Science.gov

Sample records for living things by characteristics

  1. Primary students' conceptions of living things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legaspi, Britt Anne

    Elementary school teachers are pressed for time throughout the instructional day to teach all curricular areas as expected by states and districts because of the current focus on reading and mathematics. Thus, foundational science concepts may be overlooked. For example, students' understandings of living and nonliving things may be overlooked by teachers, yet is useful in understanding the nature of living things. In this qualitative study, K-3 grade students were asked to sort objects as either living or nonliving and to give rationales for their choices. It was found that K-3 students readily used physical characteristics, such as having body parts, and physical abilities, such as being able to move, as criteria for living things. Students in grades 1 through 3 were able to articulate their reasons with more adult-like logic based on Jean Piaget' s research on developmental stages.

  2. A normal' category-specific advantage for naming living things.

    PubMed

    Laws, K R; Neve, C

    1999-10-01

    'Artefactual' accounts of category-specific disorders for living things have highlighted that compared to nonliving things, living things have lower name frequency, lower concept familiarity and greater visual complexity and greater within-category structural similarity or 'visual crowding' [7]. These hypotheses imply that deficits for living things are an exaggeration of some 'normal tendency'. Contrary to these notions, we found that normal subjects were consistently worse at naming nonliving than living things in a speeded presentation paradigm. Moreover, their naming was not predicted by concept familiarity, name frequency or visual complexity; however, a novel measure of visual familiarity (i.e. for the appearance of things) did significantly predict naming. We propose that under speeded conditions, normal subjects find nonliving things harder to name because their representations are less visually predictable than for living things (i.e. nonliving things show greater within-item structural variability). Finally, because nonliving things have multiple representations in the real world, this may lower the probability of finding impaired naming and recognition in this category. PMID:10530726

  3. The Concept of Living and Non-Living Things in the World of Primary School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal how the concepts of living and non-living things are in the world of the primary school (4th and 5th classes) students, what they remember when they are told about living and non-living things and what the characteristics of living and non-living things are according to them. The research is a descriptive…

  4. Children's Conceptions of Plants as Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Naomi; Stavy, Ruth

    In this study, the attitudes of Israeli children aged 6 to 15 years were surveyed regarding their conceptions of plants as living things. It was desired to find out whether children consider plants to be alive, the knowledge differences between the different age groups in the study, how children classify plants according to biological criteria and…

  5. Food for Living Things, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This teachers guide to "Food for Living Things," one of the units of the Junior Secondary Science Project prepared for use in Victorian (Australia) secondary schools, includes copies of all of the appropriate student materials in addition to information designed to assist the teacher develop the unit. This information includes hints on appropriate…

  6. Demonstrating the Influence of UV Rays on Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment that introduces students to the different types of UV rays and their effects on living things by using appropriate teaching materials and equipment. Demonstrates the effects of exposure to UV-B (fluorescent) and UV-C (germicidal) lamps by using bananas, duckweed, and the fruit fly. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they…

  8. How to Care for Living Things in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Grace K.

    In this National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) publication, the advantages of having living things in the classroom are discussed. Also given is a brief description of the facilities and environments required for various common mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and plants. (CP)

  9. Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure about "Living Thing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of "living thing" through revealing their conceptual framework. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. A free word association test was used as a data collection…

  10. Young Chinese Children's Justifications of Plants as Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to explore how Chinese preschool children categorize plants into either living or nonliving things. The research was framed within the interpretive paradigm and was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Participants were children 4 to 6 years of age from 3 kindergartens in Jiangsu…

  11. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  12. Mathematics and Living Things. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Norman J.; And Others

    This document is designed for grade eight to enrich and supplement the usual courses of instruction. Mathematics and Living Things (MALT) utilizes exercises in biological science to derive data through which mathematical concepts and principles may be introduced and expanded. Chapters included are: (1) Leaves and Natural Variation: Measurement of…

  13. How Do Young Children Deal with Hybrids of Living and Non-Living Things: The Case of Humanoid Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a…

  14. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  15. Parent-child talk about the origins of living things.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Hohenstein, Jill M

    2016-10-01

    This study examined relations between 124 British children's and their parents' endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, and plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n=64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution, and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children's endorsements were correlated with their parents' endorsements for all three living things. Children's endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents' endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children's endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children's appropriation of scientific content. PMID:27388483

  16. Invitations to Life's Diversity. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about diversity and classification of living things which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and…

  17. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  18. Classification deficits in Alzheimer's disease with special reference to living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    Montanes, P; Goldblum, M C; Boller, F

    1996-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the hypothesis that visual similarity between exemplars within a semantic category may affect differentially the recognition process of living and nonliving things, according to task demands, in patients with semantic memory disorders. Thirty-nine Alzheimer's patients and 39 normal elderly subjects were presented with a task in which they had to classify pictures and words, depicting either living or nonliving things, at two levels of classification: subordinate (e.g., mammals versus birds or tools versus vehicles) and attribute (e.g., wild versus domestic animals or fast versus slow vehicles). Contrary to previous results (Montañes, Goldblum, & Boller, 1995) in a naming task, but as expected, living things were better classified than nonliving ones by both controls and patients. As expected, classifications at the subordinate level also gave rise to better performance than classifications at the attribute level. Although (and somewhat unexpectedly) no advantage of picture over word classification emerged, some effects consistent with the hypothesis that visual similarity affects picture classification emerged, in particular within a subgroup of patients with predominant verbal deficits and the most severe semantic memory disorders. This subgroup obtained a better score on classification of pictures than of words depicting living items (that share many visual features) when classification is at the subordinate level (for which visual similarity is a reliable clue to classification), but met with major difficulties when classifying those pictures at the attribute level (for which shared visual features are not reliable clues to classification). These results emphasize the fact that some "normal" effects specific to items in living and nonliving categories have to be considered among the factors causing selective category-specific deficits in patients, as well as their relevance in achieving tasks which require either

  19. Classification deficits in Alzheimer's disease with special reference to living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    Montanes, P; Goldblum, M C; Boller, F

    1996-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the hypothesis that visual similarity between exemplars within a semantic category may affect differentially the recognition process of living and nonliving things, according to task demands, in patients with semantic memory disorders. Thirty-nine Alzheimer's patients and 39 normal elderly subjects were presented with a task in which they had to classify pictures and words, depicting either living or nonliving things, at two levels of classification: subordinate (e.g., mammals versus birds or tools versus vehicles) and attribute (e.g., wild versus domestic animals or fast versus slow vehicles). Contrary to previous results (Montañes, Goldblum, & Boller, 1995) in a naming task, but as expected, living things were better classified than nonliving ones by both controls and patients. As expected, classifications at the subordinate level also gave rise to better performance than classifications at the attribute level. Although (and somewhat unexpectedly) no advantage of picture over word classification emerged, some effects consistent with the hypothesis that visual similarity affects picture classification emerged, in particular within a subgroup of patients with predominant verbal deficits and the most severe semantic memory disorders. This subgroup obtained a better score on classification of pictures than of words depicting living items (that share many visual features) when classification is at the subordinate level (for which visual similarity is a reliable clue to classification), but met with major difficulties when classifying those pictures at the attribute level (for which shared visual features are not reliable clues to classification). These results emphasize the fact that some "normal" effects specific to items in living and nonliving categories have to be considered among the factors causing selective category-specific deficits in patients, as well as their relevance in achieving tasks which require either

  20. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  1. Young Children Learning about Living Things: A Case Study of Conceptual Change from Ontological and Social Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady

    2004-01-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative…

  2. The disparity mutagenesis model predicts rescue of living things from catastrophic errors

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    In animals including humans, mutation rates per generation exceed a perceived threshold, and excess mutations increase genetic load. Despite this, animals have survived without extinction. This is a perplexing problem for animal and human genetics, arising at the end of the last century, and to date still does not have a fully satisfactory explanation. Shortly after we proposed the disparity theory of evolution in 1992, the disparity mutagenesis model was proposed, which forms the basis for an explanation for an acceleration of evolution and species survival. This model predicts a significant increase of the mutation threshold values if the fidelity difference in replication between the lagging and leading strands is high enough. When applied to biological evolution, the model predicts that living things, including humans, might overcome the lethal effect of accumulated deleterious mutations and be able to survive. Artificially derived mutator strains of microorganisms, in which an enhanced lagging-strand-biased mutagenesis was introduced, showed unexpectedly high adaptability to severe environments. The implications of the striking behaviors shown by these disparity mutators will be discussed in relation to how living things with high mutation rates can avoid the self-defeating risk of excess mutations. PMID:25538731

  3. Young children learning about living things: A case study of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady

    2004-05-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative data-collection methods to investigate the process of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives when Year 1 (5- and 6-year-old) students were learning about living things. Most students were found to think about living things with either stable, nonscientific or stable, scientific framework theories. Transitional phases of understanding also were identified. Patterns of conceptual change observed over the 5-week period of instruction included theory change and belief revision as well as reversals in beliefs. The predominant pattern of learning, however, was the assimilation of facts and information into the students' preferred framework theory. The social milieu of the classroom context exposed students' scientific and nonscientific beliefs that influenced other individuals in a piecemeal fashion. Children with nonscientific theories of living things were identified as being least able to benefit from socially constructed, scientific knowledge; hence, recommendations are made for teaching that focuses on conceptual change strategies rather than knowledge enrichment.

  4. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-08-04

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application.

  5. A Cloud-Based Internet of Things Platform for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application

  6. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application

  7. LED and Semiconductor Photo-effects on Living Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyasu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takemitsu; Fujiyasu, Kentarou; Ujihara, Shirou; Watanabe, Naoharu; Sunayama, Shunji; Ikoma, Shuuji

    We have studied LED irradiation effects on plants and animals in the visible to UV region of light from GaN LEDs. The results are as follows. Blue light considers to be effective for pearl cultivation or for attraction of small fishes living in near the surface of sea such as Pompano or Sardine, white light radiation is effective for cultivation of botanical plankton for shells. Other experiments of UV light irradiation attracting effect on baby sea turtle and the germination UV effect of mushroom, green light weight enhance effect on baby pigs, light vernalization effect of vegitable and Ge far infrared therapic effect on human body are also given.

  8. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  9. Different Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets.] Unit 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) help students develop an elementary understanding of how living things can be…

  10. The role of local and global processing in the recognition of living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard; Forde, Emer

    2006-01-01

    We report a study on a patient (DW) with integrative visual agnosia and a category-specific recognition impairment for living things. We assessed DW's local and global processing and tested if his integrative agnosia could have led directly to his category-specific impairment. The main findings were: (i) DW was faster at identifying local compared to global letters. (ii) DW showed no local-to-global (or global-to-local) interference effects in selective attention tasks. (iii) DW showed a congruency effect in a divided attention task, suggesting that, when his attention was cued to both levels, he could process information simultaneously and integrate local and global information. (iv) Controls were poorer at naming nonliving compared to living things when presented with silhouettes. These data suggest that local and global information are differentially weighted in the visual recognition of living and nonliving things, and that an impairment in processing the overall shape of an object can lead to a category-specific deficit for living things. Crucially, this implies that category-specific impairments do not necessarily reflect damage to the semantic system, and models of semantic memory based on this assumption need to be revised. PMID:16253294

  11. "Trees and Things That Live in Trees": Three Children with Special Needs Experience the Project Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Susan; Elgas, Peg; Konerman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on research conducted during a project investigation undertaken with preschool children, ages 3-5. The report focuses on three children with special needs and the positive outcomes for each child as they engaged in the project Trees and Things That Live in Trees. Two of the children were diagnosed with developmental delays, and…

  12. Science K-12, Living Things Are Products of Their Heredity and Their Environment. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, health, general science, physical science) and grade level. Concepts regarding characteristics of living things are stressed in objectives for the primary grades (K-5), and reproductive biology is covered…

  13. Visual similarity is greater for line drawings of nonliving than living things: the importance of musical instruments and body parts.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Frank, Ray; Davey, Neil

    2002-01-01

    It has been argued that greater intra-category structural similarity for living things, and the subsequent "visual crowding," makes them more difficult to recognize and name for neurologically damaged individuals and normal subjects (Humphreys et al., 1988). Nevertheless, the precise meaning and quantification of structural similarity remains unclear, as does the rationale for why it necessarily should be greater for living things. We derived a new measure of visual overlap from the Snodgrass and Vanderwart corpus of line drawings: the degree of pixel overlap within subcategories (Euclidean distance: ED). Contrary to existing notions of visual crowding and extant measures of contour overlap, within-category ED indicated less within-category visual overlap for living things. Furthermore, musical instruments clustered with living things (having low overlap), while body parts clustered with nonliving things (having high overlap). These counter-intuitive findings accord with patient data and thus, provide evidence for the psychological reality and utility of ED.

  14. Unmasking “Alive:” Children’s Appreciation of a Concept Linking All Living Things

    PubMed Central

    Leddon, Erin M.; Waxman, Sandra R.; Medin, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Decades of research have documented in school-aged children a persistent difficulty apprehending an overarching biological concept that encompasses animate entities like humans and non-human animals, as well as plants. This has led many researchers to conclude that young children have yet to integrate plants and animate entities into a concept LIVING THING. However, virtually all investigations have used the word “alive” to probe children’s understanding, a term that technically describes all living things, but in practice is often aligned with animate entities only. We show that when “alive” is replaced with less ambiguous probes, children readily demonstrate knowledge of an overarching concept linking plants with humans and non-human animals. This work suggests that children have a burgeoning appreciation of this fundamental biological concept, and that the word “alive” paradoxically masks young children’s appreciation of the concept to which it is meant to refer. PMID:19319203

  15. Invitations to Cells: Life's Building Blocks. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about cells which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures, extension…

  16. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  17. Invitations to Evolving. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about evolution which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  18. Invitations to Interdependence: Caught in the Web. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about ecosystems which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  19. Invitations to Heredity: Generation to Generation. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about heredity and genetics which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  20. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  1. The mental representation of living and nonliving things: differential weighting and interactivity of sensorial and non-sensorial features.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Paulo; Morais, José; Brito-Mendes, Carlos; Kolinsky, Régine

    2005-02-01

    Warrington and colleagues (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984) claimed that sensorial and functional-associative (FA) features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living things (LT) and nonliving things (NLT). The first aim of the present study was to evaluate this hypothesis through two different access tasks: feature generation (Experiment 1) and cued recall (Experiment 2). The results of both experiments provided consistent empirical support for Warrington and colleagues' assumption. The second aim of the present study was to test a new differential interactivity hypothesis that combines Warrington and colleagueS' assumption with the notion of a higher number of intercorrelations and hence of a stronger connectivity between sensorial and non-sensorial features for LTs than for NLTs. This hypothesis was motivated by previoUs reports of an uncrossed interaction between domain (LTs vs NLTs) and attribute type (sensorial vs FA) in, for example, a feature verification task (Laws, Humber, Ramsey, & McCarthy, 1995): while FA attributes are verified faster than sensorial attributes for NLTs, no difference is observed for LTs. We replicated and generalised this finding using several feature verification tasks on both written words and pictures (Experiment 3), including in conditions aimed at minimising the intervention of priming biases and strategic or mnemonic processes (Experiment 4). The whole set of results suggests that both privileged relations between features and categories, and the differential importance of intercorrelations between features as a function of category, modulate access to semantic features. PMID:15847226

  2. Caregiver characteristics and types of assistance provided by caregivers to minority women living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Baker, S; Sudit, M; Litwak, E

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of HIV/AIDS has escalated among African American and Hispanic women in the United States and particularly in urban centers such as New York City. As a chronic illness, it is important to understand to whom minority women living with HIV/AIDS turn to for assistance and support. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify the characteristics of informal caregivers and the types of assistance that they provide to minority women living with the HIV virus. Thirty one caregivers were interviewed using semi-structured and opened ended questions. Data analyses included the constant comparative method consistent with the grounded theory approach. A topology of two caregiver groups were identified, male companions and relative/girlfriend caregivers. Caregiving activities are described within each group in the areas of emotional support, child care, personal advisement, social welfare and financial assistance. Implications for practice and recommendations for further study are discussed.

  3. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  4. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  5. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  6. Remembrance of things past: modelling the relationship between species' abundances in living communities and death assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulations of dead skeletal material are a valuable archive of past ecological conditions. However, such assemblages are not equivalent to living communities because they mix the remains of multiple generations and are altered by post-mortem processes. The abundance of a species in a death assemblage can be quantitatively modelled by successively integrating the product of an influx time series and a post-mortem loss function (a decay function with a constant half-life). In such a model, temporal mixing increases expected absolute dead abundance relative to average influx as a linear function of half-life and increases variation in absolute dead abundance values as a square-root function of half-life. Because typical abundance distributions of ecological communities are logarithmically distributed, species' differences in preservational half-life would have to be very large to substantially alter species' abundance ranks (i.e. make rare species common or vice-versa). In addition, expected dead abundances increase at a faster rate than their range of variation with increased time averaging, predicting greater consistency in the relative abundance structure of death assemblages than their parent living community. PMID:21653564

  7. Feature Types and Object Categories: Is Sensorimotoric Knowledge Different for Living and Nonliving Things?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankerstein, Carrie A.; Varley, Rosemary A.; Cowell, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Some models of semantic memory claim that items from living and nonliving domains have different feature-type profiles. Data from feature generation and perceptual modality rating tasks were compared to evaluate this claim. Results from two living (animals, fruits/vegetables) and two nonliving (tools, vehicles) categories showed that…

  8. How Not to Do Things with Metaphors We Live By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Meryl

    1990-01-01

    Identifies dangers in applying metaphors from one context to another. Asserts the necessity for feminist critical theorists to examine metaphor's status in their own discourse. Proposes a "therapeutic" investigation of metaphor as part of the power structure. Suggests locating a feminist investigation of metaphors in a vigilant awareness of the…

  9. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. PMID:26795077

  10. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history.

  11. LITTLE THINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Megan; Zhang Hongxin; Ficut-Vicas, Dana; Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Cigan, Phil; Westpfahl, David J.; Young, Lisa M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Oh, Se-Heon; Rupen, Michael P.; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian

    2012-11-01

    We present LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey), which is aimed at determining what drives star formation in dwarf galaxies. This is a multi-wavelength survey of 37 dwarf irregular and 4 blue compact dwarf galaxies that is centered around H I-line data obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The H I-line data are characterized by high sensitivity ({<=}1.1 mJy beam{sup -1} per channel), high spectral resolution ({<=}2.6 km s{sup -1}), and high angular resolution ({approx}6''). The LITTLE THINGS sample contains dwarf galaxies that are relatively nearby ({<=}10.3 Mpc; 6'' is {<=}300 pc), that were known to contain atomic hydrogen, the fuel for star formation, and that cover a large range in dwarf galactic properties. We describe our VLA data acquisition, calibration, and mapping procedures, as well as H I map characteristics, and show channel maps, moment maps, velocity-flux profiles, and surface gas density profiles. In addition to the H I data we have GALEX UV and ground-based UBV and H{alpha} images for most of the galaxies, and JHK images for some. Spitzer mid-IR images are available for many of the galaxies as well. These data sets are available online.

  12. Living with a grandparent and parent in early childhood: associations with school readiness and differences by demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V

    2014-12-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N = ∼6,550), this study investigated the associations between 3-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differed by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status, and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderated the associations, whereas maternal age, relationship status, and poverty did not. The study found that 3-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian, and Black children but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, 3-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather 3-generation family households. Overall, the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness. PMID:25365124

  13. Interdependence of Living Things: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development--Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    An episodic and activity oriented approach is employed in this unit that illustrates the theme of interdependence of living things. Concepts related to dependence, competition, community, and ecosystems are developed through a case study of a raccoon problem. Various means of solving the raccoon problem are explored within a societal context. Five…

  14. Can We Make Definite Categorization of Student Attitudes? A Rough Set Approach to Investigate Students' Implicit Attitudinal Typologies toward Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of analyzing educational data using the theory of rough sets which is mostly employed in the fields of data analysis and data mining. Data were collected using an open-ended conceptual understanding test of the living things administered to first-year high school students. The responses of randomly selected…

  15. Primacy of functional knowledge in semantic representations: the case of living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Fiona G; Macken, William J; Barry, Chris; Miles, Chris

    2006-11-01

    In 3 experiments, participants decided whether sensory and functional features were true of living and nonliving concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, concepts were presented twice: test phase followed study phase after either 3 min (Experiment 1) or 3 s (Experiment 2). At test, concepts were paired with the same feature as that at study, or a different feature from either the same modality (within-modality priming) or another modality (cross-modality priming). In both experiments functional decisions were faster than sensory decisions for living and nonliving concepts. Whilst no semantic priming occurred between study and test in Experiment 1, the shorter study-test interval of Experiment 2 did lead to test phase semantic priming. Here there was greater within- than cross-modality priming for sensory decisions, but equivalent within- and cross-modality priming for functional decisions owing to significantly greater facilitation of functional decisions from prior sensory decisions than vice versa. Experiment 3 involved a single verification phase: For half the participants the feature name preceded the concept name, and for half the concept name preceded the feature name. The functional processing advantage persisted irrespective of presentation order. Results suggest that functional information is central to the representation of all concepts: Function is processed faster than sensory information and is activated obligatorily. PMID:16987785

  16. Semantic feature production norms for a large set of living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    McRae, Ken; Cree, George S; Seidenberg, Mark S; McNorgan, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Semantic features have provided insight into numerous behavioral phenomena concerning concepts, categorization, and semantic memory in adults, children, and neuropsychological populations. Numerous theories and models in these areas are based on representations and computations involving semantic features. Consequently, empirically derived semantic feature production norms have played, and continue to play, a highly useful role in these domains. This article describes a set of feature norms collected from approximately 725 participants for 541 living (dog) and nonliving (chair) basic-level concepts, the largest such set of norms developed to date. This article describes the norms and numerous statistics associated with them. Our aim is to make these norms available to facilitate other research, while obviating the need to repeat the labor-intensive methods involved in collecting and analyzing such norms. The full set of norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:16629288

  17. Selective impairment of living things and musical instruments on a verbal 'Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire' in a case of apperceptive visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and

  18. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  19. Arctic Land Animals: A Language Development Unit for Science Life and the Environment Living/Non-Living Things. Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Cathy, Ed.; Gilmour, Margy

    Successful bilingual education requires good teaching in both languages. For many years northern Canadian educators have wrestled with the difficulties of teaching English with inappropriate commercial materials from the south. These units were developed by the Department of Education using the Language Development Approach, which is seen as the…

  20. Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.

    This book examines children's many connections to animals and their developmental significance, exploring the growth of the human animal connection, and showing how children's innate interest in animals is shaped by their families and their social worlds, and may in turn shape the kind of people they will become. Chapter 1 documents how theory and…

  1. Living Things in Field and Classroom: A MINNEMAST Handbook for Teachers of Early Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subarsky, Zachariah; And Others

    This handbook for teachers of the primary grades suggests a variety of means by which children can be provided with experiences related to science and mathematics. Chapters are devoted to the classroom garden, the classroom zoo, the classroom museum, objects children bring to school, and field trips. Each chapter describes preparations to be made…

  2. Disaster's Aftermath: Rebuilding Schools Is One Thing--Rebuilding Children's Lives Is Quite Another.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Children who experience disasters such as Hurricane Andrew in southern Florida, are prone to severe and debilitating stress. Districts can prepare by designating a disaster management commander, a search-and-rescue team, and a reuniting team. Planning should include drills, recovery, and restoration elements. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH)

  3. Selected characteristics of nurses and physicians who have living wills.

    PubMed

    Stechmiller, J K; Conlon, M; Anderson, G C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine what characteristics are most closely associated with nurses and physicians who favor a living will. A statistical analysis called classification and regression trees (CART) was used on the data set from a previous study. The five predictor variables that were analyzed were chosen following incorporation of a univariate screening process in which variables were chosen by their association with the likelihood of signing a living will. In addition, variables that did not have complete data sets were not considered in the analysis. The CART procedure was then used to determine which of these five variables were considered significant predictors. Three variables were selected: religion, length of experience with the terminally ill, and nature of the relationship (professional or personal) with the terminally ill. The two nonsignificant and therefore rejected variables were education/occupation and current region of residence. Within the predictor variable religion, CART selected the grouping of values (agnostic/atheist and Christian/non-Christian) as the best predictor of nurses and physicians likely to sign a living will. The second best predictor variable identified was length of experience in providing care to at least one patient, family member, or friend who was terminally ill. The nature of the relationship (professional or personal) with the terminally ill was the next strongest predictor variable of signing a living will. No previous studies of the living will have used such multivariate techniques as CART analysis to predict the likelihood of a health care provider signing a living will. PMID:10110546

  4. Metabolic characteristics of long-lived mice.

    PubMed

    Bartke, Andrzej; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2012-01-01

    Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH) release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I. Long-lived GH-resistant GHR-KO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) and Snell dwarf (Pit1(dw)) mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH), are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHR-KO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHR-KO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g) of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO(2) did not differ between GHR-KO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHR-KO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of GHR-KO mice.

  5. Metabolic characteristics of long-lived mice.

    PubMed

    Bartke, Andrzej; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2012-01-01

    Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH) release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I. Long-lived GH-resistant GHR-KO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) and Snell dwarf (Pit1(dw)) mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH), are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHR-KO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHR-KO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g) of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO(2) did not differ between GHR-KO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHR-KO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of GHR-KO mice

  6. Live and carcass leg characteristics in terminally-sired lambs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live and carcass leg characteristics of F1 wether lambs were investigated to determine whether there were terminal-sire breed differences. Over a 3-yr period, Columbia, MARCIII, Suffolk, and Texel rams were mated with mature Rambouillet ewes to produce the lambs (n=521). Lambs were finished in a fee...

  7. Discourse as Medium of Knowledge: Transmission of Knowledge by Transmission of Discourse People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on discourse as medium of knowledge. Informal education is a system of transmission of knowledge by transmission of discourse people live by. In the humanities and social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language. Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; it…

  8. The Childhood Living Arrangements of Children and the Characteristics of Their Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay D.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author uses data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to examine the impact of childhood living arrangements on the characteristics of marriages formed by women between 1970 and 1989.The focus is on sociodemographic characteristics of marriage that may be taken to indicate a heightened risk of marital stress or…

  9. Developing the excellence habit: 25 rules to live by.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Most medical practice employees agree pretty readily that they want to achieve a high level of excellence both in their work and in their lives. But defining and achieving excellence can be a challenge. This article explores specifically what it means to be excellent both inside and outside the medical practice. It suggests that the small things we do and the company we keep definitely matter and that excellence can become habitual if it is repeated again and again. Specifically, this article provides 25 clearly defined rules medical practice employees can learn and live by to develop and increase their personal excellence. It describes three hallmarks common to all excellent medical practice employees and five benefits of excellence. Finally, this article provides 10 daily affirmations the medical practice employee can use to develop and cement his or her own habit of excellence.

  10. Losing Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five children's books that deal with the theme of losing things and the feelings that can accompany it. Also discusses the loss of intangible things, such as talent, concentration, temper, or patience, and presents five creative activities that deal more with the loss of objects. (LRW)

  11. Science K-12, Living Things in Continuous Change. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, general science, physical science, earth science) and grade level. In grades K-6, objectives for topics of science study include conditions for plants and animals to live, adaptation, conservation,…

  12. Nature, Education and Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  13. Using the Real Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gwendy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program to bring farm animals into the classroom. Topics discussed include using the senses, health and safety for both children and animals, and rewards of using animals in special situations. Talks given include "Similarities and Differences of Living Things"; "From a Sheep to a Ball of Wool"; and "Food from the Farm." (PVD)

  14. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  15. Making things happen: reciprocal relationships between work characteristics and personal initiative in a four-wave longitudinal structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Garst, Harry; Fay, Doris

    2007-07-01

    The authors used the frameworks of reciprocal determinism and occupational socialization to study the effects of work characteristics (consisting of control and complexity of work) on personal initiative (PI)--mediated by control orientation (a 2nd-order factor consisting of control aspiration, perceived opportunity for control, and self-efficacy) and the reciprocal effects of PI on changes in work characteristics. They applied structural equation modeling to a longitudinal study with 4 measurement waves (N = 268) in a transitional economy: East Germany. Results confirm the model plus 1 additional, nonhypothesized effect. Work characteristics had a synchronous effect on PI via control orientation (full mediation). There were also effects of control orientation and of PI on later changes in work characteristics: As predicted, PI functioned as partial mediator, changing work characteristics in the long term (reciprocal effect); unexpectedly, there was a 2nd reciprocal effect of an additional lagged partial mediation of control orientation on later work characteristics. PMID:17638467

  16. Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Conforti, V A; Azevedo, F C; Jacomo, A T; Silveira, L; Sana, D; Nunes, A L; Guimarães, M A; Barnabe, R C

    2001-11-01

    Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals.

  17. Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Conforti, V A; Azevedo, F C; Jacomo, A T; Silveira, L; Sana, D; Nunes, A L; Guimarães, M A; Barnabe, R C

    2001-11-01

    Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals. PMID:11690535

  18. Texts of Our Institutional Lives: Translucency, Coursepacks, and the Post-Historical University--An Investigation into Pedagogical Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflugfelder, Ehren Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary university's reliance on coursepacks, whether they take print or digital form, is illuminated by Bruno Latour's theories and by consideration of a nineteenth-century copyright case involving noted textbook author William McGuffey. In particular, these contexts remind individuals that coursepacks are situated within shifting…

  19. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  20. Four things to know about myosin light chains as reporters for non-muscle myosin-2 dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between non-muscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of non-muscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of non-muscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the non-muscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of non-muscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments.

  1. Internet of "printed" Things: low-cost fabrication of autonomous sensing nodes by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    "What if electronics devices are printed using an inkjet printer even at home?" "What if those devices no longer need a battery?" I will introduce two enabling technologies for the Internet of Things concept. 1. Instant Inkjet Circuits: A low cost, fast and accessible technology to support the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. We demonstrated that "sintering-free" silver nano particle ink with a commodity inkjet printer can be used to fabricate printed circuit board and high-frequency applications such as antennas and sensors. The technology is now commercialized by AgIC, Inc. 2. Wireless Power: Although large amounts of data can be exchanged over a wireless communication link, mobile devices are still tethered by power cables. We are trying to solve this problem by two different approaches: energy harvesting. A simple circuitry comprised of diodes and capacitor can convert ambient radio signals into DC current. Our research revealed the signals from TV tower located 6.5km apart could be used to feed 100 microwatts to power microcontrollers.

  2. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H.; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for

  3. The things that batter.

    PubMed

    Ames, David

    2016-06-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Australian Liberal/National Party Federal Opposition had a set of policies with which it hoped to persuade the Australian people to return it to government in the election due in 1996. This particular collection of proposed initiatives was called "The things that matter". When the then leader of the opposition, Alexander Downer (later Australia's Foreign Minister 1996-2007 and now Australian High Commissioner in London), launched the Opposition's policy on family violence (the Coalition parties, like their Labor opponents, were and are against it in principle), his introductory line was: "From the things that matter to the things that batter". Not long afterwards he lost his job as Opposition Leader, his engagement with what was and is a serious and troubling issue having been deemed too glib by half by the shapers of public opinion.

