art therapy at a therapeutic camp for children whose lives have been touched by HIV/AIDS. Some of the medical, social, and psychological issues…

  3. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and 3 bedding floor types on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Lin, Y M; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2017-03-02

    The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm). Utilization of CC reduced milling cost by 9.47 cents per MT with similar nutrient content of screened pellets. The 50% CC treatment exhibited improved (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake at 42 d (2.5%) and 49 d (3.0%), and BW (5.4%) and FCR from 28 d (1.4%). Birds on NEW litter exhibited improved (P < 0.05) BW at 28 and 35 d and 42 d FCR as compared to NET and 49 d FCR compared to NET and OLD. The 50% CC treatment exhibited increased (P < 0.05) gizzard weight but decreased proventriculus weight at 49 d. NEW litter birds exhibited increased (P ≤ 0.05) gizzard weight at 28 d and 49 d and decreased proventriculus weight as compared to NET at 49 days. The 50% CC treatment exhibited decreased (P ≤ 0.05) litter moisture at 35 and 42 d, litter N at 35 and 49 d, and litter pH at 49 days. OLD litter birds exhibited greater (P < 0.05) litter N at 14, 35, and 49 d, as well as litter moisture, pH, and ammonia concentration at 49 days. The 50% CC group also exhibited improved AID of nitrogen (P < 0.05). Broilers fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved live performance and reduced litter moisture while use of NEW litter resulted in a somewhat similar effect, which indicated that consumption of NEW litter also facilitated gastric development and function.

  4. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  5. 10 Things You Should Know About LBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... first present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, which can include hallucinations, behavioral problems, and difficulty with complex mental activities, ... including tremors, stiffness, slowness and difficulty walking Visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not present) Sleep disorders, ...

  6. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  7. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  8. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications.

  9. [Leprosy: stigma and prejudice lived by institucionalized patients in Santa Catarina State, Brazil (1940-1960)].

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Miriam Süssking; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Costa, Eliani; Gregório, Vitória Regina Petters; Koerich, Ana Maria Espíndola; Ribas, Dorotéa Löes

    2008-01-01

    This study is a qualitative research with a socio-historic approach whose objective was to know the prejudice and stigma lived by the institutionalized patients/residents with hanseniase. To achieve this goal, three patients were intervewed who lived in a colony hospital during the research period, utilizing the oral history method. Data were collected and were further analysed, utilizing the stigma referencial. The results indicated that after the entry in the institution, these patients got their family bonds broken, lost their rights as citizens, regarding the situation, they took upon a new life, in a new environment. Concluding that, the nosocomial isolation for a long period of time (years of confinement and dismissal), caused the symbolic death of many patients that lived with the hope to cohabit with family and/or society.

  10. Extending the Lorentz transformation by characteristic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with variable velocity. The paper gives, by an elementary construction, a system of coordinates which is conformal in a restricted region near the axis of the motion. In such coordinates the velocity of light remains invariant even for observers moving with variable velocity. By a particular choice of the scale relation the restricted conformal transformations can be made to reduce to the Lorentz transformation everywhere in the case of constant velocity and locally in the case of variable velocity.

  11. Direct metabolomics for plant cells by live single-cell mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi; Tejedor, Mónica Lorenzo; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Sakane, Iwao; Mizuno, Hajime; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2015-09-01

    Live single-cell mass spectrometry (live MS) provides a mass spectrum that shows thousands of metabolite peaks from a single live plant cell within minutes. By using an optical microscope, a cell is chosen for analysis and a metal-coated nanospray microcapillary tip is used to remove the cell's contents. After adding a microliter of ionization solvent to the opposite end of the tip, the trapped contents are directly fed into the mass spectrometer by applying a high voltage between the tip and the inlet port of the spectrometer to induce nanospray ionization. Proteins are not detected because of insufficient sensitivity. Metabolite peaks are identified by exact mass or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis, and isomers can be separated by combining live MS with ion-mobility separation. By using this approach, spectra can be acquired in 10 min. In combination with metabolic maps and/or molecular databases, the data can be annotated into metabolic pathways; the data analysis takes 30 min to 4 h, depending on the MS/MS data availability from databases. This method enables the analysis of a number of metabolites from a single cell with rapid sampling at sub-attomolar-level sensitivity.

  12. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  13. Greener Living

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.

  14. Synthesis of laughter by modifying excitation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thati, Sathya Adithya; Kumar K, Sudheer; Yegnanarayana, B

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a method to synthesize laughter by modifying the excitation source information is presented. The excitation source information is derived by extracting epoch locations and instantaneous fundamental frequency using zero frequency filtering approach. The zero frequency filtering approach is modified to capture the rapidly varying instantaneous fundamental frequency in natural laugh signals. The nature of variation of excitation features in natural laughter is examined to determine the features to be incorporated in the synthesis of a laugh signal. Features such as pitch period and strength of excitation are modified in the utterance of vowel /a/ or /i/ to generate the laughter signal. Frication is also incorporated wherever appropriate. Laugh signal is generated by varying parameters at both call level and bout level. Experiments are conducted to determine the significance of different features in the perception of laughter. Subjective evaluation is performed to determine the level of acceptance and quality of synthesis of the synthesized laughter signal for different choices of parameter values and for different input types.

  15. 75 FR 74623 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ..., BMI and SESAC repertories. The COLA is based on the change in the Consumer Price Index from October... publish a notice of the change in the cost of living as determined by the Consumer Price Index (all urban consumers, all items (``CPI-U'')) during the period from the most recent index published prior to...

  16. Teaching-Learning Process by Synchronic Communication Tools: The Elluminate Live Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santovena-Casal, Sonia Ma

    2012-01-01

    When integrating a new online tool in university educational system, it is necessary to know its features, applications and functions in depth, advantages and disadvantages, and the results obtained when it has been used by other educational institutions. Synchronous communication tool, "Elluminate Live" can be integrated into a virtual platform…

  17. 7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ONE OF TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE (AND BEDROOM NUMBER TWO IN BACKGROUND) AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. Laboratory and field investigations of wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation was investigated experimentally in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a 20.6 m long, 0.69 m wide and 1.22 m deep wave flume under regular and random waves. The vegetation species used are Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, which ...

  19. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... that colleges, universities, and other educational institutions not affiliated with National...

  20. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  1. Recall of a Live and Personally Experienced Eyewitness Event by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Katie L.; Memon, Amina; Lambrechts, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to (a) extend previous eyewitness research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a live and personally experienced event; (b) examine whether witnesses with ASD demonstrate a facilitative effect in memory for self- over other-performed actions; (c) explore source monitoring abilities by witnesses with ASD in…

  2. Skin characteristics by laser generated surface waves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihong; L'Etang, Adèle

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a study into the suitability of using laser generated surface acoustic waves for the characterisation of skin properties without causing any damage to the skin thermally or by mechanical disruption. Using commercial Finite Element Code ANSYS, the effects of laser wavelength, laser beam radius and laser rise time on generation of laser generated ultrasonic waves in a 3-layered elastic isotropic model of human skin were studied. The FE model is an example of a sequential coupled field analysis where the thermal and mechanical analyses are treated separately. The heating of the skin model due to the short laser pulse is simulated by a dynamic thermal analysis with the laser pulse modeled as volumetric heat generation and the results from this analysis subsequently applied as a load in the mechanical analysis where the out-of-plane displacement histories are analyzed. The technique described in this paper also involves measuring the propagation velocity of SAWs, which are directly related to the material properties, and thickness of layers, this is done over a wide frequency range in order to obtain maximum information regarding the material under test.

  3. What makes an excellent mental health nurse? A pragmatic inquiry initiated and conducted by people with lived experience of service use.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Imani; Pentland, Tina; Rodgers, Tracey; Patterson, Sue

    2014-04-01

    Mental health nurses are in challenging positions. They have the opportunity to support people hospitalized for the treatment of mental illnesses on their recovery journeys, but are simultaneously required to manage a burgeoning administrative burden, maintain organizational 'order', and contain risk. While obliged by policy to engender an environment that promotes recovery, they receive little guidance about how this should be achieved. When feedback from people hospitalized in our service indicated the experience of care was variable, we undertook a pragmatic inquiry examining consumers' views about what makes an excellent mental health nurse. We interviewed 20 people with lived experience of hospitalization and analysed transcripts thematically. To ensure findings were relevant and useful, we consulted mental health nurses about nurses' needs, and incorporated this with the views of service users. The analysis demonstrated that personal qualities, professional skills, and environmental factors all influence the experience of mental health nursing. Our findings highlight a need for renewed attention to the basics of relationships and the importance for nurses of self-awareness and support. We urge nurses to make time to really get to know the people for whom they provide care, and to work to maintain passion for mental health nursing. It seems likely that attention to the simple things has the potential to improve levels of satisfaction among service users, decrease distress, and support the development of an environment in which can nurture recovery.

  4. Estimating peak flow characteristics at ungaged sites by ridge regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    A regression simulation model, is combined with a multisite streamflow generator to simulate a regional regression of 50-year peak discharge against a set of basin characteristics. Monte Carlo experiments are used to compare the unbiased ordinary lease squares parameter estimator with Hoerl and Kennard's (1970a) ridge estimator in which the biasing parameter is that proposed by Hoerl, Kennard, and Baldwin (1975). The simulation results indicate a substantial improvement in parameter estimation using ridge regression when the correlation between basin characteristics is more than about 0.90. In addition, results indicate a strong potential for improving the mean square error of prediction of a peak-flow characteristic versus basin characteristics regression model when the basin characteristics are approximately colinear. The simulation covers a range of regression parameters, streamflow statistics, and basin characteristics commonly found in regional regression studies.

  5. Live-cell protein labelling with nanometre precision by cell squeezing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsperger, Alina; Sharei, Armon; Raulf, Anika; Heilemann, Mike; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs F.; Wieneke, Ralph; Tampé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell labelling techniques to visualize proteins with minimal disturbance are important; however, the currently available methods are limited in their labelling efficiency, specificity and cell permeability. We describe high-throughput protein labelling facilitated by minimalistic probes delivered to mammalian cells by microfluidic cell squeezing. High-affinity and target-specific tracing of proteins in various subcellular compartments is demonstrated, culminating in photoinduced labelling within live cells. Both the fine-tuned delivery of subnanomolar concentrations and the minimal size of the probe allow for live-cell super-resolution imaging with very low background and nanometre precision. This method is fast in probe delivery (∼1,000,000 cells per second), versatile across cell types and can be readily transferred to a multitude of proteins. Moreover, the technique succeeds in combination with well-established methods to gain multiplexed labelling and has demonstrated potential to precisely trace target proteins, in live mammalian cells, by super-resolution microscopy. PMID:26822409

  6. All the things I have - handling one's material room in old age.

    PubMed

    Larsson Ranada, Asa; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2014-12-01

    The article explores how old people who live in their ordinary home, reason and act regarding their 'material room' (technical objects, such as household appliances, communication tools and things, such as furniture, personal belongings, gadgets, books, paintings, and memorabilia). The interest is in how they, as a consequence of their aging, look at acquiring new objects and phasing out older objects from the home. This is a broader approach than in most other studies of how old people relate to materiality in which attention is mostly paid either to adjustments to the physical environment or to the importance of personal possessions. In the latter cases, the focus is on downsizing processes (e.g. household disbandment or casser maison) in connection with a move to smaller accommodation or to a nursing home. The article is based on a study in which thirteen older people (median age 87), living in a Swedish town of medium size were interviewed (2012) for a third time. The questions concerned the need and desire for new objects, replacement of broken objects, sorting out the home or elsewhere, most cherished possessions, and the role of family members such as children and grandchildren. The results reveal the complexity of how one handles the material room. Most evident is the participants' reluctance to acquire new objects or even to replace broken things. Nearly all of them had considered, but few had started, a process of sorting out objects. These standpoints in combination resulted in a relatively intact material room, which was motivated by an ambition to simplify daily life or to facilitate the approaching dissolution of the home. Some objects of special value and other cherished objects materialized the connections between generations within a family. Some participants wanted to spare their children the burden of having to decide on what to do with their possessions. Others (mostly men), on the contrary, relied on their children to do the sorting out after

  7. DISTRIBUTIONS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE NUCLEI PROVIDED BY STAR-FORMING ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for {sup 40}K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in {sup 40}K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  8. Dead cell counts during serum cultivation are underestimated by the fluorescent live/dead assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengda; Cui, Zhanfeng; Urban, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The live/dead fluorescent assay provides a quick method for assessing the proportion of live and dead cells in cell culture systems or tissues and is widely used. Dead cells are detected by the fluorescence produced when propidium iodide (PI) binds to DNA; PI and similar molecules are excluded from live cells but can penetrate dead cells because of their loss of membrane integrity. Here we investigated the effect of serum in the culture medium on the reliability of the method. We assessed viability of chondrocytes with/without serum using both a live/dead assay kit and also trypan blue staining. We found that after 2 days of culture, the DNA-binding dye PI could no longer detect dead cells if serum was present but they were readily detected in serum-free medium or if an inhibitor to DNase I was added to the serum-containing medium. Dead cells could be detected by trypan blue staining in all cultures. Hence dead cells are no longer detected as the DNase I present in serum degrades their DNA. DNA-binding dyes may thus not give a reliable estimate of the number of dead cells in systems that have been cultured in the presence of serum for several days.

  9. Innovative use of platinum compounds to selectively detect live microorganisms by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-Ichi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-02-01

    PCR cannot distinguish live microorganisms from dead ones. To circumvent this disadvantage, ethidium/propidium-monoazide (EMA/PMA) and psoralen to discriminate live from dead bacteria have been used for 2 decades. These methods require the use of numerous laborious procedures. We introduce an innovative method that uses platinum compounds, which are primarily used as catalysts in organic chemistry and partly used as anti-cancer drugs. Microorganisms are briefly exposed to platinum compounds in vivo, and these compounds penetrate dead (compromised) microorganisms but not live ones and are chelated by chromosomal DNA. The use of platinum compounds permits clear discrimination between live and dead microorganisms in water and milk (including Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli) via PCR compared with typically used PMA. This platinum-PCR method could enable the specific detection of viable coliforms in milk at a concentration of 5-10 CFU mL(-1) specified by EU/USA regulations after a 4-h process. For sample components, environmental water contains lower levels of PCR inhibitors than milk does, and milk is similar to infant formula, skim milk and blood; thus, the use of the platinum-PCR method could also prevent food poisoning due to the presence of C. sakazakii in dairy products. This method could provide outstanding rapidity for use in environmental/food/clinical tests. Platinum-PCR could also be a substitute for the typical culture-based methods currently used.

  10. Detection of Giardia cysts by using the polymerase chain reaction and distinguishing live from dead cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Mahbubani, M H; Bej, A K; Perlin, M; Schaefer, F W; Jakubowski, W; Atlas, R M

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for the detection of Giardia cysts by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the giardin gene as the target. DNA amplification by PCR, using giardin DNA as the target, resulted in detection of both live and dead cysts. When giardin mRNA was used as the target, the ability to amplify cDNA by PCR depended on the mode of killing. Cysts killed by freezing were not detected by PCR when giardin mRNA was the target. Cysts killed by heating or exposure to monochloramine, however, gave positive detection signals for both DNA and giardin mRNA targets. The amount of giardin mRNA and total RNA was significantly increased in live cysts following the induction of excystation. Cysts killed by freezing, heating, or exposure to monochloramine did not show a change in RNA content. The detection of the giardin gene by PCR permits a sensitive and specific diagnosis for Giardia spp. Discrimination between live and dead cysts can be made by measuring the amounts of RNA or PCR-amplified product from the giardin mRNA target before and after the induction of excystation. Images PMID:1785923

  11. Group living enhances individual resources discrimination: the use of public information by cockroaches to assess shelter quality.

