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Sample records for lkb1 regulates pancreatic

  1. LKB1 and AMPK differentially regulate pancreatic β-cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Kone, Marina; Pullen, Timothy J.; Sun, Gao; Ibberson, Mark; Martinez-Sanchez, Aida; Sayers, Sophie; Nguyen-Tu, Marie-Sophie; Kantor, Chase; Swisa, Avital; Dor, Yuval; Gorman, Tracy; Ferrer, Jorge; Thorens, Bernard; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona; McGinty, James A.; Chen, Lingling; French, Paul M.; Birzele, Fabian; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Uphues, Ingo; Rutter, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Fully differentiated pancreatic β cells are essential for normal glucose homeostasis in mammals. Dedifferentiation of these cells has been suggested to occur in type 2 diabetes, impairing insulin production. Since chronic fuel excess (“glucotoxicity”) is implicated in this process, we sought here to identify the potential roles in β-cell identity of the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1/STK11) and the downstream fuel-sensitive kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Highly β-cell-restricted deletion of each kinase in mice, using an Ins1-controlled Cre, was therefore followed by physiological, morphometric, and massive parallel sequencing analysis. Loss of LKB1 strikingly (2.0–12-fold, E<0.01) increased the expression of subsets of hepatic (Alb, Iyd, Elovl2) and neuronal (Nptx2, Dlgap2, Cartpt, Pdyn) genes, enhancing glutamate signaling. These changes were partially recapitulated by the loss of AMPK, which also up-regulated β-cell “disallowed” genes (Slc16a1, Ldha, Mgst1, Pdgfra) 1.8- to 3.4-fold (E<0.01). Correspondingly, targeted promoters were enriched for neuronal (Zfp206; P=1.3×10−33) and hypoxia-regulated (HIF1; P=2.5×10−16) transcription factors. In summary, LKB1 and AMPK, through only partly overlapping mechanisms, maintain β-cell identity by suppressing alternate pathways leading to neuronal, hepatic, and other characteristics. Selective targeting of these enzymes may provide a new approach to maintaining β-cell function in some forms of diabetes.—Kone, M., Pullen, T. J., Sun, G., Ibberson, M., Martinez-Sanchez, A., Sayers, S., Nguyen-Tu, M.-S., Kantor, C., Swisa, A., Dor, Y., Gorman, T., Ferrer, J., Thorens, B., Reimann, F., Gribble, F., McGinty, J. A., Chen, L., French, P. M., Birzele, F., Hildebrandt, T., Uphues, I., Rutter, G. A. LKB1 and AMPK differentially regulate pancreatic β-cell identity. PMID:25070369

  2. LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jordy, Andreas B; Fritzen, Andreas M; Pehmøller, Christian; Sylow, Lykke; Serup, Annette Karen; Jessen, Niels; Thorsen, Kasper; Prats, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus; Dyck, Jason R B; Hunter, Roger W; Sakamoto, Kei; Thomson, David M; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2013-05-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmill exercise. LKB1 MKO mice also show decreased muscle SIK3 activity, increased histone deacetylase 4 expression, decreased NAD⁺ concentration and SIRT1 activity, and decreased expression of genes involved in FA oxidation. In AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 KO mice, substrate use was similar to that in WT mice, which excluded that decreased FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO mice was due to decreased AMPKα2 activity. Additionally, LKB1 MKO muscle demonstrated decreased FA oxidation in vitro. A markedly decreased phosphorylation of TBC1D1, a proposed regulator of FA transport, and a low CoA content could contribute to the low FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO. LKB1 deficiency did not reduce muscle glucose uptake or oxidation during exercise in vivo, excluding a general impairment of substrate use during exercise in LKB1 MKO mice. Our findings demonstrate that LKB1 is a novel molecular regulator of major importance for FA oxidation but not glucose uptake in muscle during exercise.

  3. LKB1 Regulates Lipid Oxidation During Exercise Independently of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Maarbjerg, Stine J.; Jordy, Andreas B.; Fritzen, Andreas M.; Pehmøller, Christian; Sylow, Lykke; Serup, Annette Karen; Jessen, Niels; Thorsen, Kasper; Prats, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Hunter, Roger W.; Sakamoto, Kei; Thomson, David M.; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F.P.; Richter, Erik A.; Kiens, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmill exercise. LKB1 MKO mice also show decreased muscle SIK3 activity, increased histone deacetylase 4 expression, decreased NAD+ concentration and SIRT1 activity, and decreased expression of genes involved in FA oxidation. In AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 KO mice, substrate use was similar to that in WT mice, which excluded that decreased FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO mice was due to decreased AMPKα2 activity. Additionally, LKB1 MKO muscle demonstrated decreased FA oxidation in vitro. A markedly decreased phosphorylation of TBC1D1, a proposed regulator of FA transport, and a low CoA content could contribute to the low FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO. LKB1 deficiency did not reduce muscle glucose uptake or oxidation during exercise in vivo, excluding a general impairment of substrate use during exercise in LKB1 MKO mice. Our findings demonstrate that LKB1 is a novel molecular regulator of major importance for FA oxidation but not glucose uptake in muscle during exercise. PMID:23349504