  4. Crack cocaine users living on the streets - gender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vernaglia, Taís Veronica Cardoso; Vieira, Regina Amélia de Magalhães Senna; Cruz, Marcelo Santos

    2015-06-01

    The increase in the use of crack cocaine constitutes a challenge to public health in Brazil. The objectives of this article are to identify how gender relations are constituted in the daily lives of crack users, and to analyze the dynamics that permeate the construction of these relationships involving exchange and power. This is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study of phenomenological orientation. The data was collected from crack users living on the streets in the Manguinhos community in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Eight focus groups (n = 31) were conducted and there were two individual interviews between June and August 2011. In the groups, the reports of the young men and women differed in terms of the establishment of bonds of affection; in the role attributed to crack as an operator in conflict mediation; in the use of the body as exchange/prostitution; and in the generation and care of offspring. Some shifts were observed with respect to traditional and hierarchical arrangements of gender. The study of the relationships established in this research reveals that it is not possible to point to simply perpetrators or victims. What emerges in the analysis is a plural and fluid universe, which is in permanent construction, with shifts that sometimes favor women and sometimes favor men.

  5. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  6. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE INITIAL QUESTION IN THE TITLE IS ANSWERED THROUGH SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS FOR CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. MUSCLES, RUNNING, WATER, WIND, STEAM, FAST BURNING AND ELECTRICITY ARE FOUND TO "MAKE THINGS GO." USING THESE BASIC DISCOVERIES, VOCABULARY IS BUILT UP BY WORKING WITH DIFFERENT WORDS RELATING TO THE EXPERIMENTS. A…

  7. Doing the right thing by incorporating evidence and professional goals in the ethics consult.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Anita

    2013-07-01

    Classic ethical decision-making models are discussed, and two recommendations are provided. The author proposes applying evidence-based position statements to ethical deliberation and suggests acknowledging the differing philosophical underpinnings and goals of various stakeholders, including nurses, physicians, families, institutions, and the nation. Examples are provided throughout. When combined with evidence-based information and consideration of group goals, traditional ethical analysis may help nurses "do the right thing."

  8. On the Surface of Things: Images of the Extraordinary in Science (by Felice Frankel and George M. Whitesides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmeier, J. A.

    1998-11-01

    But more of the mystery comes from looking up close at small things. Part of the image maker's talent is to help us see things that are usually beneath our notice. Surfaces imply interfaces and this book is both of and by interfaces. Felice Frankel is an artist-in-residence and a scientific researcher at MIT; her work has been supported by both the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Science Foundation. She is a photographer, an explorer of landscape architecture who has turned her attention from macro- to microvistas. In both cases, Frankel's work shows us the hand and mind of man working to shape the stuff of nature. In the present book her foil is George Whitesides, Professor of Chemistry at Harvard. He is a leader in shaping our understanding of science and technology. Frankel and Whitesides met at the surface of things and have worked to find ways to make their subjects accessible to others. Frankel's color images awaken interests that are undisturbed by conventional black and white diagrams and other abstracted representations. Images can play tricks on us, however, and I like Frankel's willingness to tell us how she made the images and Whitesides' details about the subject (both are given in a Notes and Readings section at the end). I also like Whitesides' struggle to find words and constructions that open up the underlying science and technology to curious nonspecialists.

  9. Characteristics of spirituality in the lives of women in a rural Appalachian community.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to add to nursing's knowledge base relative to spirituality by exploring how women in rural Appalachia experience and describe spirituality in their daily lives. Data was gathered through participant observation in a small rural community in West Virginia, including in-depth interviews of five women from the community. Characteristics of spirituality included belief in God or Greater Source, prayer/meditation, and a sense of relationship or connectedness with others, nature and oneself. The dominant theme which emerged relative to these relationships was that of self-reliance or inner strength. Spirituality for these women relates to the whole of life and is relational.

  10. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  11. Wondering About Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, George B.

    2014-08-01

    Here you will find facts about and the opinions of an American astrophysicist who practiced in the second half of the twentieth century. The title explains why I did it. I invented some new ideas, I applied them to some astro objects, I computed things with pen and paper; I ended up thinking that I had succeeded in pushing the field ahead a bit. Attracted by Newtonian theory, I did some experiments too. I love hydrodynamics and magnetic fields in space. The math is beautiful, and the objects are stupendous in their brilliant displays. For some reason I meditated on gases between the stars, their pressures and motions. I left the stars to others, believing that their physics was under control. As I grew older, I had to decide whether to direct others rather than just myself and ended up at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics doing both. It was thrilling because I had never had management experience and was flying by the seat of my pants, as I guess other astrodirectors do. In the process, I advised the US government on future directions in astronomy, chairing a number of committees. It is astonishing that the government is interested in astronomy, and it is exciting to interact with the people in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Congress, and the Executive branch who have dedicated their lives to enable the expansion of our knowledge of astronomy. Along the way I studied more abstract concepts in physics, including magnetic helicity and its relation to the winding numbers of nonabelian particle physics. These are topological concepts that I should have learned in grad school but did not. This review has two parts. The first part is for scientists, and covers my life in chronological order. The second part is for laymen who are interested in science. It gives a flavor of my scientific work with no math and a minimum of jargon.

  12. Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes: recruitment and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Caroline S; Foster, Kara A; Isom, Scott; Katula, Jeffrey A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rosenberger, Erica L; Goff, David C

    2011-01-01

    Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD) is a randomized controlled trial designed to translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into a community setting using community health workers engaged through an existing Diabetes Care Center (DCC). Overweight and obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m²) individuals with pre-diabetes (fasting blood glucose 95-125 mg/dl) with no medical contraindications to participate in a lifestyle intervention were recruited for participation in this study. Standard recruitment strategies were employed, including mass mailing, direct provider referral, and community events. Participant recruitment and randomization for this trial began in 2007 and was concluded in 2009. 1818 screenings were conducted; of these, 326 (17.9%) qualified and 301 (16.6%) participants were randomized over a 21 month period. 23.8% of potential participants were excluded during the initial telephone screening, primarily for BMI and recent history of CVD. The majority of participants (220, 73.1%) reported mass mailing as their primary source of information about the study. Mass mailing was more effective with participants who identified themselves as white when compared to African-Americans. The cost of recruitment per randomized participant was $816, which includes direct costs and staff effort. 41% of the randomized participants were male and approximately 27% reported a race or ethnicity other than white. In comparison to the DPP study cohort, the HELP PD population is older, more educated and predominately white. These differences, reflecting in part the community in which HELP PD was conducted, may have implications for retention and adherence in the lifestyle intervention group. PMID:20974289

  13. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  14. The internet of things for personalized health.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) enable new personalized health care concepts which are often characterized by four "P" terms, i.e. personalized, predictive, preventive and participatory. However, real world implementations of the complete 4P spectrum hardly exist today. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined as an extension to the current Internet that enables pervasive communication between the physical and the virtual world. Smart devices and enabling elements like Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology already exist and increasingly will be a mainstream element of our lives. This future vision paper attempts to assess if and how the Internet of Things for personalized health (IoT4pH) can help to facilitate the 4P healthcare paradigm and discusses related challenges and opportunities.

  15. Digitalizing the Circular Economy - Circular Economy Engineering Defined by the Metallurgical Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-09-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  16. What a_____ thing to do! Formally characterizing actions by their expected effects.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Tov, William; Costello, Cory

    2015-06-01

    A number of personality frameworks assume traits describe central tendencies of action--for instance, calling someone assertive indicates they have a tendency to perform assertive actions. But what makes it appropriate to characterize an action by terms like assertive, kind, or honest? We propose that actions are characterized by such terms in large part by having expected effects on the environment which match particular conceptual templates. In the present studies, we attempt to better identify the expected effect dimensions perceivers seem to utilize to make action characterizations related to the Big Five and HEXACO personality dimensions. To do so, a set of 150 situation-action scenarios were generated from actions suggestive of conscientiousness-related characteristics (Study 1), and of characteristics in other HEXACO domains (Study 2). Participants then characterized each action on a range of bipolar dimensions (e.g., assertive vs. submissive). A separate group of raters coded the expected effects of performing these actions on 21 different outcomes (e.g., effort expenditure; achievement of career goals). Action characterizations were highly predicted by expected effect dimensions in ways that matched provisional hypotheses and were consistent across studies. Furthermore, actions characterizations tended to be highly diagnostic of self-reported individual differences in the same characteristics. We discuss implications for a range of phenomena, such as understanding the relations between behaviors and traits, integrating trait models and decision-making models, and understanding the effect of situational features on personality traits. PMID:25621857

  17. Nurse Workforce Characteristics and Infection Risk in VA Community Living Centers: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uchida-Nakakoji, Mayuko; Stone, Patricia W.; Schmitt, Susan K.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine effects of workforce characteristics on resident infections in Veterans Affairs (VA) Community Living Centers (CLCs). Data Sources A six-year panel of monthly, unit-specific data included workforce characteristics (from the VA Decision Support System and Payroll data) and characteristics of residents and outcome measures (from the Minimum Data Set). Study Design A resident infection composite was the dependent variable. Workforce characteristics of registered nurses (RN), licensed practical nurses (LPN), nurse aides (NA), and contract nurses included: staffing levels, skill mix and tenure. Descriptive statistics and unit-level fixed effects regressions were conducted. Robustness checks varying workforce and outcome parameters were examined. Principal Findings Average nursing hours per resident day was 4.59 hours (sd = 1.21). RN tenure averaged 4.7 years (sd = 1.64) and 4.2 years for both LPN (sd= 1.84) and NA (sd= 1.72). In multivariate analyses RN and LPN tenure were associated with decreased infections by 3.8% (IRR= 0.962 p<0.01) and 2% (IRR=0.98 p<0.01) respectively. Robustness checks consistently found RN and LPN tenure to be associated with decreased infections. Conclusions Increasing RN and LPN tenure are likely to reduce CLC resident infections. Administrators and policymakers need to focus on recruiting and retaining a skilled nursing workforce. PMID:25634087

  18. Long-lived polarization protected by symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yesu; Theis, Thomas; Wu, Tung-Lin; Warren, Warren S.; Claytor, Kevin

    2014-10-07

    In this paper we elucidate, theoretically and experimentally, molecular motifs which permit Long-Lived Polarization Protected by Symmetry (LOLIPOPS). The basic assembly principle starts from a pair of chemically equivalent nuclei supporting a long-lived singlet state and is completed by coupling to additional pairs of spins. LOLIPOPS can be created in various sizes; here we review four-spin systems, introduce a group theory analysis of six-spin systems, and explore eight-spin systems by simulation. The focus is on AA′X{sub n}X′{sub n} spin systems, where typically the A spins are {sup 15}N or {sup 13}C and X spins are protons. We describe the symmetry of the accessed states, we detail the pulse sequences used to access these states, we quantify the fraction of polarization that can be stored as LOLIPOPS, we elucidate how to access the protected states from A or from X polarization and we examine the behavior of these spin systems upon introduction of a small chemical shift difference.

  19. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm(2), p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10(3), p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm(2), p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  20. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  1. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  2. Doing Right Things Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Attracting quality students in sufficient volume requires schools to do the right things right. Doing right things right is a combination of what they do and how well they do it. Successful enrollment marketing, like all good marketing, depends on consistency of effort and doing enough of the right things in the right way, repeatedly. Here, the…

  3. Demographic Characteristics of Pre-Mariel Cubans Living in the United States: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Rivero, Manuel

    This paper describes and analyzes the demographic characteristics of the Pre-Mariel Cuban American population living in the United States as presented in the 1980 U.S. Census of the Population. Information is not provided for the Mariel entrants, who began arriving from Cuba on April 21, 1980, because the data were derived from a one-in-a-thousand…

  4. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  5. "MSN Was the next Big Thing after Beanie Babies": Children's Virtual Experiences as an Interface to Their Identities and Their Everyday Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author explores the seamlessness between children's online and offline worlds. For children, there is no dichotomy of online and offline, or virtual and real; the digital is so much intertwined into their lives and psyche that the one is entirely enmeshed with the other. Despite early research pointing to the differences that…

  6. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  7. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  8. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-11-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  9. The Little Things Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Deidre Ann; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a multi-wavelength dataset on 41 relatively normal, nearby (<10 Mpc) gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies for the purpose of determining the drivers for star formation in these systems. This project is called LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey). Our data include GALEX UV images, ground-based UBV and Halpha images, some ground-based JHK images, Spitzer archival mid-IR images, and HI-line maps. The HI maps, obtained with the VLA, go deep (12/6/2 hrs in B/C/D arrays) and are characterized by high spectral resolution (THINGS team is grateful to the National Science Foundation for funding through grants AST-0707563, AST-0707426, AST-0707468, and AST-0707835 to DAH, BGE, CES, and LMY.

  10. "All of those things we don't eat": a culture-centered approach to dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher J; Dutta, Mohan J; Kandula, Namratha; Palaniappan, Latha

    2012-01-01

    This article applies a culture-centered approach to analyze the dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States. The data were collected as part of a health promotion program evaluation designed to help Asian Indians reduce their risk of chronic disease. Community members who used two aspects of the program participated in two focus groups to learn about their health care experiences and to engage them in dialogue about how culture impacts their overall health. Using constructionist grounded theory, we demonstrate that one aspect of culture, the discourses around routine dietary choice, is an important, but underrecognized, aspect of culture that influences community members' experiences with health care. We theorize community members' dietary health meanings operate discursively through a dialectic tension between homogeneity and heterogeneity, situated amid culture, structure, and agency. Participants enacted discursive homogeneity when they affirmed dietary health meanings around diet as an important means through which members of the community maintain a sense of continuity of their identity while differentiating them from others. Participants enacted discursive heterogeneity when they voiced dietary health meanings that differentiated community members from one another due to unique life-course trajectories and other membership affiliations. Through this dialectic, community members manage unique Asian Indian identities and create meanings of health and illness in and through their discourses around routine dietary choice. Through making these discursive health meanings audible, we foreground how community members' agency is discursively enacted and to make understandable how discourses of dietary practice influence the therapeutic alliance between primary care providers and members of a minority community.

  11. “All of Those Things We Don't Eat”: A Culture-Centered Approach to Dietary Health Meanings for Asian Indians Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Christopher J.; Dutta, Mohan J.; Kandula, Namratha; Palaniappan, Latha

    2015-01-01

    This article applies a culture-centered approach to analyze the dietary health meanings for Asian Indians living in the United States. The data were collected as part of a health promotion program evaluation designed to help Asian Indians reduce their risk of chronic disease. Community members who used two aspects of the program participated in two focus groups to learn about their health care experiences and to engage them in dialogue about how culture impacts their overall health. Using constructionist grounded theory, we demonstrate that one aspect of culture, the discourses around routine dietary choice, is an important, but under-recognized, aspect of culture that influences community members’ experiences with health care. We theorize community members’ dietary health meanings operate discursively through a dialectic tension between homogeneity and heterogeneity, situated amid culture, structure, and agency. Participants enacted discursive homogeneity when they affirmed dietary health meanings around diet as an important means through which members of the community maintain a sense of continuity of their identity while differentiating them from others. Participants enacted discursive heterogeneity when they voiced dietary health meanings that differentiated community members from one another due to unique life-course trajectories and other membership affiliations. Through this dialectic, community members manage unique Asian Indian identities and create meanings of health and illness in and through their discourses around routine dietary choice. Through making these discursive health meanings audible, we foreground how community members’ agency is discursively enacted and to make understandable how discourses of dietary practice influence the therapeutic alliance between primary care providers and members of a minority community. PMID:22364189

  12. Quality of life, clinical characteristics and treatment adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Cristina de Oliveira e; Reis, Renata Karina; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Gir, Elucir

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and verify its association with clinical characteristics and treatment adherence. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical data. The quality of life scale proposed by the World Health Organization and a questionnaire to measure treatment adherence were used. RESULTS: of the 314 interviewees, 190 (60.5%) were male, aged 43 years on average, 121 (38.5%) had attended up to five years of schooling, 108 (34.4%) received up to two times the minimum wage, and 112 (35.7%) were on sick leave. In regard to clinical variables, individuals with an undetectable viral load scored higher in all the domains concerning quality of life, with statistically significant differences in three domains. Regarding treatment adherence, 235 (73.8%) presented poor adherence and those who strictly adhered to treatment obtained better scores in quality of life. The results show that quality of life is better among individuals adherent to ART. Supporting people to adhere to the antiretroviral treatment should be a persistent task of healthcare workers and other people participating in the treatment, such as family members and friends. PMID:25591095

  13. Probing mechanical properties of living cells by magnetopneumography.

    PubMed

    Möller, W; Takenaka, S; Rust, M; Stahlhofen, W; Heyder, J

    1997-01-01

    Magnetopneumography (MPG) has been used to study long-term particle clearance from human lungs as well as cellular motility of pulmonary macrophages (PMs). This study describes an extension of the method enabling the measurement of mechanical properties of PM cells in vivo. Ferromagnetic microparticles are inhaled and then retained in the alveolar region of the lungs, where they are phagocytized within hours by PMs. The magnetic particles can be rotated in weak magnetic fields, and the response to this twisting shear (force) is detected as a macroscopic magnetic field producing a measure of cytoskeletal mechanics. Cytoplasmic viscosity is very high compared with that of water and is strongly non-Newtonian. Under rotational stresses from 0.4 to 6.4 Pa, it acts like a pseudoplastic fluid showing a characteristic shear rate dependence. The viscosity as well as the stiffness of the cytoskeleton increases with increasing shear stress as seems typical for living tissue and evidence for an intact cytoskeletal matrix. The particle recoil as measured by the amount of recoverable strain following a short twisting force describes a cytoplasmic elasticity that depends on both level and duration of stress. These investigations on the mechanical properties of living human cells are promising and should lead to better understanding of cellular dysfunction in disease as well as pathways for drug administration. PMID:10174196

  14. The Educational Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Thomas Aastrup

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that education should be conceived of as a thing in itself. To lift this view, I present aspects of Graham Harman's philosophy, a speculative realism that can be seen as a radical break with social constructivism and similar approaches. Next, I attempt to outline a rough sketch of an educational "thing", drawing on concepts…

  15. Selective Impairment of Living Things and Musical Instruments on a Verbal "Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire" in a Case of Apperceptive Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…

  16. The Things They Carried: Vietnam War Literature by and about Women in the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of Vietnam War literature by and about women and provides ideas for incorporating it into the reading/English language arts curriculum. Provides a rationale for such literature; discusses types of Vietnam War literature by and about women; and addresses pedagogical aspects. (RS)

  17. The LITTLE THINGS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Deidre Ann; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a multi-wavelength dataset on 41 relatively normal, nearby (<10 Mpc) gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies for the purpose of determining the drivers for star formation in these systems. This project is called LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey). Our data include GALEX UV images, ground-based UBV and Halpha images, some ground-based JHK images, Spitzer archival mid-IR images, and HI-line maps. The HI maps, obtained with the VLA, go deep (12/6/2 hrs in B/C/D arrays) and are characterized by high spectral resolution (by random turbulent compression in dwarf galaxies? What happens to the star formation process in the outer parts of disks? What happens to the star formation process at breaks in the exponential light profiles? And, what happens in Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies? The LITTLE THINGS team is grateful to the National Science Foundation for funding through grants AST-0707563, AST-0707426, AST-0707468, and AST-0707835 to DAH, BGE, CES, and LMY.

  18. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRODY, LARRY; AND OTHERS

    SIX FIFTH-GRADE SCIENCE UNITS ARE PRESENTED--SOUND AND LIGHT IN COMMUNICATION, LIVING THINGS, WEATHER, EARTH AND ITS RESOURCES, MOTION AND FOREIGN TRANSPORTATION, AND ELECTROMAGNETS. THE INTEREST LEVEL IS APPROPRIATE FOR FIFTH-GRADERS, BUT THREE READING ABILITY LEVELS, GRADES 1, 3, AND 5, ARE PROVIDED. THE TEACHER IS THUS ENABLED TO MOTIVATE…

  19. The Once and Future Thing: Credit-by-Examination in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    In the 1960s, credit-by-examination was promoted as a way to broaden access to college. In 1971, Ewald Nyquist, Commissioner of Education in the Regents system of New York, proposed that the Educational Testing Service offer a degree based entirely on performance on examinations. Although a few institutions theoretically offer such degrees, in…

  20. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science.

  1. Contraceptive Characteristics of Women Living with HIV in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyimah, Akosua A.; Nakua, Emmanuel K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Otupiri, Easmon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Contraceptive use among women living with HIV is important to prevent the transmission of the infection to their partners, prevent unintended pregnancies and prevent the mother-to-child transmission of the infection. The study sought to determine the contraceptive characteristics of women living with HIV in the Kumasi metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2012 at two HIV/AIDS clinics in the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Interviewer- administered questionnaires were used to collect data from two hundred and ninety five women. Data from one hundred and eighty three women living with HIV and who were sexually active were analyzed. Factors associated with contraceptive use were examined using logistic regression. Results: The overall contraceptive use was high; 84.7% were using a modern contraceptive method. The male condom was the commonest contraceptive method (77.0%) used and this was the main contraceptive method promoted at the HIV/AIDS clinic. Dual method usage was low (4.4%). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictor of contraceptive use was HIV status disclosure to partner (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07-0.87; p = 0.03). Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The integration of family planning and HIV/AIDS services could stress dual method use and encourage HIV status disclosure to partner.

  2. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000

  3. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile.

  4. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives. Using a…

  5. Introduction to Classification of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stettler, Donald

    This monograph contains an autoinstructional packet developed for secondary school biology students. The instructions present a lesson on classification using slides and packets of pictures as the media for displaying the animals and plants to be classified. A brief historical account leads into the study of the modern classification system. No…

  6. The World of Tiny Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karstaedt, Debbrah A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the culturing of microorganisms as a laboratory activity emphaszing the growth of microorganisms in food. Provides background and safety information, procedures, and additional ideas. The complete unit (teacher's guide, student worksheets, evaluation and assessment, and resources for students and teachers) is available from the author.…

  7. Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2002-09-01

    Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction.

  8. [Violence against adolescents: differentials by gender and living conditions strata].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Costa, Inês Eugênia; Ludemir, Ana Bernarda; Avelar, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    An ecological study was conducted in order to analyze differences in mortality rates among adolescents by gender and living conditions strata in Recife from1998 to 2004. The average mortality coefficient for violence during this period was calculated by gender for the city and by living conditions strata. This analysis demonstrated a higher risk of death by violence for male adolescents in Stratum III (poorest living conditions). The mortality rates by violence for men and women were 10.89 (Recife); 10.90 (Stratum I); 11.70 (Stratum II) and 10.30 (Stratum III). The findings show that although males are at the highest risk, it is also quite clear that living conditions influence the distribution of the mortality rate due to violence.

  9. Elaphoidella grandidieri (Harpacticoida: Copepoda): demographic characteristics and possible use as live prey in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Nunez Ortiz, Alma Rosa; Sarma, S S S

    2011-07-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, rotifers and cladocerans are ideal prey for fish larvae whereas copepods, due to their purported low growth rate and predatory tendency, are not. We recently isolated the parthenogenetic Elaphoidella grandidieri (Gueme et Richard, 1893) a benthic freshwater harpacticoid, from a fish farm in the State of Morelos, central Mexico and tested its potential as a live prey organism for larval vertebrates. Population growth and life table demography experiments were conducted, in 100 ml recipients with 50 ml of test medium on a diet of Scenedesmus acutus at a density of 1.0 X 10(6) cell ml(-1); the former on live algae alone while the latter on live algae as well as detritus. We also conducted experiments to document the prey preference for this copepod by the larval Ameca splendens (Pisces: Goodeidae) and Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae), fed the rotifer Plationus patulus, the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, and the cladocerans Moina macrocopa and Daphnia pulex. Elaphoidella grandidieri is relatively easy to maintain under laboratory conditions, reaching densities (copepodites and adults) of more than 10,000 l(-1). The generation time ranged between 30-45 days, depending on the diet. The net reproductive rate was as high as 60 nauplii female(-1) day (1). Population growth rates ranged between 0.03 and 0.11 d(-1), live algae being the superior diet compared to detritus. Both predators showed no preference for E. grandidieri, but in the absence of alternate prey they consumed 80% of the harpacticoids offered. The data have been discussed in relation to the potential of E. grandidierias live food for aquaculture. PMID:22315830

  10. Survival of freezing by free-living Antarctic soil nematodes.

    PubMed

    Convey, P; Worland, M R

    2000-01-01

    Free-living microbivorous nematodes become numerically dominant in Antarctic terrestrial faunas as environmental conditions become more severe, while also reaching very high levels of abundance in moist, vegetated habitats. Nematodes have little resistance to freezing via exogenous ice nucleation, such as would occur as their microhabitat freezes. We report the results of experiments testing the ability of seven maritime Antarctic nematode taxa to survive freezing in small water droplets at high sub-zero temperatures. Isolated individuals of these species possessed supercooling characteristics similar to those previously reported (supercooling points -6 to -25 degree C). When frozen in water at -3 to -6 degree C, most showed high (> 70%) survival both (i) after rapid cooling (1 degree C/min) to c. -60 degree C followed by immediate rewarming, and (ii) when held for 7-12 h at either -10 or -30 degree C, although the proportions surviving varied between species. We propose that the ability to survive freezing while fully hydrated at high sub-zero temperatures is one of the most important aspects of these species' survival tactics.

  11. This thing called life.

    PubMed

    Atherley, Anique E N; Taylor, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    Academic pursuits are inseparable from the medium within which they take place - life. The lives of medical trainees can present many challenges that are independent of academic demands. Poor psychological health has been found to develop in medical trainees. Can medical educators minimize this decline in well-being? Positive education - learning skills for traditional academia and to foster happiness - has been shown to improve students' well-being. This piece considers the application of 'positive education' to medical training. By using this approach, we may optimize the lives of our trainees, potentially enhance learning and improve their academic and personal outcomes. PMID:26179675

  12. The LITTLE THINGS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupen, Michael P.; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2010-01-01

    The processes that lead to star formation on galactic scales are poorly understood even in the simplest systems in the universe, dwarf galaxies. At best we have incomplete knowledge of certain processes in certain environments. Here we present preliminary HI images of a small subset of galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS Survey: a complete dataset on a sample of 41 dIm galaxies chosen to span a range of luminosities. We are tracing their stellar populations, gas content, dynamics, and star formation indicators. We were granted over 300 hours of time with the VLA in B, C, and D array configurations to obtain deep HI-line maps of the sample with high angular and velocity resolution to combine with our optical, UV, and IR data to answer the following questions: 1) What regulates cloud/star formation in tiny galaxies? 2) How is star formation occurring in the outer parts of dwarf galaxies, where the gas is gravitationally stable? 3) What happens to the star formation process at breaks in the exponential stellar light profiles? 4) And, what is going on with Blue Compact Dwarfs? More information can be found at http://www.lowell.edu/users/dah/littlethings/. We gratefully acknowledge funding for this research from the National Science Foundation with grants to DAH (AST-0707563) and CES (AST-0707468). The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. How We like to Live when We Have the Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deguara, Marthese; Jelassi, Omar; Micallef, Brian; Callus, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written by a group of persons with intellectual disability, which is called the Consultative Committee of Persons with Intellectual Disability. This group works in Malta. The article is about how we would like to live. It looks at two things: "where we would like to live" and "going out in the community". This article shows…

  14. Secondary metabolite localization by autofluorescence in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Talamond, Pascale; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Conéjéro, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Autofluorescent molecules are abundant in plant cells and spectral images offer means for analyzing their spectra, yielding information on their accumulation and function. Based on their fluorescence characteristics, an imaging approach using multiphoton microscopy was designed to assess localization of the endogenous fluorophores in living plant cells. This method, which requires no previous treatment, provides an effective experimental tool for discriminating between multiple naturally-occurring fluorophores in living-tissues. Combined with advanced Linear Unmixing, the spectral analysis extends the possibilities and enables the simultaneous detection of fluorescent molecules reliably separating overlapping emission spectra. However, as with any technology, the possibility for artifactual results does exist. This methodological article presents an overview of the applications of tissular and intra-cellular localization of these intrinsic fluorophores in leaves and fruits (here for coffee and vanilla). This method will provide new opportunities for studying cellular environments and the behavior of endogenous fluorophores in the intracellular environment. PMID:25808147

  15. Secondary metabolite localization by autofluorescence in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Talamond, Pascale; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Conéjéro, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Autofluorescent molecules are abundant in plant cells and spectral images offer means for analyzing their spectra, yielding information on their accumulation and function. Based on their fluorescence characteristics, an imaging approach using multiphoton microscopy was designed to assess localization of the endogenous fluorophores in living plant cells. This method, which requires no previous treatment, provides an effective experimental tool for discriminating between multiple naturally-occurring fluorophores in living-tissues. Combined with advanced Linear Unmixing, the spectral analysis extends the possibilities and enables the simultaneous detection of fluorescent molecules reliably separating overlapping emission spectra. However, as with any technology, the possibility for artifactual results does exist. This methodological article presents an overview of the applications of tissular and intra-cellular localization of these intrinsic fluorophores in leaves and fruits (here for coffee and vanilla). This method will provide new opportunities for studying cellular environments and the behavior of endogenous fluorophores in the intracellular environment.

  16. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard

    This book is a collection of 66 "How Things Work" columns from the journal "The Physics Teacher," 1983-1991. All the devices and phenomena are ones that are met in everyday life, involve physics principles, and require explanations that are not immediately obvious. Topics include: touch panels in elevators, liquid crystal displays, metal locators,…

  17. Alcohol and Associated Characteristics among Older Persons Living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily C.; Bradley, Katharine A.; Balderson, Benjamin H.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Grothaus, Lou; McCoy, Katryna; Rittmueller, Stacey E.; Catz, Sheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use, and particularly unhealthy alcohol use, is associated with poor HIV-related outcomes among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Despite a rapidly growing proportion of PLWH ≥50 years, alcohol use and its associated characteristics are under-described in this population. We describe alcohol use, severity, and associated characteristics using data from a sample of PLWH ≥50 years who participated in a trial of a telephone-based intervention to improve adherence to ART. Methods Participants were recruited from AIDS Service Organizations in 9 states and included PLWH ≥50 years who were prescribed ART, reported suboptimal adherence at screening (missing >1.5 days of medication or taking medications 2 hours early or late on >3 days in the 30 days prior to screening), and consented to participate. The AUDIT-C alcohol screen, socio-demographic characteristics, substance use and mental health comorbidity were assessed at baseline. AUDIT-C scores were categorized into non-drinking, low-level drinking, and mild-moderate unhealthy, and severe unhealthy drinking (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-12, respectively). Analyses described and compared characteristics across drinking status (any/none) and across AUDIT-C categories among drinkers. Results Among 447 participants, 57% reporting drinking alcohol in the past year, including 35%, 15% and 7% reporting low-level drinking, mild-moderate unhealthy drinking, and severe unhealthy drinking, respectively. Any drinking was most common among men and those who were LGBT, married/partnered, had received past-year alcohol treatment, and never used injection drugs (p-values all <0.05). Differences in race, employment status, past year alcohol treatment, and positive depression screening (p-values all <0.05) were observed across AUDIT-C categories. Conclusions In this sample of older PLWH with suboptimal ART adherence, a majority reported past-year alcohol use and 22% screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use. Any and unhealthy

  18. Independent Living Oldest Old and Their Primary Health Provider: A Mixed Method Examination of the Influence of Patient Personality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stadtlander, Lee M; Giles, Martha J; Sickel, Amy E; Brooks, Emma; Brown, Cherri; Cormell, Melissa; Ewing, Lara; Hart, Delores; Koons, Dawn; Olson, Christy; Parker, Pamela; Semenova, Veronica; Stoneking, Shawna

    2015-10-01

    This convergent mixed methods study examined 35 healthy, independent living individuals' (above 85 years) perceptions of their relationship with their primary health provider (PHP) and health practices. The relationship between PHP relationship perceptions and locus of control (LOC), resilience, and self-efficacy was explored through surveys and interviews. The majority indicated they visited their PHP just for preventative care; the number of PHP visits per year was significantly lower than reported for individuals above 85 by the CDC, possible reasons for this finding are provided. A positive relationship between LOC, resiliency, and self-efficacy for the oldest old was found. Few participants indicated their PHP had discussed normal changes with aging. This study has deepened understanding of the complexity inherent to the healthy oldest olds' relationship with their PHP. The findings suggest this relationship relates to the PHP's personal characteristics, the older adult patients' personality, and the influence of the accompanying patient escort.