    PubMed

    Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Sempo, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    In group-living organisms, consensual decision of site selection results from the interplay between individual responses to site characteristics and to group-members. Individuals independently gather personal information by exploring their environment. Through social interaction, the presence of others provides public information that could be used by individuals and modulates the individual probability of joining/leaving a site. The way that individual's information processing and the network of interactions influence the dynamics of public information (depending on population size) that in turn affect discrimination in site quality is a central question. Using binary choice between sheltering sites of different quality, we demonstrate that cockroaches in group dramatically outperform the problem-solving ability of single individual. Such use of public information allows animals to discriminate between alternatives whereas isolated individuals are ineffective (i.e. the personal discrimination efficiency is weak). Our theoretical results, obtained from a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments, highlight that the collective discrimination emerges from competing amplification processes relying on the modulation of the individual sheltering time without shelters comparison and communication modulation. Finally, we well demonstrated here the adaptive value of such decision algorithm. Without any behavioral change, the system is able to shift to a more effective strategy when alternatives are present: the modification of the spatio-temporal distributions of individuals leading to the collective selection of the best resource. This collective discrimination implying such parsimonious and widespread mechanism must be shared by many group living-species.

  12. Live cell response to mechanical stimulation studied by integrated optical and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trache, Andreea; Lim, Soon-Mi

    2010-10-04

    To understand the mechanism by which living cells sense mechanical forces, and how they respond and adapt to their environment, a new technology able to investigate cells behavior at sub-cellular level with high spatial and temporal resolution was developed. Thus, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was integrated with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fast-spinning disk (FSD) confocal microscopy. The integrated system is broadly applicable across a wide range of molecular dynamic studies in any adherent live cells, allowing direct optical imaging of cell responses to mechanical stimulation in real-time. Significant rearrangement of the actin filaments and focal adhesions was shown due to local mechanical stimulation at the apical cell surface that induced changes into the cellular structure throughout the cell body. These innovative techniques will provide new information for understanding live cell restructuring and dynamics in response to mechanical force. A detailed protocol and a representative data set that show live cell response to mechanical stimulation are presented.

  13. Observation of Live Ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) by Scanning Electron Microscopy under High Vacuum Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yuka; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), which image sample surfaces by scanning with an electron beam, are widely used for steric observations of resting samples in basic and applied biology. Various conventional methods exist for SEM sample preparation. However, conventional SEM is not a good tool to observe living organisms because of the associated exposure to high vacuum pressure and electron beam radiation. Here we attempted SEM observations of live ticks. During 1.5×10−3 Pa vacuum pressure and electron beam irradiation with accelerated voltages (2–5 kV), many ticks remained alive and moved their legs. After 30-min observation, we removed the ticks from the SEM stage; they could walk actively under atmospheric pressure. When we tested 20 ticks (8 female adults and 12 nymphs), they survived for two days after SEM observation. These results indicate the resistance of ticks against SEM observation. Our second survival test showed that the electron beam, not vacuum conditions, results in tick death. Moreover, we describe the reaction of their legs to electron beam exposure. These findings open the new possibility of SEM observation of living organisms and showed the resistance of living ticks to vacuum condition in SEM. These data also indicate, for the first time, the usefulness of tick as a model system for biology under extreme condition. PMID:22431980

  14. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if

  15. Quantitative FRET Analysis by Fast Acquisition Time Domain FLIM at High Spatial Resolution in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Audugé, Nicolas; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Tramier, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments in live cells for protein interaction studies is still a challenging issue. In a two-component system (FRET and no FRET donor species), fitting of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data gives the fraction of donor molecules involved in FRET (fD) and the intrinsic transfer efficiency. But when fast FLIM acquisitions are used to monitor dynamic changes in protein-protein interactions at high spatial and temporal resolutions in living cells, photon statistics and time resolution are limited. In this case, fitting procedures are not reliable, even for single lifetime donors. We introduce the new concept of a minimal fraction of donor molecules involved in FRET (mfD), coming from the mathematical minimization of fD. We find particular advantage in the use of mfD because it can be obtained without fitting procedures and it is derived directly from FLIM data. mfD constitutes an interesting quantitative parameter for live cell studies because it is related to the minimal relative concentration of interacting proteins. For multi-lifetime donors, the process of fitting complex fluorescence decays to find at least four reliable lifetimes is a near impossible task. Here, mfD extension for multi-lifetime donors is the only quantitative determinant. We applied this methodology for imaging the interaction between the bromodomains of TAFII250 and acetylated histones H4 in living cells at high resolution. We show the existence of discrete acetylated chromatin domains where the minimal fraction of bromodomain interacting with acetylated H4 oscillates from 0.26 to 0.36 and whose size is smaller than half of one micron cube. We demonstrate that mfD by itself is a useful tool to investigate quantitatively protein interactions in live cells, especially when using fast FRET-FLIM acquisition times. PMID:18539634

  16. Internal performance characteristics of short convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles designed by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, H George; Beale, William T

    1956-01-01

    Internal performance data on a short exhaust nozzle designed by the method of characteristics were obtained over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 22. The peak thrust coefficient was not affected by a shortened divergent section, but it occurred at lower pressure ratios due to reduction in expansion ratio. This nozzle contour based on characteristics solution gave higher thrust coefficients than a conical convergent-divergent nozzle of equivalent length. Abrupt-inlet sections permitted a reduction in nozzle length without a thrust-coefficient reduction.

  17. Monitoring of relative mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells by fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Permeant cationic fluorescent probes are shown to be selectively accumulated by the mitochondria of living cells. Mitochondria-specific interaction of such molecules is apparently dependent on the high trans- membrane potential (inside negative) maintained by functional mitochondria. Dissipation of the mitochondrial trans-membrane and potential by ionophores or inhibitors of electron transport eliminates the selective mitochondrial association of these compounds. The application of such potential-dependent probes in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy allows the monitoring of mitochondrial membrane potential in individual living cells. Marked elevations in mitochondria- associated probe fluorescence have been observed in cells engaged in active movement. This approach to the analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential should be of value in future investigations of the control of energy metabolism and energy requirements of specific biological functions at the cellular level. PMID:6783667

  18. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores) were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be non-religious were negative

  19. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  20. Keeping Things Interesting: A Reuse Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, V.; Swick, R.; Seufert, E.

    2006-12-01

    Software reuse has several obvious advantages. By taking advantage of the experience and skill of colleagues one not only saves time, money and resources, but can also jump start a project that might otherwise have floundered from the start, or not even have been possible. One of the least talked about advantages of software reuse is it helps keep the work interesting for the developers. Reuse prevents developers from spending time and energy writing software solutions to problems that have already been solved, and frees them to concentrate on solving new problems, developing new components, and doing things that have never been done before. At the National Snow and Ice Data Center we are fortunate our user community has some unique needs that aren't met by mainstream solutions. Consequently we look for reuse opportunities wherever possible so we can focus on the tasks that add value for our user community. This poster offers a case study of one thread through a decade of reuse at NSIDC that has involved eight different development efforts to date.

  1. Personal resources supporting living at home as described by older home care clients.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Sini; Routasalo, Pirkko; Arve, Seija

    2008-08-01

    This study describes the personal resources of older (> or = 75 years) home care clients in Finland and their perceptions of factors that enhance and constrain their ability to live independently at home. The data were collected by unstructured interviews with 21 older home care clients. Inductive content analysis were used to analyse the data. The resources of older people consisted of a sense of control over one's life and a determination to remain active. Factors enhancing older people's resources were their involvement in leisure activities and social networks, factors undermining their resources were conditions on living imposed by outsiders, declining health and loneliness. The results show that home care professionals do not yet have sufficient skills and abilities to identify and support older people's existing resources. As well as having access to necessary resources, it is also crucial that older people know how to use them.

  2. Live-Cell Pyrophosphate Imaging by in Situ Hot-Spot Generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingmin; Li, Jin; Di, Huixia; Liu, Huiqiao; Liu, Dingbin

    2017-03-21

    Controlling the electromagnetic hot-spot generation is essential for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assays. Current hot-spot-based SERS assays have been extensively studied in solutions or on substrates. However, probing biospecies by controlling the hot-spot assembly in living systems has not been demonstrated thus far. Herein, we report a background-free SERS probe for imaging pyrophosphate (PPi), a biochemically significant anion, in living cells. Intracellular PPi is able to induce the nanoparticle dimerization, thus creating an intense electromagnetic hot spot and dramatically enhancing the signal of the Raman reporters residing in the hot spot. More impressively, the reporter we used in this study provides a strong and sharp single peak in the cellular Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm(-1)), thus eliminating the possible background interference. This strategy could be readily extended to detect other biomarkers by only replacing the recognition ligands.

  3. Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging of Live Cells by Effective Cytosolic Delivery of Probes

    PubMed Central

    Massignani, Marzia; Canton, Irene; Sun, Tao; Hearnden, Vanessa; MacNeil, Sheila; Blanazs, Adam; Armes, Steven P.; Lewis, Andrew; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Background Microscopic techniques enable real-space imaging of complex biological events and processes. They have become an essential tool to confirm and complement hypotheses made by biomedical scientists and also allow the re-examination of existing models, hence influencing future investigations. Particularly imaging live cells is crucial for an improved understanding of dynamic biological processes, however hitherto live cell imaging has been limited by the necessity to introduce probes within a cell without altering its physiological and structural integrity. We demonstrate herein that this hurdle can be overcome by effective cytosolic delivery. Principal Findings We show the delivery within several types of mammalian cells using nanometre-sized biomimetic polymer vesicles (a.k.a. polymersomes) that offer both highly efficient cellular uptake and endolysomal escape capability without any effect on the cellular metabolic activity. Such biocompatible polymersomes can encapsulate various types of probes including cell membrane probes and nucleic acid probes as well as labelled nucleic acids, antibodies and quantum dots. Significance We show the delivery of sufficient quantities of probes to the cytosol, allowing sustained functional imaging of live cells over time periods of days to weeks. Finally the combination of such effective staining with three-dimensional imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy allows cell imaging in complex three-dimensional environments under both mono-culture and co-culture conditions. Thus cell migration and proliferation can be studied in models that are much closer to the in vivo situation. PMID:20454666

  4. Live performance, carcass characteristic and blood metabolite responses of broilers to two distinct corn types with different extent of grinding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Cui, D P; Zhang, Z Y; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Lin, H

    2017-04-01

    The major objective of this research was to establish the main and interactive effects of corn type and extent of grinding on broiler performance including carcass characteristics. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2 (corn type) × 2 (fine and coarse) factorial arrangement, each with six replicates of 45 male Ross chicks, was applied. Experimental diets, containing dent or hard corn, were formulated with two extents of grinding (3.00 or 6.00 mm screens) for three growing phases. In comparison with dent corn, the hard corn increased body weight (BW) gain and thigh muscle yield (p < 0.05), while decreasing feed conversion ratio (p < 0.01) and abdominal fat deposition (p < 0.05), some aspects of which were age-dependent and appeared to vary with extent of grinding. Coarser grinding increased the weight of proventriculus (p < 0.01), gizzard (p < 0.05) and small + large intestine (p < 0.10) relative to BW, particularly towards market size. These results suggest that feeding hard corn or large-particle-size corn have some favourable effects on growth performance or gastrointestinal development for finishing broilers.

  5. Detection of amount and activity of living algae in fresh water by dehydrogenase activity (DHA).

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Dun, Mina; Qi, Feng

    2008-11-01

    A study was performed to determine the amount and activity of living algae in fresh water by measuring the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of algae in order to provide a method to assess the effect of algicide treatment. The conditions of measurement were researched with respect to incubating temperature and duration, and selection of extractants. The comparison between this method and an alternative method, chlorophyll a, shows that this method is simple and easy to practice, and can determine the effect of algicide treatment.

  6. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code [1].

  7. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-15

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  8. Multicomponent-flow analyses by multimode method of characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1994-01-01

    For unsteady open-channel flows having N interacting unknown variables, a system of N mutually independent, partial differential equations can be used to describe the flow-field. The system generally belongs to marching-type problems and permits transformation into characteristic equations that are associated with N distinct characteristics directions. Because characteristics can be considered 'wave' or 'disturbance' propagation, a fluvial system so described can be viewed as adequately definable using these N component waves. A numerical algorithm to solve the N families of characteristics can then be introduced for formulation of an N-component flow-simulation model. The multimode method of characteristics (MMOC), a new numerical scheme that has a combined capacity of several specified-time-interval (STI) schemes of the method of characteristics, makes numerical modeling of such N-component riverine flows feasible and attainable. Merging different STI schemes yields different kinds of MMOC schemes, for which two kinds are displayed herein. With the MMOC, each characteristics is dynamically treated by an appropriate numerical mode, which should lead to an effective and suitable global simulation, covering various types of unsteady flow. The scheme is always linearly stable and its numerical accuracy can be systematically analyzed. By increasing the N value, one can develop a progressively sophisticated model that addresses increasingly complex river-mechanics problems.

  9. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    either β-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH.

  10. From Past Issues: The More Things Change...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Though computers were still housed in large, air-conditioned rooms and were often programmed via decks of punched cards, a number of chemists were making effective use of them in teaching as well as research. Eight papers in this issue reported on computer programs. Castleberry, Culp, and Lagowski described an educational experiment in which the effectiveness of computer-based instruction was evaluated in a general chemistry course. Breneman reported on minicomputer-aided instruction, and others described programs that normalized grades, calculated heats of combustion, analyzed results of physical chemistry experiments, solved secular equations, calculated mass spectra, and calculated rate constants. Output devices were usually character based and graphics were rudimentary, as exemplified by the teletype plots of hydrogenic orbitals shown above. The editorial, "On Abandoning Grading and Reconsidering Standards" advocated neither and presented four arguments for maintaining traditional standards and realistic grades. This immediately followed half a decade when poor grades might result in being drafted and serving in Vietnam and student protests were based on government policy rather than whether or not to enforce rules against student drinking. Editor Lippincott pointed out that after several years few students return to thank a professor for making things easy, but many express appreciation for challenges that proved they could do more than they thought they could.

  11. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    SciTech Connect

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro Milani, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells’ fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young’s modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young’s modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  12. Hygienic evaluation of terraria inhabited by amphibians and reptiles: cryptosporidia, free-living amebas, salmonella.

    PubMed

    Hassl, Andreas; Benyr, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are popular pet animals in about 90.000 Austrian households despite their frequently debated capacity to transmit diseases associated with animal keeping. We studied the epidemiological significance of the triangle animal keeper, exotic pet animal, and feed mice by investigating the frequency of three intestinal infestations, caused by cryptosporidia, opportunistic free-living amebas and salmonella, in amphibians and reptiles living in a public vivarium. In addition to recording the first known occurrence of Naegleria australiensis in Austria, and of this species and of Acanthamoeba polyphaga in the feces of reptiles worldwide, we also detected a strong association between Salmonella subspecies I and captive reptiles and between S. sub-species III and free-living lizards. Thus, animal keeper, the exotic animals kept, and the feed mice may constitute an epidemiological pool for the interchange of these infectious agents. This new epidemiological situation may cause an increase of some opportunistic and exotic diseases such as reptile-borne salmonellosis. Despite the perceived benefits of keeping exotic animals in a household, the general public and especially those who have an immunodeficiency must be made aware of the danger of infectious diseases possibly being spread by their pets.

  13. Synthesis of functionalized asymmetric star polymers containing conductive polyacetylene segments by living anionic polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youliang; Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Hirao, Akira

    2005-10-19

    Novel 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, and 5-arm ABCDE asymmetric star polymers comprising the conductive polyacetylene precursor, poly(4-methylphenyl vinyl sulfoxide) (PMePVSO), and other segments, such as polystyrene, poly(alpha-methylstyrene), poly(4-methoxystyrene), poly(4-trimethylsilylstyrene), and poly(4-methylstyrene), were synthesized by the methodology based on living anionic polymerization using DPE-functionalized polymers. This methodology involves the addition reaction of a DPE-functionalized polymer to a living anionic polymer followed by the living anionic polymerization of MePVSO initiated from the in situ formed polymer anion with two, three, or four polymer segments. The resultant asymmetric star polymers possessed predetermined molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn < 1.03), and desired compositions as confirmed by SEC, 1H NMR, SLS, and elemental analysis. After thermal treatment, the PMePVSO segment in the star polymer could be completely converted into a conductive polyacetylene segment, evident from TGA and elemental analysis. These asymmetric star polymers are expected to exhibit interesting solution properties and unique microphase-separated morphological suprastructures with potential applications in nanoscopic conductive materials. Moreover, this methodology can afford the target asymmetric star polymers with arm segments varying in a wide range and enables the synthesis of more complex macromolecular architectures.

