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Sample records for living wills

  1. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  2. Understanding the legal implications of living wills.

    PubMed

    Haas, Fiona

    This article explains the legality of living wills and clarifies the conditions that make an advance statement valid. The practical application of a living will is explored using examples illustrating the necessary considerations. In recognising the legality of advance refusals of treatment, nurses need to be aware that they must abide by such a refusal.

  3. Oncology patients and the living will.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R L

    1992-05-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act now requires hospitals, nursing homes, and health maintenance organizations to ask patients if they have executed and are in possession of a living will. This article provides a brief historical perspective of what living wills are, how patient autonomy has contributed to their existence, and what distinguishes a living will from a durable power of attorney for health care. Included are working examples of these advance directives and a description of the University of Kansas Cancer Unit's positive experience with living wills. The final section discusses the meaning of certain pivotal terms, looks at the current under-utilization of living wills, and closes with an examination of the Blackhall thesis of futility.

  4. The living will: legal and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wold, J L

    1992-02-01

    Problems surrounding issues of dying and death are many. Health professionals, families and individuals all must cope with different aspects of these problems. The living will has been discussed as one way people can alleviate many of the problems associated with the decision to die with dignity. Nurses are in the perfect position to educate people concerning the benefits of having a living will. As patient advocate, it is imperative nurses be apprised of the laws in their states regarding living wills. By initiating a living will, individuals can make their wishes known to both family and the medical establishment. Increased public education concerning state living will legislation and concomitant rights under these laws is needed. Through education, many of the legal and ethical issues that arise from ignorance of the law may be avoided before they become problems.

  5. Understanding Pennsylvania living wills: the 5 Ws.

    PubMed

    Pina, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    The working world of nurses is often filled with deep-running emotions and physical exhaustion as we care for our dying patients. We feel the need to step back and gain perspective when faced with a dying patient, or more appropriately, a dying person. We must also keep in mind the family of the dying who may have similar feelings. It is nearly impossible to be a nurse and not have to care for a dying patient; thus, we often find ourselves dealing with living wills. The living will is the more common of the two forms of an advance directive; the other is the durable power of attorney for healthcare. Since living wills are so common, and laws about them vary from state-to-state, it is important for the professional nurse in Pennsylvania to understand how living wills work in our state. This may best be approached by considering the 5 Ws related to living wills.

  6. Living will status and desire for living will help among rural Alabama veterans.

    PubMed

    Mahaney-Price, Ann F; Hilgeman, Michelle M; Davis, Lori L; McNeal, Sandre F; Conner, Charles M; Allen, Rebecca S

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from an earlier intervention study to increase Veterans Administration health care enrollment in rural Alabama veterans was to determine the veterans' living will status, desire for help completing a living will, and relationships between these and demographic, health insurance, health self-report, cumulative illness, disability, and trust characteristics. Baseline data for 201 rural Alabama veterans were extracted from the larger study. Chi-square and t tests were used to analyze group differences in categorical and continuous variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine multivariate associations of variables with living will status and desire for help. Only 13% of participants had living wills. Of those without living wills, 40% expressed a desire for help completing a living will. African Americans were less likely to have living wills than were Caucasians. Participants with more than high school education were more likely to desire help completing living wills than were those with less education. With the exception of moderate-severe respiratory illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with having a living will. With the exception of moderate-severe vascular illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with desire for help completing a living will. The racial and educational disparities in living will status and desire for help and the number of participants who desired help completing a living will suggests a need for action to increase advance care planning among rural veterans.

  7. Does a living will equal a DNR? Are living wills compromising patient safety?

    PubMed

    Mirarchi, Ferdinando L

    2007-10-01

    Living wills are thought to protect the medical decision-making capacity of patients. Presented are three case scenarios of patients with living wills presenting to health care facilities for treatment, and their hospital courses. Living wills have never been thought to compromise patient care or safety, but their use has not been adequately studied with respect to risks, benefits, or consequences. This case series will define a scenario as well as how that scenario was affected by the presence of a living will. In addition, existing data regarding the care provided to patients with a code status designation of DNR (do not resuscitate) are reviewed.

  8. [Dying with dignity. A study of living wills].

    PubMed

    Nebot, Cristina; Ortega, Blas; Mira, José Joaquín; Ortiz, Lidia

    2010-01-01

    To describe the profile of persons who exercise their right to draw up a living will, to analyze physicians' knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain), a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate), and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1). Most (73.8%) used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99%) and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%). Although 61 physicians (72.6%) frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit living wills. Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions. Copyright © 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Living wills under close scrutiny: Medical consultation is indispensable].

    PubMed

    Schöffner, M; Schmidt, K W; Benzenhöfer, U; Sahm, S

    2012-03-01

    Since September 2009 the handling of living wills has been regulated by law. Even though a medical consultation is not imperative for the drawing up of a living will, first surveys have shown that medical information about clinical pictures and treatment options lead to an important specification of living wills. For the first time in Germany, a questionnaire has been developed to investigate the impact of medical consultations on the content of living wills. It revealed that nearly all the people surveyed who had already drawn up a living will wished to change the content of their completed will after attending the seminar because the previous version was no longer in accordance with their wishes. In the light of the frequent difficulties in hospitals concerning how to apply a living will to an actual clinical situation, we believe structured medical consultations to be indispensable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Understanding the will to live in patients nearing death.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This study examined concurrent influences on the will to live in 189 patients with end-stage cancer The authors found significant correlations between the will to live and existential, psychological, social, and, to a lesser degree, physical sources of distress. Existential variables proved to have the most influence, with hopelessness, burden to others, and dignity entering into the final model. Health care providers must learn to appreciate the importance of existential issues and their ability to influence the will to live among patients nearing death.

  11. [Relevance of Living Wills During Post-Resuscitation Care].

    PubMed

    Christ, Martin; von Auenmüller, Katharina Isabel; Grett, Martin; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brand, Michael; Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Background There is hardly any evidence about the influence of living wills on acute life-threatening disease like out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). We therefore initiated this study to quantify the percentage of victims of OHCA who's living wills are available during post-resuscitation care. Methods All victims of OHCA who were admitted to our hospital between January 1(st) 2008 and July 31(th) 2016 were identified by analysis of our central admission register. Data from individual patients were collected from the patient's health records and anonymously stored on a central database. Results Altogether, there were 343 victims of OHCA admitted to our hospital between January 1(st) 2008 and July 31(th) 2016, including 16 patients (4.7 %) with living wills and 18 patients (5.2 %) with legal health care proxy. Survival rates were 31.2 % in patients with living wills, 27.8 % in patients with legal health care proxy and 33.3 % in patients without such a document. Conclusion In this study, the percentage of victims of OHCA with available living wills during post-resuscitation care was low. The presentation of living wills or legal health care proxies during post-resuscitation care of victims from OHCA was not equivalent to the patient`s death. Most often, discussion with relatives led to the decision to withdraw further therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A living will clause for supporters of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Sztybel, David

    2006-01-01

    Many people assume that invasive research on animals is justified because of its supposed benefits and because of the supposed mental inferiority of animals. However probably most people would be unwilling to sign a living will which consigns themselves to live biomedical experimentation if they ever, through misfortune, end up with a mental capacity equivalent to a laboratory animal. The benefits would be greater by far for medical science if living will signatories were to be used, and also the mental superiority boast would no longer apply. Ultimately, it is argued that invasive biomedical experiments would be unacceptable in a democratic society whose members are philosophically self-consistent.

  13. [Knowledge and attitudes of the population about the living wills].

    PubMed

    Angel-López-Rey, Esther; Romero-Cano, Marta; Tébar-Morales, Juan Pablo; Mora-García, Cristina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Olga

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge of living wills and attitudes to these documents in the populations of two basic health areas in Toledo (Spain). We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study in primary care centers. Participants consisted of the populations of two basic health areas selected by systematic stratified sampling. Inclusion criteria comprised age between 18 and 80 years, and absence of mental or terminal illnesses. The participants were contacted by telephone before a personal interview was carried out. Data on demographic variables and knowledge of living wills and attitudes to these documents were recorded. A total of 395 participants were interviewed (58% women) with a mean age of 46.22 years (SD: 17.13). The vast majority (88.6%) were unaware of living wills, with no significant differences in sex or religious beliefs. Most (67.8%) would sign a living will in the case of terminal illness whereas 56.3% would sign at the present moment, with no significant differences in sex or religious beliefs. More than half of the men (57.5%) would agree to modify the living will if requested by relatives versus 42.6% of the women. More than three-quarters (76.2%) believed that information on living wills was insufficient. One-third (34.5%) would allow a relative's organs to be donated even without the relative leaving express wishes, while 49.2% would donate their own organs. There was a huge lack of awareness on living wills in our population, which nevertheless proved to be highly receptive to, and in agreement with, the implications of these documents after receiving information on the topic.

  14. Matter of will: The association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and the will-to-live.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined how posttraumatic-stress-symptoms presented after prolonged traumatic exposure to rocket attacks are related to the perception of the worthiness of life among individuals in the second half of their lives. Additionally, it was questioned whether the subjective evaluation of the time one has left to live affects this relationship. Using an in-region random digit dialing methodology, phone calls made to residents in the south of Israel, we sampled 339 community-dwelling older adults (age range 50-90; M=65.44, SD=9.77) in Wave 1, 170 of whom were interviewed again in Wave 2 about a year later. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire on posttraumatic-stress-symptoms, subjective nearness-to-death, and will-to-live. The cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses results showed that higher levels of posttraumatic-stress-symptoms were positively related to higher will-to-live in both waves, among individuals who felt further away from death, while higher levels of posttraumatic-stress-symptoms were negatively related or unrelated to lower will-to-live among those who felt close to death in Waves 1and 2, respectively. The findings emphasize that perceptions regarding one's future perspective may affect the quality of the relationship between posttraumatic-stress-symptoms and will-to-live. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New law on staffing levels will save lives.

    PubMed

    2016-02-17

    Good news about nurse staffing levels can be hard to find, so how fantastic that a protracted campaign in Wales finally paid off last week with the passage of legislation to ensure hospital wards are staffed safely. Next month, the Queen will give royal assent to the Safe Nurse Staffing Levels (Wales) Bill, which will save lives, produce better outcomes and enhance the patient experience of care.

  16. Incoming Population: Where Will the People Live? Coping with Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Theodore R.

    The guide describes an assessment procedure that can be used by sparsely populated communities located near a potential development to help predict where the incoming population will choose to live and shop. First, a numerical model, the "gravity model," is presented which utilizes community size and the distance from the community to…

  17. Legislative hazard: keeping patients living, against their wills.

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, L L

    1988-01-01

    Natural death act legislation which is intended to assist patients who wish to refuse or limit medical treatment may actually erode patients' rights. By use of a 'living will' the legislation intends to extend the patients' role in decision-making to the time when patients can no longer speak for themselves. However, the legislation erodes and constricts the right of refusal. The erosion is the result of two sets of conditions found in the legislation. The first requires that the patient be qualified and certified by others before interventions can be withdrawn or withheld. The second delineates the physical condition which must be present before a living will can be followed. Patients have had to seek the assistance of the courts to enforce their common law rights of refusal of treatment against these requirements. Legislation is needed, but greater care must be taken to avoid the creation of a Kafkaesque legal nightmare for those we intend to assist. PMID:3392722

  18. Model determines if falling, live TCP gun will detonate

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, A.A.; Owen, P.J. ); Nuttall, D.E. )

    1992-11-09

    BHP Research has developed a mathematical model to determine if a falling, live tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) gun assembly will detonate upon impacting the bottom of a well. If the model finds that the falling fun exceeds the critical velocity, the gun assembly dimensions, fluid properties, or casing dimensions should be changed. BHP has successfully used the model to design downhole completions for the Challis oil field in the Timor Sea.

  19. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  20. [A living will--autonomy in dementive states].

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron; Niv, Galia; Levi, Zohar; Niv, Yona

    2004-09-01

    Demented patients may refuse to eat at the end of life. Many caregivers believe that food is as essential as air, and hence, tube feeding is as important as mechanical ventilation. Many believe that demented patients should be fed in any event, even against their will. The aim of this study was to assess the opinions of the elderly about tube feeding and advanced medical procedures in dementia. Inhabitants of protected homes, over 70 years of age, were asked to complete a questionnaire with demographic details, self-estimation, and self grading according to mobility, quality of life, function, pain, family and environmental support. They were asked what they consider to be a situation worse than death, and then, to grade their consent to life support procedures in the different stages of dementia: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, nasogastric tube, resuscitation, artificial respiration or surgery. They were also asked whether they want a living will for medical interventions in dementia for future guardian consideration. One hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed and 61 were completed (compliance of 50.8%) including responses from 47 women (77%). The average age was 83 years. Most of the participants were women of European origin, not religious, executives with an average of 12 years of education. More than 70% of participants opposed life-supporting procedures in lower stages of dementia, and more than 80% in higher stages. Ninety-five percent of the participants believed in a living will that denied tube feeding and advanced therapies in dementia.

  1. Living wills in health care: a way of empowering individuals.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Jamshed

    2010-03-01

    Advance directives are the legal document in the United States and deals with the wishes of an individual as to the choice of treatment he expects to receive sometimes in future, when he may not be able to take such decision, depending upon his mental capabilities. The living will is one such document. This is a new concept to many Pakistani physicians. This article is based upon author's views where moral values are debated and later how to develop policies and practices to be implemented are discussed in relation to our set up.

  2. Living Wills in Italy: Ethical and Comparative Law Approaches.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    In this article, advance directives will be analysed through ethical and comparative law approaches. Their importance, the two different types of advance directives and the so-called three steps hierarchy, will be discussed. Living wills will be treated in detail, considering the criticism they have attracted, as well as their known benefits. A thorough examination of the latest version of Arts. 3 and 4 of Italian Bill No. 2350, as approved by the Italian Senate in March 2009 and then amended by the Chamber of Deputies in July 2011, is included. This bill grants advance directives advisory force, limits their application in time and does not allow the validity of oral declarations. This political decision limits autonomy. Furthermore, there are doubts about the constitutionality of this bill, especially with respect to Arts. 2, 13 and 32 of the Italian Constitution, related to the right of self-determination. Further, this article will include a comparative approach of the legal aspects, with particular attention to the French and German models. To conclude, some ethical principles that the Italian legislator must take into consideration are indicated. In addition, some possible modifications of this Bill are suggested based on the experience of other European legislation.

  3. The importance of living wills and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Heather

    2009-10-01

    Living wills and advance directives are important components of patients' medical records, which all too often do not indicate the appropriate palliative care measures the patient desires. A review of the current literature indicates that approximately 85% to 95% of the population does not have adequate advance directives or palliative care measures written in their medical record. Furthermore, these orders may not follow the patient when he or she is transferred to other facilities for intermittent care. Unwanted tracheal intubations can be both costly to the facility and distressing to the patient and family members. By instituting a change in policy, organizations can ensure that patients' wishes for end-of-life care are met appropriately. In addition, nurses should advocate for a centralized database at the political level. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Will the XQ "Super Schools" Live Up to Their Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Halfway through September 2016--roughly a year after the contest was launched--"XQ: The Super School Project" announced its 10 high school design-team winners at a "Facebook Live" event in Washington, D.C. Originally intended to result in just five winners, the XQ project was open to anyone who thought that they could…

  5. Living on the Moon: Will Humans Develop an Unearthly Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Philip R.

    1985-01-01

    When a large lunar base is established, possibly by the year 2010, a new space culture will begin to develop. In adapting to their new environment, lunar settlers will develop new lifestyles, new values, and a new vocabulary. (Author)

  6. Living on the Moon: Will Humans Develop an Unearthly Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Philip R.

    1985-01-01

    When a large lunar base is established, possibly by the year 2010, a new space culture will begin to develop. In adapting to their new environment, lunar settlers will develop new lifestyles, new values, and a new vocabulary. (Author)

  7. The art of living in Otto Rank's Will Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadlington, Will

    2012-12-01

    Otto Rank's approach to psychotherapy, developed after his separation from Freud, encourages living life fully in spite of death and limitation. In his emphasis on the here and now, new experience in the therapeutic relationship, and collaboration and creativity in the therapy process, Rank was ahead of his time. As a theorist of personality and of creativity, his work is well known, but his influence on the practices of humanistic, existential, and post-psychoanalytic relational therapists is largely unacknowledged. Rank's creative legacy is an approach to psychotherapy that calls forth artistry and collaboration between therapist and client.

  8. [Big data: a revolution that will transform our lives].

    PubMed

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Big data denotes our capacity to gain insights from (in relative terms!) large amounts of data that we could not have had by just looking at samples. Our difficulty in working with data has shaped our methods in the small data age. As these limitations with respect to data diminish, we will have to rethink and adjust our scientific methods. In return, we will gain a wealth of new insights, perhaps leading towards a new golden era of scientific discovery. Big Data power demands, however, that we also are cognizant of its limitations and the significant dangers of abusing it.

  9. Iowa nurses' knowledge of living wills and perceptions of patient autonomy.

    PubMed

    Weiler, K; Eland, J; Buckwalter, K C

    1996-01-01

    The principle of patient autonomy is well recognized in the nursing profession. This study extends the exploration of patient autonomy by examining nurses' knowledge about living wills. The questions addressed in this study included the following: (1) Were Iowa nurses aware of the living will statute? (2) What sources of information did nurses use to learn about this legislation? (3) What were nurses' perceptions of patients' rights? (4) What were nurses' perceptions of nurses' role involving living wills? (5) Were living wills followed? (6) If not followed, which factors contributed to the failure to honor a living will? and (7) Which communication mechanisms were used to alert nurses to a living will? A questionnaire was mailed to 10,000 actively licensed nurses in Iowa. Approximately 3,000 Iowa nurses responded to the questionnaire regarding Iowa living wills. Seventy per cent of the nurses knew that Iowa had living will legislation. No single educational source was a predominate choice for targeted information about the living will statute. Nurses were reluctant to suggest to patients that they should consider writing a living will. Nurses were also more willing to assume a passive role of suggesting that patients talk with relatives about the need for a living will but were less likely to be suggest that a patient write a living will for future health care treatment decisions. The majority of the nurses favored the patient having some control in health care treatment decisions. Three major factors were pertinent to the failure to follow a living will: family request, treating physician's refusal, and lack of information that the living will existed. The medical record was the primary means of communication regarding a living will. To enhance patient efforts at self-determination, nurses must recognize the advance directive legislation is available in their state and the potential impact that their nursing care may have on the implementation of the document.

  10. Case Analyses of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients Who Refused to Sign a Living Will.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald L.; Grady, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Notes that, in survey of 50 cancer patients offered living wills, 6 individuals declined to sign advance directives. Contains detailed evaluation of each of six cases. Discusses potential value of living wills in context of other, newer forms of advance directives, such as durable power of attorney for health care, and more detailed living will…

  11. Case Analyses of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients Who Refused to Sign a Living Will.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald L.; Grady, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Notes that, in survey of 50 cancer patients offered living wills, 6 individuals declined to sign advance directives. Contains detailed evaluation of each of six cases. Discusses potential value of living wills in context of other, newer forms of advance directives, such as durable power of attorney for health care, and more detailed living will…

  12. [The availability of living wills in an interdisciplinary emergency department: results of a patient survey].

    PubMed

    Christ, M; Liebeton, J; Breker, I M; Grett, M; von Auenmüller, K I; Trappe, H-J

    2015-11-01

    Despite an increasing attention to living wills, the effects of such living wills on patient care in the emergency departments remains unknown. All patients who were admitted to our emergency department between September 24th, 2014 and November 23th, 2014 were asked, whether they have signed living wills previously and if so, whether they have it on hand at admission. 496 patients (229 men (46.2 %), 267 women (53.8 %)) with a mean age of 64.9 ± 18.8 years were included in this survey. 138 patients (27.8 %) had a living will but only 16 patients (3.2 %) had it on hand.Altogether, the existence of living wills increased with an increasing patient`s age; only 5 of 117 patients aged 50 years old or younger (4,3 %) had a living will, but 133 of 379 patients older than 50 years (35,1 %). Despite an obviously broad acceptance of living wills especially in the elderly population, there are hardly any consequences on the daily patient care in an emergency department by now, as hardly any patient has hers or his living will on hand at admission. We therefore see the need for further educational work to guarantee that living wills get adequate priority in patient care at emergency departments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Cancer Patient Perception of the Living Will: Report of a Pilot Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted pilot survey of 64 patients with late stage malignancy who had signed living wills. Found that 70.3 percent were grateful for opportunity to sign living will and maintain autonomy over their terminal care, 20.3 percent were either apparently indifferent or unwilling to discuss issue, and 9.4 percent appeared disturbed by their signing of…

  14. Cancer Patient Perception of the Living Will: Report of a Pilot Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted pilot survey of 64 patients with late stage malignancy who had signed living wills. Found that 70.3 percent were grateful for opportunity to sign living will and maintain autonomy over their terminal care, 20.3 percent were either apparently indifferent or unwilling to discuss issue, and 9.4 percent appeared disturbed by their signing of…

  15. From will to live to will to die: oncologists, nurses, and social workers identification of suicidality in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Nakash, Ora; Ariad, Samuel; Chen, Wendy; Birenstock-Cohen, Shira; Shapira, Shahar; Ben-David, Merav

    2017-06-26

    The purpose of this research was to examine how oncologists, nurses, and social workers identify suicidality in cancer patients. Sixty-one healthcare professionals (23 oncologists, 18 social workers, and 20 nurses) at two academic cancer centers were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide. This was a qualitative study based on grounded theory methodology. Analysis involved line-by-line coding, with categories and themes emerging from participants' narratives. Suicidality in cancer patients exists on a wide spectrum that ranges from an active will to live to an active will to die. Four phases were identified that included: (A) a strong will to live expressed in themes of active treatments, seeking second opinions, overtreatment, and alternative treatments; (B) a decreasing will to live indicated in themes of mental health distress and physical pain and suffering; (C) a readiness to die expressed in themes of mental health distress, previous mental health diagnoses, physical pain, avoiding more suffering, preserving quality of life in old age, nearing end of life, lack of social support, and maintaining a sense of control; and (D) a will to die indicated in themes of euthanasia and active suicidality. Suicidality in cancer patients exists on a continuum. Cancer patients fluctuate on this spectrum depending on circumstances such as degree of suffering, their personalities and life circumstances, and whether they are nearing the end of life. Results of the study emphasize the need to collect more context specific data on suicidality among cancer patients and the importance of early integration of psychosocial and palliative care in the cancer treatment trajectory.

  16. Living wills and the Mental Capacity Act: a postal questionnaire survey of UK geriatricians.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rebekah; Sacares, Peter; Snook, Jane; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Bulpitt, Christopher J

    2006-03-01

    To determine geriatricians' experience of and views on living wills, National Health Service Trusts' support of advance end-of-life health care planning and geriatricians' views on related legal changes in the Mental Capacity Act. Anonymous postal questionnaire survey of all 1,426 British Geriatrics Society members in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A total of 842 (59%) questionnaires were returned. Of 811 geriatricians, 454 (56%) had cared for patients with living wills. Of the 280 who cared for patients when the living will had come into effect, 108 (39%) had changed treatment because of the living will and 84 (78%) of those felt that decisions had been easier to make. Living wills not already in effect made discussions with patients [171 of 178 (96%)] and families [135 of 178 (76%)] easier. Of 779 geriatricians, 713 (92%) saw advantages of older people using living wills; 467 of these also expressed concerns. Only 16 (2%) geriatricians who had concerns said that there were no advantages. A total of 214 (27%) were aware that their Trust had a form to help with discussions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Fewer [126 of 781 (16%)] were aware of a Trust policy on living wills. The proposal, in the Mental Capacity Bill, for advance refusals of treatment was supported by 59% (476 of 801), yet the proposal for a lasting power of attorney (LPA) covering health care was only supported by 47% (382 of 806). Many geriatricians have positive experiences of caring for patients with living wills. Despite recognising potential problems, most geriatricians support the use of living wills by older people. However, most believe that their Trust does not have a policy to support advance health care planning. Geriatricians have reservations about LPAs covering health care.

  17. The refusal of treatment: living wills and the current law in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    David Browne was suffering from motor neurone disease and was anxious to ensure that as his disease progressed and he ceased to be mentally capacitated he would not be given artificial feeding and ventilation. He therefore arranged to draw up a living will in which he gave an advanced refusal of such treatments. The document was duly signed and witnessed. Only 3 months after signing the living will he was severely injured in a road accident and brought into hospital unconscious. He was carrying his living will in his pocket. The doctors were concerned that if they operated and he required ventilation in intensive care, would the living will prevent their providing such treatment and care? What is the law?

  18. TRIAD IV: Nationwide Survey of Medical Students' Understanding of Living Wills and DNR Orders.

    PubMed

    Mirarchi, Ferdinando L; Ray, Matthew; Cooney, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Living wills are a form of advance directives that help to protect patient autonomy. They are frequently encountered in the conduct of medicine. Because of their impact on care, it is important to understand the adequacy of current medical school training in the preparation of physicians to interpret these directives. Between April and August 2011 of third and fourth year medical students participated in an internet survey involving the interpretation of living wills. The survey presented a standard living will as a "stand-alone," a standard living will with the addition an emergent clinical scenario and then variations of the standard living will that included a code status designation ("DNR," "Full Code," or "Comfort Care"). For each version/ scenario, respondents were asked to assign a code status and choose interventions based on the cases presented. Four hundred twenty-five students from medical schools throughout the country responded. The majority indicated they had received some form of advance directive training and understood the concept of code status and the term "DNR." Based on a stand-alone document, 15% of respondents correctly denoted "full code" as the appropriate code status; adding a clinical scenario yielded negligible improvement. When a code designation was added to the living will, correct code status responses ranged from 68% to 93%, whereas correct treatment decisions ranged from 18% to 78%. Previous training in advance directives had no impact on these results. Our data indicate that the majority of students failed to understand the key elements of a living will; adding a code status designations improved correct responses with the exception of the term DNR. Misunderstanding of advance directives is a nationwide problem and jeopardizes patient safety. Medical School ethics curricula need to be improved to ensure competency with respect to understanding advance directives.