  19. [Comparative characteristics of free-living ultramicroscopical bacteria obtained from extremal biotopes].

    PubMed

    Suzina, N E; Esikova, T Z; Oleinikov, R R; Gafarov, B; Shorokhov, A P; Polivtseva, V N; Ross, D V; Abashina, T N; Duda, V I; Boronin, A M

    2015-01-01

    We isolated 50 strains of free-living ultrasmall bacteria with a cell volume that varies from 0.02 to 1.3 microm3 from a range of extremal natural biotopes, namely permafrost soils, oil slime, soils, lake silt, thermal swamp moss, and the skin integuments of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Of them, 15 isolates, characterized by a cell size of less than 0.1 microm3 and a genome size from 1.5 to 2.4 Mb, were subsumed to ultramicrobacteria belonging to different philogenetic groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria) and genera (Kaistia, Chryseobacterium, Microbacterium, Leucobacter, Leifsonia, and Agrococcus) of the Bacteria domain. They are free-living mesophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. The representatives of Kaistia and Chryseobacterium genera were capable of facultative parasitism on other species of chemo-organotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. The ultramicrobacteria differed in their morpholgy, cell ultrastructural organization, and physiological and biochemical features. According to the fine structure of their cell walls, the isolates were subdivided into two groups, namely Gram-positive and Gram-negative forms. PMID:26027350

  20. Career Counseling: 101+ Things You Can Do with a Degree in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Biology is the science of life and of how living things work. Our students choose to major in biology in college because of a fascination with understanding how living things function, but often they have difficulty in identifying a career that uses their foundation in biology despite the variety of biology-based careers available. The purpose of…

  1. Enhancing Live Practical Demonstration by Using Engagement Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Campbell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines some engagement or "showmanship" devices that can enhance the impact of live practical demonstrations. The fifteen engagement techniques described herein are used by the author in his spectacular chemistry demonstration shows in theaters, but they can also be useful in the classroom environment. Many of the…

  2. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. Live cell isolation by laser microdissection with gravity transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, Oleg V.

    2013-05-01

    Laser microdissection by pulsing ultraviolet laser allows the isolation and recultivation of live cells based on morphological features or/and fluorescent labelling from adherent cell cultures. Previous investigations described only the use of the laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) for live cell isolation. But LMPC requires complex manipulations and some skill. Furthermore, single-cell cloning using laser microdissection has not yet been demonstrated. The first evidence of successful application of laser microdissection with gravity transfer (LMDGT) for capturing and recultivation of live cells is presented. A new strategy for LMDGT is presented because of the failure to reproduce the manufacturer's protocol. Using the new strategy, successful capturing and recultivation of circle-shaped samples from confluent monolayer of HeLa cells was demonstrated. It was found that LMDGT is easier than LMPC because it doesn't require personal participation of investigator in transferring of isolated samples to final culture dishes. Moreover, for the first time, the generation of clonal colonies from single live cells isolated by laser microdissection was demonstrated. Data obtained in this study confirm that LMDGT is a reliable and high-yield method allowing isolation and expansion of both cell clusters and single cells from adherent cell cultures.

  4. Detection and Classification of Live and Dead Escherichia coli by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, P.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Taleh, L.; Biddle, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A common goal for astrobiology is to detect organic materials that may indicate the presence of life. However, organic materials alone may not be representative of currently living systems. Thus, it would be valuable to have a method with which to determine the health of living materials. Here, we present progress toward this goal by reporting on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to study characteristics of live and dead cells using Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain K12 cells as a model organism since its growth and death in the laboratory are well understood. Our goal is to determine whether LIBS, in its femto- and/or nanosecond forms, could ascertain the state of a living organism. E. coli strain K12 cells were grown, collected, and exposed to one of two types of inactivation treatments: autoclaving and sonication. Cells were also kept alive as a control. We found that LIBS yields key information that allows for the discrimination of live and dead E. coli bacteria based on ionic shifts reflective of cell membrane integrity. Key Words: E. coli—Trace elements—Live and dead cells—Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—Atomic force microscopy. Astrobiology 15, 144–153. PMID:25683088

  5. Progress in ambient assisted systems for independent living by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqi, Riyad; Mourshed, Monjur; Rezgui, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of the ageing population in many countries is the efficient delivery of health and care services, which is further complicated by the increase in neurological conditions among the elderly due to rising life expectancy. Personal care of the elderly is of concern to their relatives, in case they are alone in their homes and unforeseen circumstances occur, affecting their wellbeing. The alternative; i.e. care in nursing homes or hospitals is costly and increases further if specialized care is mobilized to patients' place of residence. Enabling technologies for independent living by the elderly such as the ambient assisted living systems (AALS) are seen as essential to enhancing care in a cost-effective manner. In light of significant advances in telecommunication, computing and sensor miniaturization, as well as the ubiquity of mobile and connected devices embodying the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT), end-to-end solutions for ambient assisted living have become a reality. The premise of such applications is the continuous and most often real-time monitoring of the environment and occupant behavior using an event-driven intelligent system, thereby providing a facility for monitoring and assessment, and triggering assistance as and when needed. As a growing area of research, it is essential to investigate the approaches for developing AALS in literature to identify current practices and directions for future research. This paper is, therefore, aimed at a comprehensive and critical review of the frameworks and sensor systems used in various ambient assisted living systems, as well as their objectives and relationships with care and clinical systems. Findings from our work suggest that most frameworks focused on activity monitoring for assessing immediate risks, while the opportunities for integrating environmental factors for analytics and decision-making, in particular for the long-term care were often overlooked. The potential for

  6. Progress in ambient assisted systems for independent living by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqi, Riyad; Mourshed, Monjur; Rezgui, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of the ageing population in many countries is the efficient delivery of health and care services, which is further complicated by the increase in neurological conditions among the elderly due to rising life expectancy. Personal care of the elderly is of concern to their relatives, in case they are alone in their homes and unforeseen circumstances occur, affecting their wellbeing. The alternative; i.e. care in nursing homes or hospitals is costly and increases further if specialized care is mobilized to patients' place of residence. Enabling technologies for independent living by the elderly such as the ambient assisted living systems (AALS) are seen as essential to enhancing care in a cost-effective manner. In light of significant advances in telecommunication, computing and sensor miniaturization, as well as the ubiquity of mobile and connected devices embodying the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT), end-to-end solutions for ambient assisted living have become a reality. The premise of such applications is the continuous and most often real-time monitoring of the environment and occupant behavior using an event-driven intelligent system, thereby providing a facility for monitoring and assessment, and triggering assistance as and when needed. As a growing area of research, it is essential to investigate the approaches for developing AALS in literature to identify current practices and directions for future research. This paper is, therefore, aimed at a comprehensive and critical review of the frameworks and sensor systems used in various ambient assisted living systems, as well as their objectives and relationships with care and clinical systems. Findings from our work suggest that most frameworks focused on activity monitoring for assessing immediate risks, while the opportunities for integrating environmental factors for analytics and decision-making, in particular for the long-term care were often overlooked. The potential for

  7. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  8. Detecting Nanodomains in Living Cell Membrane by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

    2011-05-01

    Cell membranes actively participate in numerous cellular functions. Inasmuch as bioactivities of cell membranes are known to depend crucially on their lateral organization, much effort has been focused on deciphering this organization on different length scales. Within this context, the concept of lipid rafts has been intensively discussed over recent years. In line with its ability to measure diffusion parameters with great precision, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements have been made in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane of living cells. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of the cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level and have provided compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. We review these FCS-based studies and the characteristic structural features of raft nanodomains. We also discuss the findings in regards to the current view of lipid rafts as a general membrane-organizing principle.

  9. Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Feng, Chenghong; Quan, Weimin; Chen, Xiaofeng; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-06-01

    Correlation of heavy metals in the tissues of typical organisms (i.e., fishes and crabs) and those in their living environments (i.e., surface water, bottom water, and sediment) in Yangtze River Estuary has been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Metal levels followed the trend: sediments > Eriocheir sinensis > Eriocheir leptognathus > benthic fish > pelagic fish > bottom water > surface water. Tissues in fishes and crabs of different species and sizes had diverse metal bioaccumulation characteristics, which was significantly affected by environment factors and their living habits. Metal levels in legs of crabs, and heads and skins of fishes showed significant correlations with those in their living environments. Collichthys lucidus is an effective bioindicator for assessing metal levels in water. No significant health risk was identified by the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients analyses.

  10. Chemically imaging living cells by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bard, Allen J; Li, Xiao; Zhan, Wei

    2006-10-15

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is useful in probing and characterizing interfaces at high resolution. In this paper, the general principles of this technique are described and several applications of SECM to biological systems, particularly to living cells, is discussed, along with several example systems. Thiodione was detected and monitored electrochemically during the treatment of hepatocytes with cytotoxic menadione. The antimicrobial effects of silver(I) was followed by SECM through bacterial respiration. Living HeLa cells were shown to accumulate ferrocencemethanol (FcMeOH) and generated positive feedback for FcMeOH oxidation that can be further used to monitor the cell viability. Finally, individual giant liposomes, as cell models, with encapsulated redox compounds were successfully probed by SECM. In general SECM has the advantage of very high spatial resolution and versatility, especially for the detection of electroactive substances.

  11. Considerations in video playback design: using optic flow analysis to examine motion characteristics of live and computer-generated animation sequences.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin L; Rieucau, Guillaume

    2008-07-01

    The increasing use of the video playback technique in behavioural ecology reveals a growing need to ensure better control of the visual stimuli that focal animals experience. Technological advances now allow researchers to develop computer-generated animations instead of using video sequences of live-acting demonstrators. However, care must be taken to match the motion characteristics (speed and velocity) of the animation to the original video source. Here, we presented a tool based on the use of an optic flow analysis program to measure the resemblance of motion characteristics of computer-generated animations compared to videos of live-acting animals. We examined three distinct displays (tail-flick (TF), push-up body rock (PUBR), and slow arm wave (SAW)) exhibited by animations of Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) that were compared to the original video sequences of live lizards. We found no significant differences between the motion characteristics of videos and animations across all three displays. Our results showed that our animations are similar the speed and velocity features of each display. Researchers need to ensure that similar motion characteristics in animation and video stimuli are represented, and this feature is a critical component in the future success of the video playback technique. PMID:18440163

  12. Considerations in video playback design: using optic flow analysis to examine motion characteristics of live and computer-generated animation sequences.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin L; Rieucau, Guillaume

    2008-07-01

    The increasing use of the video playback technique in behavioural ecology reveals a growing need to ensure better control of the visual stimuli that focal animals experience. Technological advances now allow researchers to develop computer-generated animations instead of using video sequences of live-acting demonstrators. However, care must be taken to match the motion characteristics (speed and velocity) of the animation to the original video source. Here, we presented a tool based on the use of an optic flow analysis program to measure the resemblance of motion characteristics of computer-generated animations compared to videos of live-acting animals. We examined three distinct displays (tail-flick (TF), push-up body rock (PUBR), and slow arm wave (SAW)) exhibited by animations of Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) that were compared to the original video sequences of live lizards. We found no significant differences between the motion characteristics of videos and animations across all three displays. Our results showed that our animations are similar the speed and velocity features of each display. Researchers need to ensure that similar motion characteristics in animation and video stimuli are represented, and this feature is a critical component in the future success of the video playback technique.

  13. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  14. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart.

    PubMed

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families.

  15. Embryo production by ovum pick up from live donors.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Crotti, G; Notari, C; Turini, P; Duchi, R; Lazzari, G

    2001-04-01

    Embryo production by in vitro techniques has increased steadily over the years. For cattle where this technology is more advanced and is applied more, the number of in vitro produced embryos transferred to final recipients was over 30,000 in 1998. An increasing proportion of in vitro produced embryos are coming from oocytes collected from live donors by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (ovum pick up, OPU). This procedure allows the repeated production of embryos from live donors of particular value and is a serious alternative to superovulation. Ovum pick up is a very flexible technique. It can be performed twice a week for many weeks without side effects on the donor's reproductive career. The donor can be in almost any physiological status and still be suitable for oocyte recovery. A scanner with a sectorial or convex probe and a vacuum pump are required. Collection is performed with minimal stress to the donor. An average of 8 to 10 oocytes are collected per OPU with an average production of 2 transferable embryos. The laboratory production of embryos from such oocytes does not differ from that of oocytes harvested at slaughter as the results after transfer to final recipients. For other species such as buffalo and horses OPU has been attempted similarly to cattle and data will be presented and reviewed. For small ruminants, laparotomy or laparoscopy seems the only reliable route so far to collect oocytes from live donors.

  16. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities. PMID

  17. Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles.

    PubMed

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, significant advances in microscopy techniques and the introduction of a novel technology to label living cells with genetically encoded fluorescent proteins revolutionized the field of Cell Biology. Our understanding on cell dynamics built from snapshots on fixed specimens has evolved thanks to our actual capability to monitor in real time the evolution of processes in living cells. Among these new tools, single particle tracking techniques were developed to observe and follow individual particles. Hence, we are starting to unravel the mechanisms driving the motion of a wide variety of cellular components ranging from organelles to protein molecules by following their way through the cell. In this review, we introduce the single particle tracking technology to new users. We briefly describe the instrumentation and explain some of the algorithms commonly used to locate and track particles. Also, we present some common tools used to analyze trajectories and illustrate with some examples the applications of single particle tracking to study dynamics in living cells. PMID:17703064

  18. Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal

    PubMed Central

    Levner, Daniel; Ittah, Shmulik; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems are collections of discrete molecular objects that move around and collide with each other. Cells carry out elaborate processes by precisely controlling these collisions, but developing artificial machines that can interface with and control such interactions remains a significant challenge. DNA is a natural substrate for computing and has been used to implement a diverse set of mathematical problems1-3, logic circuits4-6 and robotics7-9. The molecule also naturally interfaces with living systems, and different forms of DNA-based biocomputing have previously been demonstrated10-13. Here we show that DNA origami14-16 can be used to fabricate nanoscale robots that are capable of dynamically interacting with each other17-18 in a living animal. The interactions generate logical outputs, which are relayed to switch molecular payloads on or off. As a proof-of-principle, we use the system to create architectures that emulate various logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOT, CNOT, and a half adder). Following an ex vivo prototyping phase, we successfully employed the DNA origami robots in living cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) to control a molecule that targets the cells of the animal. PMID:24705510

  19. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Lauren R.; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A.; Lewis, James W.

    2009-01-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places—categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left-lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and subcortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with “embodied” and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may

  20. Detection and classification of live and dead Escherichia coli by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Fernández-Bravo, A; Taleh, L; Biddle, J F; Melikechi, N

    2015-02-01

    A common goal for astrobiology is to detect organic materials that may indicate the presence of life. However, organic materials alone may not be representative of currently living systems. Thus, it would be valuable to have a method with which to determine the health of living materials. Here, we present progress toward this goal by reporting on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to study characteristics of live and dead cells using Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain K12 cells as a model organism since its growth and death in the laboratory are well understood. Our goal is to determine whether LIBS, in its femto- and/or nanosecond forms, could ascertain the state of a living organism. E. coli strain K12 cells were grown, collected, and exposed to one of two types of inactivation treatments: autoclaving and sonication. Cells were also kept alive as a control. We found that LIBS yields key information that allows for the discrimination of live and dead E. coli bacteria based on ionic shifts reflective of cell membrane integrity.

  1. Child Living Arrangements by Race and Income: A Supplementary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primus, Wendell E.

    This supplementary analysis to "Declining Share of Children Lived with Single Mothers in the Late 1990s" employs an alternative methodology to provide a clearer picture of changes in living arrangements within different income groups. The original study concluded that children were significantly less likely to live with single mothers in 2000 than…

  2. Classification by Functional Ability for Independent Living. Research Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William R.; Sands, Deanna Iceman

    1989-01-01

    A total of 274 British youth and adults with handicaps were administered the National Independent Living Skills assessment. Cluster analysis suggested that handicapped persons could be classified into four groups from lowest functioning to highest functioning, using independent living skills variables relating to living, work, and educational…

  3. Does living by the coast improve health and wellbeing?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Depledge, Michael H

    2012-09-01

    It is often assumed that spending time by the coast leads to better health and wellbeing, but there is strikingly little evidence regarding specific effects or mechanisms to support such a view. We analysed small-area census data for the population of England, which indicate that good health is more prevalent the closer one lives to the coast. We also found that, consistent with similar analyses of greenspace accessibility, the positive effects of coastal proximity may be greater amongst more socio-economically deprived communities. We hypothesise that these effects may be due to opportunities for stress reduction and increased physical activity.

  4. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  5. Apoptosis as a mechanism of cytolysis of tumor cells by a pathogenic free-living amoeba.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, H; Pidherney, M S; McCulley, J P; Niederkorn, J Y

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lysed a variety of tumor cells in vitro. Tumor cells undergoing parasite-mediated lysis displayed characteristic cell membrane blebbing reminiscent of apoptosis. The present investigation examined the role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in Acanthamoeba-mediated tumor cell lysis. The results showed that more than 70% of tumor cell DNA was fragmented following exposure to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. By contrast, only 7% of untreated control cells underwent DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation increased significantly in a dose-dependent fashion following concentration of the parasite extract. Apoptosis was also confirmed by DNA ladder formation. Characteristic DNA ladders, consisting of multimers of approximately 180 to 200 bp, were produced by tumor cells exposed to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. The morphology of tumor cell lysis was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Tumor cells exposed to parasite extract displayed morphological features characteristic of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies, and nuclear condensation. By contrast, similar effects were not found in tumor cells exposed to extract similarly prepared from normal mammalian cells (i.e., human keratocytes). The results suggest that at least one species of pathogenic free-living amoeba is able to lyse tumor cells by a process that culminates in apoptosis. PMID:8132336

  6. Metabolic characteristics of muscles in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, and responses to emersion during simulated live transport.

    PubMed

    Speed, S R; Baldwin, J; Wong, R J; Wells, R M

    2001-03-01

    The metabolic characteristics of five muscle groups in the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii were examined in order to compare their anaerobic and oxidative capacities. Enzyme activities of phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were highest in abdominal muscles supporting anaerobic burst activity. Hexokinase, citrate synthase, and HOAD activities in the leg and antennal muscles indicated higher aerobic potential. Arginine kinase activities were high in all muscle groups indicating that muscle phosphagens are an important energy reserve. Arginine phosphate concentrations in 4th periopod and abdominal flexor muscle from lobsters sampled in the field were higher than any values from captive animals, and approximately five times those for ATP. Muscle lactates were high in captive animals. Responses to emersion during simulated live transport appear to exploit the capacity for functional anaerobiosis and further differentiated the muscle groups. Abdominal muscles were especially sensitive and after 24 h showed significant increases in lactate, glucose, ADP, and AMP. ATP levels appeared to be maintained by muscle phosphagens and raised doubts about the efficacy of the adenylate energy charge in evaluating the emersion response. Haemolymph glucose, lactic acid, and ammonia peaked after 24 h emersion and were largely restored following re-immersion. We propose that arginine phosphate concentrations in the 4th periopod are an appropriate index of metabolic stress, and could lead to improved commercial handling protocols.

  7. IV: When Things Get Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Mahoney, Meg Robson; Jordan, Kim; Jackson, Spoon; Gabel, Bonnie; Adams, Holly; Plemons, Anna

    2014-01-01

    It is definitely easier to write about work when things are going well, but it is even more important to write about what happens when things get challenging. The act of writing about the challenging times can be challenging in itself but can also provide invaluable insights into the process of teaching: important for the writer and just as…

  8. Health-related characteristics of men who have sex with men: a comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, T C; Stall, R; Pollack, L; Paul, J P; Binson, D; Canchola, J; Catania, J A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the limitations of probability samples of men who have sex with men (MSM), limited to single cities and to the areas of highest concentrations of MSM ("gay ghettos"). METHODS: A probability sample of 2881 MSM in 4 American cities completed interviews by telephone. RESULTS: MSM who resided in ghettos differed from other MSM, although in different ways in each city. Non-ghetto-dwelling MSM were less involved in the gay and lesbian community. They were also less likely to have only male sexual partners, to identify as gay, and to have been tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: These differences between MSM who live in gay ghettos and those who live elsewhere have clear implications for HIV prevention efforts and health care planning. PMID:11392945

  9. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  10. Maternal aggression by lactating group-living Japanese macaque females.

    PubMed

    Troisi, A; D'Amato, F R; Carnera, A; Trinca, L

    1988-12-01

    This study analyzed the influence of lactation on aggression by group-living Japanese macaque females. Data collected during 268 hr of observation showed that lactating females exhibited much more aggression than did females in any other reproductive condition under investigation. This postpartum aggression showed distinctive features in terms of time course during lactation and target selectivity but it was not characterized by a higher intensity and severity. Aggression increased progressively during the first 6 weeks of lactation, reached its highest levels between 7th and 9th weeks postpartum, and thereafter diminished. The relative percentages of threat, chase, and physical attack did not change with the reproductive condition. Lactating females were selective in their choice of targets, with young females being the recipients of nearly 90% of the total of their aggression.

  11. The Pleasure of Finding Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loxley, Peter

    2005-01-01

    "The pleasure of finding things out" is a collection of short works by the Nobel Prize winning scientist Richard Feynman. The book provides insights into his infectious enthusiasm for science and his love of sharing ideas about the subject with anyone who wanted to listen. Feynman has been widely acknowledged as one of the greatest physicists of…

  12. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  13. Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight Qualities of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Maurice Sykes has made advocating for and advancing high-quality early childhood education his life's work. Through mentorships, presentations, and personal example, Maurice challenges and inspires educators to become effective leaders who make a difference in children's lives. He does the same in "Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight…

  14. Five Foul Things That Are Also Good for You

    MedlinePlus

    ... That Are Also Good for You Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Five Foul Things That Are Also ... more: NIH Human Microbiome Project This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  15. Where the Wild Things Are: Informal Experience and Ecological Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel "diseases" or "insides" from one…

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  17. Substance Use Behaviors of College Students: Differences by Living Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Marcus B.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional-age college students are continuing to live with their parents at higher percentages than at any time during recent history. However, little research has been conducted during the last 15 years on multiple substance use behaviors of this population and how those behaviors compare to traditional-age students who live in residence halls…

  18. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo D'Ottone, Marcela; Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro, Oscar; Karstensen, Johannes; Gallegos, Mauricio; Correa-Ramirez, Marco; Silva, Nelson; Farias, Laura; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (< 2 µmol kg-1 of O2), subsurface layer (200-400 m) was detected ˜ 900 km off the Chilean shore (30° S, 81° W). The core of the eddy's suboxic layer had a temperature-salinity signature characteristic of Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and "source water" on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP

  19. Ways to Join the Living Conversation about Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about young adult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…

  20. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-28

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  1. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  2. Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams legislation"…

  3. Active Living Collaboratives in the United States: Understanding Characteristics, Activities, and Achievement of Environmental and Policy Change

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Hannah L.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Zieff, Susan G.; Eyler, Amy A.; Lyn, Rodney; Goins, Karin Valentine; Gustat, Jeanette; Tompkins, Nancy O’Hara

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Changing the built environment to promote active lifestyles requires collaboration among diverse sectors. Multisectoral collaborative groups in the United States promote active lifestyles through environmental and policy changes. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of these collaborative groups and the extent to which they have achieved change. Methods We identified, recruited, and interviewed the coordinators of active living collaborative groups in the United States. We used descriptive statistics to characterize groups by composition, stakeholder engagement, and the extent of environmental and policy change in 8 strategic areas. Results Fifty-nine groups from 22 states participated in the study. Most groups had a diverse set of partners and used a range of activities to advance their agendas. Most groups achieved some form of environmental or policy change. On average, groups reported working on 5 strategy areas; parks and recreation (86%) and Safe Routes to School (85%) were named most frequently. More than half of groups reported their environmental initiatives as either in progress or completed. Groups reported the most success in changing policy for public plazas, street improvements, streetscaping, and parks, open space, and recreation. Complete Streets policy and zoning ordinances were the most frequently cited policy types. Engaging in media activities and the policy-making process in addition to engaging stakeholders appear to influence success in achieving change. Conclusion Although many groups successfully worked on parks and recreation improvements, opportunities remain in other areas, including transit and infill and redevelopment. Additional time and resources may be critical to realizing these types of changes. PMID:23391295

  4. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis

  5. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  6. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  7. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  8. Big things start in small ways.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, N

    1990-12-01

    This statement from the President of the 31st December Women's Movement in Ghana was part of a larger text presented at the World NGO Conference in Tokyo, July 1-4, 1990. The women's movement in Ghana strives to achieve equal opportunity, social justice, and sustainable development against social discrimination for women. Planning and development have focused on women in socioeconomic development. Specific projects at the core of creating positive conditions for socioeconomic growth, raising the standard of living, and expanding the economy, involve cover food and cash-crop production, food processing, food preparation, and small scale industrial activities such as ceramics and crafts. Income supplementation helps parents to send children to school instead of work. Daycare centers operating near work places benefit mothers in terms of providing a vacation, adult literacy programs, and family counseling sessions. The Movement actively mobilizes women to have children vaccinated. Access to credit for women and utilization of technology enriches life for women, and reduces backbreaking labor. The Movement is building wells in rural areas to reduce parasitic infection and creating easy access to a water supply. 252 projects have been completed and 100 are in process. The Movement provides a development model for integrating the resources of government, NGO's, and members of the community. Self-confidence of women has assured the success of projects. The Sasakawa Foundation has contributed technology and Japanese volunteers to improve the cultivation of food crops and by example express humble, respectful, hard working, and happy models of big things staring in small ways.

  9. Microenvironments and different nanoparticle dynamics in living cells revealed by a standard nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Pack, Chan Gi; Song, Mi Ryoung; Tae, Eunju Lee; Hiroshima, Michio; Byun, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Sako, Yasushi

    2012-11-10

    For quantitative analysis of nanoparticle diffusions and submicro-environments in living cells, use of newly synthesized silica-based fluorescent nanoparticle (Si-FNP) as a standard nanoprobe is successfully demonstrated. The appropriate characteristics of a standard probe were fully analyzed in vitro by single molecule detection, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Using fluorescence correlation analysis in single living cells, we quantitatively compared the diffusional properties of the standard Si-FNP with a diameter of 50 nm, peptide coated Si-FNP, streptavidin coated Qdot, and GFP molecule which have different sizes and surface properties. The result demonstrates that the standard Si-FNP without coat is minimally trapped in the vesicles in the process of cellular endocytosis. Interestingly, a large proportion of Si-FNP introduced into the cells by electroporation diffuses freely in the cells during a cell cycle suggesting free diffusing NPs are hardly trapped in the vesicles. The simple but highly sensitive method will provide insight into strategies to understanding the hydrodynamic process of nanoparticle delivery into living cells as well as the cellular microenvironment in the view of submicro-size.

  10. Application of the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaming; Zhang, Guoqing

    2011-12-01

    The Internet of Things is not yet very widespread, many people have little information about Internet of things. But, for magical properties of the Internet of things , its appearance immediately aroused people's great interest. This paper, aiming application of the Internet of Things , use AHP to analyze and look forward to prospects of IOT in many fields.

  11. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  12. Learning by Living: Life-Altering Medical Education through Nursing Home-Based Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliucci, Marilyn R.; Weiner, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine Learning by Living Project (referred to as Learning by Living) was piloted in 2006 as an experiential medical education learning model. Since its inception, medical and other health professions students have been "admitted" into nursing homes to live the life of an older adult nursing…

  13. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by âliving in another person's... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we.... (Institution is defined in § 416.1101.) (b) Another person's household. You live in another person's...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by âliving in another person's... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we.... (Institution is defined in § 416.1101.) (b) Another person's household. You live in another person's...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by âliving in another person's... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we.... (Institution is defined in § 416.1101.) (b) Another person's household. You live in another person's...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by âliving in another person's... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we.... (Institution is defined in § 416.1101.) (b) Another person's household. You live in another person's...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by âliving in another person's... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we.... (Institution is defined in § 416.1101.) (b) Another person's household. You live in another person's...

  18. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  19. Following Metabolism in Living Microorganisms by Hyperpolarized (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Dzien, Piotr; Fages, Anne; Jona, Ghil; Brindle, Kevin M; Schwaiger, Markus; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-09-21

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) is used to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), enabling monitoring of metabolism and specific enzymatic reactions in vivo. dDNP involves rapid sample dissolution and transfer to a spectrometer/scanner for subsequent signal detection. So far, most biologically oriented dDNP studies have relied on hyperpolarizing long-lived nuclear spin species such as (13)C in small molecules. While advantages could also arise from observing hyperpolarized (1)H, short relaxation times limit the utility of prepolarizing this sensitive but fast relaxing nucleus. Recently, it has been reported that (1)H NMR peaks in solution-phase experiments could be hyperpolarized by spontaneous magnetization transfers from bound (13)C nuclei following dDNP. This work demonstrates the potential of this sensitivity-enhancing approach to probe the enzymatic process that could not be suitably resolved by (13)C dDNP MR. Here we measured, in microorganisms, the action of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate formate lyase (PFL)-enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde and formate, respectively. While (13)C NMR did not possess the resolution to distinguish the starting pyruvate precursor from the carbonyl resonances in the resulting products, these processes could be monitored by (1)H NMR at 500 MHz. These observations were possible in both yeast and bacteria in minute-long kinetic measurements where the hyperpolarized (13)C enhanced, via (13)C → (1)H cross-relaxation, the signals of protons binding to the (13)C over the course of enzymatic reactions. In addition to these spontaneous heteronuclear enhancement experiments, single-shot acquisitions based on J-driven (13)C → (1)H polarization transfers were also carried out. These resulted in higher signal enhancements of the (1)H resonances but were not suitable for multishot kinetic studies. The potential of these (1)H-based approaches for

  20. The Geoscience Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.

    2012-04-01

    Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and

  1. Implementation of the Internet of Things on Public Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kesheng; Li, Xichun

    The development of the Internet of Things will occur within a new ecosystem that will be driven by a number of key players. The public security as one of the key players is going to make real-time communications will be possible not only by humans but also by things at anytime and from anywhere. This research will present the advent of the Internet of Things to create a plethora of innovative applications and services, which will enhance quality of life and reduce inequalities.