  14. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  15. Children's Everyday Lives Shadowed by Stalking: Post separation Stalking Narratives of Finnish Children and Women.

    PubMed

    Nikupeteri, Anna; Laitinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses post separation stalking and its implications in children's everyday lives. Based on narratives of 13 Finnish children and 20 women, the research fills a gap in the knowledge regarding the psychosocial, emotional, and physical impacts of stalking on children when their mothers are stalked by a former partner. It identifies four forms of impact: (a) an atmosphere of fear and feelings of insecurity; (b) disguised acts of stalking and the father's performance of care, love, and longing; (c) exploitation of children in stalking; and (d) physical abuse, acts of violence, and threats of death. The findings indicate that stalking severely constrains children's everyday lives and strengthens, yet often distorts, the mother-child bond. The study concludes that in cases where mothers are stalked, professionals in the social and health services, law enforcement, and criminal justice should view the children, too, as victims and construct supportive social relationships for women and children facing threatening life situations.

  16. [Immune status of adult population of the Bryansk region living in territory polluted by radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Fadeeva, I D; Ul'ianova, N V; Nikonova, M F; Litvina, M M; Lavdovskaia, M V; Chernetsova, L F; Khoroshilova, N V

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunological investigation with immune status evaluation of three groups of adult population of Bryansk Region was performed. The first group included 165 persons living in Vyshkov (settlement of town type in Bryansk Region) contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident. The second group included 68 persons living in Vyshkov, immunological monitoring of those was performed. The third group consisted of 114 persons living on the "clean" area of Pochep (Bryansk Region). On both areas (contaminated Vyshkov and "clean" Pochep) the large percent of persons (three quarters of all investigated ones) had clinical manifestations of immune deficiency. The immune status of Vyshkov inhabitants was characterized by T-helper/inductor activation. That was expressed in significant increase of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in comparison of control group of primary donors and to "clean" Pochep inhabitants and in stable decrease of average values of serum IgG in comparison to control group, IgG and IgM in comparison to Pochep group. Maximum high values of T-helpers under lowest T-suppressor/killer values were observed at clinical symptoms which may be stipulated by radiation factor (loss of hair and teeth, surplus weight, predisposition to bleedings) and in persons working in cattle-breeding.

  17. Living with intestinal failure caused by Crohn disease: not letting the disease conquer life.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Eva; Persson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of what it means to live with intestinal failure caused by Crohn disease and how it influences daily life. Ten patients, 7 with an ostomy and 7 on home parenteral nutrition followed up at an outpatient clinic for patients with intestinal failure, were interviewed using a qualitative, phenomenological-hermeneutic method. The analysis of the transcribed data is described thematically and resulted in 3 main themes; (a) struggling to not be controlled by the disease, (b) walking on a thin thread, and (c) being seen as a person, not just as a patient. These themes led to the comprehensive understanding that living with intestinal failure was interpreted as the criticality of maintaining control over one's life and body while maintaining autonomy and not letting the disease conquer life. Life entails a constant struggle with much planning to live as normally as possible and get the most out of life. It was of great importance to be seen as a person and not just as a disease, affirm that life as it is has meaning, there is a state of suffering related to the disease, there are existential issues, and suffering is related to care.

  18. Imaging Complex Protein Metabolism in Live Organisms by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in live systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for live visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse–chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual live cells with high spatial–temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside live cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse–chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305

  19. How Things Work, an Enrichment Class for Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goller, Tamara; Watson, Nancy; Watson, James

    1998-05-01

    Middle School students are curious about their surroundings. They are always asking questions about how things work. So this semester two middle school science teachers and a physicist combined their strengths and taught HOW THINGS WORK, THE PHYSICS OF EVERYDAY LIFE (a book by Louis A. Bloomfield). The students studied the physics behind everyday objects to see how they worked. They read, discussed the physics, and completed laboratory exercises using lasers, cameras, and other objects. Each student then picked an inventor that interested him/her and used the INTERNET to research the inventor and made a class presentation. For the final project, each students use the physics they learned and became an inventor and made an invention.

  20. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  1. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  2. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future? PMID:27610410

  3. Resilience processes demonstrated by young gay and bisexual men living with HIV: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G; Fernandez, M Isabel; Rood, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed.

  4. Experiences of self-determination by older persons living in sheltered housing.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ulla W; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2007-05-01

    Respect for autonomy and self-determination is a central principle in nursing ethics. Autonomy and quality of life are strongly connected, and, at the same time, autonomy is an important quality indicator on how older persons' housing functions. In this study, autonomy was conceived as self-determination. The aim of the study was to describe how older people living in sheltered housing experience self-determination and how they are valued as human beings. Eleven persons living in five different housing facilities for older people in southern Sweden were interviewed. The data were analysed by manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The overall theme expressing the latent content in the interviews emerged as disempowerment, which implied an environment that does not strengthen individual self-determination. The results showed a negative experience of how these older people thought they were valued in the sheltered housing where they lived. In sheltered housing, more attention should be paid to residents' self-determination and sense of value.

  5. Single-Molecule Studies of Integrins by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the single-molecule level, i.e., between one adhesion receptor and its counter-receptor, appears to be an experimental challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used in its force spectroscopy mode to determine unbinding forces of a single pair of adhesion receptors, even with a living cell as a probe. This chapter provides an overview of AFM force measurements of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands. A focus is given to major integrins expressed on leukocytes, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). These receptors are crucial for leukocyte trafficking in health and disease. LFA-1 and VLA-1 can be activated within the bloodstream from a low-affinity to a high-affinity receptor by chemokines in order to adhere strongly to the vessel wall before the receptor-bearing leukocytes extravasate. The experimental considerations needed to provide near-physiological conditions for a living cell and to be able to measure adequate forces at the single-molecule level are discussed in detail. AFM technology has been developed into a modern and extremely sensitive tool in biomedical research. It appears now that AFM force spectroscopy could enter, within a few years, medical applications in diagnosis and therapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  6. Live cell monitoring of glycine betaine by FRET-based genetically encoded nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Ameen, Seema; Siddiqi, Tariq Omar; Khan, Parvez; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-12-15

    Glycine betaine (GB) is one of the key compatible solutes that accumulate in the cell at exceedingly high level under the conditions of high salinity. It plays a crucial role in the maintenance of osmolarity of the cell without affecting the physiological processes. Analysis of stress-induced physiological conditions in living cells, therefore, requires real-time monitoring of cellular GB level. Glycine Betaine Optical Sensor (GBOS), a genetically-encoded FRET-based nanosensor developed in this study, allows the real-time monitoring of GB levels inside living cells. This nanosensor has been developed by sandwiching GB binding protein (ProX) between the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair, the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Conformational change in ProX, which was used as sensory domain, reported the change in the level of this compatible solute in in vitro and in vivo conditions. Binding of the GB to the sensory domain fetches close to both the fluorescent moieties that result in the form of increased FRET ratio. So, any change in the concentration of GB is correlated with change in FRET ratio. This sensor also reported the GB cellular dynamics in real-time in Escherichia coli cells after the addition of its precursor, choline. The GBOS was also expressed in yeast and mammalian cells to monitor the intracellular GB. Therefore, the GBOS represents a unique FRET-based nanosensor which allows the non-invasive ratiometric analysis of the GB in living cells.

  7. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  8. Characteristics of intuitive nurses.

    PubMed

    Miller, V G

    1995-06-01

    A description is provided of the process used to verify characteristics of intuitive nurses that had been reported in the literature. These characteristics supplied the framework for construction of the Miller Intuitiveness Instrument (MII) reported earlier (Miller, 1993). Evidence for validity of the MII was provided in the Miller (1993) study by examining factor analyses and correlations with the intuitive component of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The following characteristics were subsequently verified: Intuitive nurses are willing to act on their intuitions, are skilled clinicians, and incorporate a spiritual component in their practices. In addition, intuitive nurses express an interest in the abstract nature of things and are risk takers. Intuitive nurses prefer intuition to sensing (as reflected by the MBTI) as a way to take in information. They are extroverted and express confidence in their intuitions. Likewise, nurses who delay making decisions until all the information is in are more intuitive than those who make decisions abruptly.

  9. A Platform for Learning Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanovic, Zorica; Simic, Konstantin; Milutinovic, Miloš; Radenkovic, Božidar; Despotovic-Zrakic, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for conducting Internet of Things (IoT) classes based on a web-service oriented cloud platform. The goal of the designed model is to provide university students with knowledge about IoT concepts, possibilities, and business models, and allow them to develop basic system prototypes using general-purpose microdevices and…

  10. Children of Divorce: Things You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Mary Lou

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses factors that influence children of divorced parents (length of time since divorce, family income level); summarizes research related to these children's self concept, academic performance, and classroom behavior; and suggests several things that parents and educators can do to support children of divorce. (IAH)

  11. Information Behaviour That Keeps Found Things Found

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Jones, William; Dumais, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that the researchers call: "Keeping found things found on the Web" or "KFTF". The research focuses on the classic problem of ensuring that once a useful information source or channel has been located, it can be found again when it is needed. To achieve this goal, individuals engage in information…

  12. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  13. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Dubrovsky, Martin; Bortolu, Sara; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Masia, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of both Mediterranean vegetation communities and understorey vegetation. They also constitute the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. Although fire spread and behaviour are dependent on several factors, the water content of live fuel plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread, especially in the Mediterranean shrubland, where live fuel is often the main component of the available fuel which catches fire. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel, affecting load distribution in vegetation strata, floristic composition, and live and dead fuel ratio. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status, and consequently flammability, and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main aim of this work was to propose a methodology for evaluating possible impacts of future climate change on moisture dynamic and length of fire danger period at local scale. Specific objectives were: i) evaluating performances of meteorological drought indices in describing seasonal pattern of live fuel moisture content (LFMC), and ii) simulating the potential impacts of future climate changes on the duration of fire danger period. Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of three Mediterranean shrub species were performed in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for 8 years. Seasonal patterns of LFMC were compared with the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index. Analysis of frequency distribution and cumulative distribution curves were carried out in order to evaluate performance of codes and to identify

  14. Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Hideaki; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O.

    2005-02-01

    Supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy has been applied to vibrational imaging of a living fission yeast cell. We have successfully extracted only a vibrationally resonant CARS image from a characteristic spectral profile in the C-H stretching vibrational region. Using our simple but sensitive analysis, the vibrational contrast is significantly improved in comparison with a CARS imaging at a fixed Raman shift. The CARS image of a living yeast cell indicates several areas at which the signal is remarkably strong. They are considered to arise from mitochondria.

  15. Effect of live weight and sex on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of Merino lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Peña, Ramón E; Andrés, Ana I

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight lamb carcasses were divided into four groups (n=12) according to slaughter weight (24 and 29kg) and sex (male and female). Colour, pH, moisture, and intramuscular fat were not affected (p>0.05) by slaughter weight or sex. With respect to fatty acid composition, slaughter weight had significant effects on C12:0 (p<0.01), C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 (p<0.05) in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 decreased as slaughter weight increased, while C16:0 increased. In Semimembranosus (SM) m., only C18:3 n-3 and C20:2 n-6 were affected (p<0.001) by slaughter weight. Total PUFA in LL m. was greater (p<0.01) in females than in males. Although in general, sensorial quality was not significantly affected by slaughter weight or sex, meat from lighter lambs (24kg) had greater general acceptability than meat from heavier lambs (29kg).

  16. [In life determination of the physiological status of decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda) by hematological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E N; Kovacheva, N P

    2010-01-01

    The application of hematological analysis techniques to detecting the physiological status of the economically valued decapods during their culturing, and in monitoring of the condition of their natural populations, is restrained by the incomplete knowledge of these invertebrates circulatory system and its properties. Scarce data on the use of hematological indicators for determining the physiological status of decapods may be found sporadically in published sources; there is shortage of basic standards needed for interpretation of the analytical results. In this regard the paper considers some data on the major properties of hemolymph and its cellular elements; on methods of their examination; and on the results of application of hematological characteristics to assessing the physiological condition of various species of decapods. The hematological indicators suitable for the analysis of live decapods include: time of coagulation and buffer characteristic of hemolymph; concentration of total proteins, copper, calcium, glucose and lactates in it; total number of hemocytes with the consideration of granulocytes share.

  17. The Q-List manifesto: how to get things right in generalist medical practice.

    PubMed

    Ventres, William B

    2015-03-01

    Checklists have become popular in medical practice since the publication of surgeon Atul Gawande's book, The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right. Based on his 26 years of practice as a family physician and informed by scholarly works from other professional disciplines, the author suggests that although checklists are helpful for promoting habitual reflection, they are limited in scope and meaning, and more suited for procedural undertakings than the bio-psycho-social-existential orientation of generalist practice. The author reviews the characteristics of generalist practice and suggests that clinicians develop a list of questions to help them recall and examine concepts key to the exploration and management of routine and challenging situations with patients. He proposes his own Question-List, or Q-List, and recommends its adaptation for use as a manifesto to the rich and engaging work of generalist medicine.

  18. The Power To Choose: An Examination of Service Brokerage and Individualized Funding as Implemented by the Community Living Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    G. Allan Roeher Inst., Toronto (Ontario).

    This report evaluates how effective the brokerage system operated by the Community Living Society in Vancouver (British Columbia) has been in meeting the needs of individuals with a mental handicap living in the community. The program stresses service brokerage, a mechanism to deliver the planning resources required to arrange and purchase…

  19. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter F.; Hoen, Anne G.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Brown, Eric P.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I.; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods. Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results. Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions. The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  20. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Infections Due to Adenovirus in Children Living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Mori, Alessandro; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fossali, Emilio; Piralla, Antonio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the predominant human adenovirus (HAdV) species and types associated with pediatric respiratory infections, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from otherwise healthy children attending an emergency room in Milan, Italy, due to a respiratory tract infection from January 1 to February 28 of two subsequent years, 2013 and 2014. The HAdVs were detected using a respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP FAST v2) and with a HAdV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction; their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Among 307 nasopharyngeal samples, 61 (19.9%) tested positive for HAdV. HAdV was the only virus detected in 31/61 (50.8%) cases, whereas it was found in association with one other virus in 25 (41.0%) cases and with two or more viruses in 5 (8.2%) cases. Human Enterovirus/human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infecting viral agents and were found in 12 (19.7%) and 7 (11.5%) samples, respectively. Overall, the HAdV strain sequences analyzed were highly conserved. In comparison to HAdV-negative children, those infected with HAdV had a reduced frequency of lower respiratory tract involvement (36.1% vs 55.2%; p = 0.007), wheezing (0.0% vs 12.5%; p = 0.004), and hospitalization (27.9% vs 56.1%; p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy and white blood cell counts were more frequently prescribed (91.9% vs 57.1%; p = 0.04) and higher (17,244 ± 7,737 vs 9,565 ± 3,211 cells/μL; p = 0.04), respectively, in children infected by HAdV-C than among those infected by HAdV-B. On the contrary, those infected by HAdV-B had more frequently lower respiratory tract involvement (57.1% vs 29.7%) but difference did not reach statistical significant (p = 0.21). Children with high viral load were absent from child care attendance for a longer period of time (14.5 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.002) and had higher C reactive protein levels (41.3 ± 78.5 vs 5.4 ± 9.6 μg/dL; p = 0.03). This study has shown that

  1. IQGAP1 Interactome Analysis by In Vitro Reconstitution and Live Cell 3-Color FRET Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wallrabe, Horst; Cai, Ying; Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, A.; Luzes, R.; Fang, Xiaolan; Kan, Ho-Man; Cameron, L. C.; Schafer, Dorothy A.; Bloom, George S.