  4. LKB1 and AMPK regulate synaptic remodeling in old age

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Melanie A; Voinescu, P Emanuela; Lilley, Brendan N; de Cabo, Rafa; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Pawlyk, Basil; Sandberg, Michael A; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Sanes, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Age-related decreases in neural function result in part from alterations in synapses. To identify molecular defects that lead to such changes, we focused on the outer retina, in which synapses are markedly altered in old rodents and humans. We found that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 and one of its substrates, AMPK, regulate this process. In old mice, synaptic remodeling was accompanied by specific decreases in the levels of total LKB1 and active (phosphorylated) AMPK. In the absence of either kinase, young adult mice developed retinal defects similar to those that occurred in old wild-type animals. LKB1 and AMPK function in rod photoreceptors where their loss leads to aberrant axonal retraction, the extension of postsynaptic dendrites and the formation of ectopic synapses. Conversely, increasing AMPK activity genetically or pharmacologically attenuates and may reverse age-related synaptic alterations. Together, these results identify molecular determinants of age-related synaptic remodeling and suggest strategies for attenuating these changes. PMID:25086610

  5. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  6. Lkb1 regulation of skeletal muscle development, metabolism and muscle progenitor cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Liu, Jiaqi; Wu, Weiche; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-10-01

    Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1), also named as Serine/Threonine protein kinase 11 (STK11), is a serine/threonine kinase that plays crucial roles in various cellular processes including cell survival, cell division, cellular polarity, cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell metabolism. In metabolic tissues, Lkb1 regulates glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism through phosphorylating and activating the AMPK subfamily proteins. In skeletal muscle, Lkb1 affects muscle development and postnatal growth, lipid and fatty acid oxidation, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Recently, the regulatory roles of Lkb1 in regulating division, self-renew, proliferation, and differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells have been reported. In this review, we discuss the roles of Lkb1 in regulating skeletal muscle progenitor cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle development and metabolism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. LKB1 Regulates Cerebellar Development by Controlling Sonic Hedgehog-mediated Granule Cell Precursor Proliferation and Granule Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Men, Yuqin; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Haixiang; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) gene plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and the establishment of cell polarity. We created LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1Atoh1 CKO) to investigate the function of LKB1 in cerebellar development. The LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice displayed motor dysfunction. In the LKB1Atoh1 CKO cerebellum, the overall structure had a larger volume and morelobules. LKB1 inactivationled to an increased proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs), aberrant granule cell migration and overproduction of unipolar brush cells. To investigate the mechanism underlying the abnormal foliation, we examined sonic hedgehog signalling (Shh) by testing its transcriptional mediators, the Gli proteins, which regulate the GCPs proliferation and cerebellar foliation during cerebellar development. The expression levels of Gli genes were significantly increased in the mutant cerebellum. In vitro assays showed that the proliferation of cultured GCPs from mutant cerebellum significantly increased, whereas the proliferation of mutant GCPs significantly decreased in the presence of a Shh inhibitor GDC-0049. Thus, LKB1 deficiency in the LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice enhanced Shh signalling, leading to the excessive GCP proliferation and the formation of extra lobules. We proposed that LKB1 regulates cerebellar development by controlling GCPs proliferation through Shh signalling during cerebellar development. PMID:26549569

  8. Metabolic regulator LKB1 plays a crucial role in Schwann cell-mediated axon maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Beirowski, Bogdan; Babetto, Elisabetta; Golden, Judith P.; Chen, Ying-Jr; Yang, Kui; Gross, Richard W.; Patti, Gary J; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Summary Schwann cells (SCs) promote axonal integrity independently of myelination by poorly understood mechanisms. Current models suggest that SC metabolism is critical for this support function and that SC metabolic deficits may lead to axonal demise. The LKB1-AMPK kinase pathway targets multiple downstream effectors including mTOR and is a key metabolic regulator implicated in metabolic diseases. We show through integrative molecular, structural, and behavioral characterization of SC-specific mutant mice that LKB1 activity is central to axon stability, whereas AMPK and mTOR in SCs are largely dispensable. The degeneration of axons in LKB1-mutants is most dramatic in unmyelinated small sensory fibers, whereas motor axons are relatively spared. LKB1 deletion in SCs leads to abnormalities in nerve energy and lipid homeostasis, and increased lactate release. The latter acts in a compensatory manner to support distressed axons. LKB1 signaling is essential for SC-mediated axon support, a function that may be dysregulated in diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25195104

  9. STRADalpha regulates LKB1 localization by blocking access to importin-alpha, and by association with Crm1 and exportin-7.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Julia; Macara, Ian G

    2008-04-01

    LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase, regulates cell polarity, metabolism, and cell growth. The activity and cellular distribution of LKB1 are determined by cofactors, STRADalpha and MO25. STRADalpha induces relocalization of LKB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and stimulates its catalytic activity. MO25 stabilizes the STRADalpha/LKB1 interaction. We investigated the mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic transport of LKB1 in response to its cofactors. Although LKB1 is imported into the nucleus by importin-alpha/beta, STRADalpha and MO25 passively diffuse between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. STRADalpha induces nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of LKB1. STRADalpha facilitates nuclear export of LKB1 by serving as an adaptor between LKB1 and exportins CRM1 and exportin7. STRADalpha inhibits import of LKB1 by competing with importin-alpha for binding to LKB1. MO25 stabilizes the LKB1-STRADalpha complex but it does not facilitate its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Strikingly, the STRADbeta, isoform which differs from STRADalpha in the N- and C-terminal domains that are responsible for interaction with export receptors, does not efficiently relocalize LKB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. These results identify a multifactored mechanism to control LKB1 localization, and they suggest that the STRADbeta-LKB1 complex might possess unique functions in the nucleus.