  2. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior and pharmacological intervention. Nature versus nurture: let's call the whole thing off.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2007-01-01

    The nature of maternal care that an infant receives can effect the child's emotional and cognitive development, which is endured into adulthood. Similarly, maternal behavior in rodents is associated with long-term programming of individual differences in behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring. One critical question is how is such 'environmental programming' established and sustained in the offspring? This review discusses a novel mechanism to explain how maternal licking/grooming behavior in the rat can alter the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the offspring, which concomitantly alters the HPA axis and the stress responsiveness of these animals. Both in vivo and in vitro studies show that maternal behavior increases GR expression in the offspring via increased hippocampal serotonergic tone accompanied by increased histone acetylase transferase activity, histone acetylation and DNA demethylation mediated by the transcription factor NGFI-A. In summary, this research demonstrates that an epigenetic state of a gene can be established through early-in-life experience, and is potentially reversible in adulthood. Accordingly, epigenetic modifications of specific genomic regions in response to variations in environmental conditions might serve as a major source of variation in biological and behavioral phenotypes. PMID:17965624

  3. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  4. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV. PMID:25969180

  5. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV.

  6. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  7. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  8. The Negotiation of Lived Spaces by Unauthorized College Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the United States, undocumented students live in constant fear of their legal status being disclosed, and despite their educational success and professional objectives, face uncertainty and an unknown future. This study has put forward the question of what are the effects of the symbiotic relationship of a historical anti-Mexican…

  9. [Characteristics of digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in people of different ages living in the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie].

    PubMed

    Zagariia, A M; Berdyshev, G D

    1991-01-01

    Examination of dermatoglyphs in people aged 50-103 living in the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie has revealed age differences in some indices of dermatoglyphics: total crest count, palmar angle, character of the cutaneous pattern of fingers. It assumed that these differences have arisen as a consequence of selection of persons characterized by high reliability of the genotype functioning. The data obtained permit supposing that it is possible to use dermatoglyphics for determining hereditary predisposition of people to longevity.

  10. Metabolic Characteristics and Response to High Altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), a Lizard Dwell at Altitudes Higher Than Any Other Living Lizards in the World

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yang; Liang, Shiwei; He, Jianzheng; Wang, Ningbo; Ma, Ming; Chen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m) and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS) ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1α and PPAR-γ in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2. PMID:23951275

  11. Metabolic characteristics and response to high altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), a lizard dwell at altitudes higher than any other living lizards in the world.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yang; Liang, Shiwei; He, Jianzheng; Wang, Ningbo; Ma, Ming; Chen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m) and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS) ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1α and PPAR-γ in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2.

  12. Living with uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, N.; Fong, C.C.; Grigg, C.H.; Silverstein, B.

    1994-11-01

    In the electric utility industry, only one thing can be guaranteed with absolute certainty: one lives and works with many unknowns. Thus, the industry has embraced probability methods to varying degrees over the last 25 years. These techniques aid decision makers in planning, operations, and maintenance by quantifying uncertainty. Examples include power system reliability, production costing simulation, and assessment of environmental factors. A series of brainstorming sessions was conducted by the Application of Probability Methods (APM) Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society to identify research and development needs and to ask the question, ''where should we go from here '' The subcommittee examined areas of need in data development, applications, and methods for decision making. The purpose of this article is to share the thoughts of APM members with a broader audience to the findings and to invite comments and participation.

  13. Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berret, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01-1 rad s-1. The determination of the shear viscosity (10-100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5-20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel.

  14. Tierless Programming for the Internet of Things

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Brett

    2015-02-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is about Internet-addressability and connectivity for everyday devices. The goal of this project was to create a framework to allow developers to more easily control IoT devices and turn their interactions into meaningful applications. We leveraged a tierless approach for Software Defined Networking (SDN) to build this framework. We expanded Flowlog, a tierless programming language for SDN controllers, to support IoT devices developed by Spark IO to build this framework.

  15. Observation of living cells by x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hazime; Majima, Toshikazu; Yamada, Mitsuo; Kanayama, Toshihiko; Yano, M.; Kondo, H.

    1991-12-01

    We studied laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source for x-ray microscopy. Using water- window x rays, contact x-ray images of living sea urchin sperm were taken by a 500 picosecond x-ray pulse. The resist relief was examined by atomic force microscope and informations characteristic of x-ray microscopy were obtained. The finest feature noticed in the x-ray image was 0.1 micrometers .

  16. RoboFish: increased acceptance of interactive robotic fish with realistic eyes and natural motion patterns by live Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Tim; Bierbach, David; Nguyen, Hai; Muggelberg, Nadine; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Jens

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, simple biomimetic robots have been increasingly used in biological studies to investigate social behavior, for example collective movement. Nevertheless, a big challenge in developing biomimetic robots is the acceptance of the robotic agents by live animals. In this contribution, we describe our recent advances with regard to the acceptance of our biomimetic RoboFish by live Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We provide a detailed technical description of the RoboFish system and show the effect of different appearance, motion patterns and interaction modes on the acceptance of the artificial fish replica. Our results indicate that realistic eye dummies along with natural motion patterns significantly improve the acceptance level of the RoboFish. Through the interactive behaviors, our system can be adjusted to imitate different individual characteristics of live animals, which further increases the bandwidth of possible applications of our RoboFish for the study of animal behavior. PMID:26757096

  17. HIV-1 subtype characteristics of infected persons living in southwestern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Davanos, Nikolaos; Panos, George; Gogos, Charalambos A; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid replication rate of HIV-1, coupled with a high mutation rate and recombination, is the underlying force driving its genetic diversity. In the infected individual, a population of highly related but nonidentical strains exists. At the population level, multiple subtypes often cocirculate, leading to the generation of intersubtype recombinant forms. As a result, the geographic distribution of subtypes and recombinant forms is complex and uneven. Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 isolates has been shown to be helpful for understanding the genetic evolution, the worldwide spread of the virus, and the evaluation of drug resistance. Materials and methods We determined the genetic heterogeneity of HIV-1 group M in southwestern Greece. Protease and partial reverse-transcriptase sequences were generated from 150 HIV-1-infected individuals attending the Division of Infectious Diseases of Patras University Hospital, Greece, from 2006 to 2012, and analyzed using online subtyping tools and phylogenetic methods. Results The majority of the infected individuals were male (77%). HIV-1 subtype A1 was responsible for 51.3% of infections, followed by subtypes B (34%), G (4%), F1 (2%), and the circulating recombinant forms 02_AG (2.7%), 14_BG (1.3%), 35_AD (1.3%), and 01_AE (0.7%). Additionally, we identified three cases with a recombinant B/CRF02_AG strain (2%) and one with a recombinant G/GRF_AG strain. Sexual transmission was responsible for 96.3% of cases. Heterosexual transmission was responsible for 70.2% of subtype-A1 infections, whereas subtype B was transmitted by men who have sex with men in 75.5% of cases. Protease substitutions I13V, E35D, M36I, R57K, H69K, and L89M, which serve as drug-resistance support mutations in subtype B, were present in the majority of subtype-A1 sequences of the population. Conclusion HIV-1 infection in southwestern Greece is sexually transmitted and highly heterogeneous. Subtype A1 has surpassed subtype B, and is the most prevalent

  18. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, M.; Bravo, L.; Ramos, M.; Pizarro, O.; Karstensen, J.; Gallegos, M.; Correa-Ramirez, M.; Silva, N.; Farias, L.; Karp-Boss, L.

    2015-09-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems are characterized by high productivity that often leads to subsurface hypoxia on the shelf. Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of circulation in these regions, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from shelves to the open ocean. In austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, a subsurface layer (200-400 m) in which the concentration of oxygen was very low (< 2 μmol kg-1 of O2) was observed in the eastern South Pacific, ~ 900 km offshore (30° S, 81° W). Satellite altimetry combined with CTD observations associated the local oxygen anomaly with an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The eddy contained Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted near the coast. Undersaturation (44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 μM) gave evidence for denitrification in this water mass. Based on satellite altimetry, we tracked the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). We estimate that the eddy formed in April 2010. Field studies conducted on the Chilean shelf in June 2010 provided approximate information on initial O2 and N2O concentrations of "source water" in the region at the time of eddy formation. Concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the offshore eddy were lower than its surroundings or "source water" on the shelf, suggesting that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. Our results show that mesoscale eddies in the ESP not only transport physical properties of the ESSW from the coast to the ocean interior, but also export and transform biogeochemical properties, creating suboxic environments in the oligotrophic

  19. 14 Conversations about Three Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, the author tries to look forward into the 21st century to divine three things: (i) What skills will researchers in the future need to solve the most pressing problems? (ii) What are some of the most likely candidates to be those problems? and (iii) What are some current areas of research that seem mined out and should not distract…

  20. All Things Out of Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  1. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.

  2. NASA CONNECT: The Measurement of All Things

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' is the first of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' students will explore the concept of measurement and the tools used in measuring things, while learning 'what' and 'how' engineers and scientists use measurement during the process of developing, designing, and testing airplanes.

  3. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed.

  4. Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Berret, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01–1 rad s−1. The determination of the shear viscosity (10–100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5–20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel. PMID:26729062

  5. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:17181442

  6. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  7. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  8. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  9. Actin dynamics at the living cell submembrane imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence photobleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Sund, S E; Axelrod, D

    2000-01-01

    Although reversible chemistry is crucial to dynamical processes in living cells, relatively little is known about relevant chemical kinetic rates in vivo. Total internal reflection/fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (TIR/FRAP), an established technique previously demonstrated to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates at surfaces in vitro, is extended here to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates of actin at the cytofacial (subplasma membrane) surface of living cells. For the first time, spatial imaging (with a charge-coupled device camera) is used in conjunction with TIR/FRAP. TIR/FRAP imaging produces both spatial maps of kinetic parameters (off-rates and mobile fractions) and estimates of kinetic correlation distances, cell-wide kinetic gradients, and dependences of kinetic parameters on initial fluorescence intensity. For microinjected rhodamine actin in living cultured smooth muscle (BC3H1) cells, the unbinding rate at or near the cytofacial surface of the plasma membrane (averaged over the entire cell) is measured at 0.032 +/- 0.007 s(-1). The corresponding rate for actin marked by microinjected rhodamine phalloidin is very similar, 0.033 +/- 0.013 s(-1), suggesting that TIR/FRAP is reporting the dynamics of entire filaments or protofilaments. For submembrane fluorescence-marked actin, the intensity, off-rate, and mobile fraction show a positive correlation over a characteristic distance of 1-3 microm and a negative correlation over larger distances greater than approximately 7-14 microm. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters display a statistically significant cell-wide gradient, with the cell having a "fast" and "slow" end with respect to actin kinetics. PMID:10969025

  10. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  11. Designing Environment for Teaching Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Konstantin; Vujin, Vladimir; Labus, Aleksandra; Stepanic, Ðorde; Stevanovic, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    One of the new topics taught at technical universities is Internet of Things. In this paper, a workshop for organizing a lab in academic environment for the subject Internet of Things is described. The architecture of the platform, scenario and a description of components used for creating the environment for learning Internet of things are also…

  12. 101 Things to Learn in Art School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kit

    2011-01-01

    What is the first thing to learn in art school? "Art can be anything." The second thing? "Learn to draw." With "101 Things to Learn in Art School", artist and teacher Kit White delivers and develops such lessons, striking an instructive balance between technical advice and sage concepts. These 101 maxims, meditations, and demonstrations offer both…

  13. Survival characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes and Helicobacter pylori during passage through the free-living ciliate, Tetrahymena sp.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charlotte D; Berk, Sharon G; Brandl, Maria T; Riley, Lee W

    2012-12-01

    Free-living protozoa have been implicated in the survival and transport of pathogens in the environment, but the relationship between non-Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Helicobacter pylori and ciliates has not been characterized. Six diarrheagenic pathotypes of E. coli and an isolate of H. pylori were evaluated for their susceptibility to digestion by Tetrahymena, an aquatic ciliate. Tetrahymena strain MB125 was fed E. coli or H. pylori, and the ciliate's egested products examined for viable bacterial pathogens by the BacLight(™) LIVE/DEAD (™) assay, a cell elongation method, and by colony counts. All six diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes survived digestion, whereas H. pylori was digested. Growth of E. coli on agar plates indicated that the bacteria were able to replicate after passage through the ciliate. Transmission electron micrographs of E. coli cells as intact rods vs. degraded H. pylori cells corroborated these results. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a net-like matrix around intact E. coli cells in fecal pellets. These results suggest a possible role for Tetrahymena and its egested fecal pellets in the dissemination of diarrheagenic E. coli in the environment. This bacterial-protozoan interaction may increase opportunities for transmission of diarrheagenic E. coli to mammalian hosts including humans.

  14. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the physics of liquid crystal displays (LCD) which is based on polarizing properties of crystals controlled by electric command. Production of alphanumerics, display control, and input are considered. (JM)

  15. A Reason To Rise Each Morning: The Meaning of Volunteering in the Lives of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Dana Burr

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value that volunteering by older adults brings to individual lives and the benefits to society. Suggests that volunteering provides an enhanced sense of purpose by doing things for others and that understanding why elders volunteer will help identify better ways to support their efforts. (JOW)

  16. Correlates of protection induced by live Aro- Salmonella typhimurium vaccines in the murine typhoid model.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J A; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Mastroeni, P; Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Hormaeche, C E

    1997-01-01

    Live attenuated salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines. The immune responses in BALB/c mice elicited by immunization with a live attenuated Aro Salmonella typhimurium vaccine given orally, intravenously or subcutaneously were compared with those elicited by killed whole-cell vaccines (acetone or heat-treated) given subcutaneously. Live vaccines given by all routes elicited higher interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses in spleen cells against an alkali-treated whole-cell salmonella lysate than did killed vaccines. Live and killed vaccines elicited high total antibody levels to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but all live vaccine regimes elicited higher IgG2a, suggesting a Th1 response. Oral and intravenous vaccination with live organisms elicited IgA against smooth LPS which subcutaneous vaccination with live or killed salmonellae failed to evoke. Western blots using rough whole-cell lysates showed that all vaccines elicited a varied anti-protein response; however, all groups immunized with live organisms recognized three unidentified bands of MW 52,000, 46,000 and 18,000 which were consistently absent in groups immunized with killed organisms. The results indicate that immunization with live aroA salmonellae elicited a Th1 type of response, including bystander T-cell help to LPS, and a response to proteins not seen in mice that received killed vaccines. Images Figure 6 PMID:9176117

  17. It's the Little Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments are ruled by a kind of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The big-tech stuff--the operating systems, the networks, the data centers--gets the priority, food-and-shelter attention, while upgrading the backup power supplies, evaluating new projector mounts, and taming that rat's nest of classroom cords fall…

  18. Ten Tips about 23 Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Learning 2.0--aka the "23 Things"--is a self-paced online learning program that the author designed in 2006 as a one-person crusade to move an entire organization of 500-plus staff onto the Web 2.0 bandwagon. Along with numerous requests to duplicate the program, many seek insight on how to do this successfully. In this article, the author shares…

  19. [One thing begets another].

    PubMed

    Wijburg, H C; Heydendael, R J

    1991-12-01

    In this article the signs and symptoms as well as the course and complications are described of a feverish disease contracted by a fourteen year old boy after spending summer-holidays in the southern part of France. In retrospect this disease could be diagnosed as 'Mediterranean spotted fever' In the same period of these manifestations also a partial loss of sight at one eye occurred; although serology tests of antibody titers were negative, it was attributed to chorioretinitis due to activation of a congenital toxoplasmosis. The course was further complicated by an acute renal insufficiency during treatment of the chorioretinitis with high doses sulfadiazine. A short contemplation on the various clinical syndromes is presented.

  20. Diagnosis of infections caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae.

    PubMed

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia sp. are pathogenic free-living amoebae. N. fowleri causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis, a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous encephalitis. Acanthamoeba spp. also can cause cutaneous lesions and Amoebic Keratitis, a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is associated with contact lens use or corneal trauma. Sappinia pedata has been identified as the cause of a nonlethal case of amoebic encephalitis. In view of the potential health consequences due to infection with these amoebae, rapid diagnosis is critical for early treatment. Microscopic examination and culture of biopsy specimens, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and corneal scrapings have been used in the clinical laboratory. For amoebic keratitis, confocal microscopy has been used to successfully identify amoebae in corneal tissue. More recently, conventional and real-time PCR assays have been developed that are sensitive and specific for the amoebae. In addition, multiplex PCR assays are available for the rapid identification of these pathogens in biopsy tissue, CSF, and corneal specimens.

  1. Diagnosis of Infections Caused by Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia sp. are pathogenic free-living amoebae. N. fowleri causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis, a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous encephalitis. Acanthamoeba spp. also can cause cutaneous lesions and Amoebic Keratitis, a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is associated with contact lens use or corneal trauma. Sappinia pedata has been identified as the cause of a nonlethal case of amoebic encephalitis. In view of the potential health consequences due to infection with these amoebae, rapid diagnosis is critical for early treatment. Microscopic examination and culture of biopsy specimens, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and corneal scrapings have been used in the clinical laboratory. For amoebic keratitis, confocal microscopy has been used to successfully identify amoebae in corneal tissue. More recently, conventional and real-time PCR assays have been developed that are sensitive and specific for the amoebae. In addition, multiplex PCR assays are available for the rapid identification of these pathogens in biopsy tissue, CSF, and corneal specimens. PMID:19657454

  2. Live biometric authenticity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Szu, Clifford; Wang, Shoujue

    2003-04-01

    This research defined the underpinning concepts of a system that was highly secure, yet was efficient and non-invasive enough for everyday use. The live biometric authenticity check augmented invariant fingerprints with variable live features offered superior security by combining physical characteristics of the user"s with a passcode (numerical PIN) or passphrase (a string of words), and might also easily be augmented with other biometric video imaging devices for the utmost security.

  3. An unusual long-lived relativistic electron enhancement event excited by sequential CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao C.; Zhu, Guang W.; Zhang, Xiao X.; Sun, Yue Q.; Liang, Jin B.; Wei, Xin H.

    2014-11-01

    An unusual long-lived intense relativistic electron enhancement event from July to August 2004 is examined using data from Fengyun-1, POES, GOES, ACE, the Cluster Mission, and geomagnetic indices. During the initial 6 days of this event, the observed fluxes in the outer zone enhanced continuously, and their maximum increased from 2.1 × 102 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 to 3.5 × 104 cm-2 sr-1 s-1, the region of enhanced fluxes extended from L = 3.5-6.5 to L = 2.5-6.5, and the flux peak location shifted inward from L ~ 4.2 to L ~ 3.3. During the following 7 days, without any locational movement, the flux peak increased slowly and exceeded the prestorm fluxes by about 4 orders of magnitude. Subsequently, the decay rate of relativistic electrons is so slow that the peak remains over 104 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 for about 30 days. The drift resonance between ULF waves, which arose from high-speed solar wind and frequent impulses of solar wind dynamic pressure, and energetic electrons injected by substorms could be an important acceleration mechanism in this event. The local acceleration by whistler mode chorus could be another mechanism contributing to this enhancement. The plasmaspheric response to the interplanetary disturbances reveals that the enhanced outer zone is divided into two portions by the plasmapause. Accordingly, the slow loss rate in the plasmasphere due to hiss primarily contributed to the long-lived characteristic of this event. This event reveals that the outer zone population behaviors are dominated by the interplanetary variations together with the responses of geomagnetic field and plasmasphere to these variations.

  4. Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of

  5. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  6. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  7. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  8. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  9. “First Things First”: What is the First Thing?

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This OP-ED piece comments on the down-side of an otherwise useful 12-step slogan, “First Things First,” which generally refers to staying sober (not drinking or using no matter what). While important, there are environmental, micro-social, psychiatric, and neurobiological considerations that may place other needs at an equal or higher priority than sobriety per se. That is, other changes may be needed to set the stage for, or enhance efforts at sobriety, prior to or concurrent with attempting to quit one's drug of choice. Perhaps slogans should be considered in a broader context and not be taken too literally. PMID:25774990

  10. The Study of Cellular and Molecular Physiological Characteristics of Sperm in Men Living in the Aral Sea Region

    PubMed Central

    Kultanov, Berikbay Z.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Ivasenko, Svetlana A.; Tatina, Yelena S.; Kelmyalene, Assel A.; Assenova, Lyazzat H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extreme environmental situation in the Aral crisis has caused a massive chemical pollution of the territory for decades with high doses of pesticides, herbicides. Discharge of industrial waste into the rivers that feed the Aral Sea has lead to the development of various pathological processes in the human body, as well as disruption of reproductive function in young men. AIM: To evaluate the performance of molecular cellular changes in the sperm of men under the influence of dust and salt aerosols in Aral Sea region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and laboratory studies were conducted in men 5 settlements (Aralsk-city, v. Aiteke-Bi, v. Zhalagash, v. Zhusaly, v. Shieli). We have studied male ejaculate obtained after 4-5 days of abstinence, and placed it in a warm tube with a glass stopper. On the investigation proceeded ejaculate within 20-30 minutes after its preparation, during which time he was subjected to liquefaction. Isolation and quantification of ASF, RNA, DNA, and determining the fraction of histones in sperm was performed by the method of Markusheva and Savina. RESULTS: It was found that the value of ASF in the semen of men living in the zone of ecological disaster higher compared with the values of parameters in men living in the area of environmental crisis, and this trend is observed in all age groups. The study of circulating extracellular DNA and RNA in the sperm of men registered their decline with a corresponding increase of acid precursors that can be attributed to the degradation of nucleic acids under the influence of negative factors in the complex area of ecological trouble. Also, according to a study in men residing in the areas of environmental catastrophe at the age of 18-29 years, found an increased content of the H1 histone H2A lower total fraction, H3, H4 - and a sharp increase in histone H2B content - histones. CONCLUSIONS: Men living in environmentally disadvantaged areas of Kyzylorda region under the influence of dust and

  11. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  12. The Classification of Living Things: Nature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Use of a classification system in teaching biology is presented as a concept aiding students' understanding of the diversity of plants and animals. The principles of classification are summarized and six learning strategies are given to show relationships among groups. (CM)

  13. Respecting Living Things: Environmental Literacy for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Carole; White, Cameron

    2000-01-01

    Details project supporting early childhood teachers' efforts to incorporate into their instruction their own learning about natural history from explorations of their urban environment. Identifies vital components of teaching environmental science: context, connections, and communication. Discusses the importance of nurturing respect, facilitating…

  14. Language and Children's Conceptions of Plants as Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth; Wax, Naomi

    The relationship between language, thought, and concept formation has been a central issue in many studies and theoretical discussions in various domains--philosophy, psychology, anthropology, and linguistics. The relation between language and concept development can be framed as two opposing questions: (1) Does the child learn concepts first and…

  15. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 1, Interdependence of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, J. Eric

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440. Each Theme is a teachers' guide to a…

  16. Comparison of long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous coronary intervention in patients living alone versus not living alone at the time of hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuma, Kenji; Shiomi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Toyota, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    Living alone was reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are, however, limited data on the relation between living alone and all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto (CREDO-Kyoto) AMI registry was a cohort study of patients with AMI enrolled in 26 hospitals in Japan from 2005 through 2007. For the current analysis, we included those patients who underwent PCI within 24 hours of symptom onset, and we assessed their living status to determine if living alone would be an independent prognostic risk factor. Among 4,109 patients eligible for the current analysis of 5,429 patients enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto AMI registry, 515 patients (12.5%) were living alone at the time of hospital admission. The cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death was 18.3% in the living alone group and 20.1% in the not living alone group (log-rank p = 0.77). After adjusting for potential confounders, risk of the living alone group relative to the not living alone group for all-cause death was not significantly different (adjusted hazard ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.02, p = 0.08). In a subgroup analysis stratified by age, the adjusted risk for all-cause death was also not different between the living alone group and the not living alone group both in the older population (aged ≥75 years) and the younger population (aged <75 years). In conclusion, living alone was not associated with higher long-term mortality in patients with AMI who underwent PCI.

  17. Hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea which lived in manganese stress environment and inversion model for concentration effect of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sanming; Lin, Gang; Yin, Xianyang; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Jiasheng; Liu, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary manganese deposits widely distribute in North Guangxi with the characteristic existing Celosia argentea. Celosia argentea is a kind of plant which has a strong ability to enrich manganese. In order to study the relationship between the hyperspectral characteristics of Celosia argentea and the concentration effect of manganese in the soil, we used soil of B layer in mining area, background soil and the soil adding reagent of MnCl4 to make up experimental sample soil with 10 levels Manganese content for the same batch Celosia argentea. The levels are 0mg/kg, 4500mg/kg, 9000mg/kg, 13500mg/kg, 18000mg/kg, 18020mg/kg, 18040mg/kg, 18080mg/kg, 18160mg/kg. ASD FieldSpec-4 has been used to measure the abnormal spectrums of these Celosia argentea through a whole growth cycle. After pretreating the spectral data, we used Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) to extract the characteristic variables for extracting 1603 bands into 8 bands. Finally, the relationship between the spectral variables and the concentration of manganese was predicted by the Model of Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). The results show that the correlation coefficient-r2 are 0.8714 and 0.9141 in two sets of data. The prediction results are satisfactory, but the front 5 groups are closer to the regression line than the last 5 groups.

  18. Pursuing goals with others: group identification and motivation resulting from things done versus things left undone.

    PubMed

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D; Koo, Minjung

    2011-08-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing. Conversely, we propose that when individuals identify highly with a group, their contributions will compensate for others': An emphasis on things left undone will increase their own contributions, because missing contributions suggest insufficient progress toward a goal they already consider worthwhile. Five studies lend support to these predictions by measuring contributions to goals centered on idea generation and helping victims of various global disasters (earthquake in Haiti, wildfires in Southern California, rioting in Kenya).

  19. Pursuing goals with others: group identification and motivation resulting from things done versus things left undone.

    PubMed

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D; Koo, Minjung

    2011-08-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing. Conversely, we propose that when individuals identify highly with a group, their contributions will compensate for others': An emphasis on things left undone will increase their own contributions, because missing contributions suggest insufficient progress toward a goal they already consider worthwhile. Five studies lend support to these predictions by measuring contributions to goals centered on idea generation and helping victims of various global disasters (earthquake in Haiti, wildfires in Southern California, rioting in Kenya). PMID:21668127

  20. Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

    2007-01-09

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in

  1. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    PubMed

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

  2. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    PubMed

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden. PMID:27228359

  3. Detection and Identification of Free-living Amoeba from Environmental Water in Taiwan by PCR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; She, C. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tseng, S. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Hartmannella all belong to free-living amoebae that are present ubiquitously in the environment including water, soil, and air. Free-living amoebae are parasites which can infect humans and can lead to serious illness and even death. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of free-living amoebae in aquatic environment in Taiwan, and to compare the differences between Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in diverse cultivation methods and conditions. In this study, we used molecular method by PCR amplification with specific primers to analyze the occurrence of free-living amoebae. We collected 176 samples from environmental water including drinking water treatment plants, stream water, and hot spring recreational areas in Taiwan. Based on the results of PCR, 43 water samples (24.4%) were detected positive for free-living amoebae. The most common Acanthamoeba genotype isolated from samples including T2, T4, T5, T12, and T15. N. australiensis and N. lovaniensis were also identified by molecular biology techniques. Furthermore, we found that both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria can be cultured by PYG in 30° C, but not all free-living amoebae can be isolated and enriched by using storage-cultivation method. Because of the widespread presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in aquatic environments, the water quality and safety of aquatic environments should be more conscious in Taiwan and worldwide. Keywords: free-living amoebae; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; Balamuthia; Hartmannella; PCR

  4. Ocular sensitization of mice by live (but not irradiated) Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.G.; Goodman, T.G.; Barsoum, I.S.

    1986-10-01

    Ocular exposure of mice to live elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A results in immunological sensitization of the mice. This reactivity is manifested by the development of early (5 h) and delayed-type (24 h) dermal reactivity and serovar-specific antibody formation against either live or irradiated (100 kilorads) elementary bodies. Parallel ocular exposure of mice to irradiated elementary bodies does not result in this sensitization. The early and late dermal immune responses induced by ocular exposure to live organisms can be transferred to unexposed mice by serum and lymphoid cell transfers, respectively. It appears that successful murine ocular sensitization by human C. trachomatis serovar A elementary bodies is an ability manifested by live organisms and not by inactivated but antigenic organisms.

  5. Biofabrication of biosilica-glass by living organisms.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong; Tremel, Wolfgang; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-06-01

    Biosilicification is an evolutionarily old and widespread type of biomineralization both in unicellular and multicellular organisms, including sponges, diatoms, radiolarians, choanoflagellates, and higher plants. In the last few years combined efforts in molecular biology, cell biology, and inorganic and analytical chemistry have allowed the first insight into the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms form an astonishing variety of siliceous structures that cannot be achieved by chemical methods. Here we report about the present stage of knowledge on structure, biochemical composition, and mechanisms of biosilica formation, focusing our attention particularly on sponges because of the enormous (nano)biotechnological potential of the enzymes involved in this process.

  6. Writing social psychology: fictional things and unpopulated texts.

    PubMed

    Billig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways.

  7. Sensing in the collaborative Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Borges Neto, João B; Silva, Thiago H; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A F; Loureiro, Antonio A F

    2015-03-19

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data.

  8. Sensing in the Collaborative Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Borges Neto, João B.; Silva, Thiago H.; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A. F.; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

    2015-01-01

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data. PMID:25808766

  9. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  10. A swimming robot actuated by living muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Herr, Hugh; Dennis, Robert G

    2004-10-28

    Biomechatronics is the integration of biological components with artificial devices, in which the biological component confers a significant functional capability to the system, and the artificial component provides specific cellular and tissue interfaces that promote the maintenance and functional adaptation of the biological component. Based upon functional performance, muscle is potentially an excellent mechanical actuator, but the larger challenge of developing muscle-actuated, biomechatronic devices poses many scientific and engineering challenges. As a demonstratory proof of concept, we designed, built, and characterized a swimming robot actuated by two explanted frog semitendinosus muscles and controlled by an embedded microcontroller. Using open loop stimulation protocols, the robot performed basic swimming maneuvers such as starting, stopping, turning (turning radius ~400 mm) and straight-line swimming (max speed >1/3 body lengths/second). A broad spectrum antibiotic/antimycotic ringer solution surrounded the muscle actuators for long term maintenance, ex vivo. The robot swam for a total of 4 hours over a 42 hour lifespan (10% duty cycle) before its velocity degraded below 75% of its maximum. The development of functional biomechatronic prototypes with integrated musculoskeletal tissues is the first critical step toward the long term objective of controllable, adaptive and robust biomechatronic robots and prostheses.

  11. Production of a short-lived filament by a surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1976-01-01

    A large surge was observed on September 17, 1971 part of which, after travelling 200,000 km across the surface, returned to the surface to form a filament. The filament lasted about 30 minutes, then rose up and returned to the source of the surge. This was interpreted as the filling of a semi-stable magnetic trap. Analysis of the microwave radio burst showed it to have been produced by a source optically thick at 8,800 MHz, with area 4 (arc min)squared and T approximately 275,000 deg, N squared sub eV approximately 7 x 10 to the 48th power. The soft x-ray burst showed a component at 12 x 1,00.000 deg with N squared sub eV approximately 3 x 10 to the 48th power.