    2014-01-01

    IQGAP1 stimulates branched actin filament nucleation by activating N-WASP, which then activates the Arp2/3 complex. N-WASP can be activated by other factors, including GTP-bound Cdc42 or Rac1, which also bind IQGAP1. Here we report the use of purified proteins for in vitro binding and actin polymerization assays, and Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy of cultured cells to illuminate functional interactions among IQGAP1, N-WASP, actin, and either Cdc42 or Rac1. In pyrene-actin assembly assays containing N-WASP and Arp2/3 complex, IQGAP1 plus either small G protein cooperatively stimulated actin filament nucleation by reducing the lag time before 50% maximum actin polymerization was reached. Similarly, Cdc42 and Rac1 modulated the binding of IQGAP1 to N-WASP in a dose-dependent manner, with Cdc42 enhancing the interaction and Rac1 reducing the interaction. These in vitro reconstitution results suggested that IQGAP1 interacts by similar, yet distinct mechanisms with Cdc42 versus Rac1 to regulate actin filament assembly through N-WASP in vivo. The physiological relevance of these multi-protein interactions was substantiated by 3-color FRET microscopy of live MDCK cells expressing various combinations of fluorescent N-WASP, IQGAP1, Cdc42, Rac1 and actin. This study also establishes 3-color FRET microscopy as a powerful tool for studying dynamic intermolecular interactions in live cells. PMID:24124181

  2. Interactions of hemoglobin in live red blood cells measured by the electrophoresis release test.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Gao, Lijun; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Lishe; Qin, Liangyi; Han, Lihong; Qin, Wenbin

    2010-09-01

    To elucidate the protein-protein interactions of hemoglobin (Hb) variants A and A(2), HbA was first shown to bind with HbA(2) in live red blood cells (RBCs) by diagonal electrophoresis and then the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) outside the RBC was shown by cross electrophoresis. The starch-agarose gel electrophoresis of hemolysate, RBCs, freeze-thawed RBCs and the supernatant of freeze-thawed RBCs showed that the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) was affected by membrane integrity. To identify the proteins involved in the interaction, protein components located between HbA and HbA(2) in RBCs (RBC HbA-HbA(2)) and hemolysate (hemolysate HbA-HbA(2)) were isolated from the starch-agarose gel and separated by 5-12% SDS-PAGE. The results showed that there was a ≈22 kDa protein band located in the RBC HbA-HbA(2) but not in hemolysate HbA-HbA(2). Sequencing by LC/MS/MS showed that this band was a protein complex that included mainly thioredoxin peroxidase B, α-globin, δ-globin and β-globin. Thus, using our unique in vivo whole blood cell electrophoresis release test, Hbs were proven for the first time to interact with other proteins in the live RBC.

  3. Targeting endogenous nuclear antigens by electrotransfer of monoclonal antibodies in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Guillaume; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Desplancq, Dominique; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Vigneron, Marc; Gannon, Julian; Van Regenmortel, Marc H.; Weiss, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are valuable tools for functional studies in vitro, but their use in living cells remains challenging because they do not naturally cross the cell membrane. Here, we present a simple and highly efficient method for the intracytoplasmic delivery of any antibody into cultured cells. By following the fate of monoclonal antibodies that bind to nuclear antigens, it was possible to image endogenous targets and to show that inhibitory antibodies are able to induce cell growth suppression or cell death. Our electrotransfer system allowed the cancer cells we studied to be transduced without loss of viability and may have applications for a variety of intracellular immuno-interventions. PMID:23765067

  4. Long-lived resonances supported by a contact interaction in crossed magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewska, K. Kaminski, J.Z.; Potvliege, R.M.

    2008-11-15

    The lifetime of the resonance states of an electron interacting with a zero-range potential in the presence of crossed magnetic and electric fields is studied for the case where the electron is confined in the direction of the magnetic field by a parabolic quantum well. It is shown that long-lived electric field-induced resonances exist in this system even when the zero-range potential does not support any field-free bound state. The relationship of these resonances with the Landau states localized near the point interaction is discussed.

  5. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 22. Synthesis and Characterization of Binary Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-27

    are isomorphic but behave as a non-ideal solution. Poly [( l 5-8)-¢o-( -li: ] X/Y 10 This copolymer is synthesized from a pair of monomers whose parent...Science Case Western Reserve University D T IC Cleveland, OH 44106-2699 E L EC fE 7 Submitted for Publication • APR07 1992 , D in Liquid Crystal March...Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 22. Synthesis and Characterization of Binary Copolymers Of I l -14 -Cyano-4*-biphenyl)oxy]undecany Vinyl Ether

  6. Imaging of green fluorescent protein in live plant by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Tao; Sun, Jialin; Guo, Jihua; Zhao, Jun

    2002-04-01

    An auxin/IAA induced in vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a living plant Arabidopsis root has been studied by a scanning near-field microscope in transmission mode. The promising near-field images of the inducible GFPs at sub- surface of a plant cell suggest that they may locate proximity to the cell wall, i.e. both sides of and in the cytoplasm membrane. The clear and faint fluorescent spots with 1-3 micrometers showed that the proteins localized nearer and farther to the cell wall, respectively. All GFP molecules gathered together in a cell, and no individual GFP was observed in the experiment.

  7. Studying IDP stability and dynamics by fast relaxation imaging in living cells.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Apratim; Prigozhin, Maxim; Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fast relaxation imaging (FReI) temperature-tunes living cells and applies small temperature jumps to them, to monitor biomolecular stability and kinetics in vivo. The folding or aggregation state of a target protein is monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Intrinsically disordered proteins near the structured-unstructured boundary are particularly sensitive to their environment. We describe, using the IDP α-synuclein as an example, how FReI can be used to measure IDP stability and folding inside the cell.

  8. Magnetic coupling by using levitation characteristics of YBCO superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, M.; Hida, A.; Takahata, R.

    1993-03-01

    A mechanical system which uses high lateral restoring forces of high-Tc materials as the driving force for a magnetic coupling is proposed. As the basic study of the superconducting magnetic coupling, the relationship between the lateral restoring force and levitation force, transmitted torque characteristics as a function of a twisting angle and clearance, and damping characteristics of the coupling were examined. Superiorities of the coupling such as high damping coefficients and high stability against time and twisting angle were revealed. A magnetic force sensor system was used to evaluate the superconducting characteristics of materials, and nonuniform distribution of repulsive force was observed for the YBCO pellet fabricated by the melt-powder-melt-growth process. The improvement of the homogeneity was achieved by compensating for the composition rate which had changed during the quenching process.

  9. Downregulation of vimentin in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P P; Retnakumar, R J; Mundayoor, Sathish

    2016-02-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists primarily in macrophages after infection and manipulates the host defence pathways in its favour. 2D gel electrophoresis results showed that vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is downregulated in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv when compared to macrophages infected with heat- killed H37Rv. The downregulation was confirmed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, the expression of vimentin in avirulent strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra- infected macrophages was similar to the expression in heat-killed H37Rv- infected macrophages. Increased expression of vimentin in H2O2- treated live H37Rv-infected macrophages and decreased expression of vimentin both in NAC and DPI- treated heat-killed H37Rv-infected macrophages showed that vimentin expression is positively regulated by ROS. Ectopic expression of ESAT-6 in macrophages decreased both the level of ROS and the expression of vimentin which implies that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-mediated downregulation of vimentin is at least in part due to the downregulation of ROS by the pathogen. Interestingly, the incubation of macrophages with anti-vimentin antibody increased the ROS production and decreased the survival of H37Rv. In addition, we also showed that the pattern of phosphorylation of vimentin in macrophages by PKA/PKC is different from monocytes, emphasizing a role for vimentin phosphorylation in macrophage differentiation.

  10. Regulation of RNA polymerase II activation by histone acetylation in single living cells.

    PubMed

    Stasevich, Timothy J; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Sato, Yuko; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Tokunaga, Makio; Nagase, Takahiro; Nozaki, Naohito; McNally, James G; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-12-11

    In eukaryotic cells, post-translational histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation. Starting with early work on histone acetylation, a variety of residue-specific modifications have now been linked to RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) activity, but it remains unclear if these markers are active regulators of transcription or just passive byproducts. This is because studies have traditionally relied on fixed cell populations, meaning temporal resolution is limited to minutes at best, and correlated factors may not actually be present in the same cell at the same time. Complementary approaches are therefore needed to probe the dynamic interplay of histone modifications and RNAP2 with higher temporal resolution in single living cells. Here we address this problem by developing a system to track residue-specific histone modifications and RNAP2 phosphorylation in living cells by fluorescence microscopy. This increases temporal resolution to the tens-of-seconds range. Our single-cell analysis reveals histone H3 lysine-27 acetylation at a gene locus can alter downstream transcription kinetics by as much as 50%, affecting two temporally separate events. First acetylation enhances the search kinetics of transcriptional activators, and later the acetylation accelerates the transition of RNAP2 from initiation to elongation. Signatures of the latter can be found genome-wide using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing. We argue that this regulation leads to a robust and potentially tunable transcriptional response.

  11. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N.; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo. To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs. PMID:26952986

  12. Downregulation of vimentin in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, P. P.; Retnakumar, R. J.; Mundayoor, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists primarily in macrophages after infection and manipulates the host defence pathways in its favour. 2D gel electrophoresis results showed that vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is downregulated in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv when compared to macrophages infected with heat- killed H37Rv. The downregulation was confirmed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, the expression of vimentin in avirulent strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra- infected macrophages was similar to the expression in heat-killed H37Rv- infected macrophages. Increased expression of vimentin in H2O2- treated live H37Rv-infected macrophages and decreased expression of vimentin both in NAC and DPI- treated heat-killed H37Rv-infected macrophages showed that vimentin expression is positively regulated by ROS. Ectopic expression of ESAT-6 in macrophages decreased both the level of ROS and the expression of vimentin which implies that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-mediated downregulation of vimentin is at least in part due to the downregulation of ROS by the pathogen. Interestingly, the incubation of macrophages with anti-vimentin antibody increased the ROS production and decreased the survival of H37Rv. In addition, we also showed that the pattern of phosphorylation of vimentin in macrophages by PKA/PKC is different from monocytes, emphasizing a role for vimentin phosphorylation in macrophage differentiation. PMID:26876331

  13. Live Dissection of Drosophila Embryos: Streamlined Methods for Screening Mutant Collections by Antibody Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Kook (Peter); Wright, Ashley P.; Zinn, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila embryos between stages 14 and 17 of embryonic development can be readily dissected to generate "fillet" preparations. In these preparations, the central nervous system runs down the middle, and is flanked by the body walls. Many different phenotypes have been examined using such preparations. In most cases, the fillets were generated by dissection of antibody-stained fixed whole-mount embryos. These "fixed dissections" have some disadvantages, however. They are time-consuming to execute, and it is difficult to sort mutant (GFP-negative) embryos from stocks in which mutations are maintained over GFP balancer chromosomes. Since 2002, our group has been conducting deficiency and ectopic expression screens to identify ligands for orphan receptors. In order to do this, we developed streamlined protocols for live embryo dissection and antibody staining of collections containing hundreds of balanced lines. We have concluded that it is considerably more efficient to examine phenotypes in large collections of stocks by live dissection than by fixed dissection. Using the protocol described here, a single trained individual can screen up to 10 lines per day for phenotypes, examining 4-7 mutant embryos from each line under a compound microscope. This allows the identification of mutations conferring subtle, low-penetrance phenotypes, since up to 70 hemisegments per line are scored at high magnification with a 40X water-immersion lens. PMID:20040910

  14. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them.

  15. Making Difficult Things Easy and Easy Things Difficult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur; Bent, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are offered to illustrate concepts and processes by using simple materials such as paper, paper clip, rubber band (bonding, entropy, endothermic processes). Also suggests using basic terminology: elementary ratios, percent, reaction chemistry for entropy function; equilibrium constants for Gibbs energies; and chemical mechanics for…

  16. Intersecting the Architecture of the Internet of Things with the Future Retail Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerkurth, Carsten; Haller, Stephan; Hagedorn, Pascal

    This paper discusses the approach of SAP Research in Switzerland to investigate, develop and evaluate future Internet of Things architectures and prototypes with their unique combination of three scientific pillars: SAP Research combines an environment of co-located academic education at leading universities ("Campus-Based Engineering Centers") with the concept of living laboratories in which real-world prototypes and systems are rigorously tested. SAP Research Switzerland hosts the "Future Retail Center" (FRC) in order to validate innovations in the retail industry. As an orthogonal element, we also structure our research activities in technological dimensions as opposed to the industry-specific living labs. The "Smart Items Research Program" bundles and focuses all research topics that are related to Ambient Intelligence (AmI), Internet of Things, and Pervasive Computing. With the researchers from the engineering centers, the industry focus in the living labs, and the different research projects and research programs, a holistic research perspective is created that ensures a highly effective and focused execution of research, unifying technical Internet of Things architectures with the corresponding business needs and forming a unique landscape of innovation.

  17. Determination of the PSI/PSII ratio in living plant cells at room temperature by spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgass, Kirstin; Zell, Martina; Maurino, Veronica G.; Schleifenbaum, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Leaf cells of living plants exhibit strong fluorescence from chloroplasts, the reaction centers of photosynthesis. Mutations in the photosystems change their structure and can, thus, be monitored by recording the fluorescence spectra of the emitted chlorophyll light. These measurements have, up to now, mostly been carried out at low temperatures (77 K), as these conditions enable the differentiation between the fluorescence of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII). In contrast, at room temperature, energy transfer processes between the various photosynthetic complexes result in very similar fluorescence emissions, which mainly consist of fluorescence photons emitted by PSII hindering a discrimination based on spectral ROIs (regions of interest). However, by statistical analysis of high resolution fluorescence spectra recorded at room temperature, it is possible to draw conclusions about the relative PSI/PSII ratio. Here, the possibility of determining the relative PSI/PSII ratio by fluorescence spectroscopy is demonstrated in living maize plants. Bundle-sheath chloroplasts of mature maize plants have a special morphologic characteristic; they are agranal, or exhibit only rudimentary grana, respectively. These chloroplasts are depleted in PSII activity and it could be shown that PSII is progressively reduced during leaf differentiation. A direct comparison of PSII activity in isolated chloroplasts is nearly impossible, since the activity of PSII in both mesophyll- and bundle-sheath chloroplasts decays with time after isolation and it takes significantly longer to isolate bundle-sheath chloroplasts. Considering this fact the measurement of PSI/PSII ratios with the 77K method, which includes taking fluorescence spectra from a diluted suspension of isolated chloroplasts at 77K, is questionable. These spectra are then used to analyze the distribution of energy between PSI and PSII. After rapid cooling to 77K secondary biochemical influences, which attenuate the

  18. Multicolor imaging of hydrogen peroxide level in living and apoptotic cells by a single fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ying; Xue, Fengfeng; Lan, Haichuang; Li, Zhenhua; Xiao, Shuzhang; Yi, Tao

    2017-05-15

    To understand the entangled relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, there is urgent need for simultaneous dynamic monitoring of these two important biological events. In this study, we have developed a fluorescent probe, pep4-NP1, which can simultaneously detect H2O2 and caspase 3, the respective markers of ROS and apoptosis. The probe contains a H2O2 fluorescence reporter (NP1) and Cy5 fluorescent chromophore connected by a caspase 3 specific recognition peptide. The detecting strategy was realized through a controllable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process between NP1 and Cy5 of pep4-NP1, after reaction with H2O2, which was verified by molecular calculation and in vitro spectral studies. In the absent of caspase 3, the accumulation of H2O2 induces red fluorescence of pep4-NP1 centered at 663nm in living cells due to the existence of FRET. In contrast, FRET is inhibited in apoptotic cells due to cleavage of the peptide spacer of pep4-NP1 by over-expressed caspase 3. Consequently, green fluorescence (555nm) predominated when labelling production of H2O2 in apoptotic cells. Moreover, Pep4-NP1 shows excellent selectivity towards H2O2 and caspase 3 on their respective reaction sites. Therefore, pep4-NP1 can distinguish endogenously generated H2O2 between living cells and apoptotic cells with different fluorescence wavelengths, providing additional information on the ROS production pathways.