  19. [Knowledge about disease course and living wills among patients with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Antolín, Albert; Sánchez, Miquel; Llorens, Pere; Martín Sánchez, Francisco Javier; González-Armengol, Juan Jorge; Ituño, Juan P; Carbajosa, José F; Fernández-Cañadas, José M; González del Castillo, Juan; Miró, Òscar

    2010-12-01

    To determine the level of knowledge about possible disease outcomes and living wills among patients with heart failure (HF) treated in an emergency department and to evaluate their willingness to draw up a living will. This cross-sectional, multicenter, noninterventional, prospective study included a consecutive series of patients. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Once their symptoms were under control, patients were interviewed about their knowledge of and opinions about HF. The dependent variables were a good objective understanding of the disease and a willingness to draw up a living will, and factors associated with these variables were investigated. The study included 309 patients: 79% considered themselves well-informed, 51.5% really were well-informed, 39.8% wanted more information, and 54.7% wanted to participate more in decision-making. In addition, 13.3% knew what living wills involved, 4.9% had received information about them from their doctor, and 28.8% agreed to draw one up. There was an independent association between being objectively well-informed and willingness to draw up a living will. Moreover, the former was associated with admission to intensive care, feeling well-informed, and having participated sufficiently in decision-making; the latter with age <75 years, wanting more information, understanding what a living will involved, and the referral center. The knowledge possessed by HF patients about the natural history of their disease was suboptimal, as was their knowledge about living wills and their willingness to draw one up. Providing better information about these issues is an essential part of the doctor-patient relationship.

  20. 'Round-table' ethical debate: is a suicide note an authoritative 'living will'?

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Donald B; Crippen, David; Franklin, Cory; Kelly, David F; Kilcullen, Jack K; Streat, Stephen; Truog, Robert D; Whetstine, Leslie M

    2001-01-01

    Living wills are often considered by physicians who are faced with a dying patient. Although popular with the general public, they remain problems of authenticity and authority. It is difficult for the examining physician to know whether the patient understood the terms of the advance directive when they signed it, and whether they still consider it authoritative at the time that it is produced. Also, there is little consensus on what spectrum of instruments constitutes a binding advance directive in real life. Does a 'suicide note' constitute an authentic and authoritative 'living will'? Our panel of authorities considers this problem in a round-table discussion. PMID:11353927

  1. 76 FR 20822 - Proposed Information Collection (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care... information needed to record patient's specific instructions about health care decisions in the event he or... Power of Attorney for Health Care, VA Form 10-0137. OMB Control Number: 2900-0556. Type of Review...

  2. TRIAD III: nationwide assessment of living wills and do not resuscitate orders.

    PubMed

    Mirarchi, Ferdinando L; Costello, Erin; Puller, Justin; Cooney, Timothy; Kottkamp, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    Concern exists that living wills are misinterpreted and may result in compromised patient safety. To determine whether adding code status to a living will improves understanding and treatment decisions. An Internet survey was conducted of General Surgery, and Family, Internal, and Emergency Medicine residencies between May and December 2009. The survey posed a fictitious living will with and without additional clarification in the form of code status. An emergent patient care scenario was then presented that included medical history and signs/symptoms. Respondents were asked to assign a code status and choose appropriate intervention. Questions were formatted as dichotomous responses. Correct response rate was based on legal statute. Significance of changes in response due to the addition of either clinical context (past medical history/signs/symptoms) or code status was assessed by contingency table analysis. Seven hundred sixty-eight faculty and residents at accredited training centers in 34 states responded. At baseline, 22% denoted "full code" as the code status for a typical living will, and 36% equated "full care" with a code status DNR. Adding clinical context improved correct responses by 21%. Specifying code status further improved correct interpretation by 28% to 34%. Treatment decisions were either improved 12-17% by adding code status ("Full Code," "Hospice Care") or worsened 22% ("DNR"). Misunderstanding of advance directives is a nationwide problem. Addition of code status may help to resolve the problem. Further research is required to ensure safety, understanding, and appropriate care to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consent and capacity 2: the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and 'living wills'.

    PubMed

    Fullbrook, Suzanne; Sanders, Karen

    The last article in this series discussed the social concerns which influenced the decision to introduce a law that laid out certain rights for certain people, with respect to healthcare choices, responsibilities and decisions. This, and the next article drawn attention to a specific aspect of the Mental Capacity Act - the issue of making a living will. At present, under common law, it is the legal right of competent adult patients to refuse medical treatments, but how is this achieved when, due to your illness or accident, you have lost the capacity to inform others of how you want your treatment to progress--or indeed that you do not want a certain treatment, or any treatment at all? This article discusses the 'living will', a written legal document made by a competent person in anticipation of becoming ill in the future.

  4. [Social-health characteristics of subjects who make a living will].

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Katia; López-Torres, Jesús; Simarro, M José; Navarro, Beatriz; Rabanales, Joseba; Gil, Vicente

    2014-04-01

    The Living Will (LW) is well publicised, and still largely unknown to the general public and health professionals. To describe the characteristics of the subjects that formalize a LW related to socio-demographic situation, health status, degree of dependence, healthcare characteristics and psychosocial aspects. Descriptive observational study conducted in the Health Area of Albacete including 123 people who formalized the LW in a Will Register in 2011. Study variables included: self-perceived health, functional status, morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics, use of health services, attitudes towards the LW, and psychosocial aspects. Those that made an LW, were mainly women (64.2%), had a mean age of 53.3 years (SD: 14.5), higher levels of education (61% with at least secondary education), and a lifestyle other than living with a partner, and with children (67.5%). The majority were self-sufficient for their daily living activities (98.4% to 94.3% for basic and instrumental), and suffered from chronic disease (73.2%). Despite lasting relationships with their physicians (9.4 years; SD: 7.9), there was very little talk about the end of life (18.3%). More than a half had a family member who had previously signed a document (54.5%). More than two-thirds (68.5%) considered this document useful in the death of a relative, and also a 56.7% had also served as a caregiver of a terminal patient. Middle-aged people, predominantly women, formalized an LW most often. They are usually chronic, but self-sufficient for their daily living activities, and are convinced that they can influence their health situation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccine supply chains need to be better funded and strengthened, or lives will be at risk.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Miller, Roger; Cheyne, James

    2011-06-01

    In the next decade, at least twelve additional vaccines that target such diseases as typhoid, malaria, and dengue will become available to lower- and middle-income countries. These vaccines must travel along what are called supply chains, which include all personnel, systems, equipment, and activities involved in ensuring that vaccines are effectively delivered from the point of production to the people who need them. But for various reasons, supply chains are already strained in many developing countries, and the potential inability to distribute new vaccines will place lives at risk. Among the many steps needed to strengthen the global vaccine supply chain, we suggest that the international community pursue improved coordination between organizations that donate and ship vaccines and the host-country officials who receive and distribute the vaccines, as well as better training for supply-chain managers.

  6. Influences of Nationalism and Historical Traumatic Events on the Will-to-Live of Elderly Israelis.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Sara; Granek, Leeat; Zamir, Alon

    2016-08-01

    Existing research suggests that will-to-live (WTL) is an indicator of subjective well-being (SWB), and that similar personal variables including physical and mental health, quality-of-life, and sociodemographic characteristics influence elderly people's WTL. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore additional factors which influence older persons' WTL. Twenty-five elderly Israelis across the country were interviewed about what weakens and strengthens their WTL. The grounded theory method guided the data collection and analysis. In addition to the previously reported aspects influencing WTL, analysis resulted in two new categories: nationalism and historical traumatic events. Negative influences of nationalism-related emotions on participants' WTL included themes of disappointment with the state, with children leaving the state, and with existential insecurity. Among the positive influences on WTL, participants mentioned pride in the state and in its development, personal security, and hope for a peaceful future. Under the category of historical traumatic events, participants reported posttraumatic stress and war anxieties, as well as satisfaction and revenge in continued existence, and appreciation for life in Israel compared with life before immigrating to Israel. Our findings indicate that nationalism and feelings of personal involvement in national developments play an important role in the lives of elderly Israelis to the degree that they contribute to their SWB and motivation to continue living. Practitioners and family members can intentionally arouse and strengthen positive nationalistic feelings in the elderly as a way to maintain and promote SWB and WTL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gender differences and the will-to-live in old age.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Sara

    2012-01-01

    International statistical data show that compared to men, women are underprivileged in personal resources, such as education and income, physical health and function, and in psychological characteristics, all of which are expressed in lower levels of subjective wellbeing (SWB). Literature shows that SWB is evaluated by numerous scales, which refer to various aspects of SWB. The purpose of this paper is threefold: a) to demonstrate the worldwide phenomenon of gender difference; b) to present a relatively new and unique indicator of wellbeing that is especially appropriate for older adults--the Will-to-Live (WTL), and a scale to evaluate it; c) to examine whether in old age, women differ from men in the strength of their wish to continue living. Results of a series of studies on older persons using the WTL scale indicate that the WTL is a multifaceted generalized indicator of wellbeing that systematically depicts the existing gender differences, indicating that women rank lower on SWB, and have a lower commitment to life than men. The WTL also predicts mortality among women, and is explained by different factors among men and women. As a measure, the WTL is a simple, parsimonious, easy to use tool, and well accepted by older people. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as its good psychometric features, the WTL is recommended for practical use in monitoring changes in wellbeing, and evaluating effectiveness of intervention programs directed towards improving the wellbeing of older adults.

  8. [Validation of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in the Living Will Declaration process].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Fernández, Eugenio; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; Méndez-Martínez, Camila; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Cabezón Rodríguez, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the validity and reliability of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals questionnaire on the Living Will Declaration (LWD) process. Cross-sectional study structured into 3 phases: (i)pilot questionnaire administered with paper to assess losses and adjustment problems; (ii)assessment of the validity and internal reliability, and (iii)assessment of the pre-filtering questionnaire stability (test-retest). Costa del Sol (Malaga) Health Area. January 2014 to April 2015. Healthcare professionals of the Costa del Sol Primary Care District and the Costa del Sol Health Agency. There were 391 (23.6%) responses, and 100 participated in the stability assessment (83 responses). The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts: (i)Knowledge (5 dimensions and 41 items), and (ii)Attitudes (2 dimensions and 17 items). In the pilot study, none of the items lost over 10%. In the evaluation phase of validity and reliability, the questionnaire was reduced to 41 items (29 of knowledge, and 12 of attitudes). In the stability evaluation phase, all items evaluated met the requirement of a kappa higher than 0.2, or had a percentage of absolute agreement exceeding 75%. The questionnaire will identify the status and areas for improvement in the health care setting, and then will allow an improved culture of LWD process in general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Department of... INFORMATION Title: Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care, VA Form 10-0137. OMB Control... admitted to a VA medical facility complete VA Form 10-0137 to appoint a health care agent to make decision...

  10. An international smoking ban-how many lives will be saved?

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Cecily C; Frazer, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Multicomponent tobacco control strategies are crucial to combat the ongoing global smoking challenge. In the twenty-first century, many countries have signed up to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in recent years a mounting number of countries and regions have implemented partial or complete smoking bans to protect the general public from passive smoke exposure. There is substantial evidence that workers, particularly in the hospitality sector, benefit from reduced exposure. More recently, several reports have appeared from different countries showing a temporal relationship between the introduction of a smoking ban and reduced hospital admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory and maternity outcomes. This will have a measurable benefit for public health, saving many lives. Multicomponent strategies could also reduce active smoking significantly if successfully implemented worldwide.

  11. Volitional collapse (loss of the will to live) in patients with burn injuries. Treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Tempereau, C E; Grossman, A R; Brones, M F

    1989-01-01

    Volitional collapse, or loss of the will to live, remains one of the most vexing of the various system failures complicating serious illness or injury. It resembles, but is distinguishable from, major depression. Two features of volitional collapse may sometimes be turned to therapeutic advantage: it releases the patient from a struggle that may be dissipating already depleted energy reserves, and it transfers survival responsibility from one who has given up to others who have not. Preferred treatment involves carefully orchestrated initiatives from the patient's physician, closest friend, and spouse; their leverage derives from traditional sources, most importantly psychologic transference, bonding, and conjugal commitment. A burn unit provides an ideal environment in which to study the disorder and its response to treatment.

  12. More americans living longer with cardiovascular disease will increase costs while lowering quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A; Weinstein, Milton C; Cutler, David

    2013-10-01

    In the past several decades, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased-factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans' average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer-factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact of these opposing trends, we used the nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 to forecast total cardiovascular disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that continued improvements in cardiovascular disease treatment and declining smoking rates will not outweigh the influence of increasing population age and obesity on cardiovascular disease risk. Given an aging population, an obesity epidemic, and declining mortality from the disease, the United States should expect to see a sharp rise in the health care costs, disability, and reductions in quality of life associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Policies that target the treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol and the reduction of obesity will be necessary to curb the imminent spike in cardiovascular disease prevalence.

  13. [Knowledge and attitudes of health professionals to the living will declaration process].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Fernández, Eugenio; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Castilla-Soto, Jose; Méndez-Martínez, Camila

    2015-10-01

    To identify the underlying interests of the Living Will Declaration (LWD) process and to determine the consensus, using a questionnaire, of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals. A study was performed in two phases using a Delphi technique with a Rand method. 1. Dimensions proposed: generation of ideas and their subsequent prioritizing; 2. Proposal and prioritizing of items grouped into blocks of Knowledge and Attitudes, developed between August 2012 and January 2013. The work was carried out by initial telephone contact with panellists, and then later by the panellists belonged to the Andalusia Public Health System. The criteria for selecting the eight components of the panel were knowledge and experience in the field of the freedom of the patient in Andalusia. The Knowledge identified included: 1 A) Legal and general aspects; 2 A) A conceptual definition; 3 A) Standardised LWD documents: 4 A) Practical experience; 5 A) Procedure and registering of the LWDs. The second block included Attitudes: 1 B) Attitudes of the professional in the application of LWDs in clinical practice, and 2 B) Attitudes of the professional in «complex» ethical scenarios The 7 panellists who finally took part proposed 165 items. After applying the prioritizing criteria, scores, and scenario selection, 58 (35.2%) items were identified as suitable scenarios. The proposed questionnaire included wide parcels of concepts and contents that, once validated, will help to measure the training interventions carried out on health professionals in order to improve knowledge and attitudes on the subject of LWDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Knowledge and attitudes of primary care professionals on the "live wills" document].

    PubMed

    Champer Blasco, Anna; Caritg Monfort, Ferran; Marquet Palomer, Roser

    2010-09-01

    To assess the current state of knowledge and attitudes on the advance directives (living wills) document of professionals working in primary. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Primary care professionals. Catalonia Health Institute, Maresme Province, Barcelona. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was prepared with a correct answer model and a minimum correct level for each block of questions, as well as two comprehensibility and validity tests and a pilot feasibility test. From a target population of 475 individuals, t 227 (47%) responses were received (59% of GPs, 28% of paediatricians, 7% of dentists, 59% of nurses, 12% of assistant clinics, 30% of social workers and 25% of administrative assistants). Four people had written their own advance directive document. The percentage of correct answers was: definition block 83.8%, legal aspects 4.1%, procedure-register 0.5%; content 1.4%, application 38.6%. Primary care workers have a general knowledge on the advance directives and the advance directive document but not enough about the law, content and registers. There was no significant difference between professional groups. The questionnaire appears useful for assessing knowledge on advance directives document. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient values and preferences for end-of-life treatments: are values better predictors than a living will?

    PubMed

    Winter, Laraine

    2013-04-01

    Advance care planning is widely considered important for good treatment decision making. Patient values have been proposed as superior to standard living wills as guides to end-of-life (EOL) care decisions on behalf of decisionally incapacitated patients. Little research has examined whether values outperform living wills as predictors of treatment preferences. The study aimed to test whether patient values are associated with treatment preferences, compare values and preferences to responses from a standard living will, and determine whether some values are better predictors than others. Community-dwelling elderly men and women (n=304) were interviewed in their homes by telephone. The interview consisted of an eight-item EOL values scale, a standard living will question, preferences for four life-prolonging treatments in each of six scenarios, and sociodemographic questions. Principal components analysis of the EOL values revealed two factors: (1) dignity, pain management, and reluctance to burden others; and (2) religiosity and desire for longevity and following family wishes. In regression analyses, stronger preferences for life-prolonging treatments were correlated with higher scores on factor 1 and lower scores on factor 2. But when living will responses were also entered into the regression model, only religiosity, longevity, and following family wishes predicted treatment preferences independently of the living will responses. Providing better guidance than a living will in determining a patient's EOL treatment preferences are (1) knowledge about a patient's religiosity, (2) patient's wishes for longevity, and (3) patient's wishes for following family preferences. Wishes for dignity and pain management and reluctance to burden others do not offer better guidance than a living will.

  16. Last Change for Desegregation: Will Black and White Workers Live Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a large portion of white America will try to secure better housing without paying the price of desegregation; and that, on the other hand, if whites and blacks make desegregation a non-negotiable item, there may be still time to undo the work of the past one hundred years--integrate the two races. (Author)

  17. Advance directives and living wills: the role of patient's autonomy in the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to discuss the development of the notion that the patient has the right to refuse treatment, and how the Brazilian legal system is dealing with bioethical dilemmas, such as the possibility of exercising autonomy through advance directives. The paper discusses the lack of legislation to regulate important issues in the end of life healthcare, and what ethical guidelines exist, providing physicians with ethical and legal parameters to deal with the patient's will.

  18. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease will it live up to its hype?

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Lee, John H; Milani, Richard V

    2011-10-04

    Substantial evidence suggests that a large portion of the population have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which may adversely affect the cardiovascular (CV) system, including increasing levels of parathyroid hormone, activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and increasing insulin resistance, thus leading to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation, and increased risk of atherosclerosis and CV disease events. We review the evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with incident CV disease events, as well as evidence that vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduction in CV diseases. Although the current evidence has created substantial hype, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether routine vitamin D assessment and supplementation will improve CV outcomes.

  19. These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.M.

    2009-09-15

    The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

  20. The living will (Wasiyat Al-Hayy): a study of its legality in the light of Islamic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, A F

    2000-01-01

    Death is an inevitable phenomenon which strikes at any time during a person's infancy, youth or old age. But, one cannot overlook the fact that before the inevitable (i.e. death) does take place a person may become a victim of a terminal illness, or may lapse into irreversible coma, or persistent vegetative state (PVS). In various countries, an increasing number of healthy people have appended their signatures on what is called the Living Will (Advanced Medical Directive), which is in effect a document safeguarding their right to die. This paper discusses the clauses embodied in the Living Will from an Islamic ethico-legal perspective with the aim of ascertaining its validity.

  1. HOW LONG WILL MY MOUSE LIVE? MACHINE LEARNING APPROACHES FOR PREDICTION OF MOUSE LIFESPAN

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.; Harper, James M.; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of individual lifespan based upon characteristics evaluated at middle-age represents a challenging objective for aging research. In this study, we used machine learning algorithms to construct models that predict lifespan in a stock of genetically heterogeneous mice. Lifespan-prediction accuracy of 22 algorithms was evaluated using a cross-validation approach, in which models were trained and tested with distinct subsets of data. Using a combination of body weight and T-cell subset measures evaluated before two years of age, we show that the lifespan quartile to which an individual mouse belongs can be predicted with an accuracy of 35.3% (± 0.10%). This result provides a new benchmark for the development of lifespan-predictive models, but improvement can be expected through identification of new predictor variables and development of computational approaches. Future work in this direction can provide tools for aging research and will shed light on associations between phenotypic traits and longevity. PMID:18840793

  2. [Living will, durable power of attorney and legal guardianship in the trauma surgery routine : Data from a geriatric trauma center].

    PubMed

    Hack, J; Buecking, B; Lopez, C L; Ruchholtz, S; Kühne, C A

    2016-12-01

    Due to the increasing number of elderly patients, trauma surgeons are often confronted with end-of-life treatment decisions. Advance directives can help reduce the lack of clarity in those situations. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of living wills, durable power of attorney, legal guardianship and appointment of guardianship in the geriatric trauma center of a university hospital. The data of all patients treated in our geriatric trauma center from 01/01/2013 to 03/31/2014 were analyzed regarding the presence of a living will, durable power of attorney, legal guardianship and appointment of guardianship as well as the procedure of documenting those items. Out of 181 patients, 63 % (n = 114) had one or more of these documents. Most frequently used was the durable power of attorney in 33 % (n = 59), followed by a living will in 27 % (n = 48), legal guardianship in 20 % (n = 37) and appointment of guardianship in 7 % (n = 12). The existence of those documents was recorded in 88 % (n = 100) of patients within 24 h after admission; documentation in the medical records was found in 58 % (n = 66). A large proportion of patients had one or more of the documents named above. In this respect, standardized documentation of advance directives in the medical record is an important issue for all persons involved.

  3. Will Life Be Worth Living in a World Without Work? Technological Unemployment and the Meaning of Life.

    PubMed

    Danaher, John

    2017-02-01

    Suppose we are about to enter an era of increasing technological unemployment. What implications does this have for society? Two distinct ethical/social issues would seem to arise. The first is one of distributive justice: how will the (presumed) efficiency gains from automated labour be distributed through society? The second is one of personal fulfillment and meaning: if people no longer have to work, what will they do with their lives? In this article, I set aside the first issue and focus on the second. In doing so, I make three arguments. First, I argue that there are good reasons to embrace non-work and that these reasons become more compelling in an era of technological unemployment. Second, I argue that the technological advances that make widespread technological unemployment possible could still threaten or undermine human flourishing and meaning, especially if (as is to be expected) they do not remain confined to the economic sphere. And third, I argue that this threat could be contained if we adopt an integrative approach to our relationship with technology. In advancing these arguments, I draw on three distinct literatures: (1) the literature on technological unemployment and workplace automation; (2) the antiwork critique-which I argue gives reasons to embrace technological unemployment; and (3) the philosophical debate about the conditions for meaning in life-which I argue gives reasons for concern.

  4. Ask a different question, get a different answer: why living wills are poor guides to care preferences at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Winter, Laraine; Parks, Susan M; Diamond, James J

    2010-05-01

    Living wills have a poor record of directing care at the end of life, as a copious literature attests. Some speculation centers on the questionable correspondence between the scenario described in living wills versus the real-life circumstances that typically arise at the end of life. To assess the strength of association between responses to a standard living will question and preferences for treatments in six end-of-life scenarios. Cross-sectional. Telephone interviews. Two hundred two community-dwelling men and women 70 years of age or older in the greater Philadelphia area. Strength of preferences for four life-sustaining treatments in each of six poor-health scenarios. Associations between responses to the standard living will question and preferences for treatment (means across the four) in six specific scenarios were statistically significant but modest in size, accounting for 23% of variance at most. The association for the worse-case scenario (severe stroke with coma) was significantly stronger than for any other association. The modest correspondence between living will responses and wishes for life-sustaining treatment in specific scenarios helps to elucidate the living will's poor performance. Presentation of more realistic end-of-life scenarios should improve the living will's ability to guide care, as well as preparing patients and families better for the end of life.

  5. [Knowledge and attitudes as regards Living Wills between Primary and Specialised Care Doctors in the Ferrol Health Area].

    PubMed

    Ameneiros-Lago, Eugenia; Carballada-Rico, Carmen; Garrido-Sanjuán, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, the experience and the attitudes of the health professionals of Primary (PC) and Specialized (SC) Carein our Health Area with respect to Living Wills (LW). Descriptive, cross-sectional study, by means of a survey addressed to PC and SC doctors Ferrol (Galicia, Spain) Health Area A total of 120 (42.85%) doctors completed the questionnaire.The professionals self-assessed their level of knowledge with a mean of 3.83 (rank from 0 to 10). Only 21 professionals (17.5%) had objective knowledge of LW, that is to say, they fulfilled the following premises: they had read some pieces of LW legislation, had read an LW document and knew the elements that could figure in it. There were differences that verged on the statistical significance in the objective knowledge between PC and SC doctors (11.7% versus 23.3%, P= .093) and between professionals with under 10 years of professional experience and those with more than 10 years (6.9% versus 21.1%, P=.081). These differences reached statistical significance in some of the items that valued the objective knowledge. A few professionals (28 (23.3%)), had explained to their patients the convenience of having written an LW document, and even fewer (8 (6,7%)) had helped patients with writing one. The knowledge of health care professionals can be clearly improved. The highest deficiency was found between PC professionals and those with less experience. Nevertheless, they showed a favourable attitude towards them. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. When the human spirit helps? The moderating role of somatization on the association between Olympic game viewing and the will-to-live.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Shani; David, Udi Y; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-11-01

    This study examined whether participants with low somatization (no bodily manifestations of anxiety) who are assumed to identify with- and be inspired- by the Olympic-Games-spirit will present a stronger association between their Olympic-game viewing hours and their will-to-live, than persons with high somatization. One hundred and thirty seven participants reported their daily Olympic-game viewing hours, somatization and will-to-live levels. Results show that while among those with low somatization symptoms level, the relationships between Olympic game viewing hours and will-to-live was positive, the opposite was found among those with high somatization symptoms level. Viewing the Olympic Games may be beneficial for individuals with low somatization level but less so to individuals with higher somatization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Your friends know how long you will live: a 75-year study of peer-rated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua J; Connolly, James J; Garrison, S Mason; Leveille, Madeleine M; Connolly, Seamus L

    2015-03-01

    Although self-rated personality traits predict mortality risk, no study has examined whether one's friends can perceive personality characteristics that predict one's mortality risk. Moreover, it is unclear whether observers' reports (compared with self-reports) provide better or unique information concerning the personal characteristics that result in longer and healthier lives. To test whether friends' reports of personality predict mortality risk, we used data from a 75-year longitudinal study (the Kelly/Connolly Longitudinal Study on Personality and Aging). In that study, 600 participants were observed beginning in 1935 through 1938, when they were in their mid-20s, and continuing through 2013. Male participants seen by their friends as more conscientious and open lived longer, whereas friend-rated emotional stability and agreeableness were protective for women. Friends' ratings were better predictors of longevity than were self-reports of personality, in part because friends' ratings could be aggregated to provide a more reliable assessment. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observers' reports in the study of health and provide insights concerning the pathways by which personality traits influence health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Living will legislation, nursing home care, and the rejection of artificial nutrition and hydration: an analysis of bedside decision-making in three states.