  12. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  13. Consent to forensic radiologic examinations by living crime victims.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Eva; Schoelzke, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether people approve radiological examinations specifically for the documentation of findings for the use in criminal proceedings. Forty two crime victims and 42 controls without a history of sustained violence were asked via telephone interview whether they would agree to forensic radiological examinations and if radiation exposure and the duration of the examination were factors influencing their consent. The consent to specifically forensic radiological examinations was high in both groups, however, higher in victims than in controls (85-96% compared to 64-77%, respectively, depending on the imaging modality). All of the victims and 93% of the controls consented to at least one of the proposed imaging modalities, i.e. X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Most of the interviewees did not consider the duration of the examination to be relevant to their consent (79% of the crime victims and 93% of the controls); however, the radiation exposure associated with the examination was relevant for 55% of the controls but only for 19% of the victims. These results show that there is a great consent to the application of radiological methods for forensic purposes. This is important for the growing field of forensic radiology as the approval of the examination by the victim is a legal prerequisite. PMID:23381578

  14. Barriers to access to care reported by women living with HIV across 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Margaret; Samarina, Anna; Xi, He; Valdez Ramalho Madruga, José; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Loutfy, Mona; Fournelle, Marie-Josée; Norton, Michael; Van Wyk, Jean; Zachry, Woodie; Martinez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Increased access to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary in order to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Importantly, slightly over half of the people living with HIV are women. Small studies have described many barriers to accessing treatment and care among women living with HIV. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, epidemiological study assessed the prevalence of barriers to accessing care for women living with HIV across 27 countries, divided into four global regions. HIV-positive women attending routine clinical visits were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Data describing the study sites and demographic characteristics of the participating women were collected. Participating women filled out questionnaires including the Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire, on which they reported the extent to which they found each of the 12 potential barriers to accessing health care problematic. A total of 1931 women living with HIV were included in the study: 760 from Western Europe and Canada (WEC), 532 from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), 519 from Latin America (LA), and 120 from China. The mean age of participating women was 40.1 ± 11.4 years. A total of 88.2% were currently taking ART. A total of 81.8% obtained HIV treatment under a government health plan. The most prevalent barrier to care was community HIV/AIDS stigma. Community HIV/AIDS knowledge, lack of supportive/understanding work environments, lack of employment opportunities, and personal financial resources were also highly prevalent barriers to accessing care. These findings indicate that, more than 30 years after the start of the AIDS epidemic, stigma is still a major issue for women living with HIV. Continued efforts are needed to improve community education on HIV/AIDS in order to maximize access to health care among women living with HIV. PMID:26168817

  15. Impaired Intracellular Ca2+ Dynamics in Live Cardiomyocytes Revealed by Rapid Line Scan Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, David M.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2005-06-01

    Altered intracellular Ca2+ dynamics are characteristically observed in cardiomyocytes from failing hearts. Studies of Ca2+ handling in myocytes predominantly use Fluo-3 AM, a visible light excitable Ca2+ chelating fluorescent dye in conjunction with rapid line-scanning confocal microscopy. However, Fluo-3 AM does not allow for traditional ratiometric determination of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and has required the use of mathematic correction factors with values obtained from separate procedures to convert Fluo-3 AM fluorescence to appropriate Ca2+ concentrations. This study describes methodology to directly measure intracellular Ca2+ levels using inactivated, Fluo-3-AM-loaded cardiomyocytes equilibrated with Ca2+ concentration standards. Titration of Ca2+ concentration exhibits a linear relationship to increasing Fluo-3 AM fluorescence intensity. Images obtained from individual myocyte confocal scans were recorded, average pixel intensity values were calculated, and a plot is generated relating the average pixel intensity to known Ca2+ concentrations. These standard plots can be used to convert transient Ca2+ fluorescence obtained with experimental cells to Ca2+ concentrations by linear regression analysis. Standards are determined on the same microscope used for acquisition of unknown Ca2+ concentrations, simplifying data interpretation and assuring accuracy of conversion values. This procedure eliminates additional equipment, ratiometric imaging, and mathematic correction factors and should be useful to investigators requiring a straightforward method for measuring Ca2+ concentrations in live cells using Ca2+-chelating dyes exhibiting variable fluorescence intensity.

  16. Production of a short-lived filament by a surge. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1976-01-01

    An unusual solar event is investigated in which a short-lived cloud, very much like a filament, was formed by ejecta from a large surge. The temporal evolution of this surge is described, and evidence is presented which indicates that the short-lived cloud was a bona fide filament. The energetics of this event and the mass of the surge are estimated from radio and X-ray data obtained at the onset.

  17. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  18. The Characteristics of a Model Technology Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Andrew R.; Warner, Scott A.; Buechele, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    The things that make the quality of a teacher stand out can cover a wide range of characteristics, actions, words, and experiences. The mark left on a student by a teacher, for good or bad, is written in an ink that will last a lifetime. This article describes a study that identifies the characteristics of exceptional technology education…

  19. The laying of live larvae by the blowfly Calliphora varifrons (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, David F; Voss, Sasha C; Dadour, Ian R

    2012-11-30

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora varifrons Malloch (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of forensic importance in Western Australia. Females took 1.5 min (mean 89±10.0s, n=42) to deposit their live, first instar larvae (average body length 2.5 mm) on fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid an average of 30 live larvae (mean of 29.9±1.2, n=50) at a rate of 1 larva every 2 s (mean of 0.46±0.05 larvae/s, n=42). Most females (66%) laid live larvae only, but 18% laid fully developed eggs (half of the egg masses laid by individual females were viable) and 16% laid live larvae and some eggs at the same time. Females laying only eggs laid a mean of 24.1±3.0, n=10 eggs on each occasion. Field females carried between 20 and 44 live larvae (mean of 33.4±1.0, n=49) with a strong linear relationship between female size and number of live larvae. In the laboratory, females typically laid larvae in multiple locations. Very few females (<8%) retained some larvae in their ovisacs, retaining on average, half of their complement of developed larvae. Those larvae retained had begun to be resorbed by the female with necrosis evident on the posterior segments.

  20. The Librarian Who Loves "LibraryThing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    "LibraryThing" is a great way for library media specialists to keep track of the books they personally read. "LibraryThing" allows them to create a personal library, give their books tags, choose book covers, give star ratings, generate citations, and review books. Library media specialists can also connect to other readers and see their reviews.…

  1. 10 Things Every Writer Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Whether writing a blog entry or a high-stakes test essay, fiction or nonfiction, short story or argumentation, students need to know certain things in order to write effectively. In 10 Things Every Writer Needs to Know, Jeff Anderson focuses on developing the concepts and application of ten essential aspects of good writing--motion, models, focus,…

  2. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  3. DEMYELINIZATION INDUCED IN LIVING RABBITS BY MEANS OF A LIPOLYTIC ENZYME PREPARATION

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, F. Stephen

    1951-01-01

    Purified lipase, injected intracerebrally and intravasculariy in rabbits, gave rise to focal areas of demyelinization in the central nervous system in 10 of 13 animals so treated. In one instance the lesions became manifest within 48 hours and in another they persisted for 6 months; they were not infrequently accompanied by paresis and by tilting or tremor of the head. They were characterized by a focal loss of myelin and moderate gliosis with little or no neuronal destruction or inflammatory reaction, in these respects resembling the plaques of multiple sclerosis. The intracerebral injection of trypsin and chymotrypsin in control animals failed to produce the characteristic demyelinization, but by contrast caused focal areas of necrosis in which all the cerebral tissues were involved. Furthermore, demyelinization did not result when heat-inactivated pancreatic lipase was injected intracerebrally, and similarly negative results were obtained when an incubated mixture comprised of fatty connective tissue that had been acted upon by the pancreatic preparation and then heated to inactivate the lipase, was injected into the brains of rabbits. In supplementary experiments the pancreatic lipase preparation and fresh rabbit brain, incubated together in vitro, were found to form acid, presumably owing to the breakdown of brain lipids to fatty acids; trypsin and chymotrypsin mixed with brain in control experiments failed to form acid. When incubated with segments of the spinal cord of experimental animals, the lipolytic enzyme brought about a loss of stainable myelin in peripheral areas and in the spinal nerve roots; again trypsin and chymotrypsin had no such effect in control experiments. The findings as a whole show that an enzyme preparation with lipolytic activity has the ability to destroy myelin in living animals, and in vitro as well, and to produce lesions remarkably similar to those of multiple sclerosis. They have additional interest in light of the demonstration

  4. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Kilbourn, Michael R; Scott, Peter J H

    2016-08-24

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future?

  5. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future?

  6. Fast intracellular motion in the living cell by video rate reflection confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vesely, P; Boyde, A

    2001-06-01

    Fast intracellular motion (FIM) was first revealed by back scattered light (BSL) imaging in video rate confocal scanning laser microscopy (VRCSLM), beyond the limits of spatial and temporal resolution obtainable with conventional optical microscopy. BSL imaging enabled visualisation of intra and extracellular motion with resolution in space down to 0.2 microm and in time to 1/25th of a second. Mapping the cell space at 0.2 microm x 0.2 microm (XY = in instantaneous best focal plane) x 0.5 microm (Z = height/depth, optic axis direction) volume steps revealed a communication layer above the known contact layer and an integrated dynamic spatial network (IDSN) towards the cell centre. FIM was originally observed as localised quasichaotic dancing (dithering) or reflecting patches/spots in the cell centre, faster in the darker nuclear space. Later, a second type of FIM was recognised which differed by the presence of a varied proportion of centrifugal and centripetal directional movements and/or jumping of patches/spots in the cell centre and outside the nuclear space. The first type is characteristic for cells in slightly adverse conditions while the second type has so far only been found in eutrophic cells. Temporal speeding up and coarsening of FIM, followed by slowing and eventually cessation at cell death, was found on exposure to strong stressors. It was concluded that the state of FIM provides instantaneous information about individual cell reactions to actual treatment and about cell survival. A putative switch between the first and second type FIM could be considered as an indicator of timing of cellular processes. The significance of FIM for the biology of the cell is seen in the rapid assessment of the condition of an individual live cell investigated by combination of various methods. Requirements for further development of this approach are outlined.

  7. First and second things, and the operations of conscience in science.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-01-01

    Why is modern science less efficient than it used to be, why has revolutionary science declined, and why has science become so dishonest? One plausible explanation behind these observations comes from an essay First and second things published by CS Lewis. First Things are the goals that are given priority as the primary and ultimate aim in life. Second Things are subordinate goals or aims - which are justified in terms of the extent to which they assist in pursuing First Things. The classic First Thing in human society is some kind of religious or philosophical world view. Lewis regarded it as a 'universal law' that the pursuit of a Second Thing as if it was a First Thing led inevitably to the loss of that Second Thing: 'You can't get second things by putting them first; you can get second things only by putting first things first'. I would argue that the pursuit of science as a primary value will lead to the loss of science, because science is properly a Second Thing. Because when science is conceptualized as a First Thing the bottom-line or operational definition of 'correct behaviour' is approval and high status within the scientific community. However, this does nothing whatsoever to prevent science drifting-away from its proper function; and once science has drifted then the prevailing peer consensus will tend to maintain this state of corruption. I am saying that science is a Second Thing, and ought to be subordinate to the First Thing of transcendental truth. Truth impinges on scientific practice in the form of individual conscience (noting that, of course, the strength and validity of conscience varies between scientists). When the senior scientists, whose role is to uphold standards, fail to posses or respond-to informed conscience, science will inevitably go rotten from the head downwards. What, then, motivates a scientist to act upon conscience? I believe it requires a fundamental conviction of the reality and importance of truth as an essential part of

  8. Academics 2000: First Things First. Evaluation Report, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Program Evaluation.

    This evaluation report profiles Academics 2000: First Things First, the Texas initiative under the Goals 2000 Educate America Act to raise the level of academic achievement of all Texas students by ensuring that each child achieves fourth-grade mastery of the foundation subjects by the end of fourth grade. The report states that, at the local…

  9. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  10. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  11. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  12. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  13. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  14. Project NECESSITIES, Phase II. Volume II, People, Places and Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities and materials in this Project NECESSITIES social studies unit (People, Places and Things) are meant to act as a framework by which the teacher may devise additional content material appropriate to her own students' unique background. The unit, devised for use with primary school students, has as one of its primary emphases the use…

  15. Increased Surface Fatigue Lives of Spur Gears by Application of a Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Cooper, Clark V.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Hansen, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Hard coatings have potential for increasing gear surface fatigue lives. Experiments were conducted using gears both with and without a metal-containing, carbonbased coating. The gears were case-carburized AISI 9310 steel spur gears. Some gears were provided with the coating by magnetron sputtering. Lives were evaluated by accelerated life tests. For uncoated gears, all of fifteen tests resulted in fatigue failure before completing 275 million revolutions. For coated gears, eleven of the fourteen tests were suspended with no fatigue failure after 275 million revolutions. The improved life owing to the coating, approximately a six-fold increase, was a statistically significant result.

  16. Patterned Co-culture of Live Cells on a Microchip by Photocrosslinking with Benzophenone.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiichi; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Yoshida, Eri; Ishii, Reina; Sasaki, Naoki; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Sato, Kae

    2016-01-01

    The patterned coculture of different types of living cells in a microfluidic device is crucial for the analysis of cellular interactions and cell-cell communication. In the present study, cell patterning was achieved by photocrosslinking benzophenone derivatives in a microfluidic channel. Optimization of UV irradiation conditions enabled successful fixation of live cells. In addition, patterning and co-culture of non-adherent K562 cells and adherent RF-6A cells was achieved by successive rounds of patterning. The present approach is expected to be useful for the development of in vitro methods for studying cell signaling.

  17. External beam analysis of living sycamore xylem infected by pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grime, G. W.; Pearce, R. B.

    1995-09-01

    Interactions between the living xylem (sapwood) of sycamore ( Acer pseudoplatanus) and wood inhabiting fungi have been investigated using a number of techniques including conventional histochemical and biochemical methods, non-invasive NMR imaging and external beam micro PIXE analysis using a 200 μm diameter beam of 3 MeV protons from the new external beam facility on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe. The site of the fungal lesion on a living tree was exposed by a fresh cut immediately prior to analysis and both longitudinal and radial profiles through the infected regions were obtained in a point-by-point fashion. Profiles of several inorganic elements were obtained which correlated well with the observed discoloration due to the infection. The new external beamline at Oxford is described and results are presented. These are discussed in relation to the investigation of anti-microbial defence mechanisms in living trees.

  18. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  19. Teacher's Resource Book. Small Things. Grade 5. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This document introduces fifth-grade children to the microscopic world, to the instruments needed to make it accessible, and to the appearance and structure of cells in nonliving as well as living things. Aims of the unit include providing children with an instrument which extends their senses in a radical manner, and leading them in using this…

  20. Putting Thought in Accordance with Things: The Demise of Animal-Based Analogies for Plant Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Advances six practical suggestions in transpiration whereby teachers can support students in their struggle to put their thoughts, especially everyday mental models, in accordance with classroom experimental evidence. Discusses the wider implications for how to teach about living things and how to view the status of analogies in science generally.…

  1. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  2. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  3. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  4. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  5. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... live Alaskan reindeer may pass to the deceased owner's Native heirs by descent or devise. (b) In...

  6. Energy and the Way We Live. Article Booklet for the Twelfth Course by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dorothy K.; And Others

    The 15 articles in this booklet were written for the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Reader/Study Guide (SO 012 724) and the Source…

  7. A Sourcebook for Energy and the Way We Live. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Ann

    The guide presents teaching suggestions and lists resources to be used with the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Article Booklet (SO 012…

  8. Remembering Camp Dreamcatcher: Art Therapy with Children Whose Lives Have Been Touched by HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrenko, Kathy D.

    2005-01-01

    Society calls upon art therapists to meet the needs of troubled community members. This article describes one art therapist?s experience of "giving back" to the community by volunteering to provide art therapy at a therapeutic camp for children whose lives have been touched by HIV/AIDS. Some of the medical, social, and psychological issues…

  9. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  10. Extending the Lorentz transformation by characteristic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with variable velocity. The paper gives, by an elementary construction, a system of coordinates which is conformal in a restricted region near the axis of the motion. In such coordinates the velocity of light remains invariant even for observers moving with variable velocity. By a particular choice of the scale relation the restricted conformal transformations can be made to reduce to the Lorentz transformation everywhere in the case of constant velocity and locally in the case of variable velocity.

  11. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    PubMed

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  12. Relating Things and Stuff via Object Property Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL'09 segmentation dataset. PMID:24101332

  13. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: Source characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed ofintensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  14. Predicting Political News Coverage by Newspaper Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Gilbert Len, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Concludes that the only significant factors explaining the amount of political news published by the Arkansas daily press during the 1972 senatorial primary election campaign were the size of the daily news hole and the number of wire services a newspaper used. (GT)

  15. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  16. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  17. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  18. Neural pattern similarity underlies the mnemonic advantages for living words.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-01

    It has been consistently shown that words representing living things are better remembered than words representing nonliving things, yet the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study used both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the hypotheses that living words are better remembered because (1) they draw more attention and/or (2) they share more overlapping semantic features. Subjects were asked to study a list of living and nonliving words during a semantic judgment task. An unexpected recognition test was administered 30 min later. We found that subjects recognized significantly more living words than nonliving words. Results supported the overlapping semantic feature hypothesis by showing that (a) semantic ratings showed greater semantic similarity for living words than for nonliving words, (b) there was also significantly greater neural global pattern similarity (nGPS) for living words than for nonliving words in the posterior portion of left parahippocampus (LpPHG), (c) the nGPS in the LpPHG reflected the rated semantic similarity, and also mediated the memory differences between two semantic categories, and (d) greater univariate activation was found for living words than for nonliving words in the left hippocampus (LHIP), which mediated the better memory performance for living words and might reflect greater semantic context binding. In contrast, although living words were processed faster and elicited a stronger activity in the dorsal attention network, these differences did not mediate the animacy effect in memory. Taken together, our results provide strong support to the overlapping semantic features hypothesis, and emphasize the important role of semantic organization in episodic memory encoding.

  19. Neural pattern similarity underlies the mnemonic advantages for living words.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-01

    It has been consistently shown that words representing living things are better remembered than words representing nonliving things, yet the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study used both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the hypotheses that living words are better remembered because (1) they draw more attention and/or (2) they share more overlapping semantic features. Subjects were asked to study a list of living and nonliving words during a semantic judgment task. An unexpected recognition test was administered 30 min later. We found that subjects recognized significantly more living words than nonliving words. Results supported the overlapping semantic feature hypothesis by showing that (a) semantic ratings showed greater semantic similarity for living words than for nonliving words, (b) there was also significantly greater neural global pattern similarity (nGPS) for living words than for nonliving words in the posterior portion of left parahippocampus (LpPHG), (c) the nGPS in the LpPHG reflected the rated semantic similarity, and also mediated the memory differences between two semantic categories, and (d) greater univariate activation was found for living words than for nonliving words in the left hippocampus (LHIP), which mediated the better memory performance for living words and might reflect greater semantic context binding. In contrast, although living words were processed faster and elicited a stronger activity in the dorsal attention network, these differences did not mediate the animacy effect in memory. Taken together, our results provide strong support to the overlapping semantic features hypothesis, and emphasize the important role of semantic organization in episodic memory encoding. PMID:27093349

  20. Internal dynamics of a living cell nucleus investigated by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suissa, M.; Place, C.; Goillot, E.; Freyssingeas, E.

    2008-08-01

    Recent progresses in cellular biology have shown that the nucleus of a living cell is a structured integration of many functional domains with a complex spatial organization. This organization, as well as molecular and biochemical processes, is time regulated. In the past years many investigations have been performed using fluorescent microscopy techniques to study the internal dynamics of the nucleus of a living cell. These investigations, however, have never focussed on the global internal dynamics of the nucleus, which is still unknown. In this article we present an original light scattering experimental device that we built to investigate this dynamics during biological processes. By means of this experimental set-up, we investigated the global dynamics of the nucleus of a living cell treated with a DNA replication inhibitor. This dynamics presents different and independent kinds of relaxation well separated in time that vary as a function of the cell cycle phases.

  1. Individual classification of buried transistors in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblefias, Wilma; Soriano, Maricor; Tarun, Alvarado; Saloma, Caesar

    2006-10-01

    The authors classify good, leaky, and broken field effect transistors (FET's) in a live 90nm flip-chip microprocessor using functional infrared emission spectral microscopy. The FET's are in the active layer that is sandwiched between a thick heat-absorbing silicon material and a highly reflecting grid of metal interconnects. Together they are optically imaged only as a single bright blob. They classify FET's individually from their distinct electroluminescence spectra that are recovered efficiently by spectral decomposition of the detected composite spectrum. Leaky FET's have no apparent structural damage and are detectable only in live microprocessors.

  2. Estimating peak flow characteristics at ungaged sites by ridge regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    A regression simulation model, is combined with a multisite streamflow generator to simulate a regional regression of 50-year peak discharge against a set of basin characteristics. Monte Carlo experiments are used to compare the unbiased ordinary lease squares parameter estimator with Hoerl and Kennard's (1970a) ridge estimator in which the biasing parameter is that proposed by Hoerl, Kennard, and Baldwin (1975). The simulation results indicate a substantial improvement in parameter estimation using ridge regression when the correlation between basin characteristics is more than about 0.90. In addition, results indicate a strong potential for improving the mean square error of prediction of a peak-flow characteristic versus basin characteristics regression model when the basin characteristics are approximately colinear. The simulation covers a range of regression parameters, streamflow statistics, and basin characteristics commonly found in regional regression studies.

  3. Making Things Right: Tales of Redemption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the theme of redemption and examines characters who try to make things right in literature and film. Reviews six books and two films and suggests creative activities for middle school students that tie in with the works cited. (LRW)

  4. 10 Things You Should Know About LBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with movement including tremors, stiffness, slowness and difficulty walking Visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not present) Sleep disorders, such as acting out one’s dreams while asleep ...

  5. Recall of a Live and Personally Experienced Eyewitness Event by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Katie L.; Memon, Amina; Lambrechts, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to (a) extend previous eyewitness research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a live and personally experienced event; (b) examine whether witnesses with ASD demonstrate a facilitative effect in memory for self- over other-performed actions; (c) explore source monitoring abilities by witnesses with ASD in…

  6. Teaching-Learning Process by Synchronic Communication Tools: The Elluminate Live Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santovena-Casal, Sonia Ma

    2012-01-01

    When integrating a new online tool in university educational system, it is necessary to know its features, applications and functions in depth, advantages and disadvantages, and the results obtained when it has been used by other educational institutions. Synchronous communication tool, "Elluminate Live" can be integrated into a virtual platform…

  7. Laboratory and field investigations of wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation was investigated experimentally in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a 20.6 m long, 0.69 m wide and 1.22 m deep wave flume under regular and random waves. The vegetation species used are Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, which ...

  8. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...-2017. See 77 FR 71104. Pursuant to these regulations, on or before December 1 of each year, the Judges... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule....

  9. Remembering the Soul of Our Work. Stories by the Staff of Options in Community Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John, Ed.; O'Brien, Connie Lyle, Ed.

    The personal stories in this collection are by the staff of an agency which provides "supported living" services to adults with mental retardation and other disabilities. The stories were written to be read at monthly staff meetings when time is set aside to clarify and renew the organization's values. Introductory material offers suggestions for…

  10. 7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ONE OF TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE (AND BEDROOM NUMBER TWO IN BACKGROUND) AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  12. Debate: What constitutes 'terminality' and how does it relate to a Living Will?

    PubMed Central

    Crippen, David; Levy, Mitchell; Truog, Robert; Whetstine, Leslie; Luce, John

    2000-01-01

    A moribund and debilitated patient arrives in an emergency department and is placed on life support systems. Subsequently it is determined that she has a 'living will' proscribing aggressive measures should her condition be judged 'terminal' by her physicians. But, as our round table of authorities reveal, the concept of 'terminal' means different things to different people. The patient's surrogates are unable to agree on whether she would desire continuation of mechanical ventilation if there was a real chance of improvement or if she would want to have her living will enforced as soon it's terms were revealed. The problem of the potential ambiguity of a living will is explored. PMID:11123876

  13. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications.

  14. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  15. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  16. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  17. Controllably moving individual living cell in an array by modulating signal phase difference based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel dielectrophoresis (DEP) based method for manipulating individual living cells by modulating phase difference of electrical signals applied on DEP electrodes. A novel microchip with an array structure is also proposed, consisting of a plurality of quadrupole-electrode units patterned into array on a glass substrate with a pair of center electrodes locating at the center of each quadrupole-electrode unit. Living cells can be trapped and positioned at the center of each quadrupole-electrode unit by using negative DEP (nDEP) manipulation and form an array. The trapped cells in the array can be controllably moved from one position to another and even from one of quadrupole-electrode units to adjacent unit by changing the phase difference of the signals applied on the two pairs of opposite electrodes in each quadrupole-electrode unit. The microchip allows an efficient and flexible manipulation of individual living cells that can be applied to study single cells. The experiments are performed to verify that different types of cells (MCF-7 cell and HeLa cell) can be effectively distinguished between each other using the method without label and fluorometric measurements. An identification of individual living cell from dead cells is also well demonstrated. PMID:25638795

  18. Live-cell protein labelling with nanometre precision by cell squeezing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsperger, Alina; Sharei, Armon; Raulf, Anika; Heilemann, Mike; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs F.; Wieneke, Ralph; Tampé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell labelling techniques to visualize proteins with minimal disturbance are important; however, the currently available methods are limited in their labelling efficiency, specificity and cell permeability. We describe high-throughput protein labelling facilitated by minimalistic probes delivered to mammalian cells by microfluidic cell squeezing. High-affinity and target-specific tracing of proteins in various subcellular compartments is demonstrated, culminating in photoinduced labelling within live cells. Both the fine-tuned delivery of subnanomolar concentrations and the minimal size of the probe allow for live-cell super-resolution imaging with very low background and nanometre precision. This method is fast in probe delivery (∼1,000,000 cells per second), versatile across cell types and can be readily transferred to a multitude of proteins. Moreover, the technique succeeds in combination with well-established methods to gain multiplexed labelling and has demonstrated potential to precisely trace target proteins, in live mammalian cells, by super-resolution microscopy. PMID:26822409

  19. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy. PMID:27665560

  20. What makes an excellent mental health nurse? A pragmatic inquiry initiated and conducted by people with lived experience of service use.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Imani; Pentland, Tina; Rodgers, Tracey; Patterson, Sue

    2014-04-01

    Mental health nurses are in challenging positions. They have the opportunity to support people hospitalized for the treatment of mental illnesses on their recovery journeys, but are simultaneously required to manage a burgeoning administrative burden, maintain organizational 'order', and contain risk. While obliged by policy to engender an environment that promotes recovery, they receive little guidance about how this should be achieved. When feedback from people hospitalized in our service indicated the experience of care was variable, we undertook a pragmatic inquiry examining consumers' views about what makes an excellent mental health nurse. We interviewed 20 people with lived experience of hospitalization and analysed transcripts thematically. To ensure findings were relevant and useful, we consulted mental health nurses about nurses' needs, and incorporated this with the views of service users. The analysis demonstrated that personal qualities, professional skills, and environmental factors all influence the experience of mental health nursing. Our findings highlight a need for renewed attention to the basics of relationships and the importance for nurses of self-awareness and support. We urge nurses to make time to really get to know the people for whom they provide care, and to work to maintain passion for mental health nursing. It seems likely that attention to the simple things has the potential to improve levels of satisfaction among service users, decrease distress, and support the development of an environment in which can nurture recovery. PMID:23718869

  1. Real-time molecular imaging of organelles in living cell by multifocus excitation CARS microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrated real-time imaging of organelles in a living HeLa cell using a multi-focus excitation CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) microscope. Chemical selective CARS imaging of lipids and proteins was demonstrated by observing CH2 and CH3 vibrations. Real-time imaging of lipid rich organelles such as the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and lipid rich vesicles was achieved by observing CH2 stretching vibrations of lipids. The image acquisition rate of 5 frames per second was achieved without any staining. We also demonstrated real-time CARS imaging of laser-induced disruption and reaction of organelles in a living HeLa cell. A near-infrared pulsed laser beam tightly focused on an organelle in a living cell produces ablation at the focal point, causing local disruption of the organelle. We visualized the spatial and temporal distributions of a lipid rich organelles in the cytoplasm of a living HeLa cell in laser-induced dissection. We also demonstrated real-time CARS imaging of disruption of a plasma membrane and its repair.

  2. Innovative use of platinum compounds to selectively detect live microorganisms by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-Ichi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-02-01

    PCR cannot distinguish live microorganisms from dead ones. To circumvent this disadvantage, ethidium/propidium-monoazide (EMA/PMA) and psoralen to discriminate live from dead bacteria have been used for 2 decades. These methods require the use of numerous laborious procedures. We introduce an innovative method that uses platinum compounds, which are primarily used as catalysts in organic chemistry and partly used as anti-cancer drugs. Microorganisms are briefly exposed to platinum compounds in vivo, and these compounds penetrate dead (compromised) microorganisms but not live ones and are chelated by chromosomal DNA. The use of platinum compounds permits clear discrimination between live and dead microorganisms in water and milk (including Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli) via PCR compared with typically used PMA. This platinum-PCR method could enable the specific detection of viable coliforms in milk at a concentration of 5-10 CFU mL(-1) specified by EU/USA regulations after a 4-h process. For sample components, environmental water contains lower levels of PCR inhibitors than milk does, and milk is similar to infant formula, skim milk and blood; thus, the use of the platinum-PCR method could also prevent food poisoning due to the presence of C. sakazakii in dairy products. This method could provide outstanding rapidity for use in environmental/food/clinical tests. Platinum-PCR could also be a substitute for the typical culture-based methods currently used.

  3. Sustained secretion of immunoglobulin by long-lived human tonsil plasma cells.

    PubMed

    van Laar, Jacob M; Melchers, Marc; Teng, Y K Onno; van der Zouwen, Boris; Mohammadi, Rozbeh; Fischer, Randy; Margolis, Leonid; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Lipsky, Peter E; Grammer, Amrie C

    2007-09-01

    Immunoglobulin-secreting cells comprise both short-lived proliferating plasmablasts and long-lived nonproliferating plasma cells. To determine the phenotype and functional activity of Ig-secreting cells in human lymphoid tissue, we used a tonsillar organ culture model. A significant proportion of IgA and IgG secretion was shown to be mediated by long-lived, nonproliferating plasma cells that coexpressed high levels of CD27 and CD38. The presence of such cells was further corroborated by the finding of enhanced expression in the CD19(+) B-cell population of XBP-1, IRF-4, and particularly Blimp-1 genes involved in the differentiation of plasma cells. Intact tissue seemed to be necessary for optimal functional activity of plasma cells. A strong correlation was found between concentrations of interleukin-6 and IgA or IgG, but not IgM, in culture supernatants suggesting a role for interleukin-6 in the survival of long-lived plasma cells. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human lymphoid tissue harbors a population of nonproliferating plasma cells that are dependent on an intact microenvironment for ongoing Ig secretion.

  4. DISTRIBUTIONS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE NUCLEI PROVIDED BY STAR-FORMING ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for {sup 40}K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in {sup 40}K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  5. Imaging live cell in micro-liquid enclosure by X-ray laser diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Shibuya, Akemi; Song, Changyong; Kim, Sangsoo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Tairo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Emerging X-ray free-electron lasers with femtosecond pulse duration enable single-shot snapshot imaging almost free from sample damage by outrunning major radiation damage processes. In bioimaging, it is essential to keep the sample close to its natural state. Conventional high-resolution imaging, however, suffers from severe radiation damage that hinders live cell imaging. Here we present a method for capturing snapshots of live cells kept in a micro-liquid enclosure array by X-ray laser diffraction. We place living Microbacterium lacticum cells in an enclosure array and successively expose each enclosure to a single X-ray laser pulse from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser. The enclosure itself works as a guard slit and allows us to record a coherent diffraction pattern from a weakly-scattering submicrometre-sized cell with a clear fringe extending up to a 28-nm full-period resolution. The reconstructed image reveals living whole-cell structures without any staining, which helps advance understanding of intracellular phenomena.