  19. Merkel cells are long-lived cells whose production is stimulated by skin injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret C; Logan, Gregory J; Bolock, Alexa M; Kubicki, Adam C; Hemphill, Julie A; Sanders, Timothy A; Maricich, Stephen M

    2017-02-01

    Mechanosensitive Merkel cells are thought to have finite lifespans, but controversy surrounds the frequency of their replacement and which precursor cells maintain the population. We found by embryonic EdU administration that Merkel cells undergo terminal cell division in late embryogenesis and survive long into adulthood. We also found that new Merkel cells are produced infrequently during normal skin homeostasis and that their numbers do not change during natural or induced hair cycles. In contrast, live imaging and EdU experiments showed that mild mechanical injury produced by skin shaving dramatically increases Merkel cell production. We confirmed with genetic cell ablation and fate-mapping experiments that new touch dome Merkel cells in adult mice arise from touch dome keratinocytes. Together, these independent lines of evidence show that Merkel cells in adult mice are long-lived, are replaced rarely during normal adult skin homeostasis, and that their production can be induced by repeated shaving. These results have profound implications for understanding sensory neurobiology and human diseases such as Merkel cell carcinoma.

  20. Characteristics of an Airfoil as Affected by Fabric Sag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made at a high value of the Reynolds Number in the N.A.C.A. variable-density wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil as affected by fabric sag. Tests were made of two Gottingen 387 airfoils, one having the usual smooth surface and the other having a surface modified to simulate two types of fabric sag. The results of these tests indicate that the usual sagging of the wind covering between ribs has a very small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.

  1. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wei-yang; Min, Shermann

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  2. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  3. Labeling live cells by copper-catalyzed alkyne--azide click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hong, Vu; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Manchester, Marianne; Finn, M G

    2010-10-20

    The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, optimized for biological molecules in aqueous buffers, has been shown to rapidly label mammalian cells in culture with no loss in cell viability. Metabolic uptake and display of the azide derivative of N-acetylmannosamine developed by Bertozzi, followed by CuAAC ligation using sodium ascorbate and the ligand tris(hydroxypropyltriazolyl)methylamine (THPTA), gave rise to abundant covalent attachment of dye-alkyne reactants. THPTA serves both to accelerate the CuAAC reaction and to protect the cells from damage by oxidative agents produced by the Cu-catalyzed reduction of oxygen by ascorbate, which is required to maintain the metal in the active +1 oxidation state. This procedure extends the application of this fastest of azide-based bioorthogonal reactions to the exterior of living cells.

  4. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  5. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  6. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  7. Estimating solar radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton from satellite ocean-color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Ruddorff, Natalia M.; Kampel, Milton

    2014-11-01

    Primary production, PP, or the quantity of organic matter synthesized by phytoplankton per unit of surface and time, depends on the photo-synthetically available radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton, APAR. Computing APAR requires knowledge of the absorption coefficient of live phytoplankton and the total absorption coefficient, quantities that are difficult to retrieve accurately from satellite ocean-color data. In the proposed approach, APAR is estimated directly from a linear combination of marine reflectance in the PAR spectral range. Feasibility is demonstrated theoretically from simulations using a marine reflectance model, and experimentally using data collected at 19 biooptical stations during the February-March 2011 R/V Melville oceanographic cruise in the Southern Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific. Improvements in APAR accuracy are quantified in comparisons with estimates obtained from absorption coefficients or chlorophyll concentration determined from marine reflectance via standard satellite algorithms. The linear combination of marine reflectance is fairly robust to atmospheric correction errors. Due to the linear nature of the algorithm, their impact may be further reduced when using space- or time-averaged reflectance. The methodology is applied to actual MODIS imagery over the Southern Atlantic, and variability in the resulting APAR field is analyzed. The study suggests that determining APAR directly from marine reflectance has the potential to improve PP estimates from space.

  8. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  9. Encapsulation of Living Cells within Giant Phospholipid Liposomes Formed by the Inverse-Emulsion Technique.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Sampreeti; Cole, Christian M; Devaraj, Neal K

    2016-05-17

    Liposomes form spontaneously by the assimilation of phospholipids, the primary component of cell membranes. Due to their unique ability to form selectively permeable bilayers in situ, they are widely used as nanocarriers for drug and small-molecule delivery. However, there is a lack of straightforward methodologies to encapsulate living microorganisms. Here we demonstrate the successful encapsulation of whole cells in phospholipid vesicles by using the inverse-emulsion technique of generating unilamellar vesicles. This method of liposome preparation allows for a facile encapsulation of large biomaterials that previously was not easily attainable. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we found that liposomes can protect the bacterium against external protease degradation and from harsh biological environments. Liposomes prepared by the inverse-emulsion method were also capable of encapsulating yeast and were found to be naturally susceptible to hydrolysis by enzymes such as phospholipases, thus highlighting their potential role as cell delivery carriers.

  10. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (<10 microm thick), ordered films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing <10 microm thick colloid coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate

  11. Novel multimetabolite prediction of walnut consumption by a urinary biomarker model in a free-living population: the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-07-03

    The beneficial impact of walnuts on human health has been attributed to their unique chemical composition. In order to characterize the dietary walnut fingerprinting, spot urine samples from two sets of 195 (training) and 186 (validation) individuals were analyzed by an HPLC-q-ToF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, selecting the most discriminating metabolites by multivariate data analysis (VIP ≥ 1.5). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to design a multimetabolite prediction biomarker model. The global performance of the model and each included metabolite in it was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves, using the area under the curve (AUC) values. Dietary exposure to walnuts was characterized by 18 metabolites, including markers of fatty acid metabolism, ellagitannin-derived microbial compounds, and intermediate metabolites of the tryptophan/serotonin pathway. The predictive model of walnut exposure included at least one compound of each class. The AUC (95% CI) for the combined biomarker model was 93.4% (90.1-96.8%) in the training set and 90.2% (85.9-94.6%) in the validation set. The AUCs for individual metabolites were ≤85%. As far as we know, this is the first study proposing a combination of biomarkers of walnut exposure in a population under free-living conditions, as considered in epidemiological studies examining associations between diet and health outcomes.

  12. Salmonella Enteritidis with double deletion in phoPfliC--a potential live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in chickens.

    PubMed

    Methner, Ulrich; Barrow, Paul A; Berndt, Angela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-04-12

    Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with deletions in phoP, fliC or phoPfliC were tested for their virulence and their ability to induce parameters of the innate and adaptive immunity in addition to their potential for serological differentiation between vaccinated, non-vaccinated and infected chickens. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant was sufficiently attenuated but not diminished in its capability to inhibit the caecal colonisation and systemic invasion of homologous Salmonella Enteritidis shortly after administration of the vaccine strain to very young chicks. Immunisation with the attenuated ΔphoPfliC mutant resulted in protective effects which were only slightly and insignificantly lower than after "immunisation" with a Salmonella wild-type strain, indicating the capability to induce an intense adaptive immune response and protection against Salmonella exposure in older chickens. The deletion in fliC enabled the effective the differentiation between immunised and infected chickens using a commercially available ELISA kit. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis might be a potential and promising live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in poultry.

  13. Looking for rings and things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenworthy, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    It's not often that an astronomical object gets its own dedicated observatory, but as the planet Beta Pictoris b moves in front of its host star, its every move will be watched by bRing, eager to discover more about the planet's Hill sphere, explains Matthew Kenworthy.

  14. Where the Wild Things Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Few people realize that coyotes prowl the country's major urban areas. By tracking them on their turf, one Boston-area high school teacher and his students are helping scientists to learn more about the oft-misunderstood animals. Here, the author features David Eatough, a science teacher at Revere High School just north of Boston, and his…

  15. All things to all people.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Trevor D; Kreuzaler, Peter; Evan, Gerard I

    2012-09-28

    Myc is an enigma wrapped in a mystery. Attempts to identify Myc target genes, particularly in cancer, have been fraught with dead ends and context-specific functions. Lin et al. and Nie et al. address this conundrum by showing that Myc acts to amplify the output of existing transcriptionally active genes.

  16. Biosorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by living cells of Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Giri, A K; Patel, R K; Mahapatra, S S; Mishra, P C

    2013-03-01

    In this work, removal of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by living cells (Bacillus cereus), biosorption mechanism, and characterization studies have been reported. B. cereus cell surface was characterized using SEM-EDX and FTIR. Dependence of biosorption on pH of the solution, biosorbent dose, initial arsenic (III) concentration, contact time, and temperature had been studied to achieve optimum condition. The maximum biosorption capacity of living cells of B. cereus for arsenic (III) was found to be 32.42 mg/g at pH 7.5, at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 min, biomass dosage of 6 g/L, and temperature of 30 ± 2 °C. Biosorption data of arsenic (III) are fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm with R (2) (correlation coefficient) >0.99. The pseudo-second-order model description of the kinetics of arsenic (III) is successfully applied to predict the rate constant of biosorption. Thermodynamic parameters reveal the endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible nature of sorption process of arsenic (III) onto B. cereus biomass. The arsenic (III) ions are desorbed from B. cereus using both 1 M HCl and 1 M HNO(3).

  17. Protection from SARS coronavirus conferred by live measles vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Escriou, Nicolas; Callendret, Benoît; Lorin, Valérie; Combredet, Chantal; Marianneau, Philippe; Février, Michèle; Tangy, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is contracted by aerosolized contamination of the respiratory tract, a vaccine inducing mucosal long-term protection would be an asset to control new epidemics. To this aim, we generated live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol). In mice susceptible to measles virus, recombinant MV expressing the anchored full-length S induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies and fully protected immunized animals from intranasal infectious challenge with SARS-CoV. As compared to immunization with adjuvanted recombinant Ssol protein, recombinant MV induced stronger and Th1-biased responses, a hallmark of live attenuated viruses and a highly desirable feature for an antiviral vaccine.

  18. Presynaptic structure of Aplysia single live neuron by atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Aee-Young; Chae, Yeon-Su; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Seonghoon

    2013-05-02

    The structural and functional plasticity of Aplysia mechanosensory presynaptic neurons has been studied in relation with the mechanism underlying learning and memory. Long-term facilitation (LTF), which is a well-known cellular model for long-term memory in Aplysia, is accompanied by new synaptic structural growth or change. We developed a combined atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope (AFM-CLSM) system integrated with a MATLAB routine for image processing to concurrently obtain high-resolution 3-dimensional (3D) outer-surface morphological images and 3D interior fluorescence images. With our combined AFM-CLSM system, volumetric changes in the presynaptic structures (varicosities) of Aplysia live sensory-motor neuron cocultures were observed. The spatial distribution of synaptic vesicle molecules in the preexisting varicosities was monitored together with a volumetric change in the varicosities. Our combined AFM-CLSM system is successfully adapted for measuring learning-related structural changes and the movement of synaptic molecules in the single live neuron through interaction force and fluorescence imaging.

  19. Cutting of living hippocampal slices by a highly pressurised water jet (macromingotome).

    PubMed

    Bingmann, D; Wiemann, M; Speckmann, E J; Köhling, R; Straub, H; Dunze, K; Wittkowski, W

    2000-10-15

    Living brain slices are usually cut with razor blades, which compress a ca. 50-microm-thick layer of tissue. This results in cell debris and lesioned cells which, e.g. form diffusion barriers between the bath and living neurons underneath, thereby prolonging response times of neurons to drugs in the bath saline and impeding the experimental access to intact neurons. To avoid such drawbacks, a macromingotome was developed which cuts nervous tissue with water jets. Physiological saline under pressures of 100-1800 bar was ejected through nozzles of 35-100 microm to cut 300-500-microm-thick hippocampal slices. Systematic variations of pressure and nozzle diameter revealed best results at 400-600 bar and with nozzle diameters of 60-80 microm. Under these conditions, intact CA1- and CA3-neurons as well as granule cells were detected with infrared microscopy at less than 10 microm underneath the surface of the slice. Superficial neurons with intact fine structures were also seen when the slices were studied by light-microscopy. Intra- and extracellular recordings from superficial neurons showed normal membrane- and full action potentials and the development of stable epileptiform discharges in 0 Mg(2+)-saline. These results indicate that the macromingotome offers an alternative way of cutting slices which may facilitate electrophysiological/neuropharmacological or fluorometric studies on superficial neurons.

  20. Reverse transduction measured in the living cochlea by low-coherence heterodyne interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the remarkable sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammalian hearing depend on outer hair cell-generated force, which amplifies sound-induced vibrations inside the cochlea. This ‘reverse transduction' force production has never been demonstrated experimentally, however, in the living ear. Here by directly measuring microstructure vibrations inside the cochlear partition using a custom-built interferometer, we demonstrate that electrical stimulation can evoke both fast broadband and slow sharply tuned responses of the reticular lamina, but only a slow tuned response of the basilar membrane. Our results indicate that outer hair cells can generate sufficient force to drive the reticular lamina over all audible frequencies in living cochleae. Contrary to expectations, the cellular force causes a travelling wave rather than an immediate local vibration of the basilar membrane; this travelling wave vibrates in phase with the reticular lamina at the best frequency, and results in maximal vibration at the apical ends of outer hair cells. PMID:26732830

  1. Differentiation of live-viable versus dead bacterial endospores by calibrated hyperspectral reflectance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Reynolds, C; Ringelberg, D; Edwards, J; Foley, K

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the use of hyperspectral imaging microscopy (HIM) for the characterization and differentiation of live viable versus dead/non-viable bacterial endospores for two species of Bacillus. To accomplish this, endospore-forming Bacillus were cultured and differentiated into endospores. Non-viable endospores were produced using sporicidal methods representing standard decontamination procedures incorporating chlorine and peroxide. Finally, endospore samples were lyophilized to prepare them for spectral analysis. Prior to HIM, baseline spectral reflectance characterizing the endospores was measured using an ASD (400-900 nm) reflectance spectrometer. These data were used to calibrate the resulting spectral image data. HIM data comprising 32 images ranging from 400 to 720 nm (visible to near infrared) were recorded using a C-mounted VariSpec hyperspectral camera attached to an epifluorescent microscope. The images produced by the system record the reflectance and absorption features of endospores based on the structure of the outer coat. Analysis of the HIM data was performed using accepted image and spectral processing routines. Where peroxide was the sporicide, changes in the outer endospore coat contributed to structurally significant visible and near infrared signature differences between live-viable versus dead, non-viable endospores. A statistical test for divergence, a method for scoring spectral structural diversity, also showed the difference between viable and non-viable peroxide killed endospores to be statistically significant. These findings may lead to an improved optical procedure to rapidly identify viable and non-viable endospores in situations of decontamination.

  2. Breakthrough Towards the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Leonardo W. F.; Nochta, Zoltán

    In this chapter we introduce the Internet of Things (IoT) from the perspective of companies. The Internet of Things mainly refers to the continuous tracking and observation of real-world objects over the Internet. The resulting information can be used to optimize many processes along the entire value chain. Important prerequisites for the IoT are that the objects of interest can be uniquely identified and that their environment can be monitored with sensors. Currently, technologies, such as different types of barcodes, active and passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks play the most important role. However, these technologies either do not provide monitoring of their environment or they are too expensive for widespread adoption. Organic Electronics is a new technology that allows printing electronic circuits using organic inks. It will produce ultra-low cost smart labels equipped with sensors, and thus it will become an enabler of the IoT. We discuss how organic smart labels can be used to implement the Internet of Things. We show how this technology is expected to develop. Finally, we indicate technical problems that arise when processing large volumes of data that will result from the usage of organic smart labels in business applications.