  10. cAMP/CREB-regulated LINC00473 marks LKB1-inactivated lung cancer and mediates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zirong; Lin, Shuibin; Cao, Chunxia; Gimbrone, Nicholas T.; Yang, Rongqiang; Fu, Dongtao A.; Carper, Miranda B.; Haura, Eric B.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Kaye, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The LKB1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated and inactivated in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of LKB1 promotes cancer progression and influences therapeutic responses in preclinical studies; however, specific targeted therapies for lung cancer with LKB1 inactivation are currently unavailable. Here, we have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signature that is associated with the loss of LKB1 function. We discovered that LINC00473 is consistently the most highly induced gene in LKB1-inactivated human primary NSCLC samples and derived cell lines. Elevated LINC00473 expression correlated with poor prognosis, and sustained LINC00473 expression was required for the growth and survival of LKB1-inactivated NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, LINC00473 was induced by LKB1 inactivation and subsequent cyclic AMP–responsive element–binding protein (CREB)/CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) activation. We determined that LINC00473 is a nuclear lncRNA and interacts with NONO, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, thereby facilitating CRTC/CREB-mediated transcription. Collectively, our study demonstrates that LINC00473 expression potentially serves as a robust biomarker for tumor LKB1 functional status that can be integrated into clinical trials for patient selection and treatment evaluation, and implicates LINC00473 as a therapeutic target for LKB1-inactivated NSCLC. PMID:27140397

  11. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-05-01

    LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila.

  12. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-01-01

    LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:25996931

  13. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

  14. LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases negatively regulate human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Treatment options are limited and prophylactic agents are not available. We have previously demonstrated an essential role for CREB-regulating transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) in HTLV-1 transcription. Results In this study we report on the negative regulatory role of LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) in the activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) by the oncoprotein Tax. Activation of LKB1 and SIKs effectively blunted Tax activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas compromising these kinases, but not AMP-dependent protein kinases, augmented Tax function. Activated LKB1 and SIKs associated with Tax and suppressed Tax-induced LTR activation by counteracting CRTCs and CREB. Enforced expression of LKB1 or SIK1 in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clone pX1MT repressed proviral transcription. On the contrary, depletion of LKB1 in pX1MT-transfected cells and in HTLV-1-transformed T cells boosted the expression of Tax. Treatment of HTLV-1 transformed cells with metformin led to LKB1/SIK1 activation, reduction in Tax expression, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings revealed a new function of LKB1 and SIKs as negative regulators of HTLV-1 transcription. Pharmaceutical activation of LKB1 and SIKs might be considered as a new strategy in anti-HTLV-1 and anti-ATL therapy. PMID:23577667

  15. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C.; García-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M.; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L.

    2015-01-01

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25650664

  16. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Gutiérrez-de Juan, Virginia; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L

    2015-02-10

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. LKB1 is a central regulator of tumor initiation and pro-growth metabolism in ErbB2-mediated breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germline and somatic mutations in STK11, the gene encoding the serine/threonine kinase LKB1, are strongly associated with tumorigenesis. While loss of LKB1 expression has been linked to breast cancer, the mechanistic role of LKB1 in regulating breast cancer development, metastasis, and tumor metabolism has remained unclear. Methods We have generated and analyzed transgenic mice expressing ErbB2 in the mammary epithelium of LKB1 wild-type or LKB1-deficient mice. We have also utilized ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells in which LKB1 levels have been reduced using shRNA approaches. These transgenic and xenograft models were characterized for the effects of LKB1 loss on tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and tumor cell metabolism. Results We demonstrate that loss of LKB1 promotes tumor initiation and induces a characteristic shift to aerobic glycolysis (‘Warburg effect’) in a model of ErbB2-mediated breast cancer. LKB1-deficient breast cancer cells display enhanced early tumor growth coupled with increased cell migratory and invasive properties in vitro. We show that ErbB2-positive tumors deficient for LKB1 display a pro-growth molecular and phenotypic signature characterized by elevated Akt/mTOR signaling, increased glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased bioenergetic markers both in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that mTOR contributes to the metabolic reprogramming of LKB1-deficient breast cancer, and is required to drive glycolytic metabolism in these tumors; however, LKB1-deficient breast cancer cells display reduced metabolic flexibility and increased apoptosis in response to metabolic perturbations. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that LKB1 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Loss of LKB1 collaborates with activated ErbB2 signaling to drive breast tumorigenesis and pro-growth metabolism in the resulting tumors. PMID:24280377