  6. Sustained Secretion of Immunoglobulin by Long-Lived Human Tonsil Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Laar, Jacob M.; Melchers, Marc; Teng, Y. K. Onno; van der Zouwen, Boris; Mohammadi, Rozbeh; Fischer, Randy; Margolis, Leonid; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Lipsky, Peter E.; Grammer, Amrie C.

    2007-01-01

    Immunoglobulin-secreting cells comprise both short-lived proliferating plasmablasts and long-lived nonproliferating plasma cells. To determine the phenotype and functional activity of Ig-secreting cells in human lymphoid tissue, we used a tonsillar organ culture model. A significant proportion of IgA and IgG secretion was shown to be mediated by long-lived, nonproliferating plasma cells that coexpressed high levels of CD27 and CD38. The presence of such cells was further corroborated by the finding of enhanced expression in the CD19+ B-cell population of XBP-1, IRF-4, and particularly Blimp-1 genes involved in the differentiation of plasma cells. Intact tissue seemed to be necessary for optimal functional activity of plasma cells. A strong correlation was found between concentrations of interleukin-6 and IgA or IgG, but not IgM, in culture supernatants suggesting a role for interleukin-6 in the survival of long-lived plasma cells. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human lymphoid tissue harbors a population of nonproliferating plasma cells that are dependent on an intact microenvironment for ongoing Ig secretion. PMID:17690187

  7. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity

  8. The process of a group intervention for caregivers of demented persons living at home: conceptual framework, components, and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, L; Gendron, C; Vézina, J; Hébert, R; Ducharme, F; Lavoie, J-P; Gendron, M; Voyer, L; Préville, M

    2002-08-01

    Most earlier group interventions for caregivers of demented persons lacked a theoretical basis to guide the intervention process and focused on providing information and practical advice and encouraging the expression of feelings. This article presents the process of a group intervention with emphasis on its conceptual framework, components and characteristics. As caregivers are exposed to numerous daily stressful demands, the intervention's conceptual framework was derived from Lazarus and Folkman's transactional theory of stress and coping and Folkman's Coping Effectiveness Training Program. The central aim of the intervention was to improve the ability of caregivers to cope with the stressful demands at the core of caring for a demented person, rather than to focus on information and the task-oriented aspects of caring. The two components of the intervention deal with the cognitive appraisal of stressors and coping strategies, with a view to determining which strategies are most appropriate on the basis of the changeability of stressors. Three coping strategies were proposed: problem solving (problem-focused coping to deal with changeable stressors), reframing (emotion-focused coping to manage the emotional response to unchangeable stressors), and seeking social support (problem- or emotion-focused coping). The most salient characteristics of this group intervention were its intensity (15 meetings) and its focus on the caregivers' daily reality, which provided concrete reference points for the discussion of conceptual notions.

  9. Observation of Live Ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) by Scanning Electron Microscopy under High Vacuum Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yuka; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), which image sample surfaces by scanning with an electron beam, are widely used for steric observations of resting samples in basic and applied biology. Various conventional methods exist for SEM sample preparation. However, conventional SEM is not a good tool to observe living organisms because of the associated exposure to high vacuum pressure and electron beam radiation. Here we attempted SEM observations of live ticks. During 1.5×10−3 Pa vacuum pressure and electron beam irradiation with accelerated voltages (2–5 kV), many ticks remained alive and moved their legs. After 30-min observation, we removed the ticks from the SEM stage; they could walk actively under atmospheric pressure. When we tested 20 ticks (8 female adults and 12 nymphs), they survived for two days after SEM observation. These results indicate the resistance of ticks against SEM observation. Our second survival test showed that the electron beam, not vacuum conditions, results in tick death. Moreover, we describe the reaction of their legs to electron beam exposure. These findings open the new possibility of SEM observation of living organisms and showed the resistance of living ticks to vacuum condition in SEM. These data also indicate, for the first time, the usefulness of tick as a model system for biology under extreme condition. PMID:22431980

  10. Movements of Individual BKCa Channels in Live Cell Membrane Monitored by Site-Specific Labeling Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sehoon; Kim, Hae-Deun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Chul-Seung

    2010-01-01

    The movements of BKCa channels were investigated in live cells using quantum dots (QDs). The extracellular N-terminus was metabolically tagged with biotin, labeled with streptavidin-conjugated QDs and then monitored using real-time time-lapse imaging in COS-7 cells and cultured neurons. By tracking hundreds of channels, we were able to determine the characteristics of channel movements quantitatively. Channels in COS-7 cells exhibited a confined diffusion in an area of 1.915 μm2, with an initial diffusion coefficient of 0.033 μm2/s. In neurons, the channel movements were more heterogeneous and highly dependent on subcellular location. While the channels in soma diffused slowly without clear confinement, axodendritic channels showed more rapid and pseudo-one-dimensional movements. Intriguingly, the channel movement in somata was drastically increased by the neuronal β4 subunit, in contrast to the channels in the axodendritic area where the mobility were significantly decreased. Thus, our results demonstrate that the membrane mobility of BKCa channels can be greatly influenced by the expression system used, subunit composition, and subcellular location. This QD-based, single-molecule tracking technique can be utilized to investigate the cellular mechanisms that determine the mobility as well as the localization of various membrane proteins in live cells. PMID:21044582

  11. College Students' Attitudes towards Living Organisms: The Influence of Experience and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Lola Boeck; Boyer, Stan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the attitude variations between students who had direct experiences with another living thing and those who did not. All students who had direct experiences with another living thing showed a higher mean value in all the attitude categories that showed more concern for another species. Confirms the importance of students having direct…

  12. All the things I have - handling one's material room in old age.

    PubMed

    Larsson Ranada, Asa; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2014-12-01

    The article explores how old people who live in their ordinary home, reason and act regarding their 'material room' (technical objects, such as household appliances, communication tools and things, such as furniture, personal belongings, gadgets, books, paintings, and memorabilia). The interest is in how they, as a consequence of their aging, look at acquiring new objects and phasing out older objects from the home. This is a broader approach than in most other studies of how old people relate to materiality in which attention is mostly paid either to adjustments to the physical environment or to the importance of personal possessions. In the latter cases, the focus is on downsizing processes (e.g. household disbandment or casser maison) in connection with a move to smaller accommodation or to a nursing home. The article is based on a study in which thirteen older people (median age 87), living in a Swedish town of medium size were interviewed (2012) for a third time. The questions concerned the need and desire for new objects, replacement of broken objects, sorting out the home or elsewhere, most cherished possessions, and the role of family members such as children and grandchildren. The results reveal the complexity of how one handles the material room. Most evident is the participants' reluctance to acquire new objects or even to replace broken things. Nearly all of them had considered, but few had started, a process of sorting out objects. These standpoints in combination resulted in a relatively intact material room, which was motivated by an ambition to simplify daily life or to facilitate the approaching dissolution of the home. Some objects of special value and other cherished objects materialized the connections between generations within a family. Some participants wanted to spare their children the burden of having to decide on what to do with their possessions. Others (mostly men), on the contrary, relied on their children to do the sorting out after

  13. Financial characteristics of hospitals purchased by investor-owned chains.

    PubMed Central

    McCue, M J; Furst, R W

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on the preacquisition financial condition of not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital chains. Financial ratios are used to determine if not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital systems have common financial characteristics which make them a likely target for a takeover. The results indicate that during the time period studied, investor-owned hospital systems did tend to purchase hospitals with common financial characteristics and that these characteristics provide a reasonable description of a financially distressed hospital. This finding has important consequences for our health care delivery system. PMID:3771232

  14. Financial characteristics of hospitals purchased by investor-owned chains.

    PubMed

    McCue, M J; Furst, R W

    1986-10-01

    This article focuses on the preacquisition financial condition of not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital chains. Financial ratios are used to determine if not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital systems have common financial characteristics which make them a likely target for a takeover. The results indicate that during the time period studied, investor-owned hospital systems did tend to purchase hospitals with common financial characteristics and that these characteristics provide a reasonable description of a financially distressed hospital. This finding has important consequences for our health care delivery system.

  15. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a

  16. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  17. Multicomponent-flow analyses by multimode method of characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1994-01-01

    For unsteady open-channel flows having N interacting unknown variables, a system of N mutually independent, partial differential equations can be used to describe the flow-field. The system generally belongs to marching-type problems and permits transformation into characteristic equations that are associated with N distinct characteristics directions. Because characteristics can be considered 'wave' or 'disturbance' propagation, a fluvial system so described can be viewed as adequately definable using these N component waves. A numerical algorithm to solve the N families of characteristics can then be introduced for formulation of an N-component flow-simulation model. The multimode method of characteristics (MMOC), a new numerical scheme that has a combined capacity of several specified-time-interval (STI) schemes of the method of characteristics, makes numerical modeling of such N-component riverine flows feasible and attainable. Merging different STI schemes yields different kinds of MMOC schemes, for which two kinds are displayed herein. With the MMOC, each characteristics is dynamically treated by an appropriate numerical mode, which should lead to an effective and suitable global simulation, covering various types of unsteady flow. The scheme is always linearly stable and its numerical accuracy can be systematically analyzed. By increasing the N value, one can develop a progressively sophisticated model that addresses increasingly complex river-mechanics problems.

  18. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731

  19. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  20. Personal resources supporting living at home as described by older home care clients.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Sini; Routasalo, Pirkko; Arve, Seija

    2008-08-01

    This study describes the personal resources of older (> or = 75 years) home care clients in Finland and their perceptions of factors that enhance and constrain their ability to live independently at home. The data were collected by unstructured interviews with 21 older home care clients. Inductive content analysis were used to analyse the data. The resources of older people consisted of a sense of control over one's life and a determination to remain active. Factors enhancing older people's resources were their involvement in leisure activities and social networks, factors undermining their resources were conditions on living imposed by outsiders, declining health and loneliness. The results show that home care professionals do not yet have sufficient skills and abilities to identify and support older people's existing resources. As well as having access to necessary resources, it is also crucial that older people know how to use them.

  1. Modeling of the Deformation of Living Cells Induced by Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M; Baesu, E; Balhorn, R; Allen, M J; Belak, J

    2001-12-21

    We describe finite element modeling of the deformation of living cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells are soft systems, susceptible to large deformations in the course of an AFM measurement. Often the local properties, the subject of the measurement, are obscured by the response of the cell as a whole. The Lagrangian finite deformation model we have developed and implemented in finite elements analysis offers a solution to this problem. The effect of the gross deformation of the cell can be subtracted from the experimentally measured data in order to give a reproducible value for local properties. This facilitates concurrent experimental efforts to measure the mechanical properties at specific receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell.

  2. Efficient adsorption of waterborne short-lived radon decay products by glass fiber filters.

    PubMed

    von Philipsborn, H

    1997-02-01

    Glass fiber filters of a certain brand were found to be very efficient (retention > 95%) for adsorption of short-lived radon decay products during filtration of water. Carrier-free samples are obtained in a convenient geometry for efficient gross beta counting. Adsorption of "hot atoms" is not disturbed by the presence of "cold" lead ions. Approximate radioactive equilibrium between radon and its short-lived decay products may or may not exist in water at the source, but does exist after 3 h in PET bottles. These bottles are shown to be gas-tight for radon. Calibration of activity concentration in Bq L(-1) (radon gas concentration approximately equilibrium equivalent radon concentration) was performed by several standard procedures. Limit of detection is 2 Bq L(-1) within 10 min (total time) or 10 Bq L(-1) within 5 min for a net signal of 5 times standard deviation.

  3. Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging of Live Cells by Effective Cytosolic Delivery of Probes

    PubMed Central

    Massignani, Marzia; Canton, Irene; Sun, Tao; Hearnden, Vanessa; MacNeil, Sheila; Blanazs, Adam; Armes, Steven P.; Lewis, Andrew; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Background Microscopic techniques enable real-space imaging of complex biological events and processes. They have become an essential tool to confirm and complement hypotheses made by biomedical scientists and also allow the re-examination of existing models, hence influencing future investigations. Particularly imaging live cells is crucial for an improved understanding of dynamic biological processes, however hitherto live cell imaging has been limited by the necessity to introduce probes within a cell without altering its physiological and structural integrity. We demonstrate herein that this hurdle can be overcome by effective cytosolic delivery. Principal Findings We show the delivery within several types of mammalian cells using nanometre-sized biomimetic polymer vesicles (a.k.a. polymersomes) that offer both highly efficient cellular uptake and endolysomal escape capability without any effect on the cellular metabolic activity. Such biocompatible polymersomes can encapsulate various types of probes including cell membrane probes and nucleic acid probes as well as labelled nucleic acids, antibodies and quantum dots. Significance We show the delivery of sufficient quantities of probes to the cytosol, allowing sustained functional imaging of live cells over time periods of days to weeks. Finally the combination of such effective staining with three-dimensional imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy allows cell imaging in complex three-dimensional environments under both mono-culture and co-culture conditions. Thus cell migration and proliferation can be studied in models that are much closer to the in vivo situation. PMID:20454666

  4. [Live coral predation by fish in Tayrona Nature National Park, Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    Live coral predation by fish was evaluated in two bays of the Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombia), as a possible biological agent causing coral mortality. Visual censuses were used to identify the most important predator. Predation incidence was determined by examining all colonies present in permanent belt transects (20 x 2 m) in two reef environments (one dominated by Colpophyllia natans and the other one by Montastraea faveolata), for two climatic seasons (rainy and dry seasons). The parrotfish Sparisoma viride was the most important predator due to its biting frequency and bite size. S. viride adults of the initial and terminal phases, removed live tissue and part of the calcareous matrix of M. faveolata, M. annularis, Porites astreoides and C. natans, of which, the last one lost a major amount of tissue per area (3.51 cm2) and volume (3.22 cm3) per bite. A negative exponential tendency (r2=0.94), between coral density and volume removed was found, indicating that the coral density determines the bite's damage. There is no clear relationship between predation incidence and climatic seasons at the sites studied. At Chengue and Gayraca bays, live coral predation is one of the factors contributing to coral tissue loss and could have important consequences on the dynamic of these reefs.

  5. Self-Recognition in Live Videos by Young Children: Does Video Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of the experiment reported here was to establish whether self-recognition in live video can be facilitated when live video training is provided to children aged 2-2.5 years. While the majority of children failed the test of live self-recognition prior to video training, more than half exhibited live self-recognition post video…

  6. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if

  7. Fast heat propagation in living tissue caused by branching artery network.

    PubMed

    Gafiychuk, V V; Lubashevsky, I A; Datsko, B Y

    2005-11-01

    We analyze the effect of blood flow through large arteries of peripheral circulation on heat transfer in living tissue. Blood flow in such arteries gives rise to fast heat propagation over large scales, which is described in terms of heat superdiffusion. The corresponding bioheat heat equation is derived. In particular, we show that under local strong heating of a small tissue domain the temperature distribution inside the surrounding tissue is affected substantially by heat superdiffusion.

  8. Quantitative measurement of permeabilization of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grognot, Marianne; Gallot, Guilhem

    2015-09-01

    Using Attenuated Total Reflection imaging technique in the terahertz domain, we demonstrate non-invasive, non-staining real time measurements of cytoplasm leakage during permeabilization of epithelial cells by saponin. The terahertz signal is mostly sensitive to the intracellular protein concentration in the cells, in a very good agreement with standard bicinchoninic acid protein measurements. It opens the way to in situ real time dynamics of protein content and permeabilization in live cells.

  9. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    either β-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH.

  10. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    SciTech Connect

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro Milani, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells’ fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young’s modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young’s modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  11. Long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice show a delay in age-related changes of body composition and bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bonkowski, Michael S; Pamenter, Richard W; Rocha, Juliana S; Masternak, Michal M; Panici, Jacob A; Bartke, Andrzej

    2006-06-01

    There is conflicting information on the physiological role of growth hormone (GH) in the control of aging. This study reports dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of body composition and bone characteristics in young, adult, and aged long-lived GH receptor knockout (GHR-KO) and normal mice to determine the effects of GH resistance during aging. Compared to controls, GHR-KO mice showed an increased percentage of body fat. GHR-KO mice have reduced total-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone area, but these parameters increased with age. In addition, GHR-KO mice have decreased femur length, femur BMD, and lower lumbar BMD compared to controls in all age groups. These parameters also continued to increase with age. Our results indicate that GH resistance alters body composition, bone growth, and bone maintenance during aging in GHR-KO mice.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of parenting among people served by Assertive Community Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Rebecca; Krupa, Terry; Eastabrook, Shirley; Horgan, Salinda

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and the characteristics of parenting among people served by Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Four semi-rural ACT teams in southeastern Ontario were surveyed. The findings suggest that a significant minority (38%) of persons receiving ACT services are parents, although most (84%) do not live with their children and many rarely see their children. These findings are surprising considering the lack of discussion in the literature about parenting among recipients of ACT services. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning for ACT services. PMID:15468638

  13. Rapid detection of live methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by using an integrated microfluidic system capable of ethidium monoazide pre-treatment and molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium resistant to all existing penicillin and lactam-based antimicrobial drugs and, therefore, has become one of the most prevalent antibiotic-resistant pathogens found in hospitals. The multi-drug resistant characteristics of MRSA make it challenging to clinically treat infected patients. Therefore, early diagnosis of MRSA has become a public-health priority worldwide. Conventionally, cell-culture based methodology and microscopic identification are commonly used for MRSA detection. However, they are relatively time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, molecular diagnosis based on nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been widely investigated for the rapid detection of MRSA. However, genomic DNA of both live and dead pathogens can be distinguished by conventional PCR. These results thus could not provide sufficient confirmation of an active infection for clinicians. In this study, live MRSA was rapidly detected by using a new integrated microfluidic system. The microfluidic system has been demonstrated to have 100% specificity to detect live MRSA with S. aureus and other pathogens commonly found in hospitals. The experimental results showed that the limit of detection for live MRSA from biosamples was approximately 102 CFU/μl. In addition, the entire diagnostic protocol, from sample pre-treatment to fluorescence observation, can be automatically completed within 2.5 h. Consequently, this microfluidic system may be a powerful tool for the rapid molecular diagnosis of live MRSA. PMID:24019858

  14. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  15. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  16. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  17. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  19. Keeping Things Interesting: A Reuse Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, V.; Swick, R.; Seufert, E.

    2006-12-01

    Software reuse has several obvious advantages. By taking advantage of the experience and skill of colleagues one not only saves time, money and resources, but can also jump start a project that might otherwise have floundered from the start, or not even have been possible. One of the least talked about advantages of software reuse is it helps keep the work interesting for the developers. Reuse prevents developers from spending time and energy writing software solutions to problems that have already been solved, and frees them to concentrate on solving new problems, developing new components, and doing things that have never been done before. At the National Snow and Ice Data Center we are fortunate our user community has some unique needs that aren't met by mainstream solutions. Consequently we look for reuse opportunities wherever possible so we can focus on the tasks that add value for our user community. This poster offers a case study of one thread through a decade of reuse at NSIDC that has involved eight different development efforts to date.

  20. Reverse transduction measured in the living cochlea by low-coherence heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the remarkable sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammalian hearing depend on outer hair cell-generated force, which amplifies sound-induced vibrations inside the cochlea. This 'reverse transduction' force production has never been demonstrated experimentally, however, in the living ear. Here by directly measuring microstructure vibrations inside the cochlear partition using a custom-built interferometer, we demonstrate that electrical stimulation can evoke both fast broadband and slow sharply tuned responses of the reticular lamina, but only a slow tuned response of the basilar membrane. Our results indicate that outer hair cells can generate sufficient force to drive the reticular lamina over all audible frequencies in living cochleae. Contrary to expectations, the cellular force causes a travelling wave rather than an immediate local vibration of the basilar membrane; this travelling wave vibrates in phase with the reticular lamina at the best frequency, and results in maximal vibration at the apical ends of outer hair cells. PMID:26732830

  1. Micromechanical mapping of live cells by multiple-particle-tracking microrheology.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yiider; Kole, Thomas P; Wirtz, Denis

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of live-cell multiple-particle-tracking microrheology (MPTM), which quantifies the local mechanical properties of living cells by monitoring the Brownian motion of individual microinjected fluorescent particles. Particle tracking of carboxylated microspheres imbedded in the cytoplasm produce spatial distributions of cytoplasmic compliances and frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts are found to behave like a stiff elastic material when subjected to high rates of deformations and like a soft liquid at low rates of deformations. By analyzing the relative contributions of the subcellular compliances to the mean compliance, we find that the cytoplasm is much more mechanically heterogeneous than reconstituted actin filament networks. Carboxylated microspheres embedded in cytoplasm through endocytosis and amine-modified polystyrene microspheres, which are microinjected or endocytosed, often show directed motion and strong nonspecific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins, which prevents computation of local moduli from the microsphere displacements. Using MPTM, we investigate the mechanical function of alpha-actinin in non-muscle cells: alpha-actinin-microinjected cells are stiffer and yet mechanically more heterogeneous than control cells, in agreement with models of reconstituted cross-linked actin filament networks. MPTM is a new type of functional microscopy that can test the local, rate-dependent mechanical and ultrastructural properties of living cells. PMID:12496086

  2. From Past Issues: The More Things Change...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Though computers were still housed in large, air-conditioned rooms and were often programmed via decks of punched cards, a number of chemists were making effective use of them in teaching as well as research. Eight papers in this issue reported on computer programs. Castleberry, Culp, and Lagowski described an educational experiment in which the effectiveness of computer-based instruction was evaluated in a general chemistry course. Breneman reported on minicomputer-aided instruction, and others described programs that normalized grades, calculated heats of combustion, analyzed results of physical chemistry experiments, solved secular equations, calculated mass spectra, and calculated rate constants. Output devices were usually character based and graphics were rudimentary, as exemplified by the teletype plots of hydrogenic orbitals shown above. The editorial, "On Abandoning Grading and Reconsidering Standards" advocated neither and presented four arguments for maintaining traditional standards and realistic grades. This immediately followed half a decade when poor grades might result in being drafted and serving in Vietnam and student protests were based on government policy rather than whether or not to enforce rules against student drinking. Editor Lippincott pointed out that after several years few students return to thank a professor for making things easy, but many express appreciation for challenges that proved they could do more than they thought they could.

  3. Split immunity: immune inhibition of rat gliomas by subcutaneous exposure to unmodified live tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Volovitz, Ilan; Marmor, Yotvat; Azulay, Meir; Machlenkin, Arthur; Goldberger, Ofir; Mor, Felix; Slavin, Shimon; Ram, Zvi; Cohen, Irun R; Eisenbach, Lea

    2011-11-15

    Gliomas that grow uninhibited in the brain almost never metastasize outside the CNS. The rare occurrences of extracranial metastasis are usually associated with a suppressed immune system. This observation raises the possibility that some gliomas might not grow outside the CNS due to an inherent immune response, We report in this study that the highly malignant F98 Fischer rat undifferentiated glioma, which grows aggressively in the brain, spontaneously regresses when injected live s.c. We found that this regression is immune-mediated and that it markedly enhances the survival or cures rats challenged with the same tumor intracranially either before or after the s.c. live-cell treatment. Adoptive transfer experiments showed the effect was immune-mediated and that the CD8 T cell fraction, which exhibited direct tumor cytotoxicity, was more effective than the CD4 T cell fraction in mediating resistance to intracranial challenge of naive rats. Brain tumors from treated rats exhibited enhanced CD3(+)CD8(+)CD4(-) and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(-) T cell infiltration and IFN-γ secretion. The results in the F98 glioma were corroborated in the Lewis rat CNS-1 astrocytoma. In both tumor models, s.c. treatment with live cells was significantly better than immunization with irradiated cells. We propose in this study a location-based immunotherapeutic phenomenon we term "split immunity": a tumor that thrives in an immune-privileged site may be inhibited by injecting live, unmodified tumor cells into a site that is not privileged, generating protective immunity that spreads back to the privileged site. Split immunity could explain several long-standing paradoxes regarding the lack of overt extracranial metastasis in patients with primary brain tumors.

  4. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  5. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  6. Everyday living with diabetes described by family members of adult people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  7. Topography of native SK channels revealed by force nanoscopy in living neurons.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Soh, Heun; Walikonis, Randall S; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2012-08-15

    The spatial distribution of ion channels is an important determinant of neuronal excitability. However, there are currently no quantitative techniques to map endogenous ion channels with single-channel resolution in living cells. Here, we demonstrate that integration of pharmacology with single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for the high-resolution mapping of native potassium channels in living neurons. We focus on calcium-activated small conductance (SK) potassium channels, which play a critical role in brain physiology. By linking apamin, a toxin that specifically binds to SK channels, to the tip of an AFM cantilever, we are able to detect binding events between the apamin and SK channels. We find that native SK channels from rat hippocampal neurons reside primarily in dendrites as single entities and in pairs. We also show that SK channel dendritic distribution is dynamic and under the control of protein kinase A. Our study demonstrates that integration of toxin pharmacology with single-molecule AFM can be used to quantitatively map individual native ion channels in living cells, and thus provides a new tool for the study of ion channels in cellular physiology. PMID:22895725

  8. Single-Molecule Studies of Integrins by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the single-molecule level, i.e., between one adhesion receptor and its counter-receptor, appears to be an experimental challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used in its force spectroscopy mode to determine unbinding forces of a single pair of adhesion receptors, even with a living cell as a probe. This chapter provides an overview of AFM force measurements of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands. A focus is given to major integrins expressed on leukocytes, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). These receptors are crucial for leukocyte trafficking in health and disease. LFA-1 and VLA-1 can be activated within the bloodstream from a low-affinity to a high-affinity receptor by chemokines in order to adhere strongly to the vessel wall before the receptor-bearing leukocytes extravasate. The experimental considerations needed to provide near-physiological conditions for a living cell and to be able to measure adequate forces at the single-molecule level are discussed in detail. AFM technology has been developed into a modern and extremely sensitive tool in biomedical research. It appears now that AFM force spectroscopy could enter, within a few years, medical applications in diagnosis and therapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  9. Mode of Myosin Transportation in Living Cells Studied by Single Particle Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang-yi; Xu, Ning; Guan, Ying-hua; Zhang, You-yi; Zhao, Xin-sheng

    2007-08-01

    The transport of internalized α1A-adrenergic receptor (α1A-AR) by myosin protein in live cells was studied. The technique of single particle tracking by fluorescence imaging with high temporal and spatial resolution was used. The endosomes of α1A-AR were transported along actin filaments in a step-by-step mode. The average step-size in different time resolutions is consistent with the step-size of myosin assay in vitro. With the simulation of the stepwise traces in different time resolutions, we found that the kinetic process of each step is in coherence with the single myosin assay in vitro.

  10. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  11. How Things Work, an Enrichment Class for Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goller, Tamara; Watson, Nancy; Watson, James

    1998-05-01

    Middle School students are curious about their surroundings. They are always asking questions about how things work. So this semester two middle school science teachers and a physicist combined their strengths and taught HOW THINGS WORK, THE PHYSICS OF EVERYDAY LIFE (a book by Louis A. Bloomfield). The students studied the physics behind everyday objects to see how they worked. They read, discussed the physics, and completed laboratory exercises using lasers, cameras, and other objects. Each student then picked an inventor that interested him/her and used the INTERNET to research the inventor and made a class presentation. For the final project, each students use the physics they learned and became an inventor and made an invention.

  12. Application of Multi Factor Authentication in Internet of Things Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-08-01

    Authentication forms the gateway to any secure system. Together with integrity, confidentiality and authorization it helps in preventing any sort of intrusions into the system. Up until a few years back password based authentication was the most common form of authentication to any secure network. But with the advent of more sophisticated technologies this form of authentication although still widely used has become insecure. Furthermore, with the rise of 'Internet of Things' where the number of devices would grow manifold it would be infeasible for user to remember innumerable passwords. Therefore, it's important to address this concern by devising ways in which multiple forms of authentication would be required to gain access to any smart devices and at the same time its usability would be high. In this paper, a methodology is discussed as to what kind of authentication mechanisms could be deployed in internet of things (IOT).

  13. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  14. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  15. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  16. The lived experience of adult male survivors who allege childhood sexual abuse by clergy.

    PubMed

    Fater, K; Mullaney, J A

    2000-01-01

    This phenomenological study describes the essential structure of the lived experience of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by clergy (AMSCSABC). A purposive sample of seven AMSCSABC related their subjective experiences in semistructured interviews. Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Survivors describe a bifurcated rage and spiritual distress that pervades their entire "lifebeing." Learning about AMSCSABC will assist nurses to identify potential risk factors of childhood sexual abuse by clergy (CSABC), design prevention strategies, and enhance empathy for a healing relationship.

  17. Label-free detection of anticancer drug paclitaxel in living cells by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Derely, L.; Vegh, A.-G.; Durand, J.-C.; Gergely, C.; Larroque, C.; Fauroux, M.-A.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2013-03-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy, a non-invasive, label-free, and high spatial resolution imaging technique is employed to trace the anticancer drug paclitaxel in living Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The Raman images were treated by K-mean cluster analysis to detect the drug in cells. Distribution of paclitaxel in cells is verified by calculating the correlation coefficient between the reference spectrum of the drug and the whole Raman image spectra. A time dependent gradual diffusion of paclitaxel all over the cell is observed suggesting a complementary picture of the pharmaceutical action of this drug based on rapid binding of free tubulin to crystallized paclitaxel.

  18. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Kilbourn, Michael R; Scott, Peter J H

    2016-08-24

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future? PMID:27610410

  19. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future? PMID:27610410

  20. Magnetic coupling by using levitation characteristics of YBCO superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, M.; Hida, A.; Takahata, R.

    1993-03-01

    A mechanical system which uses high lateral restoring forces of high-Tc materials as the driving force for a magnetic coupling is proposed. As the basic study of the superconducting magnetic coupling, the relationship between the lateral restoring force and levitation force, transmitted torque characteristics as a function of a twisting angle and clearance, and damping characteristics of the coupling were examined. Superiorities of the coupling such as high damping coefficients and high stability against time and twisting angle were revealed. A magnetic force sensor system was used to evaluate the superconducting characteristics of materials, and nonuniform distribution of repulsive force was observed for the YBCO pellet fabricated by the melt-powder-melt-growth process. The improvement of the homogeneity was achieved by compensating for the composition rate which had changed during the quenching process.