  3. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to (1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and 25 years, respectively; and (2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  4. Long-lived states to monitor protein unfolding by proton NMR.

    PubMed

    Bornet, Aurélien; Ahuja, Puneet; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Fernandes, Laetitia; Hadji, Sonia; Lee, Shirley Y; Haririnia, Aydin; Fushman, David; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Vasos, Paul R

    2011-10-24

    The relaxation of long-lived states (LLS) corresponds to the slow return to statistical thermal equilibrium between symmetric and antisymmetric proton spin states. This process is remarkably sensitive to the presence of external spins and can be used to obtain information about partial unfolding of proteins. We detected the appearance of a destabilized conformer of ubiquitin when urea is added to the protein in its native state. This conformer shows increased mobility in the C-terminus, which significantly extends the lifetimes of proton LLS magnetisation in Ser-65. These changes could not be detected by conventional measurements of T(1) and T(2) relaxation times of protons, and would hardly be sensed by carbon-13 or nitrogen-15 relaxation measurements. Conformers with similar dynamic and structural features, as revealed by LLS relaxation times, could be observed, in the absence of urea, in two ubiquitin mutants, L67S and L69S.

  5. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to: 1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and -25 years, respectively; 2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  6. The hottest thing in remediation.

    PubMed Central

    Black, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are exploring a new way to decontaminate toxic waste sites by literally turning up the heat on pollutants. The method heats the ground using electricity or steam, which mobilizes the contaminants so they can either be extracted from the ground and destroyed or actually destroyed in place. Among the targets for this method are pollutants such as creosote, solvents, and gasoline. These in situ thermal technologies also offer the benefit of reaching contaminants not previously amenable to cleanup, such as those found beneath structures and below the water table. PMID:11882491

  7. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  8. Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus Cell Entry Unraveled by Single-Virus Tracking in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda V.; Albulescu, Irina C.; van Hemert, Martijn J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied previously using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell: several studies suggest that CHIKV enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while others show that it enters independently of clathrin. Here we applied live-cell microscopy and monitored the cell entry behavior of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 min after addition to the cells. Of the particles that fused, the vast majority first colocalized with clathrin. The average time from initial colocalization with clathrin to the moment of membrane fusion was 1.7 min, highlighting the rapidity of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results show that the virus spends a relatively long time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was observed predominantly from within Rab5-positive endosomes and often occurred within 40 s after delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position 226 of the E1 protein enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. IMPORTANCE Since its reemergence in 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread rapidly around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment against CHIKV is available. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell

  9. A Possible Mechanism for Evading Temperature Quantum Decoherence in Living Matter by Feshbach Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Innocenti, Davide; Bianconi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A new possible scenario for the origin of the molecular collective behaviour associated with the emergence of living matter is presented. We propose that the transition from a non-living to a living cell could be mapped to a quantum transition to a coherent entanglement of condensates, like in a multigap BCS superconductor. Here the decoherence-evading qualities at high temperature are based on the Feshbach resonance that has been recently proposed as the driving mechanism for high Tc superconductors. Finally we discuss how the proximity to a particular critical point is relevant to the emergence of coherence in the living cell. PMID:19564941

  10. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL SHORT-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.

    2003-02-27

    In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.

  11. Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Björn; Kosmeier, Sebastian; Langehanenberg, Patrik; von Bally, Gert; Bredebusch, Ilona; Domschke, Wolfram; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A method for the determination of the integral refractive index of living cells in suspension by digital holographic microscopy is described. Digital holographic phase contrast images of spherical cells in suspension are recorded, and the radius as well as the integral refractive index are determined by fitting the relation between cell thickness and phase distribution to the measured phase data. The algorithm only requires information about the refractive index of the suspension medium and the image scale of the microscope system. The specific digital holographic microscopy advantage of subsequent focus correction allows a simultaneous investigation of cells in different focus planes. Results obtained from human pancreas and liver tumor cells show that the integral cellular refractive index decreases with increasing cell radius.

  12. Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Lina; Hou, Zhun; Song, Yao; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.

  13. Phase-insensitive storage of coherences by reversible mapping onto long-lived populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Simon; Genov, Genko T.; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Halfmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically develop and experimentally demonstrate a coherence population mapping (CPM) protocol to store atomic coherences in long-lived populations, enabling storage times far beyond the typically very short decoherence times of quantum systems. The amplitude and phase of an atomic coherence is written onto the populations of a three-state system by specifically designed sequences of radiation pulses from two coupling fields. As an important feature, the CPM sequences enable a retrieval efficiency, which is insensitive to the phase of the initial coherence. The information is preserved in every individual atom of the medium, enabling applications in purely homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened ensembles even when stochastic phase jumps are the main source of decoherence. We experimentally confirm the theoretical predictions by applying CPM for storage of atomic coherences in a doped solid, reaching storage times in the regime of 1 min.

  14. Deposition of Coatings from Live Yeast Cells and Large Particles by “Convective-Sedimentation” Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jerrim, Lindsey B.; Velev, Orlin D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective assembly at high volume fraction was used for the rapid deposition of uniform, close-packed coatings of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells onto glass slides. A computational model was developed to calculate the thickness profiles of such coatings for different set of conditions. Both the experiments and the numerical simulations demonstrated that the deposition process is strongly affected by the presence of sedimentation. The deposition device was inclined to increase the uniformity of the coatings by causing the cells to sediment toward the three-phase contact line. In accordance with the simulation, the experiments showed that both increasing the angle of the device and decreasing the angle between the slides increased the uniformity of the deposited coatings. Finally, the “convective-sedimentation” assembly method was used to deposit mixed layers of live cells and large latex particles as an example of immobilized biologically active composite coatings. PMID:19366200

  15. Insight with hands and things.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition.

  16. Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains--characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Vargas, F; Jiménez, A R; Paredes-López, O

    2000-05-01

    Pigments are present in all living matter and provide attractive colors and play basic roles in the development of organisms. Human beings, like most animals, come in contact with their surroundings through color, and things can or cannot be acceptable based on their color characteristics. This review presents the basic information about pigments focusing attention on the natural ones; it emphasizes the principal plant pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains. Special considerations are given to their salient characteristics; to their biosynthesis, taking into account the biochemical and molecular biology information generated in their elucidation; and to the processing and stability properties of these compounds as food colorants.

  17. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  18. Utilization of Soil C and N by Microbial Groups in the Presence of Living Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, J.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M.

    2007-12-01

    The effects of living plant roots and N on belowground C dynamics were examined in a CA annual grassland soil (Haploxeralf) during a 2-y greenhouse study. The fate of 13C-labeled plant roots ( Avena barbata L.) and soil were followed under planted and unplanted conditions; and with and without N addition (20 kg N ha-1 season-1). The treatments were applied during 2 growing seasons and each growing season was followed by a dry, fallow period (~ 150-d long). Living roots increased the turnover rate and loss of belowground 13 C during and after 2 seasons compared with unplanted soils. After 2 seasons, planted soils had 21% less belowground 13C present than in unplanted soils. However, total soil C increased in planted soils by 4.6% compared to unplanted after 2 seasons. N additions decreased belowground 13C turnover during the first treatment season in both planted and unplanted soils, however no effect of N on soil C was observed thereafter. Planted soils had larger microbial biomass and the community structure differed compared with unplanted soils. Planted soils had higher proportions of gram (-) bacteria, while unplanted soils had higher proportions of gram (+) bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. New root and exudate C supplied from living roots increased the turnover of microbial assimilated 13C compared with unplanted for all microbial groups. This greater turnover of belowground 13C was especially significant for gram (-) bacteria, which were stimulated in the planted soil. In contrast, the activity among microbial groups in unplanted soils was similar to that prior to the initiation of the treatments and soil wet-up. Our findings suggest that A. barbata roots increased soil C levels over time because root and exudate C inputs are significant, however that C increase will be moderated by an overall faster C mineralization rate of belowground C. Increased N deposition may slow soil C losses, however, they appear minor and temporary at the rates applied and for

  19. X-ray Flashes Powered by the Spindown of Long-lived Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of high-energy transients whose nature is still open to question. Similar in many aspects to common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), their strong X-ray emission is accompanied by very low or absent emission in the gamma-ray band. Despite this key difference, a number of indications have consolidated the idea that XRFs and GRBs share a common origin, including a number of potential XRF/supernova associations and the consistency of some XRFs with the Amati relation for long GRBs. However, the difficulties in explaining XRFs as off-axis or intrinsically weak GRBs still cast doubts on this interpretation. Here we explore the possibility that some XRFs are instead powered by the spindown of a long-lived neutron star (NS) formed in a binary NS (BNS) merger or, possibly, in a core-collapse supernova. Focusing on XRF 020903 and a few other cases observed by HETE-2, we show that their lack of gamma-ray emission, spectral properties, duration and X-ray luminosity find a natural explanation within our hypothesis. Moreover, we point out that the agreement of XRF 020903 with the Amati and Ghirlanda relations for long GRBs is respectively only marginal and problematic. Assuming a BNS merger origin for the long-lived NS, we use XRF observations to estimate a lower limit on the rate of BNS mergers accompanied by a potentially observable XRF signal. Within the reach of the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find \\gt 0.02{--}0.05 {{yr}}-1. Finally, we discuss the implications of a supernova association for the XRF events considered.

  20. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  1. Dynamic auxin transport patterns preceding vein formation revealed by live-imaging of Arabidopsis leaf primordia

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Danielle; Berleth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulatory patterning mechanisms capable of generating biologically meaningful, yet unpredictable cellular patterns offer unique opportunities for obtaining mathematical descriptions of underlying patterning systems properties. The networks of higher-order veins in leaf primordia constitute such a self-regulatory system. During the formation of higher-order veins, vascular precursors are selected from a homogenous field of subepidermal cells in unpredictable positions to eventually connect in complex cellular networks. Auxin transport routes have been implicated in this selection process, but understanding of their role in vascular patterning has been limited by our inability to monitor early auxin transport dynamics in vivo. Here we describe a live-imaging system in emerging Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that uses a PIN1:GFP reporter to visualize auxin transport routes and an Athb8:YFP reporter as a marker for vascular commitment. Live-imaging revealed common features initiating the formation of all higher-order veins. The formation of broad PIN1 expression domains is followed by their restriction, leading to sustained, elevated PIN1 expression in incipient procambial cells files, which then express Athb8. Higher-order PIN1 expression domains (hPEDs) are initiated as freely ending domains that extend toward each other and sometimes fuse with them, creating connected domains. During the restriction and specification phase, cells in wider hPEDs are partitioned into vascular and non-vascular fates: Central cells acquire a coordinated cell axis and express elevated PIN1 levels as well as the pre-procambial marker Athb8, while edge cells downregulate PIN1 and remain isodiametric. The dynamic nature of the early selection process is underscored by the instability of early hPEDs, which can result in dramatic changes in vascular network architecture prior to Athb8 expression, which is correlated with the promotion onto vascular cell fate. PMID:24966861

  2. Cell death associated with abnormal mitosis observed by confocal imaging in live cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castiel, Asher; Visochek, Leonid; Mittelman, Leonid; Zilberstein, Yael; Dantzer, Francoise; Izraeli, Shai; Cohen-Armon, Malka

    2013-08-21

    Phenanthrene derivatives acting as potent PARP1 inhibitors prevented the bi-focal clustering of supernumerary centrosomes in multi-centrosomal human cancer cells in mitosis. The phenanthridine PJ-34 was the most potent molecule. Declustering of extra-centrosomes causes mitotic failure and cell death in multi-centrosomal cells. Most solid human cancers have high occurrence of extra-centrosomes. The activity of PJ-34 was documented in real-time by confocal imaging of live human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with vectors encoding for fluorescent γ-tubulin, which is highly abundant in the centrosomes and for fluorescent histone H2b present in the chromosomes. Aberrant chromosomes arrangements and de-clustered γ-tubulin foci representing declustered centrosomes were detected in the transfected MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with PJ-34. Un-clustered extra-centrosomes in the two spindle poles preceded their cell death. These results linked for the first time the recently detected exclusive cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 in human cancer cells with extra-centrosomes de-clustering in mitosis, and mitotic failure leading to cell death. According to previous findings observed by confocal imaging of fixed cells, PJ-34 exclusively eradicated cancer cells with multi-centrosomes without impairing normal cells undergoing mitosis with two centrosomes and bi-focal spindles. This cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 was not shared by other potent PARP1 inhibitors, and was observed in PARP1 deficient MEF harboring extracentrosomes, suggesting its independency of PARP1 inhibition. Live confocal imaging offered a useful tool for identifying new molecules eradicating cells during mitosis.

  3. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  4. Induction of Oxidation in Living Cells by Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We are studying how biological systems can harness quantum effects of time varying electromagnetic (EM) waves as the time-setting basis for universal biochemical organization via the redox cycle. The effects of extremely weak EM field on the biochemical redox cycle can be monitored through real-time detection of oxidation-induced light emissions of reporter molecules in living cells. It has been shown that EM fields can also induce changes in fluid transport rates through capillaries (approximately 300 microns inner diameter) by generating annular proton gradients. This effect may be relevant to understanding cardiovascular dis-function in spaceflight, beyond the ionosphere. Importantly, we show that these EM effects can be attenuated using an active EM field cancellation device. Central for NASA's Human Research Program is the fact that the absence of ambient EM field in spaceflight can also have a detrimental influence, namely via increased oxidative damage, on DNA replication, which controls heredity.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of D2 Dopamine Receptor Binding in the Living Human Brain by PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farde, Lars; Hall, Hakan; Ehrin, Erling; Sedvall, Goran

    1986-01-01

    D2 dopamine receptors in the putamen of living human subjects were characterized by using the selective, high-affinity D2 dopamine receptor antagonist carbon-11-labeled raclopride and positron emission tomography. Experiments in four healthy men demonstrated saturability of [11C]raclopride binding to an apparently homogeneous population of sites with Hill coefficients close to unity. In the normal putamen, maximum binding ranged from 12 to 17 picomoles per cubic centimeter and dissociation constants from 3.4 to 4.7 nanomolar. Maximum binding for human putamen at autopsy was 15 picomoles per cubic centimeter. Studies of [11C]raclopride binding indicate that clinically effective doses of chemically distinct neuroleptic drugs result in 85 to 90 percent occupancy of D2 dopamine receptors in the putamen of schizophrenic patients.

  6. One-Cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast, ODELAY!

    PubMed Central

    Herricks, Thurston; Dilworth, David J.; Mast, Fred D.; Li, Song; Smith, Jennifer J.; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Aitchison, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth is a complex phenotype widely used in systems biology to gauge the impact of genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the magnitude of genome-wide studies, resolution is often sacrificed in favor of throughput, creating a demand for scalable, time-resolved, quantitative methods of growth assessment. We present ODELAY (One-cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast), an automated and scalable growth analysis platform. High measurement density and single-cell resolution provide a powerful tool for large-scale multiparameter growth analysis based on the modeling of microcolony expansion on solid media. Pioneered in yeast but applicable to other colony forming organisms, ODELAY extracts the three key growth parameters (lag time, doubling time, and carrying capacity) that define microcolony expansion from single cells, simultaneously permitting the assessment of population heterogeneity. The utility of ODELAY is illustrated using yeast mutants, revealing a spectrum of phenotypes arising from single and combinatorial growth parameter perturbations. PMID:27856698

  7. Subcellular control of Rac-GTPase signalling by magnetogenetic manipulation inside living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoc, F.; Lisse, D.; Bellaiche, Y.; Piehler, J.; Coppey, M.; Dahan, M.