    PubMed

    Almgren, G

    1993-01-01

    Although state living will legislation establishing the boundaries of unwanted medical intervention has become almost universal, many states define artificial nutrition and hydration as a basic comfort measure rather than extraordinary intervention. In addition, several states have legislation prohibiting its withholding or withdrawal under any circumstances. Despite the recent growth in public awareness and controversy concerning artificial nutrition and hydration, there is little known about the actual influence of prohibitive legislation on bedside decisions involving its withdrawal. An analysis is undertaken of nursing home decision-making concerning the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in three states with typical variation in living will legislation specific to its legality. Data from interviews with 140 nursing home directors of nursing service responding to hypothetical case vignettes suggest that living will laws prohibiting the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration have little influence over bedside decision-making in nursing homes. Factors found to be determinate of the likelihood of the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration include the competency of the nursing home resident and form of nursing home ownership. State context exerts a significant influence over the likelihood of artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal, but not in a direction consistent with language of living will legislation.

  9. The Presidential Scholarship Programme in Zimbabwe: A Living Case of the Political Will in Promoting Regionalisation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore the impact of the commitment and political will exhibited by the Government of Zimbabwe through the Presidential Scholarship Scheme in promoting regionalisation of higher education. The methodology employed document analysis, interviews and questionnaires to gather data from the stakeholders. The officials responsible…

  10. Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination and hatching phenology in tuatara?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicola J; Kearney, Michael R; Nelson, Nicola J; Porter, Warren P

    2008-01-01

    How will climate change affect species' reproduction and subsequent survival? In many egg-laying reptiles, the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature experienced during a critical period of embryonic development (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD). Increasing air temperatures are likely to skew offspring sex ratios in the absence of evolutionary or plastic adaptation, hence we urgently require means for predicting the future distributions of species with TSD. Here we develop a mechanistic model that demonstrates how climate, soil and topography interact with physiology and nesting behaviour to determine sex ratios of tuatara, cold-climate reptiles from New Zealand with an unusual developmental biology. Under extreme regional climate change, all-male clutches would hatch at 100% of current nest sites of the rarest species, Sphenodon guntheri, by the mid-2080s. We show that tuatara could behaviourally compensate for the male-biasing effects of warmer air temperatures by nesting later in the season or selecting shaded nest sites. Later nesting is, however, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Our approach allows the assessment of the thermal suitability of current reserves and future translocation sites for tuatara, and can be readily modified to predict climatic impacts on any species with TSD. PMID:18595840

  11. [Quality of dying processes after commencement of the German Living Will Act : Experiences of a surgical intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Strauss, S; Kuppinger, D; Hartl, W H

    2017-03-01

    There is so far no information on how the third act on amendment of the German guardianship law from 29 July 2009 has affected dying processes of critically ill patients. This retrospective study analyzed the patterns of dying processes in postoperative critically ill patients treated from 2009 to 2012 (period II after the commencement of the German Living Will Act) and 10 years before (period I, 1999-2002). Independent associations were calculated by logistic regression. In the observation period II (n = 137 dying patients) time until death significantly decreased to 19.3 days (95% CI 14.8-23.8, p = 0.008) vs. 29.2 days (95% CI 23.7-34.6) in period I (n = 163). In period II respect of the patient's will preceded death in 42.3% of the dying patients (period I: 8.6%, p < 0.001). Simultaneously, the frequency of patients with a severe preoperative comorbidity (failure of more than one organ) increased (26.8% of dying patients vs. 5.5% in period I, p = 0.001). The treatment during period II was, in addition to high age and a severe comorbidity, a significant independent predictor for the possibility that respect of the patient's will preceded death (odds ratio 7.42; 95% CI 3.77-14.60). Independent of various covariables, treatment after the commencement of the German Living Will Act was associated with a broader and earlier respect of the patient's will, thereby shortening the time until death.

  12. [The medical treatment of patients who are incapable of giving consent to a medical measure in the focus of the new law of living will in §§ 1901a and 1901b BGB].

    PubMed

    Kostorz, P

    2011-01-01

    With the new law of living will which came into force on September 1 (st) 2009 the legislator has ended a long-lasting discussion about the erection, the range and the putting into action of living wills. This essay describes the new regulations in the German Civil Code (BGB) and discusses which aspects need to be taken into consideration at the treatment of patients being (un)able to consent to a medical measure. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. "It's a horrible sin. If they find out, I will not be able to stay": Orthodox Jewish gay men's experiences living in secrecy.

    PubMed

    Itzhaky, Haya; Kissil, Karni

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the intersection of sexual orientation and religion in the Jewish Orthodox community by exploring 22 Orthodox Jewish gay men's experiences living in secrecy. Analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with these men revealed four primary themes: emotional turmoil, ways of coping, impact on family relationships, and importance of the context. Findings from this study describe the daily struggles these men experienced keeping their homosexuality a secret. The findings suggest that in order to design effective interventions with this population, it is crucial to consider the larger community and religious context.

  14. If We Build It, We Will Come: A Model for Community-Led Change to Transform Neighborhood Conditions to Support Healthy Eating and Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Vedette R.; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Leon, Janeen B.; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods impact health. In three adjoining inner-city Cleveland neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb.1 To address this disparity a local health funder created a Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The Fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Using the model, residents identified a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12,000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  15. Depression, quality of life (QoL) and will to live of community-dwelling postmenopausal women in three Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Nomura, Hideki; Ishitsuka, Asako; Hirai, Hisako; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of screening-detected depression and the association of depression with QoL in community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries. We examined self-reported questionnaires and conducted the study. A total of 698 community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries participated in this study. The mean age was 59.4±6.6 years (±SD) Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15). Using the cut-off of 5/6 for the GDS-15, the percentages of subjects with depression were 39.0% of the Korean subjects, 29.2% of the Chinese subjects, and 33.9% of the Japanese subjects. For the assessment of QoL, we used the EQ-5D of the EuroQoL Group. The following five dimensions were assessed: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The proportions of subjects reporting problems for each dimension were examined. Subjects with depression had significantly lower levels of some dimensions of QoL than those without depression in all three countries. In all three countries, 29.2-39.0% of community-dwelling postmenopausal women had screening-detected depression, which was significantly associated with a lower level of some dimensions of QoL. These results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to depression in community-dwelling postmenopausal women.

  16. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as ‘scent fences’. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology

  17. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Tinnesand, Helga V; Buesching, Christina D; Noonan, Michael J; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as 'scent fences'. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology

  18. Rankian will.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, E James

    2012-12-01

    Otto Rank (1884-1939) served as Freud's closest partner in the psychoanalytic movement from 1906 to 1926. From 1923 on, Rank, initially with Ferenczi, focused on making analysis more therapeutic, emphasizing current experience in the session over historical exploration and interpretation. Rank settled on will as a missing factor, and wrote extensively about it after the break with Freud in 1926, when he moved to Paris. He emphasized the here-and-now, redefined "resistance" as a positive aspect of counter-will, and suggested a time limit for analysis. Ousted from analytic circles in 1930, he eventually moved to New York, continuing to treat patients and teach until his unexpected death at 55 in 1939. After decades of obscurity, Rank has gained readers and therapists whose orientation is interpersonal, client-centered, relational, humanistic, or existential. His influence on post-Freudian ego-psychology is finally being acknowledged as are his ideas about creativity, will, life-fear and death-fear, guilt, and ethics.

  19. Will Technology Change Work-Living Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Charles M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment opportunities of the homebound are being expanded by computer-telecommunications developments. A joint conference on "New Patterns of Work Organization in An Information Era: Some Employment Implications for Homebound Individuals," held in Ohio in June 1973, is reviewed. (MS)

  20. Burned saguaro: Will they live or die?

    Treesearch

    Marcia G. Narog; Bonni M. Corcoran; Ruth C. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of giant saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) habitat in the Sonoran Desert have been scorched by fire in recent decades. Resource managers struggle to maintain scenic landscapes featuring majestic saguaro faced with the challenges of fire, non-native species invasion, and recreational needs of millions of annual visitors. Successfully managing this iconic...

  1. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  2. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  3. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  4. 'I will be at death's door and realize that I've wasted maybe half of my life on one body part': the experience of living with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Brohede, Sabina; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas; Blomberg, Karin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients living with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), including their experiences with the health care system. Fifteen individuals with BDD were interviewed, and interpretive description was used to analyse the interviews. The following six themes were identified: being absorbed in time-consuming procedures, facing tension between one's own ideal and the perceived reality, becoming the disorder, being restricted in life, attempting to reduce one's problems and striving to receive care. The overarching concept derived from the themes was feeling imprisoned - struggling to become free and to no longer feel abnormal. Ideas of imprisonment and abnormality compose the entire experience of living with this disorder. Although the participants suffered greatly from their BDD, these patients encountered difficulties in accessing health care and had disappointing experiences during their encounters with the health care system. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness and knowledge of BDD among health care professionals to ensure that patients with BDD receive the appropriate care.

  5. "We will remember them": a mixed-method study to explore which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to bereaved people living with loss, and why those particular activities are chosen.

    PubMed

    Vale-Taylor, P

    2009-09-01

    In an increasingly secular age in which society no longer offers a code of behaviour for those who are bereaved as in Victorian times, the majority of people do not seek support from church-based rituals of remembrance. Most hospices provide religious Services of Remembrance and Thanksgiving or non-faith remembrance gatherings for families and friends, and although these are usually well attended, the average number of families represented is usually less than 20% raising the question of whether alternative support should be offered to the remaining majority of families. This study explored which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to people living with death-related loss, and why those particular activities are chosen. A total of 43 participants took part in a mixed-method study using 2 different data sets: a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. To add further contextual data to support the study, a third dataset was created when six hospice bereavement counsellors met as a Focus Group. Results indicated that although formal remembrance events are valued, informal rituals created by the bereaved are more important and significant to them. Results could be divided into four different categories: rituals to maintain a 'direct link', or those undertaken 'for' the deceased, rituals that remember the deceased within the community and those viewed as an act of remembrance. The most common reason for choosing a ritual was to keep a bond with the deceased or ensure that the deceased was remembered by others. Remembrance and ritual is personal to each individual and is dynamic, altering from day to day. Remembrance appears to be a journey made up of many small daily rituals, some of which are generic to bereaved people and some of which are highly individualistic. For the majority of people, their informal rituals are far more important than the large planned events that hospices offer because the informal rituals

  6. Commentary: Contested Wills and Will Contests.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, James R

    2015-09-01

    When disinherited heirs challenge a will drafted by a person suspected of having dementia, a legal battle may ensue. The "lucid interval," a brief return to competence from a state of dementia, has been invoked in years past to establish the validity of contested wills. Shulman et al., having reviewed the medical and legal literature, make a convincing argument that no such period of competence occurs in the course of dementia. A neuropsychiatric autopsy is outlined in this commentary to provide a method of determining the validity of a last will and testament, by applying the clinical method described when witness statements do not provide accurate guidance. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. "I need to terminate this pregnancy even if it will take my life": a qualitative study of the effect of being denied legal abortion on women's lives in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Gerdts, Caitlin; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-10-14

    Although abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, many women are not able to obtain legal services. Using qualitative data from women who were denied legal abortion services, we examined reasons for seeking an abortion, options considered and pursued after being denied an abortion, reasons for delaying seeking care, as well as complications experienced among women who were denied legal abortion. After obtaining authorization from two health facilities in Nepal, we requested informed consent from all women who were seeking abortion services to complete a case report form to determine their eligibility for the study. We then recruited all eligible and interested women in to the study. Two months after recruitment, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 women who were denied abortion services from the two recruitment facilities due to advanced gestational age (>12 weeks). Interviews were translated and transcribed, and the transcripts were analyzed through an iterative process grounded in thematic analysis, involving both a priori and emergent codes. Eleven women were recruited from the government hospital and 14 from an NGO facility. The majority of women (15 women or 60 %) were living rural settings, ranged in age from 18 to 40 years and had an average of 2 children. None had completed any post-secondary education. Women most commonly cited financial concerns and health concerns as reasons for seeking termination. Not recognizing pregnancy, uncertainty about how to proceed, needing time to coordinate the trip to the facility or raise money, and waiting to know the sex of fetus were the commonly cited delays. Among the women interviewed, 12 decided to continue their pregnancies following denial, 12 terminated their pregnancies elsewhere, and one self-induced using medication. At least two women experienced significant complications after obtaining an abortion. Most women who continued their pregnancies anticipated negative consequences for their health, family

  8. Have Courses, Will Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Yvonne Michie

    1981-01-01

    The University of Portland offers a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree in rural Roseburg, Oregon, through an outreach program based at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg. The program enables rural nurses to acquire the degree while continuing to live and work in their community. (SK)

  9. Brexit will boost pay.

    PubMed

    Dorries, Nadine

    2016-07-13

    Now that we are leaving the European Union we will have more control of our health service. This will allow us to increase the resources available and ensure we have the medical staff needed to keep it running.

  10. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    will or other informal writing. This type of will is often limited to servicemembers performing duty in an enemy country during war, but some states...exemption, depending upon the appreciation of their assets or other factors. This is also a useful device for the spouse having the smaller estate if he or...young family in the military, a major reason for having a will may be to appoint a guardian to have custody of minor children. Other persons may use a

  11. Will My Job Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In an economic downturn that seems to defy fiscal doctrine, how can one be sure that an IT job will remain safe through the coming ups and downs? Since no one can guarantee that IT position will remain intact through a turbulent economy, the author discusses how one can plan now to protect himself/herself later.

  12. Will My Job Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In an economic downturn that seems to defy fiscal doctrine, how can one be sure that an IT job will remain safe through the coming ups and downs? Since no one can guarantee that IT position will remain intact through a turbulent economy, the author discusses how one can plan now to protect himself/herself later.

  13. Disaster management mobile protocols: a technology that will save lives.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hope M

    2011-01-01

    Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster education for healthcare workers at all levels in the multidisciplinary medical response to major events has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. This article describes a disaster management mobile application of systematic evidence-based practice. The application is interactive and comprises portable principles, algorithms, and emergency protocols that are agile, concise, comprehensive, and response relevant to all healthcare workers. Early recognition through clinical assessment versus laboratory and diagnostic procedures in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRNE) exposures grounded in an evidence-based skill set is especially important. During the immediate threat, the clinical diagnosis can get frustrating because CBRNE casualties can mimic everyday healthcare illnesses and initially present with nonspecific respiratory or flu-like symptoms. As there is minimal time in a catastrophic event for the medical provider to make accurate decisions, access to accurate, timely, and comprehensive information in these situations is critical. The CBRNE mobile application is intended to provide a credible source for treatment and management of numerous patients in an often intimidating environment with scarce resources and overwhelming tasks.

  14. Living Wills and Advance Directives for Medical Decisions

    MedlinePlus

    ... decision-making burdens during moments of crisis or grief. You also help reduce confusion or disagreement about ... Comfort care (palliative care) includes any number of interventions that may be used to keep you comfortable ...

  15. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  16. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  17. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  18. Will It Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Student preconceptions are one of the greatest challenges facing science teachers. Students will often hold on to their explanation even after being told the correct explanation. They need to be challenged with experiences that they can not explain using their existing models of the world in order to see real change in their preconceived notions.…

  19. Will It Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Student preconceptions are one of the greatest challenges facing science teachers. Students will often hold on to their explanation even after being told the correct explanation. They need to be challenged with experiences that they can not explain using their existing models of the world in order to see real change in their preconceived notions.…

  20. Who Will Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Thomas H.

    1986-01-01

    Without governors' support, the emerging teaching reform agenda will go nowhere. States should eschew their "deja vu" attitudes and embrace quality of education as a major determinant of state and national economic survival. The governors' action agenda includes 10 recommendations addressing teacher education and standards, work…

  1. Addiction and will

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  2. Addiction and will.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  3. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  4. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  5. Embodiments of will.

    PubMed

    Nutton, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    From the fifth century BCE onwards, Greek doctors and philosophers debated the ways in which the will could be translated into physical action. Aristotle and his followers believed that the heart was the controlling organ, working through sinews. Later anatomists, first in Alexandria in Egypt and later in the Roman world, continued to speculate for several centuries. Galen (129-ca. 216) established a new medical paradigm, insisting on the primacy of the brain mediating largely through nerves. The Aristotelian and Galenic theories continued to be debated in the Greek and Islamic worlds, and, in new Latin translations, in the later Western medieval universities. These debates were largely conducted without recourse to experiment. Even after Mondino de' Liuzzi had introduced the dissection of a corpse in his teaching at Bologna around 1318, the battle of the texts continued into the 17th century. Although Michael Frampton ranges widely in Embodiments of Will, he has left out much, including a recently (re)discovered treatise by Galen that considers in detail the relationship between the brain, the nerves, and bodily movements.

  6. Who will fund Landsat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A first-ever joint hearing of the Science, Space, and Technology Committee and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence was held on June 26 to ascertain the true value of the civilian satellite program—Landsat—to the scientific, environmental, and military communities.Landsats collect multispectral images that are used for such purposes as environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and national security. Since the first launch in 1972, Landsat has provided a continuous data record that has proved invaluable in global change research. Currently, Landsats 4 and 5 are in orbit, with Landsat 6 still on schedule for a mid-1992 launch. No funding has been requested for any follow-on to Landsat 6, making users of the data uncertain that their future projects will go ahead.

  7. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.

  8. Active Living: Promoting Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedburg, Randy B.; Izso, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Active Living is a unique Canadian approach in which physical activity is valued and integrated into daily life. Active Living will have an increasing impact on the health, physical education, and recreation fields. The article describes the development of Active Living, its effects on Canadian society, and current initiatives. (SM)

  9. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  10. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  11. Greener Living

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.

  12. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  13. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  14. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  15. [Living better or living longer].

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious

  16. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  17. New Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  18. The Living Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for a second-grade class project. Suggests that the students will learn to identify the word "famous," complete a timeline for a famous person, learn facts about the person, and express individual thoughts and feelings. Explains the steps involved in the presentation of a living museum where students portray famous…

  19. Huygens will soon set off for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-09-01

    When it parachutes slowly down to the surface of Titan, in November 2004, Huygens will unmask the most enigmatic object in the Solar System. Baffled and tantalized, space scientists don't know how this moon of Saturn acquired a dense atmosphere, which is rich in nitrogen like the Earth's air but also possesses many carbon compounds. The scientists can't say whether the surface of Titan is solid or liquid, or a bit of each. But many are convinced that Titan offers them their best chance of discovering what the Earth and its chemistry were like, before life began. A heat shield will protect Huygens as it slams into Titan's atmosphere at 20,000 kilometres per second. A succession of parachutes will adjust Titan's speed of descent through the atmosphere. Radio signals from the probe will convey the results to the Cassini orbiter, for relaying tothe Earth, and will also reveal how Huygens and its parachute are blown about by the winds of Titan, during the descent. Huygens carries six sets of instruments devised by multinational teams of scientists in Europe and the USA. They will analyse the chemical composition of the haze that hides Titan's surface. They will gauge the weather of Titan during Huygens' descent, and image the clouds and the surface. A surface science package will report the true nature of Titan's surface. A televised launch Cassini-Huygens will be launched by a NASA Titan IVB rocket from the Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The earliest launch date is 6 October, but this is now likely to slip, to allow for the repair of minor damage to insulation within the Huygens probe (see ESA Press Release Nr 27-97). Provided the launch occurs before 4 November, there will be no delay in the arrival at Saturn and Titan. ESA will provide a live TV transmission, free of charge, for European news organizations and other organizations wishing to receive it. Live pictures of the launch will be accompanied by interviews with scientists and engineers of ESA's Huygens

  20. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil

  1. Countryside Live!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Andrew; Richardson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The "Countryside Live!" events, organised by the Countryside Foundation for Education (CFE), provide a unique opportunity for urban children to explore a whole new area of possibilities and learning, through becoming aware at first-hand of what goes on in the countryside. The event at Staunton Country Park, Havant, Hampshire, which took…

  2. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  3. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  4. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  5. 45 CFR 283.5 - How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How will we use these birth data to determine bonus... ILLEGITIMACY RATIO § 283.5 How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility? (a) We will base...-wedlock live births and the number of total live births among women living in each State and a...

  6. 45 CFR 283.5 - How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How will we use these birth data to determine bonus... ILLEGITIMACY RATIO § 283.5 How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility? (a) We will base...-wedlock live births and the number of total live births among women living in each State and a...

  7. When will Lake Mead go dry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Tim P.; Pierce, David W.

    2008-03-01

    A water budget analysis shows that under current conditions there is a 10% chance that live storage in Lakes Mead and Powell will be gone by about 2013 and a 50% chance that it will be gone by 2021 if no changes in water allocation from the Colorado River system are made. This startling result is driven by climate change associated with global warming, the effects of natural climate variability, and the current operating status of the reservoir system. Minimum power pool levels in both Lake Mead and Lake Powell will be reached under current conditions by 2017 with 50% probability. While these dates are subject to some uncertainty, they all point to a major and immediate water supply problem on the Colorado system. The solutions to this water shortage problem must be time-dependent to match the time-varying, human-induced decreases in future river flow.

  8. Predicting What Will Happen When You Intervene.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy; Hardie, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers some rules of thumb that practicing social workers can use for case studies that aim to construct, albeit not fully and never entirely reliably, models designed to help predict what will happen if they intervene in specific ways to help this particular client, here and now. We call these 'ex ante case-specific causal models'. 'Ex ante' because they are for before-the-fact prediction of what the likely effects of proposed actions are. 'Case-specific' because we are not concerned with studies that provide evidence for some general conclusion but rather with using what general and local knowledge one can get to predict what will happen to a specific client in the real settings in which they live. 'Causal' because this kind of case study aims to trace out as best possible the web of causal processes that will be responsible for what happens. In this sense our case studies resemble post facto realist evaluations.

  9. Living Jointness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...COVERED 00-00-1993 to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Living Jointness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...and the peacetime activities of all services other than participation in joint exercises. It challenges the existing joint command structure because

  10. A CAMPING WE WILL GO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WYKOFF, JACK N.; AND OTHERS

    VARIOUS EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN IN GRADES 5 AND 6 ARE THE SUBJECT OF THIS TEACHING GUIDE. FUNCTIONAL EXPERIENCES IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION CAN BE ACHIEVED IN THE AREAS OF--(1) SOCIAL LIVING, (2) WORK EXPERIENCES, (3) HEALTH EDUCATION, AND (4) OUTDOOR EDUCATION, AND AS AN EXTENSION OF THE CLASSROOM INVOLVING STUDIES OF…

  11. Some Thoughts about Public Will.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liederman, Sally A.; Wolf, Wendy C.; York, Peter

    This report examines how various groups are working to influence improved results for children and families through public will strategies, defining public will as the steps required to change the outcomes for children and families. There are seven chapters: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Public Will Work"…

  12. Resisting Weakness of the Will

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil

    2012-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

  13. Will artificial gametes end infertility?

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna; Cutas, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we will look at the various ways in which infertility can be understood and at how need for reproductive therapies can be construed. We will do this against the background of research with artificial gametes (AGs). Having explored these questions we will attempt to establish the degree to which technologies such as AGs could expand the array of choices that people have to reproduce and/or become parents. Finally, we will examine whether and in what ways the most promising developments of such technologies are likely to bring about the "end of infertility".

  14. Four Ways Life Extension will Change Our Relationship with Death.

    PubMed

    Davis, John K

    2016-03-01

    Discussions of life extension ethics have focused mainly on whether an extended life would be desirable to have, and on the social consequences of widely available life extension. I want to explore a different range of issues: four ways in which the advent of life extension will change our relationship with death, not only for those who live extended lives, but also for those who cannot or choose not to. Although I believe that, on balance, the reasons in favor of developing life extension outweigh the reasons against doing so (something I won't argue for here), most of these changes probably count as reasons against doing so. First, the advent of life extension will alter the human condition for those who live extended lives, and not merely by postponing death. Second, it will make death worse for those who lack access to life extension, even if those people live just as long as they do now. Third, for those who have access to life extension but prefer to live a normal lifespan because they think that has advantages, the advent of life extension will somewhat reduce some of those advantages, even if they never use life extension. Fourth, refusing life extension turns out to be a form of suicide, and this will force those who have access to life extension but turn it down to choose between an extended life they don't want and a form of suicide they may (probably mistakenly) consider immoral. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 45 CFR 283.5 - How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will we use these birth data to determine... DECREASE IN ILLEGITIMACY RATIO § 283.5 How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility? (a... number of out-of-wedlock live births and the number of total live births among women living in each State...

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  17. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  18. The Use of Ethical Wills to Engage Future Jewish Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Joshua; Peyser, Hedy

    2010-01-01

    Ethical wills are statements of values, which traditionally represent a moral, rather than material, legacy to one's posterity. As documents, they are intended to help others lead better, more fulfilling lives. Yet, the process of writing ethical wills also holds great significance for those who write them--to consolidate and articulate their…

  19. Living Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Merrily

    1994-01-01

    A documentary will detail the experiences of two Canadians surviving for a year in the wilderness of northern Ontario by using Native skills. For the past year, they have prepared jerky, studied and talked with Native elders, made flour out of cattails, and sewn protective clothing out of animal hides. (LP)

  20. Live From the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Kent, J.; Lippsett, L.

    2006-12-01

    International Polar Year presents an extraordinary opportunity to educate students and the public about science at the icy ends of the Earth. The goal of our proposal is to apply collaborative multimedia approaches to bring the story of four polar research expeditions to the general public and the classroom. The four expeditions (measurement of ice sheet dynamics in Greenland, a study of the McMurdo ecosystem over austral winter, installation of a buoy array in the Beaufort Gyre, and exploration of the Gakkel Ridge) were chosen based on their broad range of disciplines and relevance to the three primary IPY research emphasis areas defined by NSF. A science writer and a professional photographer will join each expedition and file dispatches for a daily Webcast. The posting will feature science updates, logistical challenges, team member profiles, and life at sea (or on the ice). The writer will also coordinate real-time phone patches from PIs in the field to audiences at the Museum of Science, Boston, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum, Chicago, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Birch Aquarium, San Diego, the Pacific Science Center, Seattle, National Public Radio "Talk of the Nation: Science Friday," CBS News, and to student "reporters" writing for Scholastic Online. At the museums, the "Live from the Ice" interactive phone calls will be preceded by a background presentation by a scientist, who will also moderate the live discussion between the public and researchers in the field. A 20-30 minute satellite phone call will allow the public to ask the researchers questions about their research while it's happening. In addition to building and promoting an online experience, a museum exhibit featuring models of Arctic instruments and informative kiosks will be developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Exhibit Center. Each of our partner museums will also provide a "leave-behind" component to continue to educate

  1. The living building

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    If one is to increase the energy performance of buildings beyond what is now possible, one can no longer afford to think of a building's systems and components as independent of one another. With emerging trends in building technology, it is becoming possible to design buildings (or groups of buildings) that respond to their environments as naturally as do living organisms. The living building integrates advances in glazing technology, photovoltaics, daylight-integrated lighting controls, HVAC and ecological waste management in conjunction with direct digital controls to respond actively to temperature, humidity, heat gain, cooling, lighting levels, and ventilation. This revolutionary building is the building of the future; it maximizes energy savings due to the inherent efficiency of an intelligent, interconnected system in which the envelope, lighting, and HVAC are always aware of and responding to each other's needs. While some of the technologies for such a system are already in use and resulting energy savings documented, it is not until advances such as electrochromic glazing reach the market that the level of integration necessary to produce the living building will be possible. This paper explores the limits of the living building's capacity to learn from environmental forces and regulate itself; the paper then examines emerging technologies that have demonstrated the potential to make such systemic integration and unprecedented energy savings possible.