  1. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter F; Hoen, Anne G; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C; Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J

    2016-04-01

    Background.  The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods.  Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results.  Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions.  The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  2. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  3. A Platform for Learning Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanovic, Zorica; Simic, Konstantin; Milutinovic, Miloš; Radenkovic, Božidar; Despotovic-Zrakic, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for conducting Internet of Things (IoT) classes based on a web-service oriented cloud platform. The goal of the designed model is to provide university students with knowledge about IoT concepts, possibilities, and business models, and allow them to develop basic system prototypes using general-purpose microdevices and…

  4. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  5. The Essential Rule: Do the Right Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Students can avoid poor choices if educators teach them to stop and ask themselves, "Is this the right thing to do?" To be effective, schools must create a climate of high expectations, not only in terms of academic performance, but also to elevate the levels of students' decision-making processes. Educators can do this through coaching, modeling,…

  6. Children of Divorce: Things You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Mary Lou

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses factors that influence children of divorced parents (length of time since divorce, family income level); summarizes research related to these children's self concept, academic performance, and classroom behavior; and suggests several things that parents and educators can do to support children of divorce. (IAH)

  7. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Infections Due to Adenovirus in Children Living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Mori, Alessandro; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fossali, Emilio; Piralla, Antonio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the predominant human adenovirus (HAdV) species and types associated with pediatric respiratory infections, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from otherwise healthy children attending an emergency room in Milan, Italy, due to a respiratory tract infection from January 1 to February 28 of two subsequent years, 2013 and 2014. The HAdVs were detected using a respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP FAST v2) and with a HAdV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction; their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Among 307 nasopharyngeal samples, 61 (19.9%) tested positive for HAdV. HAdV was the only virus detected in 31/61 (50.8%) cases, whereas it was found in association with one other virus in 25 (41.0%) cases and with two or more viruses in 5 (8.2%) cases. Human Enterovirus/human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infecting viral agents and were found in 12 (19.7%) and 7 (11.5%) samples, respectively. Overall, the HAdV strain sequences analyzed were highly conserved. In comparison to HAdV-negative children, those infected with HAdV had a reduced frequency of lower respiratory tract involvement (36.1% vs 55.2%; p = 0.007), wheezing (0.0% vs 12.5%; p = 0.004), and hospitalization (27.9% vs 56.1%; p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy and white blood cell counts were more frequently prescribed (91.9% vs 57.1%; p = 0.04) and higher (17,244 ± 7,737 vs 9,565 ± 3,211 cells/μL; p = 0.04), respectively, in children infected by HAdV-C than among those infected by HAdV-B. On the contrary, those infected by HAdV-B had more frequently lower respiratory tract involvement (57.1% vs 29.7%) but difference did not reach statistical significant (p = 0.21). Children with high viral load were absent from child care attendance for a longer period of time (14.5 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.002) and had higher C reactive protein levels (41.3 ± 78.5 vs 5.4 ± 9.6 μg/dL; p = 0.03). This study has shown that

  8. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Infections Due to Adenovirus in Children Living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Mori, Alessandro; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fossali, Emilio; Piralla, Antonio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the predominant human adenovirus (HAdV) species and types associated with pediatric respiratory infections, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from otherwise healthy children attending an emergency room in Milan, Italy, due to a respiratory tract infection from January 1 to February 28 of two subsequent years, 2013 and 2014. The HAdVs were detected using a respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP FAST v2) and with a HAdV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction; their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Among 307 nasopharyngeal samples, 61 (19.9%) tested positive for HAdV. HAdV was the only virus detected in 31/61 (50.8%) cases, whereas it was found in association with one other virus in 25 (41.0%) cases and with two or more viruses in 5 (8.2%) cases. Human Enterovirus/human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infecting viral agents and were found in 12 (19.7%) and 7 (11.5%) samples, respectively. Overall, the HAdV strain sequences analyzed were highly conserved. In comparison to HAdV-negative children, those infected with HAdV had a reduced frequency of lower respiratory tract involvement (36.1% vs 55.2%; p = 0.007), wheezing (0.0% vs 12.5%; p = 0.004), and hospitalization (27.9% vs 56.1%; p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy and white blood cell counts were more frequently prescribed (91.9% vs 57.1%; p = 0.04) and higher (17,244 ± 7,737 vs 9,565 ± 3,211 cells/μL; p = 0.04), respectively, in children infected by HAdV-C than among those infected by HAdV-B. On the contrary, those infected by HAdV-B had more frequently lower respiratory tract involvement (57.1% vs 29.7%) but difference did not reach statistical significant (p = 0.21). Children with high viral load were absent from child care attendance for a longer period of time (14.5 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.002) and had higher C reactive protein levels (41.3 ± 78.5 vs 5.4 ± 9.6 μg/dL; p = 0.03). This study has shown that

  9. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  10. Imaging of green fluorescent protein in live plant by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Tao; Sun, Jialin; Guo, Jihua; Zhao, Jun

    2002-04-01

    An auxin/IAA induced in vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a living plant Arabidopsis root has been studied by a scanning near-field microscope in transmission mode. The promising near-field images of the inducible GFPs at sub- surface of a plant cell suggest that they may locate proximity to the cell wall, i.e. both sides of and in the cytoplasm membrane. The clear and faint fluorescent spots with 1-3 micrometers showed that the proteins localized nearer and farther to the cell wall, respectively. All GFP molecules gathered together in a cell, and no individual GFP was observed in the experiment.

  11. Strain-Specific Protective Effect of the Immunity Induced by Live Malarial Sporozoites under Chloroquine Cover

    PubMed Central

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Cheesman, Sandra; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Carter, Richard; Pathirana, Sisira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective and in others strain-specific. In the present work, we have studied the strain-specificity of live sporozoite-induced immunity using two genetically and immunologically different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Pc746 and PcCeylon, in toque monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were immunized against live sporozoites of either the Pc746 (n = 5), or the PcCeylon (n = 4) strain, by the bites of 2–4 sporozoite-infected Anopheles tessellates mosquitoes per monkey under concurrent treatments with chloroquine and primaquine to abrogate detectable blood infections. Subsequently, a group of non-immunized monkeys (n = 4), and the two groups of immunized monkeys were challenged with a mixture of sporozoites of the two strains by the bites of 2–5 infective mosquitoes from each strain per monkey. In order to determine the strain-specificity of the protective immunity, the proportions of parasites of the two strains in the challenge infections were quantified using an allele quantification assay, Pyrosequencing™, based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the parasites’ circumsporozoite protein gene. The Pyrosequencing™ data showed that a significant reduction of parasites of the immunizing strain in each group of strain-specifically immunized monkeys had occurred, indicating a stronger killing effect on parasites of the immunizing strain. Thus, the protective immunity developed following a single, live sporozoite/chloroquine immunization, acted specifically against the immunizing strain and was, therefore, strain-specific. As our experiment does not allow us to determine the

  12. Characterization of properties and structural heterogeneity of crosslinked polymers formed by living radical photopolymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannurpatti, Anandkumar R.

    Polymer networks formed by radical photopolymerizations of multifunctional monomers are finding use in an increasing number of applications. To meet this increasing demand, it is important to tailor these materials and their properties to suit the application requirements. However, to achieve this goal, an understanding of the underlying polymerization-structure-property relationships of these networks is necessary. This work focuses on understanding the effect of polymerization conditions and the evolution of material properties and structural heterogeneity in crosslinked polymers. While photopolymerizing these multifunctional monomers, microgels, unreacted double bonds (monomeric and pendant), and trapped radicals are features that have been observed by several researchers. Also, the resultant structure of the crosslinked polymers is extremely heterogeneous. Previously, examining the material properties of such networks as a function of temperature has been very difficult because the unreacted double bonds and trapped radicals continue to react as the temperature approaches the glass transition temperature of the material. Therefore, while studying the properties of the sample, the structure and properties are altered. In this work, "living" radical polymerizations are used to avoid radical trapping. As a result, for the first time the properties and structural heterogeneity of the polymers are studied as a function of temperature at various double bond conversions and crosslinking densities. To enable the use of "living" radical photopolymerizations in the characterization of polymer networks, it was important to understand the mechanism of the "living" radical polymerizations. Therefore, a study of the kinetics and mechanisms of the "living" radical polymerizations was also undertaken. Experimental and modeling studies were performed to understand the mechanism of these reactions. By performing dynamic mechanical and dielectric measurements on the polymer

  13. Home theater projectors: the next big thing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnock, Christopher B.

    2002-04-01

    The business presentation market has traditionally been the mainstay of the projection business, but as these users find the projectors work well at showing movies at home, interest in the home entertainment market is heating up. The idea of creating a theater environment in the home, complete with big screen projector and quality audio system, is not new. Wealthy patrons have been doing it for years. But can the concept be extended to ordinary living rooms? Many think so. Already pioneers like Sony, InFocus, Toshiba and Plus Vision are offering first generation products - and others will follow. But this market will require projectors that have different performance characteristics than those designed for data projection. In this paper, we will discuss how the requirements for a home theater projector differ from those of a data projector. We will provide updated information on who is doing what in this segment and give some insight into the growth potential.

  14. Alternative Gravity Rotation Curves for the LITTLE THINGS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Dentico, Jeremy; O'Brien, James; Gay, Joseph; Moss, Robert; Young, Bryan; Smith, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Galactic rotation curves have proven to be the testing ground for dark matter bounds in spiral galaxies of all morphologies. Dwarf Galaxies serve as an increasingly interesting testing ground of rotation curve dynamics due to their increased stellar formation and typically rising rotation curve. These galaxies usually are not dominated by typical stellar structure and mostly terminate at small radial distances. This, coupled with the fact that Cold Dark Matter theories such as NFW (ΛCDM) struggle with the universality of galactic rotation curves, allow for exclusive features of alternative gravitational models to be analyzed. Recently, the THINGS (The HI Nearby Galactic Survey) has been extended to include a sample of 25 dwarf galaxies now known as the LITTLE THINGS Survey. Here, we present a thorough application of alternative gravitational models to the LITTLE THINGS survey, specifically focusing on MOND and Conformal Gravity. An analysis and discussion of the results of the fitting procedure of the two alternative gravitational models are explored. We posit here that both the Conformal Gravity and MOND can provide an accurate description of the galactic dynamics without the need for copious dark matter.

  15. Impact of severe disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children living in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Eric A; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    . The nonprophylaxed hospitalized group was compared with the nonprophylaxed, nonhospitalized group, and presumptive risk factors were determined for rehospitalization among premature infants. These independent variables, similar for both years, were identified as low gestational age, underlying chronic lung disease, living with school age siblings, exposure to tobacco smoke and a chronologic age of < 3 months at the onset of the RSV season.Stable, yet high rates of admission for RSV illness in Spain were observed in this premature group of < or =32 weeks gestational age: 13.4% for 1999; and 13.1% for the year 2000. Of those hospitalized during the 2 years of the study, 18 and 25%, respectively, were admitted to the intensive care unit. With the exception of higher rates of family allergy, multiple deliveries and a lower rate of neonatal morbidity, prognostic variables for high risk of hospital admission in the year 2000 compared with those of the 1999 sample. Findings from this comprehensive, prospective study served as the basis for the development of standards for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection by the Spanish Society of Neonatology.

  16. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wei-yang; Min, Shermann

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  17. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  18. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N.; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo. To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs. PMID:26952986

  19. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2016-04-15

    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs.

  20. High-Efficiency Capture of Drug Resistant-Influenza Virus by Live Imaging of Sialidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tamoto, Chihiro; Sahara, Keiji; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yokozawa, Tatsuya; Shibahara, Nona; Wada, Hirohisa; Minami, Akira; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses possess a neuraminidase protein that shows sialidase activity. Influenza virus-specific neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are commonly used for clinical treatment of influenza. However, some influenza A and B viruses that are resistant to NAIs have emerged in nature. NAI-resistant viruses have been monitored in public hygiene surveys and the mechanism underlying the resistance has been studied. Here, we describe a new assay for selective detection and isolation of an NAI-resistant virus in a speedy and easy manner by live fluorescence imaging of viral sialidase activity, which we previously developed, in order to achieve high-efficiency capture of an NAI-resistant virus. An NAI-resistant virus maintains sialidase activity even at a concentration of NAI that leads to complete deactivation of the virus. Infected cells and focuses (infected cell populations) of an oseltamivir-resistant virus were selectively visualized by live fluorescence sialidase imaging in the presence of oseltamivir, resulting in high-efficiency isolation of the resistant viruses. The use of a combination of other NAIs (zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) in the imaging showed that the oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in 2008 was sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir but resistant to peramivir. Fluorescence imaging in the presence of zanamivir also succeeded in selective live-cell visualization of cells that expressed zanamivir-resistant NA. Fluorescence imaging of NAI-resistant sialidase activity will be a powerful method for study of the NAI resistance mechanism, for public monitoring of NAI-resistant viruses, and for development of a new NAI that shows an effect on various NAI-resistant mutations. PMID:27232333

  1. Ligand-receptor interactions in live cells by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Aladdin

    2004-04-01

    Receptor binding studies most often require the use of radioactively labeled ligands. In certain cases, the numbers of receptors are few per cell and no specific binding is detected because of a high background. Specific interactions between certain ligands (e.g. peptides, hormones, natural products) and their receptors are, therefore, often overlooked by the conventional binding technique. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allows detection of the interaction of ligands with receptors in their native environment in live cells in a tiny confocal volume element (0.2 fl) at single-molecule detection sensitivity. This technique permits the identification of receptors which were not possible before to detect by isotope labeling. The beauty of the FCS technique is that there is no need for separating an unbound ligand from a bound one to calculate the receptor bound and free ligand fractions. This review will show FCS as a sensitive and a rapid technique to study ligand-receptor interaction in live cells and will demonstrate that the FCS-analysis of ligand-receptor interactions in live cells fulfils all the criteria of a ligand binding to its receptor i.e. it is able to provide information on the affinity and specificity of a ligand, binding constant, association and dissociation rate constants as well as the number and mobility of receptors carrying a fluorescently labeled ligand. This review is of pharmaceutical significance since it will provide insights on how FCS can be used as a rapid technique for studying ligand-receptor interactions in cell cultures, which is one step forward towards a high throughput drug screening in cell cultures. PMID:15078155

  2. Characteristics and Qualities Needed for Success by School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Keith; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose was to identify the leadership characteristics and qualities perceived by school nutrition (SN) directors as necessary for success and determine whether training is needed to develop these attributes. Methods: A panel of seven SN professionals was assembled to ascertain their opinions regarding leadership…

  3. Assessment of mild steel damage characteristics by physical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Soldatenkov, A. P.; Levin, V. P.; Tyutin, M. R.; Demina, Yu. A.; Petersen, T. B.; Dubov, A. A.; Semashko, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation and fracture localization characteristics are estimated by the methods of replicas, acoustic emission, metal magnetic memory, ultrasonic attenuation, microhardness, and electrical resistance. The relation between the estimated physical parameters on the one hand and the plastic zone size and the microcrack concentration in this zone, on the other, is considered.

  4. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  5. Defining the subcellular interface of nanoparticles by live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Hemmerich, Peter H; von Mikecz, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of nanoparticle-bio-interactions within living cells requires knowledge about the dynamic behavior of nanomaterials during their cellular uptake, intracellular traffic and mutual reactions with cell organelles. Here, we introduce a protocol of combined kinetic imaging techniques that enables investigation of exemplary fluorochrome-labelled nanoparticles concerning their intracellular fate. By time-lapse confocal microscopy we observe fast, dynamin-dependent uptake of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles via the cell membrane within seconds. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments reveal fast and complete exchange of the investigated nanoparticles at mitochondria, cytoplasmic vesicles or the nuclear envelope. Nuclear translocation is observed within minutes by free diffusion and active transport. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) indicate diffusion coefficients of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles in the nucleus and the cytoplasm that are consistent with particle motion in living cells based on diffusion. Determination of the apparent hydrodynamic radii by FCS and RICS shows that nanoparticles exert their cytoplasmic and nuclear effects mainly as mobile, monodisperse entities. Thus, a complete toolkit of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy is presented for the investigation of nanomaterial biophysics in subcellular microenvironments that contributes to develop a framework of intracellular nanoparticle delivery routes.

  6. Defining the Subcellular Interface of Nanoparticles by Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerich, Peter H.; von Mikecz, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of nanoparticle-bio-interactions within living cells requires knowledge about the dynamic behavior of nanomaterials during their cellular uptake, intracellular traffic and mutual reactions with cell organelles. Here, we introduce a protocol of combined kinetic imaging techniques that enables investigation of exemplary fluorochrome-labelled nanoparticles concerning their intracellular fate. By time-lapse confocal microscopy we observe fast, dynamin-dependent uptake of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles via the cell membrane within seconds. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments reveal fast and complete exchange of the investigated nanoparticles at mitochondria, cytoplasmic vesicles or the nuclear envelope. Nuclear translocation is observed within minutes by free diffusion and active transport. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) indicate diffusion coefficients of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles in the nucleus and the cytoplasm that are consistent with particle motion in living cells based on diffusion. Determination of the apparent hydrodynamic radii by FCS and RICS shows that nanoparticles exert their cytoplasmic and nuclear effects mainly as mobile, monodisperse entities. Thus, a complete toolkit of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy is presented for the investigation of nanomaterial biophysics in subcellular microenvironments that contributes to develop a framework of intracellular nanoparticle delivery routes. PMID:23637951

  7. Labeling Live Cells by Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne-Azide Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Vu; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Manchester, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, optimized for biological molecules in aqueous buffers, has been shown to rapidly label mammalian cells in culture with no loss in cell viability. Metabolic uptake and display of the azide derivative of N-acetylmannosamine developed by Bertozzi, followed by CuAAC ligation using sodium ascorbate and the ligand tris(hydroxypropyltriazolyl)methylamine (THPTA), gave rise to abundant covalent attachment of dye-alkyne reactants. THPTA serves both to accelerate the CuAAC reaction and to protect the cells from damage by oxidative agents produced by the Cu-catalyzed reduction of oxygen by ascorbate, which is required to maintain the metal in the active +1 oxidation state. This procedure extends the application of this fastest of azide-based bioorthogonal reactions to the exterior of living cells. PMID:20886827

  8. Making Difficult Things Easy and Easy Things Difficult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur; Bent, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are offered to illustrate concepts and processes by using simple materials such as paper, paper clip, rubber band (bonding, entropy, endothermic processes). Also suggests using basic terminology: elementary ratios, percent, reaction chemistry for entropy function; equilibrium constants for Gibbs energies; and chemical mechanics for…

  9. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  10. ACTIVE LONGITUDES REVEALED BY LARGE-SCALE AND LONG-LIVED CORONAL STREAMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing

    2011-07-10

    We use time-series ultraviolet full sun images to construct limb-synoptic maps of the Sun. On these maps, large-scale, long-lived coronal streamers appear as repetitive sinusoid-like arcs projected over the polar regions. They are caused by high altitude plasma produced from sunspot-rich regions at latitudes generally far from the poles. The non-uniform longitudinal distribution of these streamers reveals four longitudinal zones at the surface of the Sun from which sunspots erupt preferentially over the 5 year observing interval (2006 January to 2011 April). Spots in these zones (or clusters) have individual lifetimes short compared to the lifetimes of the coronal features which they sustain, and they erupt at different times. The four sunspot clusters contain >75% of all numbered sunspots in this period. They occupy two distinct longitudinal zones separated by {approx}180{sup 0} and each spanning {approx}100{sup 0} in longitude. The rotation rates of the spot clusters are {approx}5% faster than the rates at both the surface and the bottom of the convection zone. While no convincing theoretical framework exists to interpret the sunspot clusters in the longitude-time space, their persistent and nonuniform distribution indicates long-lived, azimuthal structures beneath the surface, and are compatible with the existence of previously reported active longitudes on the Sun.

  11. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  12. Encapsulation of Living Cells within Giant Phospholipid Liposomes Formed by the Inverse-Emulsion Technique.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Sampreeti; Cole, Christian M; Devaraj, Neal K

    2016-05-17

    Liposomes form spontaneously by the assimilation of phospholipids, the primary component of cell membranes. Due to their unique ability to form selectively permeable bilayers in situ, they are widely used as nanocarriers for drug and small-molecule delivery. However, there is a lack of straightforward methodologies to encapsulate living microorganisms. Here we demonstrate the successful encapsulation of whole cells in phospholipid vesicles by using the inverse-emulsion technique of generating unilamellar vesicles. This method of liposome preparation allows for a facile encapsulation of large biomaterials that previously was not easily attainable. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we found that liposomes can protect the bacterium against external protease degradation and from harsh biological environments. Liposomes prepared by the inverse-emulsion method were also capable of encapsulating yeast and were found to be naturally susceptible to hydrolysis by enzymes such as phospholipases, thus highlighting their potential role as cell delivery carriers. PMID:26919463

  13. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  14. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (<10 microm thick), ordered films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing <10 microm thick colloid coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate

  15. Morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of soluble proteins in mucous membranes of living mouse intestines by cryotechniques.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Satoshi; Saitoh, Sei; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    We have performed immunohistochemical or ultrastructural analyses of living mouse small intestines using Epon blocks prepared by 'in vivo cryotechnique' (IVCT). By electron microscopy, intracellular ultrastructures of epithelial cells were well preserved in tissue areas 5-10 μm away from cryogen-contact surface tissues. Their microvilli contained dynamically waving actin filaments, and highly electron-dense organelles, such as mitochondria, were seen under the widely organized terminal web. By quick-freezing of fresh resected tissues (FT-QF), many erythrocytes were congested within blood vessels due to loss of blood pressure. By immersion-fixation (IM-DH) and perfusion-fixation (PF-DH), small vacuoles were often seen in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, and their intercellular spaces were also dilated. Moreover, actin filament bundles were irregular in cross sections of microvilli, compared with those with IVCT. Epon-embedded thick sections were treated with sodium ethoxide, followed by antigen retrieval and immunostained for immunoglobulin A (IgA), Ig kappa light chain (Igκ), J-chain and albumin. By cryotechniques, IgA immunoreactivity was detected as tiny dot-like patterns in cytoplasm of some epithelial cells. Both J-chain and Igκ immunoreactivities were detected in the same local areas as those of IgA. By FT-QF, however, the IgA immunoreactivity was more weakly detected, compared with that with IVCT. In thick sections prepared by IM-DH and PF-DH, it was rarely observed in both plasma and epithelial cells. Another albumin was diffusely immunolocalized in extracellular matrices of mucous membranes and also within blood vessels. Thus, IVCT was useful for preservation of soluble proteins and ultrastructural analyses of dynamically changing epithelial cells of living mouse small intestines.

  16. Intersecting the Architecture of the Internet of Things with the Future Retail Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerkurth, Carsten; Haller, Stephan; Hagedorn, Pascal

    This paper discusses the approach of SAP Research in Switzerland to investigate, develop and evaluate future Internet of Things architectures and prototypes with their unique combination of three scientific pillars: SAP Research combines an environment of co-located academic education at leading universities ("Campus-Based Engineering Centers") with the concept of living laboratories in which real-world prototypes and systems are rigorously tested. SAP Research Switzerland hosts the "Future Retail Center" (FRC) in order to validate innovations in the retail industry. As an orthogonal element, we also structure our research activities in technological dimensions as opposed to the industry-specific living labs. The "Smart Items Research Program" bundles and focuses all research topics that are related to Ambient Intelligence (AmI), Internet of Things, and Pervasive Computing. With the researchers from the engineering centers, the industry focus in the living labs, and the different research projects and research programs, a holistic research perspective is created that ensures a highly effective and focused execution of research, unifying technical Internet of Things architectures with the corresponding business needs and forming a unique landscape of innovation.

  17. Beyond convention: describing complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Balneaves, L G; Kristjanson, L J; Tataryn, D

    1999-10-01

    Using a descriptive survey design, 52 women living with breast cancer were interviewed to explore their use of complementary therapy and the relationships between complementary therapy use and key demographic variables and health beliefs. Sixty-seven percent of the women reported complementary therapy use, with meditation/relaxation therapies, vitamins and spiritual healing being the three most frequently reported treatments. Women using complementary therapies were more likely to have completed post-secondary education than women using only conventional medical treatment (chi 2 = 7.1, P = 0.008). Preferred decisional role was found to be significantly associated with the use of complementary therapies (chi 2 = 11.7, P = 0.003); women using complementary therapies preferred a more active/collaborative role in treatment decisions than women using only conventional medical treatment. No significant associations were found between complementary therapy use and beliefs about cause of cancer, treatments, satisfaction with health care providers, and perceived quality of life. The findings point to the pervasiveness of complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer and contradict past research which has supported a distinct demographic profile of complementary therapy users and associated belief system.

  18. Critical progressive small-graft injury caused by intrasinusoidal pressure elevation following living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Kaneko, T; Hirota, M; Nagasaka, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, S; Takeda, S; Kiuchi, T; Nakao, A

    2004-11-01

    In adult-to-adult living liver transplantation, small-for-size graft syndrome sometimes occurs. The relationship between the hemodynamic changes and histologic findings has not been studied in patients with failure of small-for-size grafts. We analyzed the relationship between the postoperative hemodynamic changes and pathologic findings in patients with small-for-size grafts that ended in graft failure. From March 1999 to December 2002, adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation with small-size grafts (graft volume/standard liver volume less than 40%) was performed in eight patients. Three patients died from graft failure caused by overperfusion, which was diagnosed from pathologic findings. We analyzed the relation between hepatic hemodynamic parameters, such as portal venous blood velocity or splenic arterial pulsatility index, and histologic changes in patients with graft failure. Severe portal hyperperfusion (90 cm/sec at the umbilical portion) was observed on postoperative day 1. Among patients with graft failure, critical hemodynamic changes, such as sudden onset of extremely deteriorated portal venous blood flow, occurred during the early postoperative period (postoperative day 5, 3, 6, respectively). Histologic examination revealed vacuolar changes in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, and submassive necrosis indicated intrasinusoidal pressure elevation. These changes were not observed in the biopsy obtained soon after reperfusion. In conclusion, critically decreased vascular beds may cause intrasinusoidal pressure elevation and sinusoidal circulatory disturbances.

  19. Multicolor live-cell chemical imaging by isotopically edited alkyne vibrational palette.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhixing; Paley, Daniel W; Wei, Lu; Weisman, Andrew L; Friesner, Richard A; Nuckolls, Colin; Min, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Vibrational imaging such as Raman microscopy is a powerful technique for visualizing a variety of molecules in live cells and tissues with chemical contrast. Going beyond the conventional label-free modality, recent advance of coupling alkyne vibrational tags with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy paves the way for imaging a wide spectrum of alkyne-labeled small biomolecules with superb sensitivity, specificity, resolution, biocompatibility, and minimal perturbation. Unfortunately, the currently available alkyne tag only processes a single vibrational "color", which prohibits multiplex chemical imaging of small molecules in a way that is being routinely practiced in fluorescence microscopy. Herein we develop a three-color vibrational palette of alkyne tags using a (13)C-based isotopic editing strategy. We first synthesized (13)C isotopologues of EdU, a DNA metabolic reporter, by using the newly developed alkyne cross-metathesis reaction. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the mono-(13)C ((13)C≡(12)C) and bis-(13)C ((13)C≡(13)C) labeled alkyne isotopologues display Raman peaks that are red-shifted and spectrally resolved from the originally unlabeled ((12)C≡(12)C) alkynyl probe. We further demonstrated three-color chemical imaging of nascent DNA, RNA, and newly uptaken fatty-acid in live mammalian cells with a simultaneous treatment of three different isotopically edited alkynyl metabolic reporters. The alkyne vibrational palette presented here thus opens up multicolor imaging of small biomolecules, enlightening a new dimension of chemical imaging.

  20. Baseline Socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported diet and physical activity shifts among recent immigrants participating in the randomized controlled lifestyle intervention: "Live Well".

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Haitian mothers' socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians' and Latinas': they have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ≥3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Future research is needed to understand how diet and physical activity change while acculturating to the US and explore the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes.

  1. Baseline Socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported diet and physical activity shifts among recent immigrants participating in the randomized controlled lifestyle intervention: "Live Well".

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Haitian mothers' socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians' and Latinas': they have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ≥3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Future research is needed to understand how diet and physical activity change while acculturating to the US and explore the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes. PMID:23334749

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis with double deletion in phoPfliC--a potential live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in chickens.

    PubMed

    Methner, Ulrich; Barrow, Paul A; Berndt, Angela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-04-12

    Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with deletions in phoP, fliC or phoPfliC were tested for their virulence and their ability to induce parameters of the innate and adaptive immunity in addition to their potential for serological differentiation between vaccinated, non-vaccinated and infected chickens. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant was sufficiently attenuated but not diminished in its capability to inhibit the caecal colonisation and systemic invasion of homologous Salmonella Enteritidis shortly after administration of the vaccine strain to very young chicks. Immunisation with the attenuated ΔphoPfliC mutant resulted in protective effects which were only slightly and insignificantly lower than after "immunisation" with a Salmonella wild-type strain, indicating the capability to induce an intense adaptive immune response and protection against Salmonella exposure in older chickens. The deletion in fliC enabled the effective the differentiation between immunised and infected chickens using a commercially available ELISA kit. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis might be a potential and promising live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in poultry.

  3. Drug Screening Boosted by Hyperpolarized Long-Lived States in NMR

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1ρ and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1(1H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak “spy ligands” can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  4. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to: 1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and -25 years, respectively; 2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  5. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to (1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and 25 years, respectively; and (2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  6. Drug screening boosted by hyperpolarized long-lived states in NMR.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1ρ and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak "spy ligands" can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  7. Challenges experienced by rural women in India living with AIDS and implications for the delivery of HIV/AIDS care.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama

    2011-04-01

    Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and they investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women's adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a primary health center (PHC) near Chennai, India, and with nurses, physicians, and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), who are lay health care workers. The most prevalent barriers expressed by the women were sickness-related, psychological, financial issues with childcare, and distance, or transportation to the site. Women living with AIDS reviewed Ashas favorably.