    2013-03-01

    Many cell functions rely on the coordinated activity of signalling pathways at a subcellular scale. However, there are few tools capable of probing and perturbing signalling networks with a spatial resolution matching the intracellular dimensions of their activity patterns. Here we present a generic magnetogenetic approach based on the self-assembly of signalling complexes on the surface of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles inside living cells. The nanoparticles act as nanoscopic hot spots that can be displaced by magnetic forces and trigger signal transduction pathways that bring about a cell response. We applied this strategy to Rho-GTPases, a set of molecular switches known to regulate cell morphology via complex spatiotemporal patterns of activity. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle-mediated activation of signalling pathways leads to local remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and to morphological changes.

  8. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul

    2009-11-10

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  9. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) determined by proteic markers.

    PubMed

    De Mattos, P S R; Del Lama, M A; Toppa, R H; Schwantes, A R

    2004-08-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average) estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  10. Live-Cell Labeling of Specific Protein Glycoforms by Proximity-Enhanced Bioorthogonal Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter V.; de Almeida-Escobedo, Gabriela; de Groot, Amber E.; McKechnie, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Reagents for detecting post-translational modifications in the context of their protein scaffold are powerful tools, but are challenging to develop for glycosylated epitopes. We describe a strategy for detecting protein-specific glycosylation through the use of cyclooctyne-aptamer conjugates. These molecules selectively ligate to azidosugar-labeled glycans exclusively on a target protein on live cells. We characterized aptamer conjugates against two different cell surface glycoproteins and show that these reagents are amenable to detecting protein sialoforms by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Given the abundance of aptamers that bind cell surface targets, we expect this technology will be a useful platform for investigating the roles of protein-specific glycosylation in various cellular contexts. PMID:26280358

  11. Removal of long-lived 222Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  12. Spatial and Structural Metrics for Living Cells Inspired by Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Christoffer; Varela, Juan A.; Fitzpatrick, Laurence W.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental observations in cell biology have advanced to a stage where theory could play a larger role, much as it has done in the physical sciences. Possibly the lack of a common framework within which experimentalists, computational scientists and theorists could equally contribute has hindered this development, for the worse of both disciplines. Here we demonstrate the usage of tools and concepts from statistical mechanics to describe processes inside living cells based on experimental data, suggesting that future theoretical/computational models may be based on such concepts. To illustrate the ideas, we describe the organisation of subcellular structures within the cell in terms of (density) pair correlation functions, and subsequently use the same concepts to follow nano-sized objects being transported inside the cell. Finally, we quantify an interesting subcellular re-organisation, not previously discerned by molecular biology methods.

  13. Medication use in the context of everyday living as understood by seniors

    PubMed Central

    Vegsund, Britt; Stephenson, Peter H.; Beuthin, Rosanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that older adults are among the biggest consumers of medication, and the demographic group most likely to suffer an adverse drug reaction (ADR), this paper details the findings from a recent study on how older adults come to understand medication and its related use. Using a qualitative content analysis method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 individuals from British Columbia, Canada. Study participants ranged in age from 65 to 89 years (male=9, female=11). Using NVIVO® 7 software, data were subjected to comparative thematic content analysis in an effort to capture the role of medication use in the context of everyday living as understood by older adults. While there was variability in how older adults come to understand their medication use, an overarching theme was revealed whereby most participants identified their prescription medications as being life-sustaining and prolonging. Deeper thematic content analysis of participant narratives drew attention to three key areas: (A) medications are viewed as a necessary, often unquestioned, aspect of day-to-day life (B) a relationship is perceived to exist between the amount of medications taken and ones current state of health (C) the overall medication experience is positively or negatively influenced by the doctor patient relationship and the assumption that it is the physicians role to communicate medication information that will support everyday living. The article concludes that medical authority and the complexities surrounding medication use need to undergo significant revision if community dwelling older adults are to experience greater success in safely managing their health and medication-related needs. PMID:22586433

  14. Bioerosion by euendoliths decreases in phosphate-enriched skeletons of living corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, C.; Tribollet, A.

    2012-07-01

    While the role of microboring organisms, or euendoliths, is relatively well known in dead coral skeletons, their function in live corals remains poorly understood. They are suggested to behave like ectosymbionts or parasites, impacting their host's health. However, the species composition of microboring communities, their abundance and dynamics in live corals under various environmental conditions have never been explored. Here, the effect of phosphate enrichment on boring microorganisms in live corals was tested for the first time. Stylophora pistillata nubbins were exposed to 3 different treatments (phosphate concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 2.5 μmol l-1) during 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of phosphate enrichment, petrographic thin sections were prepared for observation with light microscopy, and additional samples were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Euendoliths comprised mainly phototrophic Ostreobium sp. filaments. Rare filaments of heterotrophic fungi were also observed. Filaments were densely distributed in the central part of nubbins, and less abundant towards the apex. Unexpectedly, there was a visible reduction of filament abundance in the most recently calcified apical part of phosphate-enriched nubbins. The overall abundance of euendoliths significantly decreased, from 9.12 ± 1.09% of the skeletal surface area in unenriched corals, to 5.81 ± 0.77% and 5.27 ± 0.34% in 0.5 and 2.5 μmol l-1-phosphate enriched corals respectively. SEM observations confirmed this decrease. Recent studies have shown that phosphate enrichment increases coral skeletal growth and metabolic rates, while it decreases skeletal density and resilience to mechanical stress. We thus hypothesize that increased skeletal growth in the presence of phosphate enrichment occurred too fast for an effective expansion of euendolith growth. They could not keep up with coral growth, so they became diluted in the apex areas as nubbins grew with phosphate enrichment. Results from the

  15. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  16. Protection Against Dengue Virus by Non-Replicating and Live Attenuated Vaccines Used Together in a Prime Boost Vaccination Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Protection against dengue virus by non-replicating and live attenuated vaccines used together in a prime boost vaccination strategy Monika Simmons a...Dengue DNA Punfied inacdvared virus Uvc artenuatcd virus Jlnmc boost A new vaccination strategy for dengue virus (DENV) was eval uated in rhesus...region (TDNA) then boosting 2 months l,ltcr with a tetravalent live aucnuated virus (TLAV) vaccine . Both vaccine combinations elicited virus

  17. Lasing in Live Mitotic and Non-Phagocytic Cells by Efficient Delivery of Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Marcel; Volckaert, Klara; Karl, Markus; Morton, Andrew; Liehm, Philipp; Miles, Gareth B.; Powis, Simon J.; Gather, Malte C.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable methods to individually track large numbers of cells in real time are urgently needed to advance our understanding of important biological processes like cancer metastasis, neuronal network development and wound healing. It has recently been suggested to introduce microscopic whispering gallery mode lasers into the cytoplasm of cells and to use their characteristic, size-dependent emission spectrum as optical barcode but so far there is no evidence that this approach is generally applicable. Here, we describe a method that drastically improves intracellular delivery of resonators for several cell types, including mitotic and non-phagocytic cells. In addition, we characterize the influence of resonator size on the spectral characteristics of the emitted laser light and identify an optimum size range that facilitates tagging and tracking of thousands of cells simultaneously. Finally, we observe that the microresonators remain internalized by cells during cell division, which enables tagging several generations of cells. PMID:28102341

  18. Lasing in Live Mitotic and Non-Phagocytic Cells by Efficient Delivery of Microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Marcel; Volckaert, Klara; Karl, Markus; Morton, Andrew; Liehm, Philipp; Miles, Gareth B.; Powis, Simon J.; Gather, Malte C.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable methods to individually track large numbers of cells in real time are urgently needed to advance our understanding of important biological processes like cancer metastasis, neuronal network development and wound healing. It has recently been suggested to introduce microscopic whispering gallery mode lasers into the cytoplasm of cells and to use their characteristic, size-dependent emission spectrum as optical barcode but so far there is no evidence that this approach is generally applicable. Here, we describe a method that drastically improves intracellular delivery of resonators for several cell types, including mitotic and non-phagocytic cells. In addition, we characterize the influence of resonator size on the spectral characteristics of the emitted laser light and identify an optimum size range that facilitates tagging and tracking of thousands of cells simultaneously. Finally, we observe that the microresonators remain internalized by cells during cell division, which enables tagging several generations of cells.

  19. Culture of Adult Transgenic Zebrafish Retinal Explants for Live-cell Imaging by Multiphoton Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Manuela; Gorsuch, Ryne A; Nelson, Craig M; Hyde, David R

    2017-02-24

    An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM). INM has predominantly been studied in the developing retina. To examine the dynamics of INM in the adult regenerating zebrafish retina in detail, live-cell imaging of fluorescently-labeled Müller glia/neuronal progenitor cells is required. Here, we provide the conditions to isolate and culture dorsal retinas from Tg[gfap:nGFP](mi2004) zebrafish that were exposed to constant intense light for 35 h. We also show that these retinal cultures are viable to perform live-cell imaging experiments, continuously acquiring z-stack images throughout the thickness of the retinal explant for up to 8 h using multiphoton microscopy to monitor the migratory behavior of gfap:nGFP-positive cells. In addition, we describe the details to perform post-imaging analysis to determine the velocity of apical and basal INM. To summarize, we established conditions to study the dynamics of INM in an adult model of neuronal regeneration. This will advance our understanding of this crucial cellular process and allow us to determine the mechanisms that control INM.

  20. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  1. Problems Faced by Complete Denture-Wearing Elderly People Living in Jammu District

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumeet; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil; Raina, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Context: Poor oral health is increasing dramatically among old people especially those living in rural and remote areas. Various factors such as low education background, low income, poor living conditions, unhealthy lifestyle, inadequate oral hygiene and tobacco use lead to poor oral health among older people which in turn lead to risks to their general health. The older people especially from rural areas are apprehensive about seeing a dentist and do not visit them regularly. This may lead to various problems which may have a detrimental influence on their quality of life. Aim: To know the problems faced by complete denture wearers in rural areas in Jammu district. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area Bishna, initially treated with a complete denture in the maxilla or mandibles were examined. The data were collected with the help of a questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that majority of respondents were in the age – group of 65-70 y. Majority of respondents complained of "difficulty chewing", "sore spots”, “painful and swollen gums". Majority of respondents had difficulty in speech, it was difficult for them to interact and communicate with their dentures on. Most of the respondents had lost confidence and had low self esteem. Clinical observations revealed that the commonest condition associated with denture wearing was Oral Stomatitis/ Burning mouth Syndrome, Superimposed infection and Angular cheilitis. Conclusion: Older people should Communicate and visit dentists, regularly, so that the dentists can adjust the treatment and pace according to their needs. Behavioural therapy techniques can make dental visits relatively anxiety and pain-free. PMID:25654025

  2. Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Laaha, G.

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of a drought are generally dependent on the severity of the hydrological drought event, which can be expressed by streamflow drought duration or deficit volume. For prediction and the selection of drought sensitive regions, it is crucial to know how streamflow drought severity relates to climate and catchment characteristics. In this study we investigated controls on drought severity based on a comprehensive Austrian dataset consisting of 44 catchments with long time series of hydrometeorological data (on average around 50 year) and information on a large number of physiographic catchment characteristics. Drought analysis was performed with the variable threshold level method and various statistical tools were applied, i.e. bivariate correlation analysis, heatmaps, linear models based on multiple regression, varying slope models, and automatic stepwise regression. Results indicate that streamflow drought duration is primarily controlled by storage, quantified by the Base Flow Index or by a combination of catchment characteristics related to catchment storage and release, e.g. geology and land use. Additionally, the duration of dry spells in precipitation is important for streamflow drought duration. Hydrological drought deficit, however, is governed by average catchment wetness (represented by mean annual precipitation) and elevation (reflecting seasonal storage in the snow pack and glaciers). Our conclusion is that both drought duration and deficit are governed by a combination of climate and catchment control, but not in a similar way. Besides meteorological forcing, storage is important; storage in soils, aquifers, lakes, etc. influences drought duration and seasonal storage in snow and glaciers influences drought deficit. Consequently, the spatial variation of hydrological drought severity is highly dependent on terrestrial hydrological processes.

  3. Evaluation of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 afforded by annual revaccination with modified-live viral or combination modified-live/killed viral vaccines after primary vaccination with modified-live viral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Rodning, Soren P; Riddell, Kay P; Brodersen, Bruce W; Scruggs, Daniel; Short, Thomas; Grotelueschen, Dale

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) provided by annual revaccination with multivalent modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine or multivalent combination viral (CV) vaccine containing temperature-sensitive modified-live BoHV-1 and killed BVDV when MLV vaccines were given pre-breeding to nulliparous heifers. Seventy-five beef heifers were allocated into treatment groups A (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with MLV vaccine), B (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with CV vaccine) and C (n=15; saline in lieu of vaccine). Heifers were administered treatments on days 0 (weaning), 183 (pre-breeding), 366 (first gestation), and 738 (second gestation). After first calving, primiparous cows were bred, with pregnancy assessment on day 715. At that time, 24 group A heifers (23 pregnancies), 23 group B heifers (22 pregnancies), and 15 group C heifers (15 pregnancies) were commingled with six persistently infected (PI) cattle for 16days. Ninety-nine days after PI removal, cows were intravenously inoculated with BoHV-1. All fetuses and live offspring were assessed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Abortions occurred in 3/23 group A cows, 1/22 group B cows, and 11/15 group C cows. Fetal infection with BVDV or BoHV-1 occurred in 4/23 group A offspring, 0/22 group B offspring, and 15/15 group C offspring. This research demonstrates efficacy of administering two pre-breeding doses of MLV vaccine with annual revaccination using CV vaccine to prevent fetal loss due to exposure to BVDV and BoHV-1.

  4. Cross-protection provided by live Shigella mutants lacking major antigens.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Valéria; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Emődy, Levente; Pál, Tibor; Nagy, Gábor

    2013-05-01

    The immune response elicited by Shigella infections is dominated by serotype-specific antibodies recognizing the LPS O-antigens. Although a marked antibody response to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa-s) shared by all virulent strains is also induced, the varying level of immunity elicited by natural infections is serotype-restricted. Previous vaccines have tried to mimic and achieve this serotype-specific, infection-induced immunity. As, however, the four Shigella species can express 50 different types of O-antigens, current approaches with the aim to induce a broad coverage use a mixture of the most common O-antigens combined in single vaccines. In the current study we present data on an alternative approach to generate immunity protective against multiple serotypes. Mutants lacking both major immune-determinant structures (i.e. the Ipa and O-antigens) were not only highly attenuated, but, unlike their avirulent counterparts still expressing these antigens, elicited a protective immune response to heterologous serotypes in a murine model. Evidence is provided that protection was mediated by the enhanced immunogenic potential of minor conserved antigens. Furthermore, the rough, non-invasive double mutants triggered an immune response different from that induced by the smooth, invasive strains regarding the isotype of antibodies generated. These non-invasive, rough mutants may represent promising candidates for further development into live vaccines for the prophylaxis of bacillary dysentery in areas with multiple endemic serotypes.

  5. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Observation of clouds macrophysical characteristics in China by CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zengxin; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Clouds' macrophysical characteristics play an important role in the climate system and dramatically vary because of the diverse climatic and geographic factors in China. We analyze cloud macrophysical characteristics and the differences between subregions in China (18°-54°N, 73°-135°E) from March 2012 to February 2015 based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, including cloud fractions, cloud vertical distribution, and cloud geometrical properties with the perspective of daytime and nighttime. We found that annual single layer, multilayer (ML), and total cloud fractions are 40.4±1.1%, 22.4±0.4%, and 62.8±1.5%, respectively, and clouds are generally located between 6 and 12 km. The cloud fractions in daytime are less than that in nighttime over the south while that of Tibet shows the reverse trend. In the vertical direction, except for Tibet, the clouds in nighttime have larger spatial coverage and are higher in altitude than that in daytime. The regional average values of cloud macrophysical characteristics in the south are highest, followed successively by Tibet, north, and northwest. Cloud geometrical depth and spacing show a gradually declining trend with the increase in layers and decrease of altitude in ML cloud system.