  2. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  3. Who Will Teach? And How Will They Teach? [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "Who Will Teach? Policies That Matter" (Richard J. Murnane, Judith D. Singer, John Willett, James J. Kemple, and Randall J. Olsen), a book on teacher workforce policy issues. The book uses labor market analyses and economic tools to effectively address some issues but overlooks others of equal importance. (JB)

  4. Das modale Hilfsverb "will" (The Modal Auxiliary Verb "Will")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsmann, Peter W.

    1975-01-01

    That "will" and "shall" are modal, not temporal, verbs is shown by their syntactic similarity to the modals and by the fact that they follow the same transformational rules as the modals. This example demonstrates the usefulness of transformational grammar in explaining grammatical relationships to students. (Text is in…

  5. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  6. Mistaking randomness for free will.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jeffrey P; Wegner, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Belief in free will is widespread. The present research considered one reason why people may believe that actions are freely chosen rather than determined: they attribute randomness in behavior to free will. Experiment 1 found that participants who were prompted to perform a random sequence of actions experienced their behavior as more freely chosen than those who were prompted to perform a deterministic sequence. Likewise, Experiment 2 found that, all else equal, the behavior of animated agents was perceived to be more freely chosen if it consisted of a random sequence of actions than if it consisted of a deterministic sequence; this was true even when the degree of randomness in agents' behavior was largely a product of their environments. Together, these findings suggest that randomness in behavior--one's own or another's--can be mistaken for free will. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gaia Live in School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

  8. Have 3D, Will Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike R.; Birrell, Bob; Williams, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is primarily a visual technology. Elements such as haptics (touch feedback) and sound can augment an experience, but the visual cues are the prime driver of what an audience will experience from a VR presentation. At its inception in 2001 the Centre for Advanced Visualization (CFAV) at Niagara College of Arts and Technology…

  9. Who Will Teach for Arkansas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Caroline; Griffith, Priscilla; Williams, Samella; Orr, Betsy; Hunt, Sharon

    This paper describes the Teach for Arkansas program, a partnership which addresses the problem of recruiting student teachers who reflect the state's diverse cultures and who will be successful teaching diverse students. Partners include: the University of Arkansas; Phillips Community College and the Delta public schools; the SBC Foundation; and…

  10. Lamarck Will Not Lie Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research by Edward Steele appearing to support the Lamarckian theory of inheritance. Steele suggests that a mutant somatic cell favored by the environment will undergo clonal expansion. Altered genetic materials from these cells is then picked up by C-type viruses and inserted into the germ line genome. (CS)

  11. Will There Be Enough Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon

    This paper considers U.S. immigration in terms of this country's fertility, mortality, and migration rates and patterns. Statistics and estimates are provided for both legal and illegal immigrants, and the positive and negative effects of population growth and decline are explored. The paper concludes that rising immigration rates will help…

  12. Will New Structures Stay Restructured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Ekholm, Mats

    Concerned with how new schooling structures, once implemented, will remain in place, this paper reviews findings of the International School Improvement Project (ISIP) about institutionalization and suggests their application to educational restructuring results. According to the ISIP study, indicators of complete institutionalization include…

  13. Who Will Teach All Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Mary H.

    This paper discusses who will teach American children in the current political environment. Americans consider education a top political priority. The conversation must be moved from campaign rhetoric to real dialogue about education's critical role and the readiness of all schools to help shape the nation. Major trends transforming society…

  14. Lamarck Will Not Lie Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research by Edward Steele appearing to support the Lamarckian theory of inheritance. Steele suggests that a mutant somatic cell favored by the environment will undergo clonal expansion. Altered genetic materials from these cells is then picked up by C-type viruses and inserted into the germ line genome. (CS)

  15. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  16. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  17. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  18. [Fertility will have noticeably fallen].

    PubMed

    N'diaye, S

    1988-09-01

    The Demographic and Health Survey of Senegal carried out in 1986 with the collaboration of Westinghouse and the funding of USAID. Focused on marriage, fertility, family planning, and infant mortality. The data in this survey was compared to that of a survey conducted on fertility in 1978. All women marry before age 35 and 50% have their 1st marriage before the age of 17. A high 89% of women stay married, but 46% are in polygamous marriage (urban and literate women have lower incidence). Most births are legitimate. 5% of 1st births occur before age 15, 31% between 15-17, and urban women have their 1st child between 19-21 years of age. The average number of live births/woman is 3.3, and the synthetic index of fertility calculated for births to women aged 15-44 is 6.4 children, which has dropped from 7.0 in 1978. Contraception is known to 90% of women as opposed to 60% in 1978, and 69% are familiar with a modern method (again urban and educated women aged 20-40 score better). 12% use contraception regularly vs. 4% in 1978, and 75% of nonusers do not intend to use it. The ideal number of children has dropped from 8,8 in 1978 to 7,2. Infant mortality has steadily declined from 120 per thousand in 1971-75 to 96 in 1976-80 to 86 in 1981-85.

  19. Will this open space work?

    PubMed

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  20. Is AGU in your will?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consider whether or not you may wish to make a bequest to AGU in order that it may meet more adequately its growing responsibilities and opportunities. A bequest may be as simple or as complex as a donor's situation may require. And, regardless of whether a bequest is a small percentage of one's estate, a fixed amount of money, specified securities or other property, or the proceeds of a life insurance policy, it is likely to have tax advantages and will not deny you the continued use of your resources during your lifetime.On matters of this kind, you should consult your attorney. You should also feel free to bring your questions to Fred Spilhaus at AGU headquarters.

  1. Will Regenerative Medicine Replace Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Soker, Shay; Stratta, Robert J.; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking advances in organ bioengineering and regeneration have provided evidence that regenerative medicine holds promise to dramatically improve the approach to organ transplantation. The two fields, however, share a common heritage. Alexis Carrel can be considered the father of both regenerative medicine and organ transplantation, and it is now clear that his legacy is equally applicable for the present and future generations of transplant and regenerative medicine investigators. In this review, we will briefly illustrate the interplay that should be established between these two complementary disciplines of health sciences. Although regenerative medicine has shown to the transplant field its potential, transplantation is destined to align with regenerative medicine and foster further progress probably more than either discipline alone. Organ bioengineering and regeneration technologies hold the promise to meet at the same time the two most urgent needs in organ transplantation, namely, the identification of a new, potentially inexhaustible source of organs and immunosuppression-free transplantation of tissues and organs. PMID:23906883

  2. Tomorrow will be too late

    SciTech Connect

    Edberg, R. ); Yablokov, A. )

    1991-01-01

    Swedish statesman Rolf Edberg and Soviet biologist Alexei Yablokov, both environmental activists, met in 1987 to hold a dialogue on the problems facing mankind on the eve of a new millennium. The two men had never met before and each entered the discussions expecting ideological differences to create conflicting approaches to problems; both were astounded by the almost total agreement of their views. This book contains conversations touching on population growth, pollution, biological extinction, habitat destruction, nuclear hazards, technological proliferation, and other issues. They reinforced their concerns with a wealth of information about environmental abuse. Consistently setting aside utopian visions to focus on mutually perceived threats to the survival of life on earth, the two concluded their talks with agreement on those moral commitments necessary to effect change. No other work brings East and West together in such a wide-ranging discussion of the ecological crisis facing both spheres. While these dialogues are a refreshing indication of improved East-West relationships, they drive home the seriousness of the crisis that, if not confronted immediately, will render all other political and economic conflicts meaningless.

  3. From Living Carbocationic to Living Radical Polymerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    C 1 -OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-94-1-0101 R&T Code 31321075 Technical Report No. 18 FROM " LIVING " CARBOCATIONIC TO " LIVING " RADICAL...NUMBERS "From Living " Carbocationic to " Living " ’jical Polymerization N00014-94-1-01I01 6. AUTHOR(S) Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...1994) 1Za. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) " Living " carbocationic polymerization is

  4. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  5. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  6. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  7. Heidegger, lived experience and method.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2014-07-01

    A discussion of the assumption that Heidegger's philosophy in Being And Time provides a warrant for the study of lived experience. It is generally assumed, in nursing as in other disciplines, that Heidegger's philosophy points, uncontroversially, to the study of lived experience. It is also assumed that studies of this type will take the form of qualitative interviews which seek to explore the respondent's experience of a particular phenomenon and to elicit the meanings which the individual concerned attaches to that experience. Being And Time; the philosophical literature on Heidegger since 1999; the literature of experimental social psychology, 1970-2012. According to Heidegger, there is no such thing as 'lived experience'. The concept is embedded in the subject-object dualism that he is attempting to dismantle. In Heideggerian terms, interviews intended to explore 'lived experience' can only reproduce the voice of das Man, the 'They', not the voice of unique individuals. Methods more in keeping with Heidegger's philosophy include observation, naturalistic experiments, some forms of discourse analysis and conceptually associated lines of enquiry involving vocabularies of motive, scripts and the performative aspects of language use. Nursing researchers who wish to embrace Heidegger's philosophy as a basis for their work should abandon 'lived experience' interviews and adopt one of the alternative methods suggested above. Nursing researchers who wish to continue with 'lived experience' interviews should seek an alternative philosophical or theoretical basis for their work. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Living on the edge.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes.

  10. Will Interventions Targeting Conscientiousness Improve Aging Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…

  11. Will Interventions Targeting Conscientiousness Improve Aging Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…

  12. Conservation Risks: When Will Rhinos be Extinct?

    PubMed

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-08-01

    We develop a risk intelligence system for biodiversity enterprises. Such enterprises depend on a supply of endangered species for their revenue. Many of these enterprises, however, cannot purchase a supply of this resource and are largely unable to secure the resource against theft in the form of poaching. Because replacements are not available once a species becomes extinct, insurance products are not available to reduce the risk exposure of these enterprises to an extinction event. For many species, the dynamics of anthropogenic impacts driven by economic as well as noneconomic values of associated wildlife products along with their ecological stressors can help meaningfully predict extinction risks. We develop an agent/individual-based economic-ecological model that captures these effects and apply it to the case of South African rhinos. Our model uses observed rhino dynamics and poaching statistics. It seeks to predict rhino extinction under the present scenario. This scenario has no legal horn trade, but allows live African rhino trade and legal hunting. Present rhino populations are small and threatened by a rising onslaught of poaching. This present scenario and associated dynamics predicts continued decline in rhino population size with accelerated extinction risks of rhinos by 2036. Our model supports the computation of extinction risks at any future time point. This capability can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed conservation strategies at reducing a species' extinction risk. Models used to compute risk predictions, however, need to be statistically estimated. We point out that statistically fitting such models to observations will involve massive numbers of observations on consumer behavior and time-stamped location observations on thousands of animals. Finally, we propose Big Data algorithms to perform such estimates and to interpret the fitted model's output.

  13. Creating living machines

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  14. People believe they have more free will than others

    PubMed Central

    Pronin, Emily; Kugler, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments identify a tendency for people to believe that their own lives are more guided by the tenets of free will than are the lives of their peers. These tenets involve the a priori unpredictability of personal action, the presence of multiple possible paths in a person's future, and the causal power of one's personal desires and intentions in guiding one's actions. In experiment 1, participants viewed their own pasts and futures as less predictable a priori than those of their peers. In experiments 2 and 3, participants thought there were more possible paths (whether good or bad) in their own futures than their peers’ futures. In experiment 4, participants viewed their own future behavior, compared with that of their peers, as uniquely driven by intentions and desires (rather than personality, random features of the situation, or history). Implications for the classic actor–observer bias, for debates about free will, and for perceptions of personal responsibility are discussed. PMID:21149703

  15. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic ... Final Rule Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  16. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Contact Us Search Patients & Caregivers / Living with VHL VHL disease is a lifelong condition. However, with appropriate measures, people can effectively manage the VHL and lead full and productive lives. Early diagnosis, ...

  17. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Contact Us Website References Search Patients / Living with VHL VHL disease is a lifelong condition. ... regularly surveillance, appropriate treatment and emotional support, and living a healthy lifestyle are all keys to effectively ...

  18. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

  19. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no ... seek care right away. Emotional Issues and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and ...

  20. Living with Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Vasculitis The outcome of vasculitis is hard ... effects of your medicines. Emotional Issues and Support Living with a chronic condition may cause fear, anxiety, ...

  1. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Orbital Sciences’ L-1011 aircraft takes off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying the Pegasus XL rocket/Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) under its belly. Release of the Pegasus was scheduled for about 8 a.m. over the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 39,000 feet at a location approximately 100 nautical miles offshore east-northeast of Cape Canaveral. Spacecraft separation from the Pegasus occurs 11 minutes later. At that time the satellite will be in a circular orbit of 431 statute miles (690 km) at a 29-degree inclination. The GALEX will carry into space an orbiting telescope that will observe a million galaxies across 10 billion years of cosmic history to help astronomers determine when the stars and elements we see today had their origins. The spacecraft will sweep the skies for 28 months using state-of-the-art ultraviolet detectors to single out galaxies dominated by young, hot, short-lived stars that give off a great deal of energy at that wavelength. These galaxies are actively creating stars, and therefore provide a window into the history and causes of star formation in galaxies.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Orbital Sciences’ L-1011 aircraft takes off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying the Pegasus XL rocket/Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) under its belly. Release of the Pegasus was scheduled for about 8 a.m. over the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 39,000 feet at a location approximately 100 nautical miles offshore east-northeast of Cape Canaveral. Spacecraft separation from the Pegasus occurs 11 minutes later. At that time the satellite will be in a circular orbit of 431 statute miles (690 km) at a 29-degree inclination. The GALEX will carry into space an orbiting telescope that will observe a million galaxies across 10 billion years of cosmic history to help astronomers determine when the stars and elements we see today had their origins. The spacecraft will sweep the skies for 28 months using state-of-the-art ultraviolet detectors to single out galaxies dominated by young, hot, short-lived stars that give off a great deal of energy at that wavelength. These galaxies are actively creating stars, and therefore provide a window into the history and causes of star formation in galaxies.

  3. Viruses as living processes.

    PubMed

    Dupré, John; Guttinger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The view that life is composed of distinct entities with well-defined boundaries has been undermined in recent years by the realisation of the near omnipresence of symbiosis. What had seemed to be intrinsically stable entities have turned out to be systems stabilised only by the interactions between a complex set of underlying processes (Dupré, 2012). This has not only presented severe problems for our traditional understanding of biological individuality but has also led some to claim that we need to switch to a process ontology to be able adequately to understand biological systems. A large group of biological entities, however, has been excluded from these discussions, namely viruses. Viruses are usually portrayed as stable and distinct individuals that do not fit the more integrated and collaborative picture of nature implied by symbiosis. In this paper we will contest this view. We will first discuss recent findings in virology that show that viruses can be 'nice' and collaborate with their hosts, meaning that they form part of integrated biological systems and processes. We further offer various reasons why viruses should be seen as processes rather than things, or substances. Based on these two claims we will argue that, far from serving as a counterexample to it, viruses actually enable a deeper understanding of the fundamentally interconnected and collaborative nature of nature. We conclude with some reflections on the debate as to whether viruses should be seen as living, and argue that there are good reasons for an affirmative answer to this question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Independent Living Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipping, Joyce

    1978-01-01

    Designed to help handicapped persons who have been living a sheltered existence develop independent living skills, this course is divided into two parts. The first part consists of a five-day apartment live-in experience, and the second concentrates on developing the learners' awareness of community resources and consumer skills. (BM)

  5. Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Kim

    2013-12-01

    professionals to learn more about HCM and to conduct screenings that will facilitate a prompt and accurate diagnosis. In doing so, the risk for sudden cardiac death may be averted. There is a need to educate and to advocate for genetic testing of HCM. It is necessary for healthcare providers to move beyond their biomedical understanding of genetic illness and to address the lived experience of the illness, how the illness impacts the family, and the multifaceted concerns of people who have a genetic illness as well as the concerns of their family members. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. The “Living Will”: Legal Background and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Bernard M.

    1987-01-01

    Living wills are made by those who wish to resist terminal care that involves use of mechanical means and other invasive life-sustaining treatments. This article reviews the legal right to natural death and the extent to which living wills can be legally effective. It considers the limitations of living wills and alternatives such as Natural Death Acts and “durable” powers of attorney. PMID:21267338

  7. Living and morking on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, C. P.

    When it becomes feasible to live and work on Mars, martian resources will be a critical part of the sustaining process. It will be necessary to drink water extracted from the martian environment, to make breathable air and fuel components from the martian atmosphere, and to shield or construct facilities using martian dirt. The ultimate use of martian resources may be the "terraforming" of that planet's global environment into an Earth-like biosphere for a population whose ancestors were born on a distant blue planet.

  8. Reading Magic: Why Reading Aloud to Our Children Will Change Their Lives Forever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mem

    Based on the view that the benefits of reading aloud are not widely recognized or sufficiently promoted, this book explains why reading aloud to young children has a strong emotional and intellectual impact on their ability to read and learn. The book begins with the recollection of how the author became aware of the effects of reading aloud on…

  9. Exploring the Frontier of the Future: How Kentucky Will Live, Learn and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Michael T., Ed.; Sebastian, Billie M., Ed.; Schirmer, Peter, Ed.; Smith-Mello, Michal, Ed.

    This report provides Kentucky policymakers with information on economic, educational, demographic, and environmental trends and issues with implications for policy decisions. Following an introduction, "Past as Prologue" (James C. Klotter), the 28 chapters are presented in 5 sections: "The White Picket Fence: Trends Affecting the…

  10. The information and communication society: how people will live and work in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G

    2000-07-01

    This paper analyses information and communication technology (ICT) and its relation to work organizations, human communication, stress, allocation issues, knowledge transfer and global villages. An interdisciplinary research programme on 'Computer technology and work life' was initiated and led by the author at Stockholm University in 1974, followed by many programmes in Sweden in the field. A theoretical framework was developed including two theoretical models, one more general, the other where the concepts and their interrelationships were specified. The models were tested empirically in three large work organizations in Sweden, representing three main historical periods of computer technology. It was also used as a model in discussing what might be desirable goals in the information society. The present fourth period, the 'Network period', is characterized by a convergence of three main technologies: computer, telecommunication and media. ICT is used in almost every activity and is embedded in many things. The author proposes a superimposed theoretical model reflecting 'ICT and the psychosocial life environment', a revised model of her initial models. Finally, future research is discussed with reference to theoretical models revised, and conclusions address major psychosocial processes, psychosocial life environments and a call for synthesis.

  11. Where will they all live? The enduring puzzle of land use change.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    A concern among land managers is land use. Who is using the land? What is it being used for? Is the amount of farm and forest land lost to development really increasing? Research forester and economist Jeff Kline and research forester Ralph Alig at the PNW Research Station are conducting studies to answer questions about land development in western Oregon and...

  12. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  13. Legal aspects of consent 15: living wills and the common law.

    PubMed

    Dimond, B

    Case Scenario: Since watching a programme on dementia on the television, Sam had always been terrified of losing his mental faculties. He therefore told his daughter that if he ever suffered from a disease which lead to mental incapacity he would not wish to have any treatment. Some years later early signs of motor neurone's disease appeared and his condition worsened rapidly. He became incapable of swallowing and his mind deteriorated, so he was no longer able to express his views. His daughter told the healthcare staff at the hospital about his previous wishes and said that he would not wish to be fed artificially. Would staff be justified in giving him artificial feeding, contrary to the daughter's views?

  14. Towards a living earth simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, M.; Kossman, D.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; Argyrakis, P.; Blandford, A.; Bonelli, G.; Anderson, S.; de Freitas, S.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gross, M.; Kohlhammer, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Krause, A.; Linnér, B.-O.; Slusallek, P.; Sorkine, O.; Sumner, R. W.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The Living Earth Simulator (LES) is one of the core components of the FuturICT architecture. It will work as a federation of methods, tools, techniques and facilities supporting all of the FuturICT simulation-related activities to allow and encourage interactive exploration and understanding of societal issues. Society-relevant problems will be targeted by leaning on approaches based on complex systems theories and data science in tight interaction with the other components of FuturICT. The LES will evaluate and provide answers to real-world questions by taking into account multiple scenarios. It will build on present approaches such as agent-based simulation and modeling, multiscale modelling, statistical inference, and data mining, moving beyond disciplinary borders to achieve a new perspective on complex social systems.

  15. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  16. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  17. EAU policy on live surgery events.

    PubMed

    Artibani, Walter; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Challacombe, Ben J; Abbou, Clement-Claude; Bedke, Jens; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Brausi, Maurizio; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Deger, Serdar; Denis, Louis; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Heesakkers, John P F A; Jacqmin, Didier; Knoll, Thomas; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Montorsi, Francesco; Mottrie, Alexander; Piechaud, Pierre-Thierry; Rane, Abhay; Rassweiler, Jens; Stenzl, Arnulf; Van Moorselaar, Jeroen; Van Velthoven, Roland F; van Poppel, Hendrik; Wirth, Manfred; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Parsons, Keith F

    2014-07-01

    Live surgery is an important part of surgical education, with an increase in the number of live surgery events (LSEs) at meetings despite controversy about their real educational value, risks to patient safety, and conflicts of interest. To provide a European Association of Urology (EAU) policy on LSEs to regulate their organisation during urologic meetings. The project was carried out in phases: a systematic literature review generating key questions, surveys sent to Live Surgery Panel members, and Internet- and panel-based consensus finding using the Delphi process to agree on and formulate a policy. The EAU will endorse LSEs, provided that the EAU Code of Conduct for live surgery and all organisational requirements are followed. Outcome data must be submitted to an EAU Web-based registry and complications reported using the revised Martin criteria. Regular audits will take place to evaluate compliance as well as the educational role of live surgery. This policy represents the consensus view of an expert panel established to advise the EAU. The EAU recognises the educational role of live surgery and endorses live case demonstration at urologic meetings that are conducted within a clearly defined regulatory framework. The overriding principle is that patient safety must take priority over all other considerations in the conduct of live surgery. Controversy exists regarding the true educational value of live surgical demonstrations on patients at surgical meetings. An EAU committee of experts developed a policy on how best to conduct live surgery at urologic meetings. The key principle is to ensure safety for every patient, including a code of conduct and checklist for live surgery, specific rules for how the surgery is organised and performed, and how each patient's results are reported to the EAU. For detailed information, please visit www.uroweb.org. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  19. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  20. Underprotection of Unpredictable Statistical Lives Compared to Predictable Ones.

    PubMed

    Lipsitch, Marc; Evans, Nicholas G; Cotton-Barratt, Owen

    2016-07-09

    Existing ethical discussion considers the differences in care for identified versus statistical lives. However, there has been little attention to the different degrees of care that are taken for different kinds of statistical lives. Here we argue that for a given number of statistical lives at stake, there will sometimes be different, and usually greater, care taken to protect predictable statistical lives, in which the number of lives that will be lost can be predicted fairly accurately, than for unpredictable statistical lives, where the lives are at stake because of a low-probability event, such that most likely no one will be affected by the decision but with low probability some lives will be at stake. One reason for this difference is the statistical challenge of estimating low probabilities, and in particular the tendency of common approaches to underestimate these probabilities. Another is the existence of rational incentives to treat unpredictable risks as if the probabilities were lower than they are. Some of these factors apply outside the pure economic context, to institutions, individuals, and governments. We argue that there is no ethical reason to treat unpredictable statistical lives differently from predictable statistical lives. Moreover, lives that are unpredictable from the perspective of an individual agent may become predictable when aggregated to the level of a societal decision. Underprotection of unpredictable statistical lives is a form of market failure that may need to be corrected by altering regulation, introducing compulsory liability insurance, or other social policies.

  1. 5 CFR 838.1017 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 838.1017... Retirement Benefits § 838.1017 Cost-of-living adjustments. In cases where the court order apportions a... proper payment. That amount will be increased by future cost-of-living increases unless the court directs...

  2. 5 CFR 838.1017 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 838.1017... Retirement Benefits § 838.1017 Cost-of-living adjustments. In cases where the court order apportions a... proper payment. That amount will be increased by future cost-of-living increases unless the court directs...

  3. 5 CFR 838.1017 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 838.1017... Retirement Benefits § 838.1017 Cost-of-living adjustments. In cases where the court order apportions a... proper payment. That amount will be increased by future cost-of-living increases unless the court directs...

  4. 5 CFR 838.1017 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 838.1017... Retirement Benefits § 838.1017 Cost-of-living adjustments. In cases where the court order apportions a... proper payment. That amount will be increased by future cost-of-living increases unless the court directs...

  5. 5 CFR 838.1017 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 838.1017... Retirement Benefits § 838.1017 Cost-of-living adjustments. In cases where the court order apportions a... proper payment. That amount will be increased by future cost-of-living increases unless the court directs...

  6. Will interventions targeting conscientiousness improve aging outcomes?

    PubMed

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-05-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it may be possible to design therapeutic interventions that increase conscientiousness, there may be more effective and efficient ways to improve population health. We ask for evidence that a focus on conscientiousness improves behavior change efforts that target specific health-related behaviors or large-scale environmental modification.