  8. Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

    The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

  9. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheets. For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  10. Morphological and histochemical analyses of living mouse livers by new 'cryobiopsy' technique.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Li, Zilong; Terada, Nobuo; Baba, Takeshi; Ohno, Shinichi

    2006-04-01

    A new 'cryobiopsy' (CB) technique has been invented for freezing the functioning livers of living mice in vivo without stopping their blood circulation. Livers of anesthetized mice were pinched off with pre-cooled CB forceps and immediately plunged into isopentane-propane cryogen. They were routinely freeze-substituted in acetone containing paraformaldehyde for light microscopy (LM) or osmium tetroxide for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By freeze-fracturing some of them with a scalpel in liquid nitrogen before the freeze-substitution, well-preserved tissue areas were exposed only for SEM. They were either embedded in paraffin wax for LM or infiltrated with t-butyl alcohol followed by freeze-drying for SEM. Serial paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) or histochemical periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. By HE-staining, the tissue surface areas were often compressed with the CB forceps and sinusoidal erythrocytes became aggregated side by side. In slightly deeper tissue areas, however, hepatic sinusoids were widely open with flowing erythrocytes. Lots of PAS-reaction products were well preserved in hepatocytes of the CB specimens. On the contrary, they were unevenly distributed in hepatocytes of conventionally quick-frozen specimens, and often lost in those of the conventionally dehydrated specimens. By SEM, some cell organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and also dilated fenestrae of endothelial cells, open Disse's spaces and bile canaliculi appeared to be under normal blood circulation in the prepared CB samples. The new CB technique would be easy and useful for repeated examination of functioning organs of a living animal. PMID:16782737

  11. Induction of immunogenicity by live attenuated Leishmania donovani centrin deleted parasites in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Santiago, Helton da Costa; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nakhasi, Hira Lal; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-04-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is a neglected tropical disease that is often fatal when untreated. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL as the presence of infected dogs may increase the risk for human infection. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem in Southern Europe, Middle East and South America. Control of animal reservoirs relies on elimination of seropositive dogs in endemic areas. However, treatment of infected dogs is not considered a favorable approach as this can lead to emergence of drug resistance since the same drugs are used to treat human infections. Therefore, vaccination against CVL remains the best alternative in control of the animal reservoirs. In this study, we present data on the immunogenicity profile of a live attenuated parasite LdCen(-/-) in a canine infection model and compared it to that of Leishmune(®), a commercially available recombinant vaccine. The immunogenicity of the LdCen(-/-) parasites was evaluated by antibody secretion, production of intracytoplasmic and secreted cytokines, activation and proliferation of T cells. Vaccination with LdCen(-/-) resulted in high immunogenicity as revealed by the higher IgGTotal, IgG1, and IgG2 production and higher lymphoproliferative response. Further, LdCen(-/-) vaccinated dogs showed higher frequencies of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells, increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-12/IL-23p40 and decreased secretion of IL-4. These results contribute to the understanding of immunogenicity elicited by live attenuated L. donovani parasites and, consequently, to the development of effective vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23398933

  12. Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus Cell Entry Unraveled by Single-Virus Tracking in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda V.; Albulescu, Irina C.; van Hemert, Martijn J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied previously using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell: several studies suggest that CHIKV enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while others show that it enters independently of clathrin. Here we applied live-cell microscopy and monitored the cell entry behavior of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 min after addition to the cells. Of the particles that fused, the vast majority first colocalized with clathrin. The average time from initial colocalization with clathrin to the moment of membrane fusion was 1.7 min, highlighting the rapidity of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results show that the virus spends a relatively long time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was observed predominantly from within Rab5-positive endosomes and often occurred within 40 s after delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position 226 of the E1 protein enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. IMPORTANCE Since its reemergence in 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread rapidly around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment against CHIKV is available. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell

  13. Characterization of aggregate load and pattern in living yeast cells by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Itahisa Hernández; Fleming, Thomas; Eckstein, Volker; Herzig, Stephan; Nawroth, Peter P; Tyedmers, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is both a hallmark of and a driving force for a number of diseases. It is therefore important to identify the nature of these aggregates and the mechanism(s) by which the cell counteracts their detrimental properties. Currently, the study of aggregation in vivo is performed primarily using fluorescently tagged versions of proteins and analyzing the aggregates by fluorescence microscopy. While this strategy is considered the gold standard, it has several limitations, particularly with respect to its suitability for high-throughput screening (HTS). Here, using a GFP fusion of the well-characterized yeast prion amyloid protein [PSI+], we demonstrate that flow cytometry, which utilizes the same physical principles as fluorescence microscopy, can be used to determine the aggregate load and pattern in live and fixed yeast cells. Furthermore, our approach can easily be applied to high-throughput analyses such as screenings with a yeast deletion library. PMID:27625208

  14. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use.

  15. Acceptability of live attenuated influenza vaccine by vaccine providers in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Kiely, Marilou; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique

    2015-01-01

    A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was offered during the 2012-13 influenza season in Quebec, Canada, to children aged between 2 and 17 years with chronic medical conditions. Despite the offer, uptake of the vaccine was low. We assessed the perceptions and opinions about seasonal influenza vaccination and LAIV use among vaccine providers who participated in the 2012-13 campaign. More than 70% of them thought that LAIV was safe and effective and more than 90% considered that the vaccine was well-received by parents and healthcare professionals. According to respondents, the most frequent concerns of parents about LAIV were linked to vaccine efficacy. LAIV is well-accepted by vaccine providers involved in influenza vaccination clinics, but more information about the vaccine and the recommendations for its use are needed to increase vaccine uptake.

  16. Phase-insensitive storage of coherences by reversible mapping onto long-lived populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Simon; Genov, Genko T.; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Halfmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically develop and experimentally demonstrate a coherence population mapping (CPM) protocol to store atomic coherences in long-lived populations, enabling storage times far beyond the typically very short decoherence times of quantum systems. The amplitude and phase of an atomic coherence is written onto the populations of a three-state system by specifically designed sequences of radiation pulses from two coupling fields. As an important feature, the CPM sequences enable a retrieval efficiency, which is insensitive to the phase of the initial coherence. The information is preserved in every individual atom of the medium, enabling applications in purely homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened ensembles even when stochastic phase jumps are the main source of decoherence. We experimentally confirm the theoretical predictions by applying CPM for storage of atomic coherences in a doped solid, reaching storage times in the regime of 1 min.

  17. Introduction of Foreign Genes into Tissues of Living Mice by DNA-Coated Microprojectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders Williams, R.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Riedy, Mark; Devit, Michael J.; McElligott, Sandra G.; Sanford, John C.

    1991-04-01

    Foreign genes were expressed in liver and skin cells of live mice by using a new apparatus to accelerate DNA-coated microprojectiles into tissues. After introduction of a plasmid in which the firefly luciferase gene was controlled by the human β-actin promoter, luciferase activity was detectable for up to 14 days in mouse tissues (skin and liver). In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that microprojectiles penetrated through multiple cell layers without evidence of tissue injury and that 10-20% of the cells in the bombarded area expressed the foreign gene. An advantage of the new design is that internal organs, such as liver, can be transfected without subjecting the tissue to a vacuum. This procedure potentially is applicable to a wide variety of tissues and cell types for studies of transcriptional control elements and for expression of foreign proteins in intact animals.

  18. Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Lina; Hou, Zhun; Song, Yao; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.

  19. Introduction of foreign genes into tissues of living mice by DNA-coated microprojectiles.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R S; Johnston, S A; Riedy, M; DeVit, M J; McElligott, S G; Sanford, J C

    1991-01-01

    Foreign genes were expressed in liver and skin cells of live mice by using a new apparatus to accelerate DNA-coated microprojectiles into tissues. After introduction of a plasmid in which the firefly luciferase gene was controlled by the human beta-actin promoter, luciferase activity was detectable for up to 14 days in mouse tissues (skin and liver). In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that microprojectiles penetrated through multiple cell layers without evidence of tissue injury and that 10-20% of the cells in the bombarded area expressed the foreign gene. An advantage of the new design is that internal organs, such as liver, can be transfected without subjecting the tissue to a vacuum. This procedure potentially is applicable to a wide variety of tissues and cell types for studies of transcriptional control elements and for expression of foreign proteins in intact animals. Images PMID:2011582

  20. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use. PMID:25681264

  1. Where the Wild Things Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Few people realize that coyotes prowl the country's major urban areas. By tracking them on their turf, one Boston-area high school teacher and his students are helping scientists to learn more about the oft-misunderstood animals. Here, the author features David Eatough, a science teacher at Revere High School just north of Boston, and his…

  2. Filming a live cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy: label-free imaging of the dynamic morphology in real time

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of a live cell reflects the organization of the cytoskeleton and the healthy status of the cell. We established a label-free platform for monitoring the changing morphology of live cells in real time based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The dynamic morphology of a live human bladder cancer cell (T24) was revealed by time-lapse SECM with dissolved oxygen in the medium solution as the redox mediator. Detailed local movements of cell membrane were presented by time-lapse cross section lines extracted from time-lapse SECM. Vivid dynamic morphology is presented by a movie made of time-lapse SECM images. The morphological change of the T24 cell by non-physiological temperature is in consistence with the morphological feature of early apoptosis. To obtain dynamic cellular morphology with other methods is difficult. The non-invasive nature of SECM combined with high resolution realized filming the movements of live cells. PMID:22436305

  3. In situ observation of photo-bleaching in human single living cell excited by a NIR femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Goo; Whang, Kyoung-Hyun; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Sohn, Seong-Hyang

    2008-03-01

    The photo-bleaching of single living cells excited by femtosecond laser irradiation was observed in situ to study the nonlinear interaction between ultrafast laser pulses and living human breast MDA-MB-231 cells. We conducted a systematic study of the energy dependence of plasma-mediated photo-disruption of fluorescently labeled subcellular structures in the nucleus of living cells using near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulses through a numerical aperture objective lens (0.75 NA). The behavior of photo-bleached living cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei was observed for 18 h after femtosecond laser irradiation under a fluorescence microscope. The photo-bleaching of single living cells without cell disruption occurred at between 470 and 630 nJ. To study the photo-disruption of subcellular organelles in single living cells using the nonlinear absorption excited by a NIR femtosecond laser pulse, the process of photo-bleaching without photo-disruption provides key information for clarifying the nonlinear interaction between NIR ultrashort, high-intensity laser light and transparent fluorescently labeled living cells.

  4. X-ray Flashes Powered by the Spindown of Long-lived Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of high-energy transients whose nature is still open to question. Similar in many aspects to common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), their strong X-ray emission is accompanied by very low or absent emission in the gamma-ray band. Despite this key difference, a number of indications have consolidated the idea that XRFs and GRBs share a common origin, including a number of potential XRF/supernova associations and the consistency of some XRFs with the Amati relation for long GRBs. However, the difficulties in explaining XRFs as off-axis or intrinsically weak GRBs still cast doubts on this interpretation. Here we explore the possibility that some XRFs are instead powered by the spindown of a long-lived neutron star (NS) formed in a binary NS (BNS) merger or, possibly, in a core-collapse supernova. Focusing on XRF 020903 and a few other cases observed by HETE-2, we show that their lack of gamma-ray emission, spectral properties, duration and X-ray luminosity find a natural explanation within our hypothesis. Moreover, we point out that the agreement of XRF 020903 with the Amati and Ghirlanda relations for long GRBs is respectively only marginal and problematic. Assuming a BNS merger origin for the long-lived NS, we use XRF observations to estimate a lower limit on the rate of BNS mergers accompanied by a potentially observable XRF signal. Within the reach of the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find \\gt 0.02{--}0.05 {{yr}}-1. Finally, we discuss the implications of a supernova association for the XRF events considered.

  5. Utilization of Soil C and N by Microbial Groups in the Presence of Living Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, J.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M.

    2007-12-01

    The effects of living plant roots and N on belowground C dynamics were examined in a CA annual grassland soil (Haploxeralf) during a 2-y greenhouse study. The fate of 13C-labeled plant roots ( Avena barbata L.) and soil were followed under planted and unplanted conditions; and with and without N addition (20 kg N ha-1 season-1). The treatments were applied during 2 growing seasons and each growing season was followed by a dry, fallow period (~ 150-d long). Living roots increased the turnover rate and loss of belowground 13 C during and after 2 seasons compared with unplanted soils. After 2 seasons, planted soils had 21% less belowground 13C present than in unplanted soils. However, total soil C increased in planted soils by 4.6% compared to unplanted after 2 seasons. N additions decreased belowground 13C turnover during the first treatment season in both planted and unplanted soils, however no effect of N on soil C was observed thereafter. Planted soils had larger microbial biomass and the community structure differed compared with unplanted soils. Planted soils had higher proportions of gram (-) bacteria, while unplanted soils had higher proportions of gram (+) bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. New root and exudate C supplied from living roots increased the turnover of microbial assimilated 13C compared with unplanted for all microbial groups. This greater turnover of belowground 13C was especially significant for gram (-) bacteria, which were stimulated in the planted soil. In contrast, the activity among microbial groups in unplanted soils was similar to that prior to the initiation of the treatments and soil wet-up. Our findings suggest that A. barbata roots increased soil C levels over time because root and exudate C inputs are significant, however that C increase will be moderated by an overall faster C mineralization rate of belowground C. Increased N deposition may slow soil C losses, however, they appear minor and temporary at the rates applied and for

  6. Breakthrough Towards the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Leonardo W. F.; Nochta, Zoltán

    In this chapter we introduce the Internet of Things (IoT) from the perspective of companies. The Internet of Things mainly refers to the continuous tracking and observation of real-world objects over the Internet. The resulting information can be used to optimize many processes along the entire value chain. Important prerequisites for the IoT are that the objects of interest can be uniquely identified and that their environment can be monitored with sensors. Currently, technologies, such as different types of barcodes, active and passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks play the most important role. However, these technologies either do not provide monitoring of their environment or they are too expensive for widespread adoption. Organic Electronics is a new technology that allows printing electronic circuits using organic inks. It will produce ultra-low cost smart labels equipped with sensors, and thus it will become an enabler of the IoT. We discuss how organic smart labels can be used to implement the Internet of Things. We show how this technology is expected to develop. Finally, we indicate technical problems that arise when processing large volumes of data that will result from the usage of organic smart labels in business applications.

  7. The hottest thing in remediation.

    PubMed Central

    Black, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are exploring a new way to decontaminate toxic waste sites by literally turning up the heat on pollutants. The method heats the ground using electricity or steam, which mobilizes the contaminants so they can either be extracted from the ground and destroyed or actually destroyed in place. Among the targets for this method are pollutants such as creosote, solvents, and gasoline. These in situ thermal technologies also offer the benefit of reaching contaminants not previously amenable to cleanup, such as those found beneath structures and below the water table. PMID:11882491

  8. The hottest thing in remediation.

    PubMed

    Black, Harvey

    2002-03-01

    Scientists and engineers are exploring a new way to decontaminate toxic waste sites by literally turning up the heat on pollutants. The method heats the ground using electricity or steam, which mobilizes the contaminants so they can either be extracted from the ground and destroyed or actually destroyed in place. Among the targets for this method are pollutants such as creosote, solvents, and gasoline. These in situ thermal technologies also offer the benefit of reaching contaminants not previously amenable to cleanup, such as those found beneath structures and below the water table.

  9. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  10. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes. PMID:27515076

  11. Antitumor Effect of IP-10 by Using Two Different Approaches: Live Delivery System and Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Taslimi, Yasaman; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Habibzadeh, Sima; Taheri, Tahereh; Abbaspour, Hossain; Sadeghipour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Immunotherapy is one of the treatment strategies for breast cancer, the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this approach, the patient's immune system is stimulated to attack microscopic tumors and control metastasis. Here, we used interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), which induces and strengthens antitumor immunity, as an immunotherapeutic agent. We employed Leishmania tarentolae, a nonpathogenic lizard parasite that lacks the ability to persist in mammalian macrophages, was used as a live delivery system for carrying the immunotherapeutic agent. It has been already shown that arginase activity, and consequently, polyamine production, are associated with tumor progression. Methods A live delivery system was constructed by stable transfection of pLEXSY plasmid containing the IP-10-enhanced green fluorescent protein (IP-10-egfp) fusion gene into L. tarentolae. Then, the presence of the IP-10-egfp gene and the accurate integration location into the parasite genome were confirmed. The therapeutic efficacy of IP-10 delivered via L. tarentolae and recombinant pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) plasmid was compared by determining the arginase activity in a mouse 4T1 breast cancer model. Results The pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) group showed a significant reduction in tumor weight and growth. Histological evaluation also revealed that only this group demonstrated inhibition of metastasis to the lung tissue. The arginase activity in the tissue of the pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) mice significantly decreased in comparison with that in normal mice. No significant difference was observed in arginase activity in the sera of mice receiving other therapeutic strategies. Conclusion Our data indicates that IP-10 immunotherapy is a promising strategy for breast cancer treatment, as shown in the 4T1-implanted BALB/c mouse model. However, the L. tarentolae-(IP-10-EGFP) live delivery system requires dose modifications to achieve efficacy in the applied regimen (six injections in 3 weeks). Our results

  12. Improving the characteristics of rectangular waveguide branchings by cylindrical obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesche, Roland; Russenschuck, Stephan

    1989-10-01

    The scattering matrix of a transition between one or two parallel rectangular waveguides and a larger rectangular waveguide which contains two metallic or dielectric cylinders is investigated by means of the orthogonal expansion method. Mathematical programming is applied in order to improve the characteristics of the branchings. Reflection at a rectangular step discontinuity can be reduced by 30 dB using metallic or dielectric obstacles. Using Teflon cylinders, coupling of a transition can be reduced by 40 dB without debasing reflection. Physical interpretations are given with the help of field patterns.

  13. Noise characteristics of neutron images obtained by cooled CCD device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Ryoya; Okuda, Shuichi; Okamoto, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    2009-06-01

    The noise characteristics of a cooled CCD device induced by neutron and gamma ray irradiation have been investigated. In the cooled CCD images, characteristic white spot noises (CCD noise) frequently appeared, which have a shape like a pixel in most cases and their brightness is extremely high compared with that of the image pattern. They could be divided into the two groups, fixed pattern noise (FPN) and random noise. The former always appeared in the same position in the image and the latter appeared at any position. In the background image, nearly all of the CCD noises were found to be the FPN, while many of them were the random noise during the irradiation. The random CCD noises increased with irradiation and decreased soon after the irradiation. In the case of large irradiation, a part of the CCD noise remained as the FPN. These facts suggest that the CCD noise is a phenomenon strongly relating to radiation damage of the CCD device.

  14. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  15. Pore Characteristics of Chitosan Scaffolds Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tully-Dartez, Stephanie; Cardenas, Henry E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), was used to examine the pore characteristics of chitosan scaffolds under aqueous conditions. The EIS was run with a constant current of 0.1 mA with the frequency sweep of 106 to 10−4 Hz. The resulting complex impedance measurement was then used to calculate porosity, which was determined to be 71%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), two commonly used methods for scaffold characterization, were used to independently evaluate the pore characteristics and compare with that of EIS. The SEM and MIP were performed and analyzed under standard conditions. The pore diameter values found by SEM and MIP are 107 μm and 82 μm, respectively, indicating that both the image-based (SEM) and pressure-based (MIP) analyses provide similar results. The porosity of 73% calculated by MIP is comparable to that of EIS. From these results, it can be suggested that EIS, a relatively nondestructive test, is able to obtain comparable data on pore characteristics, as compared to SEM and MIP. The advantage of the EIS as an nondestructive test is that it can be performed under physiologically relevant conditions, whereas SEM and MIP require dry samples and vacuum conditions for measurement. These benefits make EIS a viable option for the characterization and long-term observation of tissue-engineered scaffolds. PMID:19580421

  16. Spatial and Structural Metrics for Living Cells Inspired by Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Christoffer; Varela, Juan A.; Fitzpatrick, Laurence W.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental observations in cell biology have advanced to a stage where theory could play a larger role, much as it has done in the physical sciences. Possibly the lack of a common framework within which experimentalists, computational scientists and theorists could equally contribute has hindered this development, for the worse of both disciplines. Here we demonstrate the usage of tools and concepts from statistical mechanics to describe processes inside living cells based on experimental data, suggesting that future theoretical/computational models may be based on such concepts. To illustrate the ideas, we describe the organisation of subcellular structures within the cell in terms of (density) pair correlation functions, and subsequently use the same concepts to follow nano-sized objects being transported inside the cell. Finally, we quantify an interesting subcellular re-organisation, not previously discerned by molecular biology methods.

  17. Induction of Oxidation in Living Cells by Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We are studying how biological systems can harness quantum effects of time varying electromagnetic (EM) waves as the time-setting basis for universal biochemical organization via the redox cycle. The effects of extremely weak EM field on the biochemical redox cycle can be monitored through real-time detection of oxidation-induced light emissions of reporter molecules in living cells. It has been shown that EM fields can also induce changes in fluid transport rates through capillaries (approximately 300 microns inner diameter) by generating annular proton gradients. This effect may be relevant to understanding cardiovascular dis-function in spaceflight, beyond the ionosphere. Importantly, we show that these EM effects can be attenuated using an active EM field cancellation device. Central for NASA's Human Research Program is the fact that the absence of ambient EM field in spaceflight can also have a detrimental influence, namely via increased oxidative damage, on DNA replication, which controls heredity.

  18. Spatial and Structural Metrics for Living Cells Inspired by Statistical Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Christoffer; Varela, Juan A.; Fitzpatrick, Laurence W.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental observations in cell biology have advanced to a stage where theory could play a larger role, much as it has done in the physical sciences. Possibly the lack of a common framework within which experimentalists, computational scientists and theorists could equally contribute has hindered this development, for the worse of both disciplines. Here we demonstrate the usage of tools and concepts from statistical mechanics to describe processes inside living cells based on experimental data, suggesting that future theoretical/computational models may be based on such concepts. To illustrate the ideas, we describe the organisation of subcellular structures within the cell in terms of (density) pair correlation functions, and subsequently use the same concepts to follow nano-sized objects being transported inside the cell. Finally, we quantify an interesting subcellular re-organisation, not previously discerned by molecular biology methods. PMID:27708351

  19. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul

    2009-11-10

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  20. Tailor-Made Stereoblock Copolymers of Poly(lactic acid) by a Truly Living Polymerization Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Tomer; Goldberg, Israel; Venditto, Vincenzo; Kol, Moshe

    2016-09-21

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer prepared by the catalyzed ring opening polymerization of lactide. An ideal catalyst should enable a sequential polymerization of the lactide enantiomers to afford stereoblock copolymers with predetermined number and lengths of blocks. We describe a magnesium based catalyst that combines very high activity with a true-living nature, which gives access to PLA materials of unprecedented microstructures. Full consumption of thousands of equivalents of L-LA within minutes gave PLLA of expected molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Precise PLLA-b-PDLA diblock copolymers having block lengths of up to 500 repeat units were readily prepared within 30 min, and their thermal characterization revealed a stereocomplex phase only with very high melting transitions and melting enthalpies. The one pot sequential polymerization was extended up to precise hexablocks having "dialed-in" block lengths. PMID:27602949

  1. Long-Lived Conformation Changes Induced by Electric Impulses in Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Eberhard; Katchalsky, Aharon

    1972-01-01

    Electric impulses are capable of inducing long-lived conformational changes in (metastable) biopolymers. Results of experiments with poly(A)·2 poly(U) and ribosomal RNA, which are known to develop metastabilities, are reported. A polarization mechanism is proposed to explain the structural transitions observed in the biopolymers exposed to the impulses. In accordance with this idea, the applied electric field (of about 20 kV/cm and decaying exponentially, with a decay time of about 10 μsec) induces large dipole moments by shifting the ionic atmosphere of multistranded polynucleotide helices. This shift, in turn, causes strand repulsion and partial unwinding. The fields used in our experiments are of the same order of magnitude as those in nerve impulses. The significance of the impulse experiments with regard to the question of biological memory recording is briefly discussed. PMID:4502948

  2. Insight with hands and things.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition. PMID:27569687

  3. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  4. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  5. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back. PMID:19227409

  6. Live celloidosome structures based on the assembly of individual cells by colloid interactions.

    PubMed

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Brandy, Marie-Laure; Cayre, Olivier J; Velev, Orlin D; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2010-10-14

    A new class of colloid structures, celloidosomes, has been developed which represent hollow microcapsules whose membranes consist of a single monolayer of living cells. Two routes for producing these structures were designed based on templating of: (i) air bubbles and (ii) anisotropic microcrystals of calcium carbonate with living cells, which allowed us to fabricate celloidosomes of spherical, rhombohedral and needle-like morphologies. Air microbubbles were templated by yeast cells coated with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), then coated with carboxymethylcellulose and rehydrated resulting in the formation of spherical multicellular structures. Similarly, calcium carbonate microcrystals of anisotropic shapes were coated with several consecutive layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes to obtain a positive surface charge which was used to immobilise yeast cells coated with anionic polyelectrolyte of their surfaces. After dissolving of sacrificial cores, hollow multicellular structures were obtained. The viability of the cells in the produced structures was confirmed by using fluorescein diacetate. In order to optimize the separation of celloidosomes from free cells magnetic nanoparticles were immobilised onto the surface of templates prior to the cells deposition, which greatly facilitated the separation using a permanent magnet. Two alternative approaches were developed to form celloidosome structures using magnetically functionalised core-shell microparticles which resulted in the formation of celloidosomes with needle-like and cubic-like geometries which follows the original morphology of the calcium carbonate microcrystals. Our methods for fabrication of celloidosomes may found applications in the development of novel symbiotic bio-structures, artificial multicellular organisms and in tissue engineering. The unusual structure of celloidosomes resembles the primitive forms of multicellular species, like Volvox, and other algae and could be regarded as

  7. Medication use in the context of everyday living as understood by seniors

    PubMed Central

    Vegsund, Britt; Stephenson, Peter H.; Beuthin, Rosanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that older adults are among the biggest consumers of medication, and the demographic group most likely to suffer an adverse drug reaction (ADR), this paper details the findings from a recent study on how older adults come to understand medication and its related use. Using a qualitative content analysis method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 individuals from British Columbia, Canada. Study participants ranged in age from 65 to 89 years (male=9, female=11). Using NVIVO® 7 software, data were subjected to comparative thematic content analysis in an effort to capture the role of medication use in the context of everyday living as understood by older adults. While there was variability in how older adults come to understand their medication use, an overarching theme was revealed whereby most participants identified their prescription medications as being life-sustaining and prolonging. Deeper thematic content analysis of participant narratives drew attention to three key areas: (A) medications are viewed as a necessary, often unquestioned, aspect of day-to-day life (B) a relationship is perceived to exist between the amount of medications taken and ones current state of health (C) the overall medication experience is positively or negatively influenced by the doctor patient relationship and the assumption that it is the physicians role to communicate medication information that will support everyday living. The article concludes that medical authority and the complexities surrounding medication use need to undergo significant revision if community dwelling older adults are to experience greater success in safely managing their health and medication-related needs. PMID:22586433

  8. Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains--characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Vargas, F; Jiménez, A R; Paredes-López, O

    2000-05-01

    Pigments are present in all living matter and provide attractive colors and play basic roles in the development of organisms. Human beings, like most animals, come in contact with their surroundings through color, and things can or cannot be acceptable based on their color characteristics. This review presents the basic information about pigments focusing attention on the natural ones; it emphasizes the principal plant pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains. Special considerations are given to their salient characteristics; to their biosynthesis, taking into account the biochemical and molecular biology information generated in their elucidation; and to the processing and stability properties of these compounds as food colorants. PMID:10850526

  9. Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Laaha, G.

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of a drought are generally dependent on the severity of the hydrological drought event, which can be expressed by streamflow drought duration or deficit volume. For prediction and the selection of drought sensitive regions, it is crucial to know how streamflow drought severity relates to climate and catchment characteristics. In this study we investigated controls on drought severity based on a comprehensive Austrian dataset consisting of 44 catchments with long time series of hydrometeorological data (on average around 50 year) and information on a large number of physiographic catchment characteristics. Drought analysis was performed with the variable threshold level method and various statistical tools were applied, i.e. bivariate correlation analysis, heatmaps, linear models based on multiple regression, varying slope models, and automatic stepwise regression. Results indicate that streamflow drought duration is primarily controlled by storage, quantified by the Base Flow Index or by a combination of catchment characteristics related to catchment storage and release, e.g. geology and land use. Additionally, the duration of dry spells in precipitation is important for streamflow drought duration. Hydrological drought deficit, however, is governed by average catchment wetness (represented by mean annual precipitation) and elevation (reflecting seasonal storage in the snow pack and glaciers). Our conclusion is that both drought duration and deficit are governed by a combination of climate and catchment control, but not in a similar way. Besides meteorological forcing, storage is important; storage in soils, aquifers, lakes, etc. influences drought duration and seasonal storage in snow and glaciers influences drought deficit. Consequently, the spatial variation of hydrological drought severity is highly dependent on terrestrial hydrological processes.

  10. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  11. ‘All those things together made me retire’: qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. Methods A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60–64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Results For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement (‘push factors’), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement (‘pull factors’) included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. Conclusion To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and

  12. "We always live in fear": antidepressant prescriptions by unlicensed doctors in India.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan; Basu, Soumita

    2014-06-01

    In India, psychopharmaceuticals have seeped deep into both formal and informal pharmaceutical markets, and unlicensed "quack" doctors have become ready prescribers of psychotropics. These ethnographic insights trouble policies that aim at closing the treatment gap for psychiatric medications by "task shifting" to low-skilled health workers as if medications were exclusively available by prescription from public sector psychiatrists. This article describes what these doctors, known as rural medical practitioners (RMPs), know about psychotropics and how they use them in everyday practice. Unlicensed doctors learn about psychopharmaceuticals through exchanges with licensed doctors, through visits by drug companies' sales representatives, and through prescriptions brought by patients. Although the RMPs exist outside the margins of legitimacy, they are constrained by a web of relations with patients, licensed doctors, pharmacists, drug wholesalers, and government agents. The RMPs do not only prescribe but also dispense, which leads to conflicts with licensed medicine sellers. They "always live in fear" both because they are illegal prescribers and because they are illegal sellers of medications. The article shows that any form of strategic ignorance among policy makers about the local importance of informal practitioners in India can only lead to lopsided interventions.

  13. Measuring for change: a new research initiative by and for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Stackpool-Moore, Lucy; Yuvaraj, Anandi

    2008-12-01

    Several organizations have banded together to create the People Living with HIV Stigma Index. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Lucy Stackpool-Moore and Anandi Yuvaraj describe the purpose of the index and how it was developed. The authors believe that the index provides a real opportunity to measure, understand and advocate effectively to improve policies and programs and to make a real difference in the lives of people living with HIV. PMID:19297774

  14. An Unusual Long-lived Intensive Relativistic Electron Enhancement Excited By Sequential CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhu, G.; Sun, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    An unusual long-lived relativistic electron enhancement in July to August,2004 is firstly examined utilizing data from Fengyun-1, POES, GOES, ACE and geomagnetic indexes. Three CMEs stimulate complex fluctuations of interplanetary and magnetospheric environment from 22 to 28 July. The solar wind speed exceeds 500 km/s for 92 percent of the duration from 23 to 28 July and, furthermore, the maximum speed is more than 1000 km/s. Simultaneously, there are 16 positive impulses of solar wind dynamic pressure of which the amplitudes are more than 2nPa, and the amplitude of the largest one is 10nPa. This kind of disturbed solar wind tends to excite magnetospheric ULF waves by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the impulse of solar wind dynamic pressure impinging to magnetosphere. Sequential CMEs characterized by continuing north interplanetary magnetic field induce durable tremendous geomagnetic substorms. Data from POES reveals that so numerous energetic electrons are injected into outer zone of radiation belt that the energetic electron flux in this region enhances observably. Data from Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron flux begins to enhance on 25 July and increases by 4 orders of magnitude in following 5 days. Comparing energetic electron flux, the flux of relativistic electron enhances about 3 days later. It would be reasonable that radial diffusion excited by strong ULF waves injects energetic electrons as 'seeds' into deep magnetosphere, and accelerates them to relativistic energy, then eventually the relativistic electron flux of outer zone enhances intensively. After coming to a head, the relativistic electron populations at L<4 lose slowly, especially at the location of flux peak(L~3.3), the relativistic electron loss is so slow that the living-time is up to 22 days. According to model calculation, the plasmapause is contracted inward into L<3 in the period of three CMEs. Subsequently, the location of plasmapause recovers to the condition before

  15. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  16. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Maternal and Child Characteristics that Influence the Growth of Daily Living Skills from Infancy to School Age in Preterm and Term Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieterich, Susan E.; Hebert, Heather M.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Smith, Karen E.

    2004-01-01

    Research findings: Growth across 6 months to 8 years of age, assessed at seven time points, for daily living and cognitive skills was compared for term (n = 122), very low birth weight (VLBW) children of low (n = 114) and high (n = 73) medical risk and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Dramatic declines in daily living skills were found for all…

  18. Optical characteristics of pesticides measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Giyoung; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we measured the optical characteristics of pesticides by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Pesticide samples were prepared as pellets that were mixed with polyethylene powder and placed in the center of the path of a terahertz electromagnetic (EM) wave in the spectroscopy system. The absorbance of each sample showed obvious differences in absorption peaks. From this result, we showed that these pesticide products had resonance modes in the terahertz range, and this method can be used to make a sensor that is able to measure low concentrations of pesticides in farm produce.

  19. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; Steren, Carlos A.; Goodwin, Andrew; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Gido, Samuel; Beiner, Mario; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam -Goo; et al

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffinemore » tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.« less

  20. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185