  18. LKB1 deletion with the RIP2.Cre transgene modifies pancreatic β-cell morphology and enhances insulin secretion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Gao; Tarasov, Andrei I.; McGinty, James A.; French, Paul M.; McDonald, Angela; Leclerc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also called STK11, is a protein kinase mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. LKB1 phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and several related protein kinases. Whereas deletion of both catalytic isoforms of AMPK from the pancreatic β-cell and hypothalamic neurons using the rat insulin promoter (RIP2).Cre transgene (βAMPKdKO) diminishes insulin secretion in vivo, deletion of LKB1 in the β-cell with an inducible Pdx-1.CreER transgene enhances insulin secretion in mice. To determine whether the differences between these models reflect genuinely distinct roles for the two kinases in the β-cell or simply differences in the timing and site(s) of deletion, we have therefore created mice deleted for LKB1 with the RIP2.Cre transgene. In marked contrast to βAMPKdKO mice, βLKB1KO mice showed diminished food intake and weight gain, enhanced insulin secretion, unchanged insulin sensitivity, and improved glucose tolerance. In line with the phenotype of Pdx1-CreER mice, total β-cell mass and the size of individual islets and β-cells were increased and islet architecture was markedly altered in βLKB1KO islets. Signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to eIF4-binding protein-1 and ribosomal S6 kinase was also enhanced. In contrast to Pdx1-CreER-mediated deletion, the expression of Glut2, glucose-induced changes in membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ were sharply reduced in βLKB1KO mouse islets and the stimulation of insulin secretion was modestly inhibited. We conclude that LKB1 and AMPK play distinct roles in the control of insulin secretion and that the timing of LKB1 deletion, and/or its loss from extrapancreatic sites, influences the final impact on β-cell function. PMID:20354156

  19. LKB1 is a DNA damage response protein that regulates cellular sensitivity to PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huibo; Wang, Shuai; Hang, Wei; Zeng, Qinghua; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Shen, Xiang-Feng; Jian, Yong-Ping; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) functions as a tumor suppressor encoded by STK11, a gene that mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in sporadic cancers. Previous studies showed that LKB1 participates in IR- and ROS-induced DNA damage response (DDR). However, the impact of LKB1 mutations on targeted cancer therapy remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that LKB1 formed DNA damage-induced nuclear foci and co-localized with ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), γ-H2AX, and breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1). ATM mediated LKB1 phosphorylation at Thr 363 following the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR). LKB1 interacted with BRCA1, a downstream effector in DDR that is recruited to sites of DNA damage and functions directly in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. LKB1 deficient cells exhibited delayed DNA repair due to insufficient HR. Notably, LKB1 deficiency sensitized cells to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Thus, we have demonstrated a novel function of LKB1 in DNA damage response. Cancer cells lacking LKB1 are more susceptible to DNA damage-based therapy and, in particular, to drugs that further impair DNA repair, such as PARP inhibitors. PMID:27705915

  20. Coordinated cell motility is regulated by a combination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S.; Hou, Y.; Zoine, J. T.; Saltz, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, Z.; Cooper, L. A. D.; Marcus, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity. We propose that LKB1 kinase activity controls membrane dynamics through FAK since loss of LKB1 kinase activity results in morphologically defective nascent adhesion sites. In contrast, defective farnesylation mislocalizes nascent adhesion sites, suggesting that LKB1 farnesylation serves as a targeting mechanism for properly localizing adhesion sites during cell motility. Together, we propose a model where coordination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity serve as a multi-step mechanism to coordinate cell motility during migration. PMID:28102310

  1. Dynamic Lkb1-TORC1 signaling as a possible mechanism for regulating the endoderm-intestine transition

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kathryn E.; Tomasini, Amber J.; Makky, Khadijah; Kumar, Suresh; Mayer, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intestinal epithelium arises from undifferentiated endoderm via a developmental program known as the endoderm-intestine transition (EIT). Previously we found that the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) regulates intestinal growth and differentiation during the EIT in zebrafish. Here we address a possible role for the tumor suppressor kinase Lkb1 in regulating TORC1 in this context. We find that TORC1 activity is transiently upregulated during the EIT in both zebrafish and mouse. Concomitantly, Lkb1 becomes transiently localized to the nucleus, suggesting that these two phenomena may be linked. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of lkb1 stimulated intestinal growth via upregulation of TORC1, and also induced precocious intestine-specific gene expression in the zebrafish gut epithelium. Knockdown of tsc2, which acts downstream of lkb1, likewise induced early expression of intestine-specific genes. These data suggest that programmed localization of Lkb1 could represent a novel mechanism for regulating the EIT during intestinal development in vertebrates. PMID:20925120

  2. Lovastatin Induces Multiple Stress Pathways Including LKB1/AMPK Activation That Regulate Its Cytotoxic Effects in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Laurie; Niknejad, Nima; Gorn-Hondermann, Ivan; Dayekh, Khalil; Dimitroulakos, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Cellular stress responses trigger signaling cascades that inhibit proliferation and protein translation to help alleviate the stress or if the stress cannot be overcome induce apoptosis. In recent studies, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, an inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to induce the Integrated Stress Response as well as inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we evaluated the effects of lovastatin on the activity of the LKB1/AMPK pathway that is activated upon cellular energy shortage and can interact with the above pathways. In the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, lovastatin treatment (1–25 µM, 24 hrs) induced LKB1 and AMPK activation similar to metformin (1–10 mM, 24 hrs), a known inducer of this pathway. Lovastatin treatment impaired mitochondrial function and also decreased cellular ADP/ATP ratios, common triggers of LKB1/AMPK activation. The cytotoxic effects of lovastatin were attenuated in LKB1 null MEFs indicating a role for this pathway in regulating lovastatin-induced cytotoxicity. Of clinical relevance, lovastatin induces synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. In LKB1 deficient (A549, HeLa) and expressing (SCC9, SCC25) cell lines, metformin enhanced gefitinib cytotoxicity only in LKB1 expressing cell lines while both groups showed synergistic cytotoxic effects with lovastatin treatments. Furthermore, the combination of lovastatin with gefitinib induced a potent apoptotic response without significant induction of autophagy that is often induced during metabolic stress inhibiting cell death. Conclusion/Significance Thus, targeting multiple metabolic stress pathways including the LKB1/AMPK pathway enhances lovastatin’s ability to synergize with gefitinib in SCC cells. PMID:23029387