  7. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  8. New Form 990 Will Follow Your Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Accountability, transparency, and compliance, are three principles which form the bedrock of best practices in nonprofit governance and are at the heart of a lively debate that has unfolded over the past five years. However, most governing board members do not associate the realization of these principles with the task of completing Form 990, the…

  9. New Form 990 Will Follow Your Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Accountability, transparency, and compliance, are three principles which form the bedrock of best practices in nonprofit governance and are at the heart of a lively debate that has unfolded over the past five years. However, most governing board members do not associate the realization of these principles with the task of completing Form 990, the…

  10. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  11. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  12. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  13. What School Furniture Will Look Like Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    The school furniture of tomorrow will be formed and shaped by design analysis of the learning process rather than by a discipline or maintenance function design. Three of the most significant characteristics of future school furniture will be multiple use, flexibility, and mobility. An interior componentized system will provide spaces for work and…

  14. The Professional Will: An Ethical Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is directed to the ethical responsibility for the counselor to develop a professional will. Essentially the professional will is a roadmap for what the counselor directs to happen in the event that the counselor becomes incapacitated due to sudden death or illness. A model of a professional will is provided.

  15. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  16. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  17. Living arrangements after divorce: cohabitation versus remarriage.

    PubMed

    Wineberg, H; Mccarthy, J

    1998-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."

  18. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  19. Recognizing Safety and Liveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    in terms of "bad things" and "good things".* In [ Sistla 85], an attempt is made to give syntactic charcrizations for safety and live- ness properties...properris, and for a subset of the livene= proMe- ties, called absolute liveness propertie Fally, [ Sistla 85] proves that the states of a Buchi

  20. Where Plumes Live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    From the perspective of fluid dynamics, `Plumes or not?' might be the wrong question. Let me begin by defining a few terms. Plume with a `P' is the well-known thermal structure with thin (order 100 km) tail and large, bulbous head that originates at the core-mantle boundary. The thin tail/large, bulbous-head morphology has been generated in a number of laboratory and numerical experiments. It can be seen, for example, on the cover of the famous fluid dynamics text by Batchelor. There is a clearly-defined range of parameters for which this structure is the preferred solution for instabilities arising from a bottom boundary layer in a convecting fluid. For example, a strong temperature-dependent rheology is needed. By contrast, plume with a `p' is any cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical instability originating from a thermal (or thermo-chemical) boundary layer. In fluid dynamics plume is sometimes used interchangeable with jet. Unless there is a very small temperature drop across the core-mantle boundary or a rather remarkable balance between temperature and composition at the base of the mantle, there are almost certainly plumes. (Note the little p.) Are these plumes the thermal structures with thin (order 100 km) tails and large bulbous heads or could they be broad, hot regions such as the degree 2 pattern seen in global seismic tomography images of the lower mantle, or the disconnected droplets seen in chaotic convection? To study this question, I will present a sequence of numerical `experiments' that illustrate the morphology of instabilities from a basal thermal boundary layer, i.e., plumes. Some of the aspects I will present include: spherical geometry, temperature-and pressure-dependence of rheology, internal heating, pressure-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, variable coefficient of thermal diffusivity, phase transformations, and compositional layering at the base of the mantle. The goal is to map out the parameters and conditions where Plumes live

  1. Classical Theories and the Will to Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Freudian or Jungian theories will be avoided. The most important psychological considerations are those observed in combat conditions. The...CLASSICAL THEORIES OF THE WILL TO FIGHT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial Fulfillment...PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Kurt P. VanderSteen Thesis Title: Classical Theories and the Will to Fight Approved by

  2. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner.

  3. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  4. Cognitive Radio will revolutionize American transportation

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-22

    Cognitive Radio will revolutionize American transportation. Through smart technology, it will anticipate user needs; detect available bandwidths and frequencies then seamlessly connect vehicles, infrastructures, and consumer devices; and it will support the Department of Transportation IntelliDrive Program, helping researchers, auto manufacturers, and Federal and State officials advance the connectivity of US transportation systems for improved safety, mobility, and environmental conditions. Using cognitive radio, a commercial vehicle will know its driver, onboard freight and destination route. Drivers will save time and resources communicating with automatic toll booths and know ahead of time whether to stop at a weigh station or keep rolling. At accident scenes, cognitive radio sensors on freight and transportation modes can alert emergency personnel and measure on-site, real-time conditions such as a chemical leak. The sensors will connect freight to industry, relaying shipment conditions and new delivery schedules. For industry or military purposes, cognitive radio will enable real-time freight tracking around the globe and its sensory technology can help prevent cargo theft or tampering by alerting shipper and receiver if freight is tampered with while en route. For the average consumer, a vehicle will tailor the transportation experience to the passenger such as delivering age-appropriate movies via satellite. Cognitive radio will enhance transportation safety by continually sensing what is important to the user adapting to its environment and incoming information, and proposing solutions that improve mobility and quality of life.

  5. Cognitive Radio will revolutionize American transportation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cognitive Radio will revolutionize American transportation. Through smart technology, it will anticipate user needs; detect available bandwidths and frequencies then seamlessly connect vehicles, infrastructures, and consumer devices; and it will support the Department of Transportation IntelliDrive Program, helping researchers, auto manufacturers, and Federal and State officials advance the connectivity of US transportation systems for improved safety, mobility, and environmental conditions. Using cognitive radio, a commercial vehicle will know its driver, onboard freight and destination route. Drivers will save time and resources communicating with automatic toll booths and know ahead of time whether to stop at a weigh station or keep rolling. At accident scenes, cognitive radio sensors on freight and transportation modes can alert emergency personnel and measure on-site, real-time conditions such as a chemical leak. The sensors will connect freight to industry, relaying shipment conditions and new delivery schedules. For industry or military purposes, cognitive radio will enable real-time freight tracking around the globe and its sensory technology can help prevent cargo theft or tampering by alerting shipper and receiver if freight is tampered with while en route. For the average consumer, a vehicle will tailor the transportation experience to the passenger such as delivering age-appropriate movies via satellite. Cognitive radio will enhance transportation safety by continually sensing what is important to the user adapting to its environment and incoming information, and proposing solutions that improve mobility and quality of life.

  6. Wills and the district nurse: the importance of caution.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Channon, Ceri

    2005-08-01

    John Williams is 65 years old, housebound and lives alone. He is widowed--his wife died 12 months ago--and he has 3 children. The eldest two are his stepchildren, Jack (40 years) and Bert (35 years). The youngest child is his biological daughter, Sarah, who is 28 years old. He has not seen his eldest children since his wife's funeral and Sarah has her own family and only visits occasionally. He is visited by Julie Davies, his district nurse on a daily basis due to a recent bout of flu from which he is finding it difficult to recover. He has early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Julie visits one day to find John in a very low, yet determined mood. He does not feel that he has long left in this life and has drafted a will which he would like Julie and the next door neighbour to witness. Julie notices that the will contains two bequests: one of pounds 5000 is to his neighbour; the second, to his stepson Jack, is of the remainder of his estate 'in full confidence that Jack will share it with the other children as he sees fit'. Julie does not want to get involved but feels pressurized by John into signing and witnessing the will. John dies a week later. Julie is notified that the will is being contested by Sarah.

  7. NASA's Living With a Star Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Space Weather and the solar effects on Earth's climate are not only fascinating topics from a science viewpoint, but are of significant economic importance. The current SOHO and International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP) are aimed at understanding the Sun and Earth system. These spacecraft have made significant progress in understanding Space Weather. Their success has led to the new Living With A Star initiative in NASA, I will show some of the results from SOHO and ISTP and discuss the new Living With A Star program, I will present some of the justifications for the program and discuss the fleet of spacecraft as currently envisioned.

  8. Faculty Members Can Lead, but Will They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.; Curry, Janel

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities looking to recruit leaders from within the faculty ranks will face more and more difficulty. From their respective positions--as a provost (Janel) and a search consultant (Dennis)--they often hear senior executives in higher education say that building a new generation of faculty leaders will be a major challenge in the…

  9. Entrepreneurship: Trust that the dots will connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This talk will outline the bizarre career path that led the speaker from finance, astrophysics, to being the Founder/CEO of a startup pursuing innovations in energy and nanotechnology. We will discuss how to prepare for opportunities that cannot be anticipated, and the merit of just trying and not knowing what is impossible.

  10. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  11. [Free will and patient consent during care].

    PubMed

    Bréhaux, Karine

    2016-09-01

    Raising the question of a person's free will means questioning their freedom and capacity to make choices. Therefore, being free, means being able to judge between the possibilities which are offered to us, and deciding of our own accord what is acceptable to us. The concept of free will is associated with the notion of consent, in particular during care.

  12. Will Electric Professors Dream of Virtual Tenure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that last month at the NASA-Ames Research Center, a group of top scientists and business leaders gathered to plan a new university devoted to the idea that computers will soon become smarter than people. The details of Singularity University, as the new institution will be called, are still being worked out--and so far the…

  13. Sweden will build an ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-16

    It is reported that a 10 million dollar demonstration plant for producing ethanol by continuous fermentation will be built in Sweden. The plant will have a capacity of 20,000 liters/day of ethanol and 30.5 metric tons/day of protein-rich cattle fodder using potatoes and grain as feedstock.

  14. Will Electric Professors Dream of Virtual Tenure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that last month at the NASA-Ames Research Center, a group of top scientists and business leaders gathered to plan a new university devoted to the idea that computers will soon become smarter than people. The details of Singularity University, as the new institution will be called, are still being worked out--and so far the…

  15. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  16. Living with Stepparents

    MedlinePlus

    ... get divorced . This is never an easy decision. Divorce can be painful for parents, but eventually, each ... ON THIS TOPIC Kids Talk About: Marriage and Divorce (Video) Living With a Single Parent Foster Families ...

  17. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress ... Conference Past Conferences Meet-Ups Twitter Chats Webinars Writing Workshops Young Women's Initiative Fundraising Events Galas Living ...

  18. Living with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Caring for a premature infant can be challenging. You may have: Emotional pain, ... tiredness). Frustration that you can't breastfeed your infant right away. (You can pump and store your ...

  19. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  20. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System File Formats Help: How do I ...

  1. Living with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to answer your questions. Call toll-free 1-800-539-7309 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm ... are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our free ...

  2. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy ... Things Safe Teen Drivers Life Stages & Populations A Killer in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. ...

  4. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  5. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... November 1, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  6. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the vaccinia virus. Who should NOT get the smallpox vaccine? People most likely to have side effects ...

  7. Living Day by Day

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  8. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  9. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... reviewed on 04/30/2014. Register for the Stroke Rehab Webinar Join rehab experts as they discuss ...

  10. New power politics will determine generation's path

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.; Neville, A.; Peltier, R.

    2009-01-15

    The US power industry's story in 2009 will be all about change, to borrow a now-familiar theme. Though the new administration's policy specifics had not been revealed as this report was prepared, it appears that flat load growth in 2009 will give the new Obama administration a unique opportunity to formulate new energy policy without risking that the lights will go out. New coal projects are now facing increasing difficulties. It looks as though the electricity supply industry will continue to muddle through. It may see an advancement in infrastructure investment, significant new generation or new technology development. It also faces the possibility that policies necessary to achieving those goals will not materialize, for political and economic reasons. 4 figs.

  11. ASHRAE's Living Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2008-10-01

    ASHRAE recently remodeled its headquarters building in Atlanta with the intention of making the building a LEED Gold building. As part of that renovation the building was enhanced with additional sensors and monitoring equipment to allow it to serve as a Living Laboratory for use by members and the general public to study the detailed energy use and performance of buildings. This article provides an overview of the Living Laboratory and its capabilities.

  12. Molecular Spectroscopy of Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in the study of molecules in gas phase, condensed phase, and at interfaces. The transition from in vitro spectroscopy to spectroscopic imaging of living systems is opening new opportunities to reveal cellular machinery and to enable molecule-based diagnosis (Science 2015, 350: 1054). Such a transition involves more than a simple combination of spectrometry and microscopy. In this presentation, I will discuss the most recent efforts that have pushed the physical limits of spectroscopic imaging in terms of spectral acquisition speed, detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging depth. I will further highlight significant applications in functional analysis of single cells and in label-free detection of diseases.

  13. [Disorders of the will in psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Broschmann, D

    2017-04-12

    At the beginning of modern psychopathology the notion of the will had a high significance. Thus, the works of Eugen Bleuler, Emil Krapelin and Karl Jaspers show an intensive study of disorders of the will, such as abulia, ambivalence or disorders of impulse control. Retrospectively, changes of the scientific paradigms in psychology could be one of the reasons for a break, which led to giving up the concept of the will in psychopathology. With increasing interest in issues of agency and free will, however, a reactivation of this central concept could close a gap in psychopathology as well as in therapeutic practice. Methodologically, a psychopathology of the will may be founded on a differential typological phenomenology. To this purpose, the article first proposes a classification along the structural components of conation, suspension and volition, then gives a temporal analysis of the predecisional, the decisional and the postdecisional phases. The aim of the article is to help identify different disorders of the will, thus also furthering a psychotherapy of will, which can be connected with both cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic approaches.

  14. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  15. What Will Happen After Treatment for Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer survivors have learned to live with this uncertainty and are living full lives. Understanding Recurrence gives ... very stressful. It has its own type of uncertainty. Managing Cancer as a Chronic Illness talks more ...

  16. Trends that will affect your future ... The illness profit industry and national security.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2009-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  17. Trends that will affect your future ... Mr South Whidbey, globalization, and the worship of profit.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  18. Trends that will affect your future … a portrait of American societal health.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  19. MEDLI Will Aid in Understanding of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The MEDLI instrument package, contained in the heat shield of the Mars Science Laboratory, will help scientists and engineers improve their computer models and simulations, and provide data to help...

  20. Will climate change affect insect pheromonal communication?

    PubMed

    Boullis, Antoine; Detrain, Claire; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2016-10-01

    Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels. We argue that insect species relying on long-range chemical signals will be most impacted, because these signals will likely suffer from longer exposure to oxidative gases during dispersal. We provide future directions for research programmes investigating the consequences of climate change on insect pheromonal communication.

  1. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole demonstrates large-scale, man-made affects on our atmosphere. Surface observations now show that human produced ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are declining. The ozone hole should soon start to diminish because of this decline. In this talk we will demonstrate an ozone hole parametric model. This model is based upon: 1) a new algorithm for estimating 61 and Br levels over Antarctica and 2) late-spring Antarctic stratospheric temperatures. This parametric model explains 95% of the ozone hole area's variance. We use future ODS levels to predict ozone hole recovery. Full recovery to 1980 levels will occur in approximately 2068. The ozone hole area will very slowly decline over the next 2 decades. Detection of a statistically significant decrease of area will not occur until approximately 2024. We further show that nominal Antarctic stratospheric greenhouse gas forced temperature change should have a small impact on the ozone hole.

  2. The suicide of Thomas Wentworth Wills.

    PubMed

    de Moore, G M

    Thomas Wentworth Wills was the most important Australian sportsman of his time. He captained the Victorian colony at cricket and was the first hero of Australian Rules football. Although his picture now adorns the conservative Melbourne Cricket Club, he died in 1880, an isolated, destitute alcoholic, after stabbing himself in the heart. Wills embodied a tradition, as prevalent today as it was over 100 years ago, that weds sport with alcohol in Australian culture.

  3. Second Cluster Launch Will Complete the Space Quartet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    By 15 August, they should have joined their companions to form a unique space quartet. This mini-armada will spend the next two years exploring the interaction between the charged particles swept along in the solar wind and Earth's magnetic shield - the magnetosphere. By flying in tetrahedral formation through this magnetic bubble and into interplanetary space, the Cluster quartet will provide the most detailed data yet on the Sun-Earth connection and the physical processes taking place between 19.000 and 119.000 kilometres above our heads. Where to witness the launch in Europe. On 9 August media representatives are invited to cover the launch from various sites in Europe. ESA will broadcast the launch live, with images from Baikonur and ESA's Operations Centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany. The main event for press and guests will take place at the Royal Society in London, UK, organized by ESA in collaboration with BNSC (British National Space Centre) and PPARC (Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council).

  4. Wills, testamentary capacity and undue influence.

    PubMed

    Peer, I N

    1981-01-01

    Psychiatrists are generally familiar with the issues involved in testamentary capacity, but not with the nuances involved in undue influence. The legal factors in determining undue influence where the will of one party is substituted or imposed on the testator have been reviewed. Most important are circumstances where the testator has some degree of mental impairment, where a person in a position of trust imposes his or her will on a testator and is a beneficiary in some way, where there are unusual circumstances in the disposition of property or where there are suspicious circumstances that raise such a question. In particular, a lawyer who prepared a will in which he is a beneficiary will be vulnerable to a charge of undue influence. Examples of actual occurrences have been presented. They illustrate the fact that psychiatric evaluation may be most important in determining the validity of a will even where there is no finding of testamentary incapacity. In such cases, the psychiatric or other medical information is only one factor to be considered by the judge along with the other elements to be considered by the court. Undue influence is therefore another area of the law about which forensic psychiatrists should be familiar and knowledgeable. Hopefully, this review will serve that purpose.

  5. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    PubMed

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  6. Managing Personal Matters. Successful Living Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on managing personal matters is one of a series of modules designed to help teach students to become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. This module provides teacher and student materials that are planned to help students maintain personal records, obtain insurance, and deal with funerals and wills. Six units…

  7. Transitional Living Programs for Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Sara V.; Robertson, Robert M., Jr.

    This report presents a conceptual framework for developing, reviewing, and evaluating transitional living programs (TLPs) for homeless adolescents. It is designed to be used by those in the field who are or will be developing such programs. All TLPs share basic elements and each of these is described so that TLP providers can understand what their…

  8. Freeman Hospital: the will to survive.

    PubMed

    Kingman, S

    1994-08-13

    The future looks uncertain for the Freeman Hospital trust in Newcastle upon Tyne. There are plans to rationalise the health service in Newcastle by shifting resources from secondary to primary care, and by providing more services locally for people who live in the region but outside Newcastle. These could reduce the level of contracts that purchasers place with the trust in the future. Staff at the trust say the service they provide is good value for money, but purchasers do not seem to take this into account. Instead of choosing from a "shopping list" of priced procedures, purchasers are forcing the trust to dovetail its prices to meet their budgets. There is also concern at the potential impact on the trust's financial situation of reduced working hours for junior doctors and the Calman proposals on training.

  9. Living-cell microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; King, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment.

  10. Psychoanalysis and creative living.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2003-01-01

    Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living.

  11. Living My Family's Story

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk. PMID:22544165

  12. Will Deep Impact Make a Splash?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent cometary observations from spacecraft flybys support the hypothesis that short-period comets have been substantially modified by the presence of liquid water. Such a model can resolve many outstanding questions of cometary dynamics, as well as the differences between the flyby observations and the dirty snowball paradigm. The model also predicts that the Deep Impact mission, slated for a July 4, 2005 collision with Comet Temple-1, will encounter a layered, heterogenous nucleus with subsurface liquid water capped by dense crust. Collision ejecta will include not only vaporized material, but liquid water and large pieces of crust. Since the water will immediately boil, we predict that the water vapor signature of Deep Impact may be an order of magnitude larger than that expected from collisional vaporization alone.

  13. What will we learn from the CMB?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1997-10-01

    Within the next decade, experiments measuring the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will add greatly to our knowledge of the universe. There are dozens of experiments scheduled to take data over the next several years, capped by the satellite missions of NASA (MAP) and ESA (PLANCK). What will we learn from these experiments? I argue that the potential pay-off is immense: We are quite likely to determine cosmological parameters to unprecedented accuracy. This will provide key information about the theory of structure formation and even about the physics behind inflation. If the experiments succeed, can anything spoil this pay-off? I focus on three possible spoilers - foregrounds, reionization, and defect models - and argue that we have every reason to be optimistic.

  14. When will the Antarctic ozone hole recover?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Stephen A.; Schauffler, Sue M.

    2006-06-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole demonstrates large-scale, man-made affects on our atmosphere. Surface observations now show that human produced ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are declining. The ozone hole should soon start to diminish because of this decline. We demonstrate a parametric model of ozone hole area that is based upon a new algorithm for estimating chlorine and bromine levels over Antarctica and late spring Antarctic stratospheric temperatures. This model explains 95% of the ozone hole area's variance. We then use future ODS levels to predict ozone hole recovery. Full recovery to 1980 levels will occur around 2068 and the area will very slowly decline between 2001 and 2017. Detection of a statistically significant decrease of area will not occur until about 2024. We further show that nominal Antarctic stratospheric greenhouse gas forced temperature change should have a small impact on the ozone hole.

  15. Neuroscientific challenges to free will and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina

    2006-09-01

    Recent developments in neuroscience raise the worry that understanding how brains cause behavior will undermine our views about free will and, consequently, about moral responsibility. The potential ethical consequences of such a result are sweeping. I provide three reasons to think that these worries seemingly inspired by neuroscience are misplaced. First, problems for common-sense notions of freedom exist independently of neuroscientific advances. Second, neuroscience is not in a position to undermine our intuitive notions. Third, recent empirical studies suggest that even if people do misconstrue neuroscientific results as relevant to our notion of freedom, our judgments of moral responsibility will remain largely unaffected. These considerations suggest that neuroethical concerns about challenges to our conception of freedom are misguided.

  16. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Stephen A.; Schauffler, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole demonstrates large-scale, man-made affects on our atmosphere. Surface observations now show that human produced ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are declining. The ozone hole should soon start to diminish because of this decline. Herein we demonstrate an ozone hole parametric model. This model is based upon: 1) a new algorithm for estimating C1 and Br levels over Antarctica and 2) late-spring Antarctic stratospheric temperatures. This parametric model explains 95% of the ozone hole area s variance. We use future ODS levels to predict ozone hole recovery. Full recovery to 1980 levels will occur in approximately 2068. The ozone hole area will very slowly decline over the next 2 decades. Detection of a statistically significant decrease of area will not occur until approximately 2024. We further show that nominal Antarctic stratospheric greenhouse gas forced temperature change should have a small impact on the ozone hole.

  17. When will NANOGrav detect gravitational waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav aims to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses. In this talk I will discuss recent progress made toward realistic simulations of our sensitivity to a stochastic background of gravitational waves, as well as new scaling laws for the significance of a stochastic background detection in pulsar timing data. I will show that a detection is possible as early as 2017. I will also discuss the detection of individual sources of continuous waves, and the prospects for determining some of their parameters.

  18. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  19. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  20. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  1. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-16

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  2. 5 CFR 837.505 - Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments on Member... Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities. (a) Applying cost-of-living adjustments to recomputed... appointive position subject to CSRS, will include the cost-of-living adjustments under section 8340 of title...

  3. 5 CFR 837.505 - Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments on Member... Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities. (a) Applying cost-of-living adjustments to recomputed... appointive position subject to CSRS, will include the cost-of-living adjustments under section 8340 of title...

  4. 5 CFR 837.505 - Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments on Member... Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities. (a) Applying cost-of-living adjustments to recomputed... appointive position subject to CSRS, will include the cost-of-living adjustments under section 8340 of title...

  5. 5 CFR 837.505 - Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments on Member... Cost-of-living adjustments on Member annuities. (a) Applying cost-of-living adjustments to recomputed... appointive position subject to CSRS, will include the cost-of-living adjustments under section 8340 of title...

  6. How Will Business Educators Be Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia; LaBonty, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    A critical question facing the field of business education is: How will secondary level business teachers be prepared for their professional roles? For the past 30 years, the supply of certified business teachers has come from bachelor's degree teacher education programs in primarily public colleges and universities. While that is still the case,…

  7. "At-Will" Employment and Illinois Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhler, Scott; Weiss, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Illinois libraries and library districts should be aware of the employment "at-will" doctrine in their hiring, firing, and employment policy decisions. Because changes in the law require greater scrutiny of employment manuals and policies, recommendations are made for reducing administrative burdens, record keeping, reviewing employment…

  8. Will the Real Reader Please Stand up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Mary DeKonty; Turner, Jennifer D.; Applegate, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Literacy leaders in the classroom are often in a position to observe student characteristics and needs that accountability measures cannot detect. When students with obvious needs can still pass state tests, they can often be dubbed "proficient readers". It will take a particularly insightful teacher, with a clear view of what reading…

  9. Will SOAR Really Help Organization Development Soar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    2017-01-01

    This article was written in response to the editor's invitation to provide an alternative perspective to Zarestky and Cole's article in this same issue. While appreciating the perspective provided, I question the assumption that SOAR (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, results) as an approach to strategic planning will strengthen organization…

  10. The Professional's Last Will and Testament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a case study illustrates the initial issues arising from the sudden death of key personnel, and then offers an outline for the Professional's Last Will and Testament. This document includes attention to logistical issues and planning for organizational change. It begins with short-term transition issues and continues through other,…

  11. Teaching Arturo Ui: Triumph of Whose Will?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhiel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Describes a unit on teaching Brecht in an introductory literature course, and suggests that students are better able to read and discuss Brecht's Hitler play if they first view and discuss Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will. Guidelines are provided on how best to present and explore the two works with students. (LET)

  12. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  13. Will SOAR Really Help Organization Development Soar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    2017-01-01

    This article was written in response to the editor's invitation to provide an alternative perspective to Zarestky and Cole's article in this same issue. While appreciating the perspective provided, I question the assumption that SOAR (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, results) as an approach to strategic planning will strengthen organization…

  14. Will This Paper Ever Be Cited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2002-01-01

    A recently proposed stochastic model to describe the citation process in the presence of obsolescence is used to answer the question: If a paper has not been cited by a certain time after its publication, what is the probability that it will ever be cited? A proof of the theorem is appended. (Author/LRW)

  15. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  16. Teaching Arturo Ui: Triumph of Whose Will?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhiel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Describes a unit on teaching Brecht in an introductory literature course, and suggests that students are better able to read and discuss Brecht's Hitler play if they first view and discuss Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will. Guidelines are provided on how best to present and explore the two works with students. (LET)

  17. Introduction of Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    separated into kinetic and synthetic. The intention of this paper is not to review existing and proclaimed living systems but to discuss the essence of a...o1 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH S4 CONTRACT N00014-94-1-0101 I R&T Code 31321075 Technical Report No. 10 INTRODUCTION TO LIVING POLYMERIZATION. LIVING ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Introduction to Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization N00014-94-1-0101 6. AUTHOR(S

  18. The Artificial Pancreas: How Sweet Engineering Will Solve Bitter Problems

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes. PMID:19888383

  19. The artificial pancreas: how sweet engineering will solve bitter problems.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2007-01-01

    An artificial pancreas is a closed-loop system containing only synthetic materials which substitutes for an endocrine pancreas. No artificial pancreas system is currently approved; however, devices that could become components of such a system are now becoming commercially available. An artificial pancreas will consist of functionally integrated components that will continuously sense glucose levels, determine appropriate insulin dosages, and deliver the insulin. Any proposed closed loop system will be closely scrutinized for its safety, efficacy, and economic impact. Closed loop control utilizes models of glucose homeostasis which account for the influences of feeding, stress, insulin, exercise, and other factors on blood glucose levels. Models are necessary for understanding the relationship between blood glucose levels and insulin dosing; developing algorithms to control insulin dosing; and customizing each user's system based on individual responses to factors that influence glycemia. Components of an artificial pancreas are now being developed, including continuous glucose sensors; insulin pumps for parenteral delivery; and control software, all linked through wireless communication systems. Although a closed-loop system providing glucagon has not been reported in 40 years, the use of glucagon to prevent hypoglycemia is physiologically attractive and future devices might utilize this hormone. No demonstration of long-term closed loop control of glucose in a free-living human with diabetes has been reported to date, but many centers around the world are working on closed loop control systems. It is expected that many types of artificial pancreas systems will eventually be available, and they will greatly benefit patients with diabetes.