  7. "We always live in fear": antidepressant prescriptions by unlicensed doctors in India.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan; Basu, Soumita

    2014-06-01

    In India, psychopharmaceuticals have seeped deep into both formal and informal pharmaceutical markets, and unlicensed "quack" doctors have become ready prescribers of psychotropics. These ethnographic insights trouble policies that aim at closing the treatment gap for psychiatric medications by "task shifting" to low-skilled health workers as if medications were exclusively available by prescription from public sector psychiatrists. This article describes what these doctors, known as rural medical practitioners (RMPs), know about psychotropics and how they use them in everyday practice. Unlicensed doctors learn about psychopharmaceuticals through exchanges with licensed doctors, through visits by drug companies' sales representatives, and through prescriptions brought by patients. Although the RMPs exist outside the margins of legitimacy, they are constrained by a web of relations with patients, licensed doctors, pharmacists, drug wholesalers, and government agents. The RMPs do not only prescribe but also dispense, which leads to conflicts with licensed medicine sellers. They "always live in fear" both because they are illegal prescribers and because they are illegal sellers of medications. The article shows that any form of strategic ignorance among policy makers about the local importance of informal practitioners in India can only lead to lopsided interventions.

  8. Approximating the head characteristics and characteristic surfaces of dynamic pumps by means of an exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekun, G. D.

    2009-08-01

    Results obtained from statistical and experimental studies of the head characteristics of commercially available centrifugal and free-vortex pumps are presented. A regression equation in the form of an exponential function written in a reduced-relative system of coordinates for approximating the head characteristics of blade pumps is obtained.

  9. 13 Things That Saved Apollo 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps, the most exciting rescue, terrestrial or extra-terrestrial, is the successful return of the Apollo 13 crew to Earth in April of 1970. The mission s warning system engineer, Jerry Woodfill, who remains a NASA employee after 47 years of government service has examined facets of the rescue for the past 42 years. He will present "13 Things That Saved Apollo 13" from the perspective of his real time experience as well as two score years of study. Many are recent discoveries never before published in mission reports, popular books or documentary and Hollywood movies depicting the rescue.

  10. The Stanford how things work project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, Richard; Gruber, Tom; Iwasaki, Yumi

    1994-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Stanford How Things Work (HTW) project, an ongoing integrated collection of research activities in the Knowledge Systems Laboratory at Stanford University. The project is developing technology for representing knowledge about engineered devices in a form that enables the knowledge to be used in multiple systems for multiple reasoning tasks and reasoning methods that enable the represented knowledge to be effectively applied to the performance of the core engineering task of simulating and analyzing device behavior. The central new capabilities currently being developed in the project are automated assistance with model formulation and with verification that a design for an electro-mechanical device satisfies its functional specification.

  11. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Haseltine

    2016-07-12

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  12. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Haseltine

    2009-09-16

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  13. Dependable control systems with Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled dependable control system (DepCS) for continuous processes. In a DepCS, an actuator and a transmitter form a regulatory control loop. Each processor inside such actuator and transmitter is designed as a computational platform implementing the feedback control algorithm. The connections between actuators and transmitters via IoT create a reliable backbone for a DepCS. The centralized input-output marshaling system is not required in DepCSs. A state feedback control synthesis method for DepCS applying the self-recovery constraint is presented in the second part of the paper.

  14. Isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation in live cells

    PubMed Central

    O-Uchi, Jin; Sorenson, Jaime; Jhun, Bong Sook; Mishra, Jyotsna; Hurst, Stephen; Williams, Kaleef; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Lopes, Coeli M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays key roles in the regulation of signal transduction and cellular function in various cell types. At least ten PKC isoforms have been identified and intracellular localization and trafficking of these individual isoforms are important for regulation of enzyme activity and substrate specificity. PKC can be activated at downstream of Gq-protein coupled receptor (GqPCR) signaling and translocated to the various cellular compartments including plasma membrane (PM). Recent reports suggested that a different type of GqPCRs would activate different PKC isoforms (classic, novel and atypical PKCs) with different trafficking patterns. However, the knowledge of isoform-specific activation of PKC by each GqPCR is limited. α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) is the one of the GqPCR highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we examined the isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC in living HEK293T cells by α1-AR stimulation (α1-ARS). Rat PKCα, βI, βII, δ, ε and ζ fused with GFP at C-term were co-transfected with human α1A-AR into HEK293T cells. The isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC in living HEK293T cells by α1-ARS using phenylephrine was measured by confocal microscopy. Before stimulation, GFP-PKCs were localized at cytosolic region. α1-ARS strongly and rapidly translocated a classical PKC (cPKC), PKCα, (< 30s) to PM, with PKCα returning diffusively into the cytosol within 5 min. α1-ARS rapidly translocated other cPKCs, PKCβI and PKCβII, to the PM (<30s), with sustained membrane localization. One of novel PKCs (nPKCs), PKCε, but not another nPKC, PKCδ, was translocated by α1-AR stimulation to the PM (<30s) and its membrane localization was also sustained. Finally, α1-AR stimulation did not cause a diacylglycerol-insensitive atypical PKC, PKCζ translocation. Our data suggest that PKCα, β and ε activation may underlie physiological and pathophysiological responses of α1-AR signaling for the

  15. Reducing production of taste and odor by deep-living cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs by regulation of water level.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming; Jia, Dongmin; Yu, Jianwei; Vogt, Rolf D; Wang, Jingshi; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Abatement and control of algae, producing toxins and creating taste & odor (T&O) in drinking water sources, is a major challenge for water supply. In this study we proposed a strategy based on water level regulation for the control of odor-producing cyanobacteria in source water. Miyun Reservoir, the main surface water source for Beijing, has been suffering from 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) induced T&O problems caused by deep-living Planktothrix sp. since 2002. The biomass of deep-living Planktothrix in Miyun Reservoir was found to be mainly governed by the water depth above its sediment habitat. An algorithm for water level regulation aiming to minimize the risk for T&O in different types of reservoirs is proposed. The study demonstrates that risk for T&O can be minimized by increasing the water level in Miyun Reservoir. The high-risk area can be reduced by about 2.91% (0.61% to 5.76%) of surface area for each meter increase in the water level, when the water level is lower than 145m. More specifically, the water level needs to be raised to higher than 147.7ma.s.l. from 131.0m in order to obtain an acceptable risk level (ARL) of 10%. This management strategy to abate T&O problems is simpler and cheaper to implement compared to traditional physical, chemical and biological techniques. Moreover, it has no apparent negative impact on water quality and aquatic organisms.

  16. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  17. Application of portable protective gaps for live work on compact 550 kV transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gela, G.; Lux, A.E.; Kientz, H.; Gillies, D.A.; Mitchell, J.D.; Lyons, P.F.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents result of research on the application of a Portable Protective Gap (PPG) to live work on a compact 550 kV steel lattice tower. The objective of the research was to provide experimental evidence which confirms the needed coordination of the PPG sparkover characteristics with the sparkover characteristics of the worksite on the compact tower during live work. Sparkover characteristics of the worksite are strongly affected by the presence of the worker, the live working tools, and damaged insulators.

  18. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; ...

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffinemore » tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.« less

  19. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; Steren, Carlos A.; Goodwin, Andrew; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Gido, Samuel; Beiner, Mario; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam -Goo; Mays, Jimmy; Wang, Weiyu; White, Benjamin T.

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffine tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.

  20. Assistive devices in activities of daily living used by persons with age-related macular degeneration: a population study of 85-year-olds living at home.

    PubMed

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall use of assistive devices among persons with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and how it is related to dependence in daily activities. This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional population study of 85-year-olds. The most common category of assistive devices was bathing devices followed by mobility devices. The overall use of assistive devices was 82%, and around 80% of the device users were independent in activities of daily living. They were multiple device users (57%) and used more mobility devices and personal assistance in mobility. In conclusion, the ARMD group comprises very frequent users of assistive devices and uses assistive devices to remain independent. This implies that health services should provide assistive devices at an early stage in the disablement process to avoid the development of dependence and should consider the likelihood of multiple health problems when assessing the needs of assistive devices among persons with ARMD.

  1. Mapping live cell viscosity with an aggregation-induced emission fluorogen by means of two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sijie; Hong, Yuning; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Qiqi; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Engui; Bai, Gongxun; Qu, Jianan; Hao, Jianhua; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-03-09

    Intracellular viscosity is a crucial parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of TPE-Cy, a cell-permeable dye with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property, in mapping the viscosity inside live cells. Owing to the AIE characteristics, both the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of this dye are increased along with an increase in viscosity. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of live cells stained with TPE-Cy reveals that the lifetime in lipid droplets is much shorter than that from the general cytoplasmic region. The loose packing of the lipids in a lipid droplet results in low viscosity and thus shorter lifetime of TPE-Cy in this region. It demonstrates that the AIE dye could provide good resolution in intracellular viscosity sensing. This is also the first work in which AIE molecules are applied in fluorescence lifetime imaging and intracellular viscosity sensing.

  2. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consider a household to be a personal place of residence. A commercial establishment such as a hotel or... of the proprietor. You may, however, live in the household of a roomer or boarder within the hotel...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consider a household to be a personal place of residence. A commercial establishment such as a hotel or... of the proprietor. You may, however, live in the household of a roomer or boarder within the hotel...

  4. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

  5. Long-Lived Hole Spin/Valley Polarization Probed by Kerr Rotation in Monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinlin; Xie, Saien; Kang, Kibum; Park, Jiwoong; Sih, Vanessa

    2016-08-10

    Time-resolved Kerr rotation and photoluminescence measurements are performed on MOCVD-grown monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We observe a surprisingly long-lived Kerr rotation signal (∼80 ns) at 10 K, which is attributed to spin/valley polarization of the resident holes. This polarization is robust to transverse magnetic field (up to 0.3 T). Wavelength-dependent measurements reveal that only excitation near the free exciton energy generates this long-lived spin/valley polarization.

  6. Enteric coated spheres produced by extrusion/spheronization provide effective gastric protection and efficient release of live therapeutic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Barros, João M S; Lechner, Tabea; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D

    2015-09-30

    We present a novel but simple enteric coated sphere formulation containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Oral delivery of live bacterial cells (LBC) requires live cells to survive firstly manufacturing processes and secondly GI microbicidal defenses including gastric acid. We incorporated live L. casei directly in the granulation liquid, followed by granulation, extrusion, spheronization, drying and spray coating to produce dried live probiotic spheres. A blend of MCC, calcium-crosslinked alginate, and lactose was developed that gave improved live cell survival during manufacturing, and gave excellent protection from gastric acid plus rapid release in intestinal conditions. No significant loss of viability was observed in all steps except drying, which resulted in approximately 1 log loss of viable cells. Eudragit coating was used to protect dried live cells from acid, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was combined with sodium alginate to achieve efficient sphere disintegration leading to rapid and complete bacterial cell release in intestinal conditions. Viability and release of L. casei was evaluated in vitro in simulated GI conditions. Uncoated spheres gave partial acid protection, but enteric coated spheres effectively protected dried probiotic LBC from acid for 2h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 1h of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid.

  7. Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F

    2015-06-16

    We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

  8. Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

  9. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.

  10. Evaluation of YadC protein delivered by live attenuated Salmonella as a vaccine against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Olinzock, Joseph; Wang, Shifeng; Sanapala, Shilpa; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia pestis YadB and YadC are two new outer membrane proteins related to its pathogenicity. Here, codon-optimized yadC, yadC810 (aa 32-551), or yadBC antigen genes delivered by live attenuated Salmonella strains are evaluated in mice for induction of protective immune responses against Y. pestis CO92 through subcutaneous or intranasal challenge. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing YadC, YadC810, or YadBC develop significant serum IgG responses to purified recombinant YadC protein. For subcutaneous challenge (approximately 230 LD50 of Y. pestis CO92), mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing YadC or YadC810 are afforded 50% protection, but no protection by immunization with the Salmonella strain synthesizing YadBC. None of these antigens provided protection against intranasal challenge (approximately 31 LD50 of Y. pestis CO92). In addition, subcutaneous immunization with purified YadC810 protein emulsified with alum adjuvant does not elicit a protective response against Y. pestis administered by either challenge route.

  11. Functional imaging of living Paramecium by means of confocal and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaspro, Alberto; Fronte, Paola; Raimondo, Marco; Fato, Marco; DeLeo, Gianluca; Beltrame, Francesco; Cannone, Fabio; Chirico, Giberto; Ramoino, Paola

    2002-05-01

    Confocal and Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy allow gathering three-dimensional and temporal information from biological systems exploiting fluorescence labeling and autofluorescence properties. In this work we study biological events linked to functionality in Paramecium primaurelia. The internalization of material in ciliated one-celled organisms (protozoa) occurs via different mechanisms, even if most of nutrients, particulate or not, is taken up by food vacuoles formed at the bottom of the oral cavity. The endocytosis of small-sized molecules occurs at the parasomal sacs, located next the ciliar basal bodies. Vital fluorescent dyes (BSA-FITC, WGA-FITC, dextran-Texas Red, cholesteryl-Bodipy) and autofluorescence were used to study formation, movement, and fusion of vesicles during endocytosis and phagocytosis of Paramecium primaurelia. By immobilizing living cells pulsed with food vacuole and endosome markers at successive times after chasing in unlabeled medium, the intracellular movement and fusion of food vacuoles and of endosomes were visualized. A temporal analysis of fluorescence images and the false-color technique were used. Starting from time series or 3D data sets composite images were generated by associating with each originally acquired image a different color corresponding to each sampling point in time and along the z-axis. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging attempts are also outlined.

  12. Pursuing Goals with Others: Group Identification and Motivation Resulting from Things Done versus Things Left Undone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D.; Koo, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing.…

  13. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  14. Living Arrangements and Quality of Life: Mediation by Physical Function and Depression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huimin; Yoon, Ju Young; Bowers, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Living arrangements are often assumed to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among older adults. This study aimed to explore how living arrangements affect HRQoL. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationships between HRQoL, activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, and living arrangements among older adults. A total of 220 community dwelling older adults and 231 nursing home residents completed the questionnaires. The path analysis indicated that the older adults' living arrangement did not directly influence their HRQoL, but it had indirect effects through ADLs and depression. The whole model explained 55% of the variance of HRQoL, which suggests that living in nursing homes does not directly cause older adults' poor HRQoL, but poor ADLs and more severe depression among nursing home residents lead to poor HRQoL. To improve their HRQoL, additional focus should be placed on maintaining ADLs and increasing community participation.

  15. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  16. Shifting from Stories to Live by to Stories to Leave By: Early Career Teacher Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Lee; Downey, C. Aiden; Clandinin, D. Jean

    2014-01-01

    We began this research by asking questions about the high number of teachers who leave teaching in their first five years of teaching. The literature on early career teacher attrition (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Guarino, Santibanez & Daly, 2006; Macdonald, 1999; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004) left us with wonders around the experiences of…

  17. Live Single-Cell Plant Hormone Analysis by Video-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hajime; Masujima, Tsutomu; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    Studies have indicated that endogenous concentrations of plant hormones are regulated very locally within plants. To understand the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated physiological processes, it is indispensable to know the exact hormone concentrations at cellular levels. In the present study, we established a system to determine levels of ABA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) from single cells. Samples taken from a cell of Vicia faba leaves using nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) tips under a microscope were directly introduced into mass spectrometers by infusion and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Stable isotope-labeled [D(6)]ABA or [(13)C(6)]JA-Ile was used as an internal standard to compensate ionization efficiencies, which determine the amount of ions introduced into mass spectrometers. We detected ABA and JA-Ile from single cells of water- and wound-stressed leaves, whereas they were almost undetectable in non-stressed single cells. The levels of ABA and JA-Ile found in the single-cell analysis were compared with levels found by analysis of purified extracts with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These results demonstrated that stress-induced accumulation of ABA and JA-Ile could be monitored from living single cells.

  18. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  19. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  20. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605