  3. Improved Myocardial Perfusion in Chronic Diabetic Mice by the Up-Regulation of pLKB1 and AMPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kusmic, Claudia; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Drummond, George; Barsanti, Cristina; Matteucci, Marco; Cao, Jian; Piccolomini, Francesco; Cheng, Jennifer; Abraham, Nader G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies related impaired myocardial microcirculation in diabetes to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the effect of up-regulating pAMPK-pAKT signaling on coronary microvascular reactivity in the isolated heart of diabetic mice. We measured coronary resistance in wild-type and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice, during perfusion pressure changes. Glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels in plasma and superoxide formation, NOx levels and heme oxygenase (HO) activity in myocardial tissue were determined. In addition, the expression of HO-1, 3-nitrotyrosine, pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and peNOS proteins in control and diabetic hearts were measured. Coronary response to changes in perfusion pressure diverged from control in a time-dependent manner following STZ administration. The responses observed at 28 weeks of diabetes (the maximum time examined) were mimicked by L-NAME administration to control animals and were associated with a decrease in serum adiponectin and myocardial pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and pGSK-3 expression. Cobalt protoporphyrin treatment to induce HO-1 expression reversed the microvascular reactivity seen in diabetes towards that of controls. Up-regulation of HO-1 was associated with an increase in adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, pAMPK, pGSK-3, and peNOS levels and a decrease in myocardial superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. In the present study we describe the time course of microvascular functional changes during the development of diabetes and the existence of a unique relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, and pAMPK activation in diabetic hearts. The restoration of microvascular function suggests a new therapeutic approach to even advanced cardiac microvascular derangement in diabetes. PMID:20108250

  4. Lkb1/Stk11 regulation of mTOR signaling controls the transition of chondrocyte fates and suppresses skeletal tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lick Pui; Lilley, Brendan N; Sanes, Joshua R; McMahon, Andrew P

    2013-11-26

    Liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) protein kinase activity regulates cell growth and cell polarity. Here, we show Lkb1 is essential for maintaining a balance between mitotic and postmitotic cell fates in development of the mammalian skeleton. In this process, Lkb1 activity controls the progression of mitotic chondrocytes to a mature, postmitotic hypertrophic fate. Loss of this Lkb1-dependent switch leads to a dramatic expansion of immature chondrocytes and formation of enchondroma-like tumors. Pathway analysis points to a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent mechanism that can be partially suppressed by rapamycin treatment. These findings highlight a critical requirement for integration of mammalian target of rapamycin activity into developmental decision-making during mammalian skeletogenesis.

  5. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance. PMID:27429220

  6. Targeting the LKB1 Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui-Xun; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    LKB1 (also known as serine-threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor, which is mutated or deleted in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and in a variety of cancers. Physiologically, LKB1 possesses multiple cellular functions in the regulation of cell bioenergetics metabolism, cell cycle arrest, embryo development, cell polarity, and apoptosis. New studies demonstrated that LKB1 may also play a role in the maintenance of function and dynamics of hematopoietic stem cells. Over the past years, personalized therapy targeting specific genetic aberrations has attracted intense interests. Within this review, several agents with potential activity against aberrant LKB1 signaling have been discussed. Potential strategies and challenges in targeting LKB1 inactivation are also considered. PMID:24387336

  7. Evidence for an LKB1/AMPK/eNOS Cascade Regulated by HGF, S-Adenosylmethionine and NO in Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Mercedes; Ariz, Usue; Varela-Rey, Marta; Embade, Nieves; Martínez, Nuria; Fernández, David; Gómez, Laura; Lamas, Santiago; Lu, Shelly C; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Mato, José M

    2008-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is involved in numerous complex hepatic processes such as hepatocyte proliferation, death, inflammatory responses, and anti-oxidant defense. One of the most relevant actions of SAMe is the inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In hepatocytes, SAMe regulates the levels of cytoplasmic HuR, an RNA-binding protein that increases the half-life of target mRNA such as cyclin D1 and A2, via inhibition of HGF-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Because AMPK is activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1, and AMPK activates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), and NO synthesis is of great importance for hepatocyte proliferation, we hypothesized that in hepatocytes HGF may induce the phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK and eNOS through a process regulated by SAMe, and that this cascade might be crucial for hepatocyte growth. Here we demonstrate that the proliferative response of hepatocytes involves eNOS phosphorylation via HGF-mediated LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation, and that this process is regulated by SAMe and NO. We also show that knockdown of LKB1, AMPK, or eNOS with specific iRNA inhibits HGF-mediated hepatocyte proliferation. Finally, we found that the LKB1/AMPK/eNOS cascade is activated during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and that this process is impaired in mice treated with SAMe before hepatectomy, in knockout mice deficient in hepatic SAMe, and in eNOS knockout mice. Conclusion We have identified an LKB1/AMPK/eNOS cascade regulated by HGF, SAMe and NO that functions as a critical determinant of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. PMID:19177591