  20. Vehicle emissions of short-lived and long-lived climate forcers: trends and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morgan R; Klemun, Magdalena M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Winkler, Sandra L; Tamor, Michael A; Trancik, Jessika E

    2017-08-24

    Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO2.

  1. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  2. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  3. Living with Aplastic Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Clinical Trials for Rare Blood Diseases (Neal Young, M.D.) 05/17/2012 In ... in the lives of people who have rare blood and bone marrow diseases, such as aplastic anemia. // Non Object? Updated: August ...

  4. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  5. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a…

  6. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  7. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  8. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  9. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  10. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you can ... with your doctors to learn how to manage CF. Ongoing Care Having ongoing medical care by a ...

  11. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  12. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  13. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  14. Native American Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Julie Anna

    1992-01-01

    Examines features of independent living philosophy with regard to compatibility with Native American cultures, including definition or conceptualization of disability; self-advocacy; systems advocacy; peer counseling; and consumer control and involvement. Discusses an actualizing process as one method of resolving cultural conflicts and…

  15. Measuring Retirees' Living Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamale, Helen H.

    1978-01-01

    The author evaluates the Consumer Price Index (CPI) used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to make cost-of-living adjustments to retirement benefits and considers the need for a separate retiree index. Stating that the CPI has underestimated inflation's impact on retirees, she recommends revised BLS retiree budgets. (MF)

  16. Living the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia; Lemay, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Describes one elementary school's "Living the Dream" award program named in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Students read and reviewed books and presented the award to the author of a recent picture book that focused on multicultural awareness. A list of suggested titles is included. (SM)

  17. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  18. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  19. Test Pattern For Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicholas

    The lives of Americans today are ruled by interlocking corporations. These corporations together present only one kind of life as viable: the consumer's life. Television is their main means of presenting this view. One cannot choose something he does not know about, and many Americans are not sufficiently informed of the alternatives to make an…

  20. Living related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Kawarazaki, H; Iwanaka, T; Kamada, N; Takayama, T; Kumon, M

    1992-01-01

    Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver transplantations had already been performed in Japan, mainly for children with biliary atresia. Five of these patients subsequently died, however, our patient has survived more than 1 year, and she is presently leading a normal school life. The most important issue regarding living related liver transplantation is to ensure the donor's safety. For this purpose, we conducted a preoperative banking of the donor's own blood and plasma. In addition, a selective vascular occlusion was carried out to reduce blood loss during the resection of the liver. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was introduced for evaluating the circulation of the graft. By using this modality, the following three points were able to be accurately estimated in order to obtain optimal graft perfusion: 1) The most suitable position for the graft to be fixed to the abdominal wall, 2) whether or not the abdominal wall could be closed and 3) the indication for a ligation of the collateral veins to form a porto-systemic shunt. Thanks to these procedures, living related liver transplantations have now become an acceptable transplant method, however, a transplantation from a cadaver that is brain dead but still has a beating heart is still absolutely necessary for adult recipients. Therefore, in the future, both methods should be performed.

  1. The Net Will BE the Place where Most Interactions Will Take Place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido

    As society becomes more and more interconnected (we just started to add our environment to the net with the Internet of Things revolution), the net will be the place where most inter actions will take place...

  2. Eliminating poverty will help women most.

    PubMed

    Short, C

    1997-01-01

    It is both possible and affordable to eliminate poverty. It is also necessary to promote peaceful existence in the next century and to reduce population pressure. A key to poverty reduction is to increase equality between men and women. Women must be given access to reproductive health services and care so that they can bear their children safely and protect themselves from infection. The maternal mortality risk in Africa far exceeds that in developed countries, and many more women suffer permanent disability from child birth. At least 120 million have an unmet need for contraception, and more than 90% of AIDS cases occur among the impoverished and marginalized population of developing countries. In addition to meeting the reproductive health needs of men and women, the needs of youth must be met through coherent and coordinated efforts that support the work of all partners in development according to an agreed upon agenda crafted by developing countries. The priorities must be to 1) increase access to reproductive health information, services, and commodities and 2) to minimize the need for abortion while recognizing that women should be able to make their own moral choices and to obtain a safe abortion. The goals of the international development community for 2015 are to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty, to ensure reproductive health for all, and to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality.

  3. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. If it Works, Will it Matter?

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Cheryl; Gerst, Kacy; Gould, Josh, Babinec, Sue

    2016-07-12

    Technical success is one thing, but commercial success is another. ARPA-E’s unique Technology-to-Market program was designed to help our awardees move their research out of the lab and into the market, accelerating the adoption of potentially game-changing technologies. The Technology-to-Market team is dedicated to the common goal of answering the fundamental question: if it works, will it matter? Featuring remarks from Cheryl Martin, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Commercialization, as well as interviews with three members of the Technology-to-Market team, this video demonstrates ARPA-E’s commitment to both the development and deployment of transformational energy technologies. The video also incorporates footage shot on site with several ARPA-E awardees, much of which will be highlighted in other videos shown throughout the 2015 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit.

  5. Science for all: What will it take?

    SciTech Connect

    DeBerry, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    There is growing momentum in the US for science education reform. Science for All implies that we are willing to acknowledge that what we have done in the past has not worked for large segments of our population. If we are to provide science literacy for all people, then we must teach students in ways that are economic and efficient. If we are going to provide science for all, then we must recognize and honor the cultural diversity of our students. Achieving science equity requires involvement beyond our local community or school. Changes in policy making and decision making about who does science must extend to the state and national levels. We must work through the national science standards and organizations to provide the leadership that will ensure an integrative approach to science education and make science for all a reality.

  6. Will invalid because beneficiary prepared the document.

    PubMed

    1996-04-19

    The mother of a man who died of AIDS-related complications successfully challenged the validity of her son's will. An Alabama appeals court refused to allow the will of [name removed] to stand, citing that his partner and beneficiary, [name removed], exercised undue influence over [name removed]'s decisions. Less than 1 year before his death, [name removed] granted [name removed] power of attorney and named him as beneficiary of his life insurance policy. Thirteen days prior to [name removed]'s death, papers were signed conveying his real estate to [name removed]. Writing for the court, retired Judge L. Charles Wright noted that [name removed]'s medical condition might have affected the soundness of his judgment.

  7. Fieldbus -- How will I be affected?

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, A.R.

    1996-09-01

    Fieldbus is a digital, two-way, multi-drop communication link among intelligent control devices that will replace the 4--20 ma standard. Fieldbuses are designed to meet the more stringent requirements of the process industries. Depending on the fieldbus used, the protocol provides a large suite of functions at the user layer that facilitate distributing control from the central control system out to the field devices themselves. The three major field buses in existence today are PROFIBUS, FIP, and FOUNDATION Fieldbus. This paper discusses FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology. Other technologies are similar, but not as comprehensive, as FOUNDATION Fieldbus. It is not within the scope of this paper to give a detailed description of FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology. However, a few of the basic concepts will be presented here.

  8. Spacecraft Will Communicate "on the Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    As NASA probes deeper into space, the distance between sensor and scientist increases, as does the time delay. NASA needs to close that gap, while integrating more spacecraft types and missions-from near-Earth orbit to deep space. To speed and integrate communications from space missions to scientists on Earth and back again. NASA needs a comprehensive, high-performance communications network. To this end, the CICT Programs Space Communications (SC) Project is providing technologies for building the Space Internet which will consist of large backbone network, mid-size access networks linked to the backbones, and smaller, ad-hoc network linked to the access network. A key component will be mobile, wireless networks for spacecraft flying in different configurations.

  9. Spacecraft Will Communicate "on the Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    As NASA probes deeper into space, the distance between sensor and scientist increases, as does the time delay. NASA needs to close that gap, while integrating more spacecraft types and missions-from near-Earth orbit to deep space. To speed and integrate communications from space missions to scientists on Earth and back again. NASA needs a comprehensive, high-performance communications network. To this end, the CICT Programs Space Communications (SC) Project is providing technologies for building the Space Internet which will consist of large backbone network, mid-size access networks linked to the backbones, and smaller, ad-hoc network linked to the access network. A key component will be mobile, wireless networks for spacecraft flying in different configurations.

  10. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  11. If it Works, Will it Matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Cheryl; Gerst, Kacy; Gould, Josh, Babinec, Sue

    2015-02-11

    Technical success is one thing, but commercial success is another. ARPA-E’s unique Technology-to-Market program was designed to help our awardees move their research out of the lab and into the market, accelerating the adoption of potentially game-changing technologies. The Technology-to-Market team is dedicated to the common goal of answering the fundamental question: if it works, will it matter? Featuring remarks from Cheryl Martin, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Commercialization, as well as interviews with three members of the Technology-to-Market team, this video demonstrates ARPA-E’s commitment to both the development and deployment of transformational energy technologies. The video also incorporates footage shot on site with several ARPA-E awardees, much of which will be highlighted in other videos shown throughout the 2015 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit.

  12. Poor, powerless and pregnant. Empowering women will benefit all.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, the better educated women have a responsibility to help out less fortunate women. The possibilities for action could include the following: literacy classes for adult women with the help of teachers, librarians, social workers, development program workers, and among church groups and adult literacy groups; and promotion campaigns to encourage mothers to keep their children in school as long as possible. Women and teenagers could be educated about the complications of teenage births and parental responsibilities. Child spacing should be encouraged as a means of achieving better health and a higher standard of living. Women must be motivated to attend family planning clinics and health education programs. Income generation programs for women could be established. Community improvement projects and new housing projects could be instrumental in improving living conditions. Leadership courses and job creation for women must be provided. These activities would highlight women as assets, such as the UN Population Fund described in its 1992 report of The State of the World. Women's high status has been found to be directly related to economic growth and higher quality of life. 7-9% of a child's mortality risk might be reduced for each year of maternal education. In Africa, the ratio of girls to boys in school attendance averages 80 girls to 100 boys in primary school and 47 girls to 100 boys in secondary school. Almost 66% of adult illiterates were women in 1985: 949 million. Early marriage and childbearing perpetuates the cycle of low status and high fertility. Where human resource development has been high, such as in Asian countries, there have been as many as 78% of women active in the labor force. In South Africa, rural women have had as many as 7 children. The growth rate was 2.3% and population has been doubling every 32 years. At the present rate, greater numbers of women will be poor and illiterate, and their children will continue the cycle.

  13. Will Smart Pricing Finally Take Off?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    as has often been claimed, cf. [14,60,61], but stimulating demand to fill the growing capacity of transmission systems [48]. The most effective way...important ingredients. As is discussed in Section 12, it will likely be important to explore the most effective ways to introduce noise and other...deliver. 13 14 Andrew Odlyzko The collapse in costs of switching and transport is what has led to the transformation of the effective architecture of

  14. Did time begin? Will time end?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.,

    ch. 1. Why do many other scientists believe time began at a big bang? -- ch. 2. Smoothness of the universe -- ch. 3. Structure in the universe -- ch. 4. Dark matter and dark energy -- ch. 5. Composition of the universe's energy -- ch. 6. Possible futures of the universe -- ch. 7. Advantages of cyclic cosmology -- ch. 8. Summary of answers to the questions: did time begin? Will time end?

  15. Will the Nicaragua Canal connect or divide?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-11-03

    A century after the opening of the Panama Canal, a second inter-oceanic passage is set to be built in Central America, this time in Nicaragua. The ambitious and astronomically expensive project promises to bring economic opportunity to a poor country but it also carries risks to its tropical ecosystems. Will the new waterway ultimately link two oceans or divide a continent? Michael Gross investigates.

  16. How Many Galactic Variables will LSST Detect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope operational plan includes release of alerts, within 60 seconds, for all sources that are found to have varied from template images. The number of these alerts has been variously estimated at 105 to 106 per night. Many of these alerts will be for galactic variable stars. The number of galactic variables detected can be estimated from the bottom up, with known statistics for each variable type. Here we take a top-down approach. A galactic synthesis model (Robin et al, 2003) is used to generate a fictitious but statistically valid star list for a given pointing. Analysis of the first 3 months of the Kepler survey (Ciardi et al, 2011) is used to characterize the probability of stellar variability by spectral type, as a function of variability amplitude. With this model and the LSST survey parameters, it is possible to predict that LSST will alert on 105 galactic variable stars each night at intermediate galactic latitude. Most of these sources will be known variables after a few months of operation.

  17. Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2014-03-01

    It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters warm. Recent UK government reports state that winter warming will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters warm with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.

  18. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  19. The Cassini Live Update Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Ray, Trina; Wallis, Brad; Roumeliotis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter is an international science mission to the Saturnian system with 12 science instruments onboard. The Cassini spacecraft lacks a scan platform, which means the entire spacecraft must be rotated to control pointing of any one instrument's boresight. The resulting complex sequences of commands are built beginning many months before execution onboard. Late ephemeris updates from improved navigation data (i.e. after an orbital trim maneuver) often result in pointing commands in the sequence no longer being accurate enough to obtain the desired science observation. This paper will provide an overview of how Cassini uses live updates to address this potential loss of data, including the software developed for this process.

  20. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  1. NCCN: 20 Years of Improving Patients' Lives.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    In his Keynote Address at the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Robert W. Carlson, MD, reflected on the achievements of NCCN and described how the organization will continue to grow under his leadership. Recognizing that the founding of NCCN was by a group of visionary leaders who came together 20 years ago to assure access of patients to high-quality cancer care, Dr. Carlson said "All our efforts within NCCN are focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of patient care, so that our patients can live better lives."

  2. Conservation: can we live better on less

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.

    1981-02-01

    Americans are looking for more-efficient ways to live and conduct their business without lowering their living standard. New building designs, intensive gardening, new energy sources, and vanpooling are among the pioneering efforts. Conservation also requires innovative ways to raise capital to handle nontraditional projects. A new industry of house doctors audits the energy efficiency of buildings and creates more-conserving designs and materials. Other industries will develop renewable and synthetic energy sources. Reports of changing attitudes and a growing interest in decentralized energy management are signs that conservation can become a way of life. (DCK)

  3. The Billion Cell Construct: Will Three-Dimensional Printing Get Us There?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan S.

    2014-01-01

    How structure relates to function—across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism—is a central theme in biology. Bioengineers, however, wrestle with the converse question: will function follow form? That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire. A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations. PMID:24937565

  4. What will be the weather like tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christelle, Guilloux

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

  5. New microscope gives scientists the inside scoop on living cells.

    PubMed

    Medlin, J

    1999-11-01

    Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have developed a unique imaging system capable of focusing on a single living cell within an organism. This new technology will be used in what the multidisciplinary team has termed a "cellular observatory" to study the effect of environmental insults to live cells.

  6. LIVING LAB: User-Driven Innovation for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Christa; Welfens, Maria Jolanta; Rohn, Holger; Nordmann, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the LIVING LAB design study, a project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. The aim of this project was to develop the conceptual design of the LIVING LAB Research Infrastructure that will be used to research human interaction with, and stimulate…

  7. Career Counseling with Persons Living with HIV: An Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrio, Casey A.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in medical treatment have greatly extended the life span and quality of life of persons living with HIV, with the nature of the disease evolving from causing an early death to chronic, manageable illness. Career counselors will increasingly be called upon to assist persons living with HIV. This article provides an overview of HIV disease…

  8. LIVING LAB: User-Driven Innovation for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Christa; Welfens, Maria Jolanta; Rohn, Holger; Nordmann, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the LIVING LAB design study, a project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. The aim of this project was to develop the conceptual design of the LIVING LAB Research Infrastructure that will be used to research human interaction with, and stimulate…

  9. Career Counseling with Persons Living with HIV: An Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrio, Casey A.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in medical treatment have greatly extended the life span and quality of life of persons living with HIV, with the nature of the disease evolving from causing an early death to chronic, manageable illness. Career counselors will increasingly be called upon to assist persons living with HIV. This article provides an overview of HIV disease…

  10. Where will we find tomorrow's leaders?

    PubMed

    Hill, Linda A

    2008-01-01

    Unless we challenge long-held assumptions about how business leaders are supposed to act and where they're supposed to come from, many people who could become effective global leaders will remain invisible, warns Harvard Business School professor Hill. Instead of assuming that leaders must exhibit take-charge behavior, broaden the definition of leadership to include creating a context in which other people are willing and able to guide the organization. And instead of looking for the next generation of global leaders in huge Western corporations and elite business schools, expand the search to developing countries. In this conversation with HBR senior editor Paul Hemp, Hill describes the changing nature of leadership and what we can learn from parts of the world where people have not, until recently, had opportunities to become globally savvy executives. In South Africa, for instance, the African National Congress has provided rigorous leadership preparation for many black executives. Hill has also observed two approaches--in developed and developing economies alike--that she believes will be necessary in an increasingly complex business environment. The first, leading from behind, involves letting people hand off the reins to one another, depending on their strengths, as situations change. The second, leadership as collective genius, calls for both unleashing and harnessing individuals' collective talents, particularly to spur innovation. Through her descriptions of these approaches in such companies as Sekunjalo Investments, HCL Technologies, and IBM, Hill highlights the challenges of finding and preparing people who can lead by stepping back and letting others come forward to make their own judgments and take risks.

  11. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  12. Will we exceed 50% efficiency in photovoltaics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant and reliable source of energy we have to provide for the multi-terawatt challenge we are facing. Although huge, this resource is relatively dispersed. High conversion efficiency is probably necessary for cost effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies above 40% have been achieved with multijunction (MJ) solar cells. These achievements are here described. Possible paths for improvement are hinted at including third generation photovoltaics concepts. It is concluded that it is very likely that the target of 50% will eventually be achieved. This high efficiency requires operating under concentrated sunlight, partly because concentration helps increase the efficiency but mainly because the cost of the sophisticated cells needed can only be paid by extracting as much electric power form each cell as possible. The optical challenges associated with the concentrator optics and the tools for overcoming them, in particular non-imaging optics, are briefly discussed and the results and trends are described. It is probable that optical efficiency over 90% will be possible in the future. This would lead to a module efficiency of 45%. The manufacturing of a concentrator has to be addressed at three levels of integration: module, array, and photovoltaic (PV) subfield. The PV plant as a whole is very similar than a flat module PV plant with two-axes tracking. At the module level, the development of tools for easy manufacturing and quality control is an important topic. Furthermore, they can accommodate in different position cells with different spectral sensitivities so complementing the effort in manufacturing MJ cells. At the array level, a proper definition of the nameplate watts, since the diffuse light is not used, is under discussion. The cost of installation of arrays in the field can be very much reduced by self aligning tracking control strategies. At the subfield level, aspects such as the self shadowing of arrays causes the CPV subfields to

  13. Superconductivity: will its potential be realized

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1980-04-01

    The article surveys possible applications of superconductivity and the question of how rapidly or whether this potential will be realized. Attention is given to applications such as magnetic levitation trains, Josephson junction computers, new means of cancer detection, and water purification. Also discussed are the use of superconducting magnets to produce the high fields needed for nuclear fusion plants and for magnetohydrodynamic generators. Further, experiments under way on superconducting power lines for virtually lossless transmission of electric power are examined. It is concluded that the main obstacle to implementation of such applications is the reluctance of American business and government to invest in further research.

  14. International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous

  15. Pharmacogenomics: where will it take us?

    PubMed

    Felcone, Linda Hull

    2004-07-01

    Until now, drug research has focused on discovering blockbusters to treat millions of patients. Pharmacogenomics, a multidisciplinary effort arising from the Human Genome Project, strives to deliver "personalized medicine." Researchers use genetic information to understand disease pathways and create drugs designed for small, likely-to-respond populations. The path from research to finished drugs is as logistically complex as landing a human on the moon, but don't expect a giant leap; progress will come throughout the next couple of decades via incremental steps.

  16. National Will from a Threat Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Larkin’s poem quoted above speaks to the challenge military operations face when domestic support gives over to fatigue and impatience. Although...Larkin wrote in 1969, the sentiments he describes are eternal, and the poem could just as easily be from 2010. National will in the modern age is an even...It’s hard to say who wanted it to happen, But now it’s been decided nobody minds. The places are a long way off, not here, Which is all right, and

  17. Global methanol overcapacity will get worse

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1983-06-20

    The world methanol situation, characterized by an excess of 21% over demand in 1983, is expected to worsen by 1985 when a 29% excess is anticipated. Canada will suffer the most for its overly optimistic projections of methanol's use in fuel. The areas of greatest supply surplus, the US (at least until 1988), Canada, Mexico, Eastern Europe, and the Africa-Middle East region, are expected to compete fiercely for business in the biggest deficit areas of the Pacific Basin, Southeast Asia, and Western Europe. Several factors could turn the grim situation around: financial incentives for using methanol and sucess of the new method of converting methenol directly to gasoline. 3 figures.

  18. Breaking Terrorists’ Will To Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    to test this theory and the variables that affected the rise and fall of the Shining Path’s popularity and will to fight in Peru. Although it is...Diego Salazar, “VRAEM: Políticas de Seguridad Pública en Zona de Conflicto,” 7th Latin-American Congress of Political Sciences – ALACIP, Bogotá...236 Calmet and Salazar, “VRAEM: Políticas de Seguridad Pública en Zona de Conflicto.” 237 McCormick, “The Complete Win,” 3. 58

  19. Human connectomics - what will the future demand?

    PubMed

    Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-10-15

    Significant resources are now being devoted to large-scale international studies attempting to map the connectome - the brain's wiring diagram. This review will focus on the use of human neuroimaging approaches to map the connectome at a macroscopic level. This emerging field of human connectomics brings both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities arise from the ability to apply a powerful toolkit of mathematical and computational approaches to interrogate these rich datasets, many of which are being freely shared with the scientific community. Challenges arise in methodology, interpretability and biological or clinical validity. This review discusses these challenges and opportunities and highlights potential future directions.

  20. Superconductivity - Will its potential be realized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1980-04-01

    The article surveys possible applications of superconductivity and the question of how rapidly or whether this potential will be realized. Attention is given to applications such as magnetic levitation trains, Josephson junction computers, new means of cancer detection, and water purification. Also discussed are the use of superconducting magnets to produce the high fields needed for nuclear fusion plants and for magnetohydrodynamic generators. Further, experiments under way on superconducting power lines for virtually lossless transmission of electric power are examined. It is concluded that the main obstacle to implementation of such applications is the reluctance of American business and government to invest in further research.

  1. Allied dental personnel: will there be enough?

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2008-11-01

    The escalating number and size of dental practices mean greater dependency on a ready supply of allied dental personnel. However, despite the increasing number of entry places in allied dental training programs, many places remain unfilled and large numbers of individuals do not complete the course of studies. A review of the changes in dental practice sizes and dental assistant, dental hygienist and dental laboratory technician programs raises concerns as to whether there will be enough allied dental personnel to meet the future needs of the profession. The need for increasing attention to this potential eventuality is stressed.

  2. Improving assisted living care.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  3. Maryland mill will recycle wastepaper, reclaim water

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, L.A. )

    1995-02-01

    A $200 million paper mill being built in Hagerstown, Md., is expected to produce 150,000 bone-dry short tons per year of de-inked, market-grade pulp for writing and printing paper. The 1st Urban Fibers facility, the largest capital project in Hagerstown's history, is slated for completion in the spring. Landegger Recycled Fiber Corp. will operate and maintain the 200,000-square-foot recycling mill and 60,000-square-foot water reclamation plant. The wastepaper recycling mill plans to minimize waste and pollution by: reclaiming 635 tons per day of 100 percent post-consumer mixed office waste from the solid waste stream; saving more than 16 million cubic feet of landfill area per year; conserving the fiber equivalent of 6,700 trees per day; using no chlorine; saving about 2,000 gallons of water and 4,000 kilowatt hours of electricity per ton of throughput, compared to virgin fiber mills; reusing treated wastewater, reducing effluent discharge by 65 percent; and discharging effluent that will have zero impact on the receiving stream.

  4. Whaling: will the Phoenix rise again?

    PubMed

    Holt, Sidney J

    2007-08-01

    It is argued that Japan's authorities and entrepreneurs involved in whaling and the whale-meat trade have a long-term goal of rebuilding a large and profitable industry of pelagic whaling, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, in the next 20 years or so. They have made large investments in this enterprise since the so-called moratorium on commercial whaling was adopted by the International Whaling Commission in 1982. These include, but are not confined to, state subsidizing of an expanding and diversifying 20-year programme of commercial whaling under provisions in all relevant international agreements since 1937 that permit unlimited and unilaterally decreed whaling, supposedly for scientific purposes, provided that the commodities from the whales killed are fully utilized. The context of this is the monopoly of technical knowledge, special skills and the market for valuable whale-meat that Japanese enterprises acquired in the post-world war II period, having broken - in 1937 - the strongly defended de facto Anglo-Norwegian monopoly of technology, skills, access to Antarctic whaling grounds and the market for whale-oil that had existed until then. The attraction of 'scientific whaling' is not only that it by-passes any internationally agreed catch-limits but that it also circumvents all other rules - many dating fr/om the League of Nations whaling convention of 1931 - regarding protected species, closed areas, killing of juveniles, less inhumane killing methods, etc. The groundwork is being laid to justify that resumed whaling on partially recovered whale stocks will be at the unsustainable levels that will be profitable again. This justification is based on spurious assertions that numerous and hungry whales threaten the world's fisheries, and that the abundance and possible increase in some whale species is impeding the recovery of other, severely depleted, and potentially more valuable species such as the blue whale. If the scenario presented here is correct

  5. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    (including China), and therefore, more generally accepted. How to do that? We should start from the present clinical practice, refer to the tradition, face the future, and work hard. Borrowing WM disease names is of great significance. It will help to bring the theory of Zang-Fu organs back to its origin, clinically help to deepen the combination of disease and syndrome, disease and formula, promote the objectification and micronization of syndrome differentiation in CM, and possibly bring about new theories of CM which will in return promote clinical development. CM will be able to occupy an important position in the field of world medicine and make its own contributions to the health of the global population.