  8. ATP and MO25α Regulate the Conformational State of the STRADα Pseudokinase and Activation of the LKB1 Tumour Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Zeqiraj, Elton; Filippi, Beatrice Maria; Goldie, Simon; Navratilova, Iva; Boudeau, Jérôme; Deak, Maria; Alessi, Dario R.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADα in complex with MO25α. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADα and MO25α involving the αC-helix of STRADα, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADα binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADα for MO25α, and conversely, binding of MO25α promotes interaction of STRADα with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADα with either ATP or MO25α is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25α cooperate to maintain STRADα in an “active” closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADα that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE) syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADα and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADα to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed “active” conformation, aided by ATP and MO25α binding. Thus, the function of STRADα is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations. PMID:19513107

  9. ATP and MO25alpha regulate the conformational state of the STRADalpha pseudokinase and activation of the LKB1 tumour suppressor.

    PubMed

    Zeqiraj, Elton; Filippi, Beatrice Maria; Goldie, Simon; Navratilova, Iva; Boudeau, Jérôme; Deak, Maria; Alessi, Dario R; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2009-06-09

    Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADalpha in complex with MO25alpha. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADalpha and MO25alpha involving the alphaC-helix of STRADalpha, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADalpha binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADalpha for MO25alpha, and conversely, binding of MO25alpha promotes interaction of STRADalpha with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADalpha with either ATP or MO25alpha is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25alpha cooperate to maintain STRADalpha in an "active" closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADalpha that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE) syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADalpha and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADalpha to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed "active" conformation, aided by ATP and MO25alpha binding. Thus, the function of STRADalpha is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations.

  10. LKB1 Tumor Suppressor: Therapeutic Opportunities Knock when LKB1 Is Inactivated

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Marcus, Adam I.

    2014-01-01

    LKB1 is commonly thought of as a tumor suppressor gene because its hereditary mutation is responsible for a cancer syndrome, and somatic inactivation of LKB1 is found in non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and cervical cancers. However, unlike other tumor suppressors whose main function is to either suppress cell proliferation or promote cell death, one of the functions of LKB1-regulated AMPK signaling is to suppress cell proliferation in order to promote cell survival under energetic stress conditions. This unique, pro-survival function of LKB1 has led to the discovery of reagents, such as phenformin, that specifically exploit the vulnerability of LKB1-null cells in their defect in sensing energetic stress. Such targeted agents represent a novel treatment strategy because they induce cell killing when LKB1 is absent. This review article summarizes various vulnerabilities of LKB1-mutant cells that have been reported in the literature and discusses the potential of using existing or developing novel reagents to target cancer cells with defective LKB1. PMID:25679014

  11. Lkb1 controls brown adipose tissue growth and thermogenesis by regulating the intracellular localization of CRTC3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tizhong; Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Pengpeng; Li, Zhiguo; Jiang, Qingyang; Bi, Pengpeng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Gongshe; Wang, Yizhen; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy through Ucp1-mediated uncoupled respiration and its activation may represent a therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here we show that Lkb1 controls BAT expansion and UCP1 expression in mice. We generate adipocyte-specific Lkb1 knockout mice and show that, compared with wild-type littermates, these mice exhibit elevated UCP1 expression in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, have increased BAT mass and higher energy expenditure. Consequently, KO mice have improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Deletion of Lkb1 results in a cytoplasm to nuclear translocation of CRTC3 in brown adipocytes, where it recruits C/EBPβ to enhance Ucp1 transcription. In parallel, the absence of Lkb1 also suppresses AMPK activity, leading to activation of the mTOR signalling pathway and subsequent BAT expansion. These data suggest that inhibition of Lkb1 or its downstream signalling in adipocytes could be a novel strategy to increase energy expenditure in the context of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. PMID:27461402

  12. LKB1 promotes metabolic flexibility in response to energy stress.

    PubMed

    Parker, Seth J; Svensson, Robert U; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Lefebvre, Austin E; Murphy, Anne N; Shaw, Reuben J; Metallo, Christian M

    2017-09-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor acts as a metabolic energy sensor to regulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and is commonly mutated in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor cells deficient in LKB1 may be uniquely sensitized to metabolic stresses, which may offer a therapeutic window in oncology. To address this question we have explored how functional LKB1 impacts the metabolism of NSCLC cells using (13)C metabolic flux analysis. Isogenic NSCLC cells expressing functional LKB1 exhibited higher flux through oxidative mitochondrial pathways compared to those deficient in LKB1. Re-expression of LKB1 also increased the capacity of cells to oxidize major mitochondrial substrates, including pyruvate, fatty acids, and glutamine. Furthermore, LKB1 expression promoted an adaptive response to energy stress induced by anchorage-independent growth. Finally, this diminished adaptability sensitized LKB1-deficient cells to combinatorial inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and glutaminase. Together, our data implicate LKB1 as a major regulator of adaptive metabolic reprogramming and suggest synergistic pharmacological strategies for mitigating LKB1-deficient NSCLC tumor growth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling & its regulator tumour suppressor genes PTEN & LKB1 in human uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bhatia, Vikram; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite their high occurrence and associated significant level of morbidity manifesting as spectrum of clinical symptoms, the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) remains unclear. We investigated expression profile of tumour suppressor genes PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) and LKB1 (liver kinase B1), and key signaling components of P13K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in leiomyomas and adjacent normal myometrium in women of reproductive age, to explore the possibility of targeting this pathway for future therapeutic implications. Methods: Real time PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify relative gene expression levels of PTEN, Akt1, Akt2, mTOR, LKB1 and VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) in leiomyoma as compared to adjacent normal myometrium. Immunohistochemistry was subsequently performed to analyze expression of PTEN, phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, phospho-S6, LKB1 and VEGFA in leiomyoma and adjacent normal myometrium. Results: Significant upregulation of PTEN (2.52 fold; P=0.03) and LKB1 (3.93 fold; P=0.01), and downregulation of VEGFA (2.95 fold; P=0.01) genes were observed in leiomyoma as compared to normal myometrium. Transcript levels of Akt1, Akt2 and mTOR did not vary significantly between leiomyoma and myometrium. An increased immunoexpression of PTEN (P=0.015) and LKB1 (P<0.001) and decreased expression of VEGFA (P=0.01) was observed in leiomyoma as compared to myometrium. Immunostaining for activated (phosphorylated) Akt, mTOR and S6 was absent or low in majority of leiomyoma and myometrium. Interpretation & conclusions: Upregulation of PTEN and LKB1 in concert with negative or low levels of activated Akt, mTOR and S6 indicates that PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway may not play a significant role in pathogenesis of leiomyoma. PMID:27748285

  14. Targeting Redox Homeostasis in LKB1-deficient NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0383 TITLE: Targeting Redox Homeostasis in LKB1-deficient NSCLC...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Redox Homeostasis in LKB1-deficient NSCLC 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...in regulating redox homeostasis of LKB1- deficient NSCLC cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production correlates with Nrf2-associated gene

  15. PAR-4/LKB1 regulates DNA replication during asynchronous division of the early C. elegans embryo

    PubMed Central

    Descoteaux, Catherine; Chartier, Nicolas T.; Pintard, Lionel; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle duration is critical during development, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The two-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo divides asynchronously and thus provides a powerful context in which to study regulation of cell cycle timing during development. Using genetic analysis and high-resolution imaging, we found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication is asymmetrically regulated in the two-cell stage embryo and that the PAR-4 and PAR-1 polarity proteins dampen DNA replication dynamics specifically in the posterior blastomere, independently of regulators previously implicated in the control of cell cycle timing. Our results demonstrate that accurate control of DNA replication is crucial during C. elegans early embryonic development and further provide a novel mechanism by which PAR proteins control cell cycle progression during asynchronous cell division. PMID:24841566

  16. The energy sensing LKB1-AMPKα1 pathway regulates IGF1 secretion and consequent activation of the IGF1R-PKB pathway in primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Qiaoli; Rong, Ping; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2017-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway has been linked with various diseases including diabetes, cancer and aging. In contrast to the well-established regulatory mechanisms controlling IGF1 expression, molecular mechanisms regulating its secretion are not fully understood. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor, and cumulative evidence shows that it is an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of diabetes, cancer and aging. Here we found that deficiency of AMPK promoted IGF1 secretion in mouse primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, we found that AMPKα1 but not AMPKα2 was involved in regulation of IGF1 secretion in mouse primary hepatocytes. Knockout of AMPK caused activation of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R)-protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) pathway in hepatocytes, which was mediated by hypersecretion of IGF1. Upstream of AMPK, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) was responsible for AMPK-dependent suppression of IGF1 secretion in hepatocytes. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the energy-sensing LKB1-AMPK pathway regulates IGF1 secretion in mouse primary hepatocytes, which in turn regulates activation of the IGF1R-PKB pathway. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Loss of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in Beta Cells Enhances Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion Despite Profound Mitochondrial Defects.

    PubMed

    Swisa, Avital; Granot, Zvi; Tamarina, Natalia; Sayers, Sophie; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Philipson, Louis; Hodson, David J; Wikstrom, Jakob D; Rutter, Guy A; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2015-08-21

    The tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an important regulator of pancreatic β cell biology. LKB1-dependent phosphorylation of distinct AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) family members determines proper β cell polarity and restricts β cell size, total β cell mass, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the full spectrum of LKB1 effects and the mechanisms involved in the secretory phenotype remain incompletely understood. We report here that in the absence of LKB1 in β cells, GSIS is dramatically and persistently improved. The enhancement is seen both in vivo and in vitro and cannot be explained by altered cell polarity, increased β cell number, or increased insulin content. Increased secretion does require membrane depolarization and calcium influx but appears to rely mostly on a distal step in the secretion pathway. Surprisingly, enhanced GSIS is seen despite profound defects in mitochondrial structure and function in LKB1-deficient β cells, expected to greatly diminish insulin secretion via the classic triggering pathway. Thus LKB1 is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis in β cells and in parallel is a powerful negative regulator of insulin secretion. This study shows that β cells can be manipulated to enhance GSIS to supra-normal levels even in the face of defective mitochondria and without deterioration over months.