  6. Machine free will: is free will a necessary ingredient of machine consciousness?

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Sooner or later, machine consciousness will have to address the elusive notion of free will either to dismiss it or to produce a machine implementation. It is unclear whether freedom and consciousness are independent aspects of the human mind or by-product of the same underlying structure. Here, the relevant literature is reviewed focusing on the connection between determinism and freedom-usually explored by compatibilists. Eventually, a tentative model for machine free will is outlined.

  7. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Living Room Mantel Profile, Door Jamb, Window Sill, Baseboard, Living Room Fireplace Details, Door Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Governor's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  9. Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural system, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. [Households will no longer have a head].

    PubMed

    Courson, J

    1982-11-01

    A new procedure adopted in France for the 1982 census is described. "In the 1982 census, unlike preceeding ones, the INSEE [Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques] no longer leaves the choice of a head at the discretion of households. The Institute will itself designate a statistical representative [reference person] under the new terminology and according to a systematic rule. This step eliminates a certain inaccuracy which was potentially problematic for certain surveys. The rule for designating the reference person is based on simple criteria and takes into account the main trends observed in the spontaneous declarations of households. If...used in the 1975 census, it would have resulted in the designating of the same representative in 96% of cases." (summary in ENG, SPA) excerpt

  11. Warfare facial trauma: who will treat?

    PubMed

    Holmes, D K

    1996-09-01

    Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.

  12. Will embryonic stem cells change health policy?

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are actively debated in political and public policy arenas. However, the connections between stem cell innovation and overall health care policy are seldom elucidated. As with many controversial aspects of medical care, the stem cell debate bridges to a variety of social conversations beyond abortion. Some issues, such as translational medicine, commercialization, patient and public safety, health care spending, physician practice, and access to insurance and health care services, are core health policy concerns. Other issues, such as economic development, technologic progress, fiscal politics, and tort reform, are only indirectly related to the health care system but are frequently seen through a health care lens. These connections will help determine whether the stem cell debate reaches a resolution, and what that resolution might be.

  13. Will political realism prevail in Kiev?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Moscow summit produced a major step toward resolving the impasse on Ukrainian denuclearization, the world`s most serious nuclear proliferation problem. The trilateral statement signed by Presidents Clinton, Yeltsin and Kravchuk calls for delivery to Russia for dismantlement of some 1,800 Ukrainian strategic warheads, reportly over a period of less than three years. The document was described as a political declaration and not an agreement. It does not guarantee that the total denuclerization of Ukraine will occur on schedule. But it does establish an ongoing process to accomplish that end on a compensated basis, which should encourage formal Ukrainian ratification of START I and adherence to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

  14. When will we detect the extraterrestrials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostak, Seth

    2004-08-01

    It has been more than four decades since the first, modern SETI experiment. Many hundreds of star systems have been observed in the radio over wide bandwidth and with impressive sensitivity, and the entire sky has been surveyed in a more restricted mode several times. Optical SETI experiments are underway, and have already scrutinized several thousand nearby stars, looking for nanosecond light pulses. Still, there is no confirmed signal detection. Given the anticipated improvement in both telescopes and digital electronics applied to SETI, what is the time scale for making such a discovery? In this paper we investigate the rate of stellar surveillance by targeted radio SETI experiments for the foreseeable future, and conclude that it is likely that—if the principal assumptions underlying modern SETI are reasonable—a detection will occur within a single generation.

  15. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  16. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1) expand the knowledge base; 2) increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3) create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry. PMID:20423526

  17. Will disruptive innovations cure health care?

    PubMed

    Christensen, C M; Bohmer, R; Kenagy, J

    2000-01-01

    It's no secret that health care delivery is convoluted, expensive, and often deeply dissatisfying to consumers. But what is less obvious is that a way out of this crisis exists. Simpler alternatives to expensive care are already here--everything from $5 eyeglasses that people can use to correct their own vision to angioplasty instead of open-heart surgery. Just as the PC replaced the mainframe and the telephone replaced the telegraph operator, disruptive innovations are changing the landscape of health care. Nurse practitioners, general practitioners, and even patients can do things in less-expensive, decentralized settings that could once be performed only by expensive specialists in centralized, inconvenient locations. But established institutions--teaching hospitals, medical schools, insurance companies, and managed care facilities--are fighting these innovations tooth and nail. Instead of embracing change, they're turning the thumbscrews on their old processes--laying off workers, delaying payments, merging, and adding layers of overhead workers. Not only is this at the root of consumer dissatisfaction with the present system, it sows the seeds of its own destruction. The history of disruptive innovations tells us that incumbent institutions will be replaced with ones whose business models are appropriate to the new technologies and markets. Instead of working to preserve the existing systems, regulators, physicians, and pharmaceutical companies need to ask how they can enable more disruptive innovations to emerge. If the natural process of disruption is allowed to proceed, the result will be higher quality, lower cost, more convenient health care for everyone.

  18. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    PubMed

    Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Rindal, Donald B; Barasch, Andrei; Gilbert, Gregg H; Safford, Monika M

    2010-04-28

    "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1) expand the knowledge base; 2) increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3) create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry.

  19. Optical nanoscopy of a living cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Wolfson, Deanna L.; Chuang, Frank Y. S.; Huser, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Optical nanoscopy allows to study biological and functional processes of sub-cellular organelles. In structured illumination microscopy (SIM) the sample is illuminated with a grid-like interference pattern to encode higher spatial frequency information into observable Moiré patterns. By acquiring multiple images and a computation trick a superresolved image is obtained. SIM provides resolution enhancement of 2X in each axis as compared to conventional microscopes. For a visible light, SIM provides an optical resolution of 100 nm. The challenges associated with optical nanoscopy of a living cell are photo-toxicity, special dye requirements and artifacts due to cell movement. SIM works with conventional dyes and is a wide-field technique making it suitable for imaging living cells. In this work, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges of imaging living cells using SIM. Two applications of optical nanoscopy of living cells will be discussed; a) imaging of mitochondria in a keratinocyte cell and Optical microscopy based on fluorescence has emerged as a vital tool in modern bio-medical imaging and diagnosis. Super-resolution bio-imaging allows gathering information from sub-cellular organelles. In structured illumination microscopy (SIM) the sample is illuminated with a grid-like interference patterns to encode higher spatial frequencies information into observable images (Moiré fringes). A super-resolved image is then decoded using computational trick. In this work, we used SIM to acquired super-resolved optical images of mitochondria from a live keratinocyte cell (see Fig 1). SIM provides resolution enhancement of 2X in each axis and contrast enhancement of 8X on a projected image. Time-lapsed imaging was used to study the dynamics of mitochondria in a live cell.

  20. Will human populations be limited by food?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  1. Valuing different human lives.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

    2014-04-01

    Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy.

  2. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  3. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  4. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  5. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  6. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  7. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  8. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  9. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  10. Communication in Assisted Living*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

  11. Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

    2007-03-01

    High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  13. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  14. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sickle Cell Disease If you or your child has sickle ... NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease (Nicholas) 09/02/2011 In this video— ...

  15. Remedial training: Will CRM work for everyone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. N.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of those pilots who seem unresponsive to Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training is addressed. Attention is directed to the need and opportunity for remedial action. Emphasis is given to the requirement for new perspectives and additional training resources. It is also argued that, contrary to conventional training wisdom, such individuals do not represent a hard core which is beyond assistance. Some evidence is offered that such a new perspective will lend itself to a wider appreciation of certain specific training needs. The role of appropriately trained specialists is briefly outlined, and a selected bibliography is attached. The combined experiences of several Pilot Advisory Groups (PAG's) within IFALPA member association form the basis for this discussion. It does not purport to desribe the activities of any one PAG. While much of the activities of PAG's have no relevance to CRM, there are clearly some very important points of intersection. The relevance of these points to diagnostic skills, and remedial training in the general domain of CRM is made obvious.

  16. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  17. Research Center Renaming Will Honor Senator Domenici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    New Mexico Tech and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will rename the observatory's research center on the New Mexico Tech campus to honor retiring U.S. Senator Pete V. Domenici in a ceremony on May 30. The building that serves as the scientific, technical, and administrative center for the Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescopes will be named the "Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center." The building previously was known simply as the "Array Operations Center." Sen. Pete V. Domenici Sen. Pete V. Domenici "The new name recognizes the strong and effective support for science that has been a hallmark of Senator Domenici's long career in public service," said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO Director. New Mexico Tech President Daniel H. Lopez said Sen. Domenici has always been a supporter of science and research in Socorro and throughout the state. "He's been a statesman for New Mexico, the nation -- and without exaggeration -- for the world," Lopez said. "Anyone with that track record deserves this recognition." Van Romero, Tech vice president of research and economic development, has served as the university's main lobbyist in Washington, D.C., for more than a decade. He said Sen. Domenici has always been receptive to new ideas and willing to take risks. "Over the years, Sen. Domenici has always had time to listen to our needs and goals," Romero said. "He has served as a champion of New Mexico Tech's causes and we owe him a debt of gratitude for all his efforts over the decades." Originally dedicated in 1988, the center houses offices and laboratories that support VLA and VLBA operations. The center also supports work on the VLA modernization project and on the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. Work on ALMA at the Socorro center and at the ALMA Test Facility at the VLA site west of Socorro has focused on developing and testing equipment to be deployed at the ALMA site in Chile's Atacama

  18. Free will and the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2012-01-01

    The increase in body weight in the USA over the past several decades is now commonly referred to as the 'obesity epidemic'. An empirical analysis of the literature suggests that the increased weight can be accounted for by an increase in food intake. The solution to the obesity epidemic, therefore, must centre on a reduction in food consumption, a position well accepted by the American population who think that they, as individuals, are responsible for their adiposity by holding the belief that the decision as to what and how much to eat is determined by their own free will. The evidence demonstrates, however, that this is not true. Variables such as portion size, variety of foods offered, fat content of the diet, the number of people eating, the location where eating occurs and even watching food advertisements act as 'food primes' causing individuals to increase their energy intake. Despite the plethora of diets, weight-loss clubs, drugs and mechanical devices available to facilitate weight loss, once treatment is terminated and people return to the 'free' environment, their weight returns to pre-treatment levels. Only when individuals are protected from environmental variables by gastric surgery or limited to consume only portion-controlled meals can they successfully maintain a reduced weight. Combining the technique of daily weight monitoring with accepting that our eating behaviour is not determined totally by our free choice, we may be able to curb the obesity epidemic.

  19. Will ocean acidification affect marine microbes?

    PubMed Central

    Joint, Ian; Doney, Scott C; Karl, David M

    2011-01-01

    The pH of the surface ocean is changing as a result of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and there are concerns about potential impacts of lower pH and associated alterations in seawater carbonate chemistry on the biogeochemical processes in the ocean. However, it is important to place these changes within the context of pH in the present-day ocean, which is not constant; it varies systematically with season, depth and along productivity gradients. Yet this natural variability in pH has rarely been considered in assessments of the effect of ocean acidification on marine microbes. Surface pH can change as a consequence of microbial utilization and production of carbon dioxide, and to a lesser extent other microbially mediated processes such as nitrification. Useful comparisons can be made with microbes in other aquatic environments that readily accommodate very large and rapid pH change. For example, in many freshwater lakes, pH changes that are orders of magnitude greater than those projected for the twenty second century oceans can occur over periods of hours. Marine and freshwater assemblages have always experienced variable pH conditions. Therefore, an appropriate null hypothesis may be, until evidence is obtained to the contrary, that major biogeochemical processes in the oceans other than calcification will not be fundamentally different under future higher CO2/lower pH conditions. PMID:20535222

  20. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  1. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  2. [The five wills of Francisco Xavier Balmis].

    PubMed

    Tuells, José; Duro Torrijos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of the testamentary records of Francisco Xavier de Balmis (1753-1819), director of the Royal Philanthropic Expedition of the Vaccine, constitutes a new source material with which to study his biographical profile.Balmis wrote a total of five wills covering the period from 1803-1818 and coinciding with crucial moments in his life.The analysis of these documents has led to interesting observations that confirm Balmis’s personal insecurity before facing the Expedition, his vulnerability when he was stripped of his possessions for joining the royalist cause against Napoleon, the reassurance he felt when his honors and property were restored, or his fortitude in facing the final moments of his life. The documents also reveal that Balmis used his career as a military surgeon as a tool to achieve social prestige, and belie the assumptions of an obscure end. The inventory of his goods confirms his comfortable economic situation and his ability to manage it. The notarial sources are confirmed by this case of Balmis, an official of the Crown, as an appropriate source for the study of urban oligarchies of the Spanish Ancien Régime.

  3. Wearable computing: Will it make people prosocial?

    PubMed

    Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Risko, Evan F; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that people who wear an eye tracker modify their natural looking behaviour in a prosocial manner. This change in looking behaviour represents a potential concern for researchers who wish to use eye trackers to understand the functioning of human attention. On the other hand, it may offer a real boon to manufacturers and consumers of wearable computing (e.g., Google Glass), for if wearable computing causes people to behave in a prosocial manner, then the public's fear that people with wearable computing will invade their privacy is unfounded. Critically, both of these divergent implications are grounded on the assumption that the prosocial behavioural effect of wearing an eye tracker is sustained for a prolonged period of time. Our study reveals that on the very first wearing of an eye tracker, and in less than 10 min, the prosocial effect of an eye tracker is abolished, but by drawing attention back to the eye tracker, the implied presence effect is easily reactivated. This suggests that eye trackers induce a transient social presence effect, which is rendered dormant when attention is shifted away from the source of implied presence. This is good news for researchers who use eye trackers to measure attention and behaviour; and could be bad news for advocates of wearable computing in everyday life.

  4. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.

  5. The Technology Review 10: Emerging Technologies that Will Change the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Review, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Identifies 10 emerging areas of technology that will soon have a profound impact on the economy and on how people live and work: brain-machine interfaces; flexible transistors; data mining; digital rights management; biometrics; natural language processing; microphotonics; untangling code; robot design; and microfluidics. In each area, one…

  6. The Technology Review 10: Emerging Technologies that Will Change the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Review, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Identifies 10 emerging areas of technology that will soon have a profound impact on the economy and on how people live and work: brain-machine interfaces; flexible transistors; data mining; digital rights management; biometrics; natural language processing; microphotonics; untangling code; robot design; and microfluidics. In each area, one…

  7. 30 CFR 250.1507 - How will BSEE measure training results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will BSEE measure training results? 250.1507 Section 250.1507 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF..., deepwater well control, and production safety duties. (d) Hands-on production safety, simulator, or live...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1507 - How will BSEE measure training results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will BSEE measure training results? 250.1507 Section 250.1507 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF..., deepwater well control, and production safety duties. (d) Hands-on production safety, simulator, or live...

  9. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  10. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  11. Living with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest possible level. • Prevent Accidents and Injury: Recommending lighting that will be most effective for a particular ... other equipment contrasts with the wall. Maintain good lighting in walkways, hallways, stairwells, etc. Use labeled tray ...

  12. Will you survive the services revolution?

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, Uday

    2004-06-01

    Of late, offshoring and outsourcing have become political hot buttons. These o words have been conflated to mean that high-paying, white-collar jobs have been handed to well-trained but less expensive workers in India and other locales. The brouhaha over the loss of service jobs, which currently account for over 80% of private-sector employment in the United States, is not merely an American phenomenon. The fact is that service-sector jobs in all developed countries are at risk. Regardless of what the politicians now say, worry focused on offshoring and outsourcing misses the point, the author argues. We are in the middle of a fundamental change, which is that services are being industrialized. Three factors in particular are combining with outsourcing and offshoring to drive that transformation: The first is increasing global competition, where just as with manufactured goods in the recent past, foreign companies are offering more services in the United States, taking market share from U.S. companies. The second is automation: New hardware and software systems that take care of back-room and front-office tasks such as counter operations, security, billing, and order taking are allowing firms to dispense with clerical, accounting, and other staff positions. The third is self-service. Why use a travel agent when you can book your own flight, hotel, and rental car online? As these forces combine to sweep across the service sector, executives of all stripes must start thinking about arming and defending themselves, just as their manufacturing cousins did a generation ago. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; de-integrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new kinds of work and skills.

  13. Identification of Iowa live births in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Romitti, Paul A; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Budelier, William T; Lynch, Charles F; Puzhankara, Soman; Wong-Gibbons, Donna; Hoppin, Jane A; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2010-01-01

    In the Agricultural Health Study, information on participant live births was largely provided by female partners of male private applicators. At the Iowa site, such information was available for 13,599 (42.9%) of 31,707 applicators. To improve identification of live births among Iowa participants, we used a probabilistic and deterministic approach to link available demographic data from 31,707 households and information on live births from 13,599 households with 1,014,916 Iowa birth certificates. Record linkage identified 16,611 (93.7%) of 17,719 reported live births and 17,883 additional live births, most (14,411 or 80.6%) not reported due to nonresponse by female partners. This record linkage produced an expanded cohort of live-born children among Iowa participants, which will facilitate improved study of the effects of agricultural exposures, including pesticides, on selected birth outcomes and childhood disease.

  14. 20 CFR 655.800 - Who will enforce the LCAs and how will they be enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor Condition Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.800 Who will enforce the LCAs and how will...) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n) and (t)) and this subpart I and subpart H of this part. (b) Conduct of...

  15. 20 CFR 655.800 - Who will enforce the LCAs and how will they be enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor Condition Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.800 Who will enforce the LCAs and how will...) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n) and (t)) and this subpart I and subpart H of this part. (b) Conduct of...

  16. 20 CFR 655.800 - Who will enforce the LCAs and how will they be enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor Condition Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.800 Who will enforce the LCAs and how will...) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n) and (t)) and this subpart I and subpart H of this part. (b) Conduct of...

  17. 20 CFR 655.800 - Who will enforce the LCAs and how will they be enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor Condition Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.800 Who will enforce the LCAs and how will...) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n) and (t)) and this subpart I and subpart H of this part. (b) Conduct of...

  18. 20 CFR 655.800 - Who will enforce the LCAs and how will they be enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor Condition Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.800 Who will enforce the LCAs and how will...) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n) and (t)) and this subpart I and subpart H of this part. (b) Conduct of...

  19. On the notion of free will in the Free Will Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Klaas

    2017-02-01

    The (Strong) Free Will Theorem (FWT) of Conway and Kochen (2009) on the one hand follows from uncontroversial parts of modern physics and elementary mathematical and logical reasoning, but on the other hand seems predicated on an undefined notion of free will (allowing physicists to ;freely choose; the settings of their experiments). This makes the theorem philosophically vulnerable, especially if it is construed as a proof of indeterminism or even of libertarian free will (as Conway & Kochen suggest). However, Cator and Landsman (Foundations of Physics 44, 781-791, 2014) previously gave a reformulation of the FWT that does not presuppose indeterminism, but rather assumes a mathematically specific form of such ;free choices; even in a deterministic world (based on a non-probabilistic independence assumption). In the present paper, which is a philosophical sequel to the one just mentioned, I argue that the concept of free will used in the latter version of the FWT is essentially the one proposed by Lewis (1981), also known as 'local miracle compatibilism' (of which I give a mathematical interpretation that might be of some independent interest also beyond its application to the FWT). As such, the (reformulated) FWT in my view challenges compatibilist free will à la Lewis (albeit in a contrived way via bipartite EPR-type experiments), falling short of supporting libertarian free will.

  20. Mathematics for generative processes: Living and non-living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantoni, Corrado

    2006-05-01

    ; (iv) and, at the same time, an intrinsic "genetic" ordinality which reflects the fact that any product "generated" is something more than the sum of the generating elements. Consequently all these properties enable us to follow the evolution of the "product" of any generative process from the very beginning, in its "rising", in its "incipient" act of being born. This is why the new "operator" introduced, specifically apt when describing the above-mentioned aspects, was termed as "incipient" (or "spring") derivative.In addition, even if the considered approach was suggested by the analysis of self-organizing living Systems, some specific examples of non-living Systems will also be mentioned. In fact, what is much more surprising is that such an approach is even more valid (than the traditional one) to describe non-living Systems too. In fact the resulting "drift" between traditional solutions and "incipient" solutions led us to reconsider the phenomenon of Mercury's precessions. The satisfactory agreement with the astronomical data suggested, as a consequential hypothesis, a different interpretation of its physical origin, substantially based on the Maximum Em-Power Principle.

  1. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  2. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion

  3. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion

  4. Can lean save lives?

    PubMed

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  5. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  6. Living Liquid Crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-28

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic par­ticles, often termed •active fluid,• has attracted enormous atten­tion in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here,we introduce a class of active matter-living liquid crystals (UCs}­ that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingre­dients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena. caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence­ enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers­ thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications.

  7. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem.

  8. Population aging and emergency departments: visits will not increase, lengths-of-stay and hospitalizations will.

    PubMed

    Pallin, Daniel J; Allen, Matthew B; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A; Bohan, J Stephen

    2013-07-01

    With US emergency care characterized as "at the breaking point," we studied how the aging of the US population would affect demand for emergency department (ED) services and hospitalizations in the coming decades. We applied current age-specific ED visit rates to the population structure anticipated by the Census Bureau to exist through 2050. Our results indicate that the aging of the population will not cause the number of ED visits to increase any more than would be expected from population growth. However, the data do predict increases in visit lengths and the likelihood of hospitalization. As a result, the aggregate amount of time patients spend in EDs nationwide will increase 10 percent faster than population growth. This means that ED capacity will have to increase by 10 percent, even without an increase in the number of visits. Hospital admissions from the ED will increase 23 percent faster than population growth, which will require hospitals to expand capacity faster than required by raw population growth alone.

  9. "Jesus will fix it after awhile": meanings and health.

    PubMed

    Abrums, M

    2000-01-01

    There are many myths and stereotypes related to the health of people of color in the United States. Many research studies are done and statistics proliferate on the health status of non-dominant groups. Few studies attempt to understand the meaning systems of poor and working class African American women in relationship to health and health care. This study uses an ethnographic approach including narrative analysis of life history interviews in order to examine how the life experiences and belief systems of a small group of poor and working class African American women from a storefront church in Seattle, Washington, inform and influence the women's opinions and interactions with the dominant white health care system. This paper will examine specific dimensions of the women's belief systems and discuss how these beliefs are applied as the women interpret, confront and examine the meaning of health and the meaning of their own experiences in specific health care encounters. The women's belief systems, learned and reinforced within the context of their daily lives, enable the women to offer a unique critique of the health care system, as well as to maintain a powerful subjectivity in the face of an objectifying system, the dominant white western health care system.

  10. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  11. Will Medicare Advantage payment reforms impact plan rebates and enrollment?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage (MA) plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act (ACA) payment reforms. First difference regressions of county-level MA payment and enrollment data from CMS from 2006 to 2010. A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to MA plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point (0.9%) decrease in MA penetration (P < .001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (P < .001). These effects are small overall, but larger in counties with low levels of traditional Medicare spending; a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. ACA reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in lower-spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 1.7 to 1.9 percentage points in the lowest-spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. MA enrollment responds to availability of supplemental benefits supported by rebates. ACA provisions designed to lower MA spending will predominantly affect Medicare beneficiaries living in counties where MA plans may be unable to offer a comparable product at a price similar to that of traditional Medicare.

  12. Will baby boomers create new models of retirement community in rural Australia?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maureen F

    2014-12-01

    Baby boomers are depicted as a cohort who will redefine the ageing process and reject segregated homes for older people. This exploratory study sought to find and interview friendship groups in rural Australia who are actively engaged in creating alternative living arrangements conceptualised around preparations for old age. A purposive sampling frame and snowballing techniques were used to identify groups of interest, who were interviewed by phone using a semistructured survey. Five groups were identified, each with explicit plans to avoid segregated housing by taking care of each other. They believe segregated housing to be undesirable and unsustainable, and perceive a need for alternative solutions. Baby boomers geographically unattached and independent of children recognise they will require the cooperation of others to remain independent for as long as possible, and will strive to create mutually supportive living arrangements - thus creating new models of retirement community. © 2013 ACOTA.

  13. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  14. Living with Stepparents

    MedlinePlus

    ... respect you give your own parents, coach, or teacher at school. You might worry about what will happen on holidays — who you'll be with and exchange presents with. These are all good questions and ones you should talk over with ...

  15. Senior living technology.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G

    1999-10-01

    The pros and cons of long term care's shift to a prospective payment system will be debated well into the next millennium, but its effects have already been profound. Not least has been the role PPS has played in dragging providers into the information age. Providers who were once steadfast in their refusal to participate in the computer revolution are now eager converts, implementing innovative information and clinical technologies to operate more efficiently and improve quality of care. Major changes rarely happen overnight. The long process of upgrading information systems and integrating new clinical technologies will remain arduous for years to come. But innovative technologies (including non-computerized devices and equipment ranging from lift systems to weightlifting equipment) will play an ever-increasing role as the industry takes a more consumer-driven approach to delivery of care. While some providers complain that vendors have been slow to develop the level of sophisticated, integrative systems they require, vendors fault providers for not being able or willing to invest the capital necessary to upgrade their platforms to support state-of-the-art software. But partnering rather than finger-pointing appears to be winning the day as facilities and vendors intensify their efforts to create more and better technology for long term care. In the following pages, we look at a number of innovative providers--from Bronx, New York, to Oshkosh, Wisconsin, from big chains to mom-and-pops--who have come up with creative solutions to common problems.

  16. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  17. Will They Stay or Will They Go?: International STEM Students Are up for Grabs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    If current trends continue, international students will comprise half of U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) PhD graduates by 2020. The proportion of international PhD-level students on temporary visas to study STEM subjects in the United States has doubled over the past thirty years. Further, these students are much more…

  18. Living with low vision: a personal and professional perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, S B

    1995-10-01

    Unlike most readers of this special issue, I have been both a consumer and provider of rehabilitation services. A retinal hemorrhage that occurred when I was in my late twenties signaled the beginning of delayed-onset retinopathy of prematurity--a condition that has been further complicated since that time. In this article, I offer a glimpse of what living with low vision is like by describing activities in my own life and accommodations I have made. My hope is that therapists will learn more about the realities of living with low vision and will seek our additional information that they will incorporate into their practice.

  19. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  20. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-07

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  1. Willed action, free will, and the stochastic neurodynamics of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the randomness of the firing times of neurons in decision-making attractor neuronal networks that is present before the decision cues are applied can cause statistical fluctuations that influence the decision that will be taken. In this rigorous sense, it is possible to partially predict decisions before they are made. This raises issues about free will and determinism. There are many decision-making networks in the brain. Some decision systems operate to choose between gene-specified rewards such as taste, touch, and beauty (in for example the peacock's tail). Other processes capable of planning ahead with multiple steps held in working memory may require correction by higher order thoughts that may involve explicit, conscious, processing. The explicit system can allow the gene-specified rewards not to be selected or deferred. The decisions between the selfish gene-specified rewards, and the explicitly calculated rewards that are in the interests of the individual, the phenotype, may themselves be influenced by noise in the brain. When the explicit planning system does take the decision, it can report on its decision-making, and can provide a causal account rather than a confabulation about the decision process. We might use the terms "willed action" and "free will" to refer to the operation of the planning system that can think ahead over several steps held in working memory with which it can take explicit decisions. Reduced connectivity in some of the default mode cortical regions including the precuneus that are active during self-initiated action appears to be related to the reduction in the sense of self and agency, of causing willed actions, that can be present in schizophrenia.

  2. 20 CFR 404.760 - Evidence of living in the same household with insured person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of living in the same household with... living in the same household with insured person. If you apply for the lump-sum death payment as the... deemed valid marriage as described in § 404.727, we will ask for evidence you and the insured were living...

  3. 20 CFR 404.760 - Evidence of living in the same household with insured person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of living in the same household with... living in the same household with insured person. If you apply for the lump-sum death payment as the... deemed valid marriage as described in § 404.727, we will ask for evidence you and the insured were living...

  4. 20 CFR 404.760 - Evidence of living in the same household with insured person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of living in the same household with... living in the same household with insured person. If you apply for the lump-sum death payment as the... deemed valid marriage as described in § 404.727, we will ask for evidence you and the insured were living...

  5. 20 CFR 404.760 - Evidence of living in the same household with insured person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of living in the same household with... living in the same household with insured person. If you apply for the lump-sum death payment as the... deemed valid marriage as described in § 404.727, we will ask for evidence you and the insured were living...

  6. 78 FR 21712 - Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Service-Connected Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... AFFAIRS Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Service-Connected Benefits AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Veterans' Compensation Cost-of-Living... Security Administration has announced that there will be a 1.7 percent cost-of-living increase in...

  7. Live Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    prevent  it.    Users  of  the  system  pulled  information  of  various  kinds  into  the  shared  scenario:  city   maps,  images,  data  from  databases...videos  from  real‐time  feeds  in  the  city   itself.  Working  together,  they  rapidly  solved  their  problem.    The  live  application  could...hold groups of other objects: a  city  object might contain building objects; a  helicopter squadron multiple helicopters, and so forth.   What about data

  8. Exact Law of Live Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. The law is universal for all species, from single cell yeast to humans. It includes no characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism etc.) which are a must for life. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment. Its universal dynamics for all animals, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity, is also unique for live systems — cf. different thermodynamics of liquids and glasses. The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is a life specific law of nature.

  9. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  10. The power of living things: Living memorials as therapeutic landscapes

    Treesearch

    Heather L. McMillen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2017-01-01

    In response to the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), many communities came together to create living memorials. Many living memorials were established near the crash sites, but others were created across the United States from urban to rural areas, with designs ranging from entire forests to single trees. They were created by surviving family members, supporters of...

  11. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  12. Access to care save lives.

    PubMed

    Blaney, C L

    1994-02-01

    Emergency treatment of such major complications of pregnancy as obstructed labor, hemorrhage, infection, hypertension disorders, and the effects of unsafe abortion, helps ameliorate morbidity and prevent mortality. Access to life-saving treatment (e.g., antibiotics, Cesarean sections, and blood transfusions) in developing countries is limited. Maternal mortality in one area of The Gambia, for example, is 2200 per 100,000 births. Improving access to care depends upon the availability of these services in communities, trained health personnel, service improvements, transportation provision, and community education. Detection of complications and early referral to an appropriate facility with a supportive and professional environment is key to saving lives. Political will and public pressure are needed before improvement in services can be successfully accomplished; politicians may ignore women with low status. Barriers to care are physical, cultural, technical, and economic. Cost or distance from home may prevent women from seeking care. Infection, hemorrhage, and uterine injury are frequently related to unsafe abortions, particularly among teenage women. Hospitals must be equipped with a reliable management system, surgical facilities, and clinical services. The WHO recommends upgrading community health centers with trained personnel, adequate supervision, and equipment. In Uganda, midwives are specially trained in advanced skills for use in remote areas: administration of oxytocin to evacuate the uterus and reduce bleeding, use of antibiotics for infections, and surgical repair of vaginal tears. Nurses in Zaire are trained to do Cesarean sections. In Sierra Leone and Nigeria, doctors are encouraged to receive training in obstetrics and to be posted in rural areas. In Sierra Leone, young men are trained to bring pregnant women in to care on stretchers. Maternity waiting homes near hospitals are another means to save lives. Lack of permission from a male relative may

  13. Trends that will affect your future … the coming food crisis-the social tsunami headed our way.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzreport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Willed action, free will, and the stochastic neurodynamics of decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the randomness of the firing times of neurons in decision-making attractor neuronal networks that is present before the decision cues are applied can cause statistical fluctuations that influence the decision that will be taken. In this rigorous sense, it is possible to partially predict decisions before they are made. This raises issues about free will and determinism. There are many decision-making networks in the brain. Some decision systems operate to choose between gene-specified rewards such as taste, touch, and beauty (in for example the peacock's tail). Other processes capable of planning ahead with multiple steps held in working memory may require correction by higher order thoughts that may involve explicit, conscious, processing. The explicit system can allow the gene-specified rewards not to be selected or deferred. The decisions between the selfish gene-specified rewards, and the explicitly calculated rewards that are in the interests of the individual, the phenotype, may themselves be influenced by noise in the brain. When the explicit planning system does take the decision, it can report on its decision-making, and can provide a causal account rather than a confabulation about the decision process. We might use the terms “willed action” and “free will” to refer to the operation of the planning system that can think ahead over several steps held in working memory with which it can take explicit decisions. Reduced connectivity in some of the default mode cortical regions including the precuneus that are active during self-initiated action appears to be related to the reduction in the sense of self and agency, of causing willed actions, that can be present in schizophrenia. PMID:22973205

  15. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  16. "Until I Learn English, I Will Always Live in a Prison": Teaching E.S.L. to Hispanic Women Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Iris; Pousada, Alicia

    A study investigating the factors most important in creating and maintaining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for Hispanic women in prison is reported. The study was undertaken by an ESL teacher who was also an inmate in a maximum security women's correctional institution. Introductory sections describe the prison, inmate population,…

  17. "A Date Which Will Live in Infamy": The First Typed Draft of Franklin D. Roosevelt's War Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell Burroughs; West, Jean

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching activities and student projects using Franklin Roosevelt's war address following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Recommends vocabulary emphasis, class discussion, and classroom listening to a recording of the speech. Suggests comparing the speech to Patrick Henry's famous speech and interviewing individuals…

  18. Where will this illness take me? Reactions to HIV diagnosis from women living with HIV in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kako, Peninnah M; Stevens, Patricia E; Karani, Anna K

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006. In this article we focus on women's reactions to HIV diagnosis, under which four subthemes emerged: immediate intense emotions; keeping HIV status secret; acceptance of HIV diagnosis; and finding liberation in disclosure. We offer important implications for health care professionals serving women in sub-Saharan Africa from the findings of our study.

  19. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The living publication

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  1. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  2. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed S. Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  3. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed.

  4. Astrobiology: Study of the Living Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined as the study of the living universe. This endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. This lecture will explore the development of this field of inquiry, the science questions to be examined, and the mechanisms available for participation by the scientific community.

  5. A living systems perspective on health.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Absence of a theoretical basis for defining health has made it an elusive concept and problematic to measure. This deficiency has precluded a clear delineation of the content of health science as a field. In this manuscript I use a living systems theoretical perspective to distinguish the parts and emergent properties of health. I term the parts of health, "assets," which include the dimensions of energetics, restoration, mind, reproduction, and capabilities. Health assets interact at the level of the whole person to form integrated and emergent capacities that enable adaptation to environmental challenges, satisfaction of needs, attainment of life goals, and survival. Healthy individuals live long and adapt to and thrive within their environments. As more is learned about the interrelationships among health assets, their influences, their consequences, and how they interact to produce integrated functional capacities, a theoretically grounded and empirically informed ontology of health will emerge.

  6. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  7. The Tumultuous Lives and Deaths of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars have a profound astrophysical influence throughout their tumultuous lives and deaths. Stellar feedback - the injection of energy and momentum by stars to the interstellar medium (ISM) - occurs through a variety of mechanisms: radiation, photoionization heating, winds, jets/outflows, supernovae, and cosmic-ray acceleration. Despite its importance, stellar feedback is cited as one of the biggest uncertainties in astrophysics today, stemming from a dearth of observational constraints and the challenges of considering many feedback modes simultaneously. In this talk, I will discuss how a systematic approach to multiwavelength observations can be used to overcome these issues. I will summarize results from application of these methods to massive-star regions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, where feedback processes are best resolved. Finally, I will highlight exciting prospects of using current and upcoming facilities to explore feedback in diverse conditions.

  8. The Living With a Star Geospace Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Living With a Star program addresses research problems with societal impact. As specified by its mission definition team, the Geospace component of the program addresses two regions which pose the greatest hazards: the Earth's radiation belts and the mid-latitude ionosphere. Two Radiation Belt Storm Probe spacecraft with identical energetic particle, plasma wave, and magnetic field instrumentation will make the observations needed to distinguish spatial from temporal effects and identify the mechanisms governing particle energization, transport, and loss. Two Ionosphere- Thermosphere Storm Probes on inclined low-altitude and midlatitude orbits will make the observations needed to distinguish between special and temporal effects, characterize the response to varying solar EUV radiation and geomagnetic storms, and identify the mechanisms generating mid-latitude ionospheric irregularities. An imager on a mission of opportunity will provide the observations needed to place these in situ measurements in context.

  9. The Living With a Star Geospace Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Living With a Star program addresses research problems with societal impact. As specified by its mission definition team, the Geospace component of the program addresses two regions which pose the greatest hazards: the Earth's radiation belts and the mid-latitude ionosphere. Two Radiation Belt Storm Probe spacecraft with identical energetic particle, plasma wave, and magnetic field instrumentation will make the observations needed to distinguish spatial from temporal effects and identify the mechanisms governing particle energization, transport, and loss. Two Ionosphere- Thermosphere Storm Probes on inclined low-altitude and midlatitude orbits will make the observations needed to distinguish between special and temporal effects, characterize the response to varying solar EUV radiation and geomagnetic storms, and identify the mechanisms generating mid-latitude ionospheric irregularities. An imager on a mission of opportunity will provide the observations needed to place these in situ measurements in context.

  10. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  11. [Assessment and selection of kidney living donors].

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Pereira Palomo, Porfirio

    2010-01-01

    Donor protection should always be taken account during the selection and assessment of a living donor. On these terms, the evaluation of a potential donor must include these issues: 1) The donor act is altruistic, consciousness and out of coercion; 2) Life expectancy and quality of life of the recipient will improve after the living donor kidney transplantation; 3) The donor has normal renal function and the potential risk of developing nephropathy in the long term follow up is scarce (familiar nephropathies and other processes that may increase the potential risk for renal disease in the future, like severe hypertension, diabetes, etc must be ruled out). The glomerular filtrate should meet criteria for the normal function corresponding to age furthermore the absence of proteinuria and urine smear is normal; 4) The screening in the donor should contemplate those clinical situations or diseases non related to the kidney function but might elevate the surgical and/or anesthesia risk besides disease transmission to the recipient (as neoplasia or infections); 5) The surgical act is possible without technical difficulties and always performed after a negative result of the crossmatch between donor and recipient. The living donor evaluation process will follow a different schedule based on each particular case and the center facilities. Any case, the mentioned process is divided in two parts: The first one contains an initial screening (using non invasive and low cost tests) that allows discarding contraindications for donation (in both donor and recipient). In a second phase the assessment of the donor varies with donor characteristics. However, a test for renal function is mandatory besides imaging techniques (like angioTC), screening for transmissible diseases and a detailed evaluation for psychosocial aspects preferably made by professional. Moreover Spanish policy on living donation requires a report with information about the consent for donation developed by an

  12. Imaging cell biology in live animals: ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Roberto; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-06-24

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, and cancer biology.

  13. Live Fire Training: Lifeblood for the Light Infantryman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    describe current trends at the Joint Readiness Training Center in both force-on-force and maneuver live-fires. The monograph concludes that currently...Finally, discussion will describe current trends at the Joint Readiness Training Center in both force-on-force and maneuver live-fires. The monograph...ensure a decisive outcome is through close combat with the enemy: hold a piece of ground, secure a population center , and destroy enemy units. To destroy

  14. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  15. Framework for Healthful Living Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The Healthful Living Education program promotes behaviors that contribute to a healthful lifestyle and improved quality of life for all students. The Framework for Healthy Living Education supports and reinforces the goals and objectives of its three major components: health education, physical education, and alcohol and other drugs. When the…

  16. Connecting with assisted living consumers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kathleen A; Pinkowitz, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Connecting with residents and their family members should be considered an integral part of medication therapy management services that pharmacists provide to assisted living communities. This article provides suggestions on how pharmacists can better connect and communicate with current and future assisted-living consumers and staff to optimize medication use, maintain resident function, and help residents age in place.

  17. SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    mance needs can vary in use-dependent ways. For example in a content sharing system, the lag-tolerance for a live - streaming use may depend on the kind...USA, Octo- ber 2005. [15] Qi Huang, Hai Jin, and Xiaofei Liao, “P2P Live Streaming with Tree-Mesh based Hybrid Overlay”, In Pro- ceedings of ICPP

  18. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  19. Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Kathy

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  20. Virtual Globes, where we were, are and will be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.; Worden, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Ten years ago, Google Earth was new, and the first "Virtual Globes" session was held at AGU. Only a few of us realized the potential of this technology at the time, but the idea quickly caught on. At that time a virtual globe came in two flavors, first a complex GIS system that was utterly impenetrable for the public, or a more accessible version with limited functionality and layers that was available on a desktop computer with a good internet connection. Google Earth's use of the Keyhole Markup Language opened the door for scientists and the public to share data and visualizations across disciplines and revolutionized how everyone uses geographic data. In the following 10 years, KML became more advanced, virtual globes moved to mobile and handheld platforms, and the Google Earth engine allowed for more complex data sharing among scientists. Virtual globe images went from a rare commodity to being everywhere in our lives, from weather forecasts, in our cars, on our smart-phones and shape how we receive and process data. This is a fantastic tool for education and with newer technologies can reach the the remote corners of the world and developing countries. New and emerging technologies allow for augmented reality to be merged with the globes, and for real-time data integration with sensors built into mobile devices or add-ons. This presentation will follow the history of virtual globes in the geosciences, show how robust technologies can be used in the field and classroom today, and make some suggestions for the future.

  1. Stories of African HIV+ Women Living in Poverty.

    PubMed

    VanTyler, Samaya; Sheilds, Laurene

    2015-01-01

    In this study researchers explored the daily experiences of HIV+ women living in Kibera, Kenya. Using a convergence of narrative, feminist, and indigenous approaches, we engaged in individual in-depth interviews with nine HIV+ women. Interpretive storylines include the following: Being an African woman; If I sit there, that 10 bob won't come; If I die, who will take care of my children?; I am stigma; They just come to you; Being up, feeling down, and stress-up; and Living with HIV is a challenge. We present our findings to provide evidence-based insights to better support HIV+ women living in poverty.

  2. Strategies targeted at motivating unrelated living kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2013-06-19

    This paper aimed to assess the willingness of Malaysians with post-secondary education to be living kidney donors. From the total of 1,310 living kidney donor respondents in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs, we focused on 688 respondents with post-secondary education. These 688 respondents were asked whether they were willing to become living kidney donors if the government provides a reasonable amount of financial incentive. Those who were not willing to be donors (490) were then asked the reasons for their unwillingness. Six options were given and respondents can choose more than 1 option. Malaysians with post-secondary education remain unconvinced to be living donors even when provided with monetized incentives. The main reason cited was they are not convinced that individuals can live with just 1 kidney. There is a need for the government to develop new ways to promote organ donation. These include strengthening government coordination of medical procedures and creating public awareness about the safety of living with 1 kidney. Setting up new institutions such as donor clinics, creating a living donor registry, and having independent donor advocates are also instrumental.

  3. Provider lived experience and stigma.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Irene; Leskela, Jennie; Hoffman-Konn, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite professional values about advocacy for people managing mental health challenges, research on mental health providers indicates that this group expresses as much or more stigma than laypeople. This article reports on a continuing education needs assessment of 101 mental health providers, including evaluation of (a) knowledge about recovery-oriented care, (b) work engagement, (c) provider lived experience with mental health challenges, and (d) stigma, measured as disidentification. In this group of providers, recovery knowledge, lived experience, and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward clients. Recovery knowledge and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward other providers with lived experience, but having lived experience was not associated with stigma toward other providers with lived experience. Findings suggest that the professional culture of nondisclosure may be a factor that increases provider stigma and should be a topic for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Turbulence Ahead! How Climate Change Will Affect Air Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.

    2016-12-01

    The climate is changing, not just where we live at ground level, but also where we fly at 35,000 feet. Climate change has important consequences for aviation, because the atmosphere's meteorological characteristics strongly influence flight routes, journey times, and turbulence. This presentation will review the possible impacts of climate change on aviation, which have only recently begun to emerge (as opposed to the impacts of aviation on climate change, which have long been recognised). To investigate the influence of climate change on flight routes and journey times, we feed atmospheric wind fields generated from climate model simulations into a routing algorithm of the type used operationally by flight planners. We focus on transatlantic flights between London and New York, and how they change when the atmospheric CO2 concentration is doubled. We find that a strengthening of the prevailing jet-stream winds causes eastbound flights to significantly shorten and westbound flights to significantly lengthen in all seasons. Eastbound and westbound crossings in winter become approximately twice as likely to take under 5 h 20 min and over 7 h 00 min, respectively. Even assuming no future growth in aviation, the extrapolation of our results to all transatlantic traffic suggests that aircraft will collectively be airborne for an extra 2000 h each year, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US$ 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg CO2. To investigate the influence of climate change on turbulence, we diagnose a basket of 21 clear-air turbulence measures from climate model simulations. We find that turbulence strengthens significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor under climate change. For example, in winter, most turbulence measures show a 10-40% increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40-170% increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence. For reference, commercial aircraft currently

  5. Living life on 'Mars'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2009-03-01

    It is 6 a.m. The sky is still dark outside. My doorbell rings. It is the taxi that will drive me to Santiago airport to catch the early plane to Antofagasta in northern Chile. After a flight up the spine of Chile lasting an hour and 40 minutes, the journey is not yet over. My destination is the Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert, which is still a two-hour bus ride away and literally in the middle of nowhere. The last hour of the drive crosses an endless, Mars-like landscape of brown-red hills scattered with massive rocks, detaching me from my usual world and dropping me into a somehow different dimension.

  6. Bioenergetics and Diffusion in the Crowded Milieu of Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikal, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key cofactor in energy metabolism pathways and a myriad of oxidation-reduction reactions in living cells. The crowded milieu of these cells with organelles and macromolecules influences many biological processes such as biomolecular diffusion, protein-protein and protein-substrate interactions, and protein folding. In this contribution, I will highlight our recent findings on the role of macromolecular crowding on biochemical reaction between NADH and selected dehydrogenases in both living cells and in controlled macromolecules-rich environment. In addition, multiscale diffusion (rotational and translational) of a small fluorophore will be used to understand the role of non-specific binding, heterogeneity in microenvironmental viscosity in crowded solutions. Our experimental approach is a combination of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The broader impacts of these results will be discussed within the context of energy metabolism and biophysics in the crowded milieu of living cells.

  7. The Living With a Star Geospace Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, Jim; Kintner, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Living With a Star Geospace Investigations is established to effectively address those phenomena the Geospace environment that directly affect life and society. The priority science questions focus on two broad areas: (1) ionospheric variability, especially at mid-latitudes, that affects navigation and communications and (2) the source, acceleration mechanisms, and sinks of the radiation belts that degrade satellite lifetimes, produce surface charging, and threaten manned space flight. Candidate missions to address these science foci will be presented as well as possible additional investigations and experiments that would enable an understanding of the Geospace at the system level.

  8. The Living With a Star Geospace Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, Jim; Kintner, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Living With a Star Geospace Investigations is established to effectively address those phenomena the Geospace environment that directly affect life and society. The priority science questions focus on two broad areas: (1) ionospheric variability, especially at mid-latitudes, that affects navigation and communications and (2) the source, acceleration mechanisms, and sinks of the radiation belts that degrade satellite lifetimes, produce surface charging, and threaten manned space flight. Candidate missions to address these science foci will be presented as well as possible additional investigations and experiments that would enable an understanding of the Geospace at the system level.

  9. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  10. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  11. Public health re-energised: what the new White Paper will mean.

    PubMed

    Wood, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition Government has set out its intended strategy for public health in England in the White Paper "Healthy Lives, Healthy People" (November 2010). This aims to tackle high levels of "lifestyle" health problems such as obesity, alcohol misuse and smoking, and to reduce health inequalities. Policies will be evidence-based and the emphasis will be on outcomes rather than targets. The focus will be local and will include wider dimensions of public health such as tobacco control and transport. Mental health will have greater prominence. Local government will play a major part, with Directors of Public Health and public health budgets transferring from Primary Care Trusts to Local Authorities. Public health funding will be ring-fenced. A dedicated public health service, Public Health England, will be established in the Department of Health, to provide disease control and support local innovation. There will be greater investment in the early years of life, and an increase in health visitor numbers and Family Nurse Partnerships. The public health role of school nurses is likely to increase under a forthcoming review of school nursing.

  12. The Living Expert System (LEXSYS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    LEXSYS Living ~ ARMY SENIORSy tn LEADER DECISION MAKING TOOL FOR U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 VOL. I DISTRIUIn= STATDIIII...for open publication until It has been cleared by the appropriate mUlitav service or government agency. THE LIVING EXPERT SYSTEM A GROUP STUDY PROJECT...LTC, AR R. A. Pomager, Jr., LTC, MP E. R. Ruff, LTC, EN J. D. Tolleson, LTC, QM TITLE: The Living Expert System FORMAT: Group Study DATE: 1 May 1988

  13. Optimal construction of army ant living bridges.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jason M; Kao, Albert B; Wilhelm, Dylana A; Garnier, Simon

    2017-09-20

    Integrating the costs and benefits of collective behaviors is a fundamental challenge to understanding the evolution of group living. These costs and benefits can rarely be quantified simultaneously due to the complexity of the interactions within the group, or even compared to each other because of the absence of common metrics between them. The construction of 'living bridges' by New World army ants - which they use to shorten their foraging trails - is a unique example of a collective behavior where costs and benefits have been experimentally measured and related to each other. As a result, it is possible to make quantitative predictions about when and how the behavior will be observed. In this paper, we extend a previous mathematical model of these costs and benefits to much broader domain of applicability. Specifically, we exhibit a procedure for analyzing the optimal formation, and final configuration, of army ant living bridges given a means to express the geometrical configuration of foraging path obstructions. Using this procedure, we provide experimentally testable predictions of the final bridge position, as well as the optimal formation process for certain cases, for a wide range of scenarios, which more closely resemble common terrain obstacles that ants encounter in nature. As such, our framework offers a rare benchmark for determining the evolutionary pressures governing the evolution of a naturally occurring collective animal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Creating the living brand.

    PubMed

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  15. Sex, lives and videotape.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Julie; Pringle, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Various areas of the healthcare system are under pressure to find solutions to what are seen as the 'problems' of teenage pregnancy and the behaviours displayed by young people around sexual health issues. In many cases this has seen organizations such as Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and Hospital Trusts charged with producing strategies and policies to influence the sexual behaviour of young people and to impact on the prominence of teenage pregnancy. It becomes clear, however, that any attempt to create policies or delivery systems to intervene in these areas will have a much greater chance of success if attempts are made to maximize the involvement of the young people in the process of constructing the delivery and content of health promotion approaches and service provision. This article outlines a process developed in Ashfield in Nottinghamshire whereby video interviews with community members, healthcare professionals and local young people formed the structure for focus groups. These were used to involve the community, and teenagers in particular, in the design of the service delivery. Videotaped interviews were conducted with local community members, local healthcare professionals and young people from the locality. The same interview schedule was used for each group but the responses showed marked differences of viewpoint between groups. Excerpts from the video interviews were used at externally facilitated focus groups firstly for young people, then for community members and then for healthcare professionals. A final large meeting brought the three groups together to discuss the important elements that a strategy should contain. The information gathered from the project influenced the development of the policy adopted by the PCT to engage with young people in the areas of teenage pregnancy and sexual health.

  16. 45 CFR 1184.7 - How will fees be charged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... How will fees be charged? (a) In general. IMLS will use the most efficient and least costly methods to... and non-commercial scientific institutions. IMLS will charge for duplication costs. (3) Requests by...

  17. College Costs and Student Debt: Will Families Bear the Burden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Because college costs will continue to increase dramatically, educational loan programs will become more important in the financial package. An efficient, national student loan program that will guarantee access, choice, and fairness is what is needed. (MLW)

  18. Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Allison K; Richardson, Virginia E

    2017-02-01

    Although most individuals experiencing cognitive impairment (CI) reside with a caregiver, an estimated 800,000 live alone. Such individuals may have an increased risk for injury to self or others through self-neglect as a result of the CI symptoms. While persons living alone with CI have been identified as an important area for needed research, few studies have been able to examine this population due to the challenges of identifying and recruiting study participants. By using the National Health & Aging Trends Study data set, the researchers explored the characteristics to describe this population. The results of this study indicated that the majority of persons living with CI were older, widowed females who were not diagnosed with Alzheimer's or dementia but tested positive on cognitive screening measures. Further, the majority of persons living alone with CI relied on adult children and paid professionals as the primary care providers.

  19. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  20. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...