  18. Targeting adhesion signaling in KRAS, LKB1 mutant lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Jessica; Koo, Junghui; Robinson, Brian S.; Wiles, Walter Guy; Huang, Chunzi; Martin, W. David; Behera, Madhusmita; Smith, Geoffrey H.; Hill, Charles E.; Rossi, Michael R.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Rupji, Manali; Chen, Zhengjia; Kowalski, Jeanne; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Marcus, Adam I.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of LKB1 activity is prevalent in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma and promotes aggressive and treatment-resistant tumors. Previous studies have shown that LKB1 is a negative regulator of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but in vivo studies testing the efficacy of FAK inhibition in LKB1 mutant cancers are lacking. Here, we took a pharmacologic approach to show that FAK inhibition is an effective early-treatment strategy for this high-risk molecular subtype. We established a lenti-Cre–induced Kras and Lkb1 mutant genetically engineered mouse model (KLLenti) that develops 100% lung adenocarcinoma and showed that high spatiotemporal FAK activation occurs in collective invasive cells that are surrounded by high levels of collagen. Modeling invasion in 3D, loss of Lkb1, but not p53, was sufficient to drive collective invasion and collagen alignment that was highly sensitive to FAK inhibition. Treatment of early, stage-matched KLLenti tumors with FAK inhibitor monotherapy resulted in a striking effect on tumor progression, invasion, and tumor-associated collagen. Chronic treatment extended survival and impeded local lymph node spread. Lastly, we identified focally upregulated FAK and collagen-associated collective invasion in KRAS and LKB1 comutated human lung adenocarcinoma patients. Our results suggest that patients with LKB1 mutant tumors should be stratified for early treatment with FAK inhibitors. PMID:28289710

  19. Targeting adhesion signaling in KRAS, LKB1 mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Ross, Melissa; Konen, Jessica; Koo, Junghui; Shupe, John; Robinson, Brian S; Wiles, Walter Guy; Huang, Chunzi; Martin, W David; Behera, Madhusmita; Smith, Geoffrey H; Hill, Charles E; Rossi, Michael R; Sica, Gabriel L; Rupji, Manali; Chen, Zhengjia; Kowalski, Jeanne; Kasinski, Andrea L; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Fu, Haian; Khuri, Fadlo R; Zhou, Wei; Marcus, Adam I

    2017-03-09

    Loss of LKB1 activity is prevalent in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma and promotes aggressive and treatment-resistant tumors. Previous studies have shown that LKB1 is a negative regulator of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but in vivo studies testing the efficacy of FAK inhibition in LKB1 mutant cancers are lacking. Here, we took a pharmacologic approach to show that FAK inhibition is an effective early-treatment strategy for this high-risk molecular subtype. We established a lenti-Cre-induced Kras and Lkb1 mutant genetically engineered mouse model (KLLenti) that develops 100% lung adenocarcinoma and showed that high spatiotemporal FAK activation occurs in collective invasive cells that are surrounded by high levels of collagen. Modeling invasion in 3D, loss of Lkb1, but not p53, was sufficient to drive collective invasion and collagen alignment that was highly sensitive to FAK inhibition. Treatment of early, stage-matched KLLenti tumors with FAK inhibitor monotherapy resulted in a striking effect on tumor progression, invasion, and tumor-associated collagen. Chronic treatment extended survival and impeded local lymph node spread. Lastly, we identified focally upregulated FAK and collagen-associated collective invasion in KRAS and LKB1 comutated human lung adenocarcinoma patients. Our results suggest that patients with LKB1 mutant tumors should be stratified for early treatment with FAK inhibitors.

  20. The serine-threonine kinase LKB1 is essential for survival under energetic stress in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, Yme U.; Wang, Liqin; Zevenhoven, John; van Rooijen, Ellen; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Giles, Rachel H.; Clevers, Hans; Haramis, Anna-Pavlina G.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase (LKB1) lead to a gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis disorder with increased predisposition to cancer (Peutz–Jeghers syndrome). LKB1 has many targets, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is phosphorylated under low-energy conditions. AMPK phosphorylation in turn, affects several processes, including inhibition of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, and leads to proliferation inhibition. To gain insight into how LKB1 mediates its effects during development, we generated zebrafish mutants in the single LKB1 ortholog. We show that in zebrafish lkb1 is dispensable for embryonic survival but becomes essential under conditions of energetic stress. After yolk absorption, lkb1 mutants rapidly exhaust their energy resources and die prematurely from starvation. Notably, intestinal epithelial cells were polarized properly in the lkb1 mutants. We show that attenuation of metabolic rate in lkb1 mutants, either by application of the TOR inhibitor rapamycin or by crossing with von Hippel–Lindau (vhl) mutant fish (in which constitutive hypoxia signaling results in reduced metabolic rate), suppresses key aspects of the lkb1 phenotype. Thus, we demonstrate a critical role for LKB1 in regulating energy homeostasis at the whole-organism level in a vertebrate. Zebrafish models of Lkb1 inactivation could provide a platform for chemical genetic screens to identify compounds that target accelerated metabolism, a key feature of tumor cells. PMID:21368212

  1. LKB1 acts as a critical gatekeeper of ovarian primordial follicle pool

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-Shan; Schatten, Heide; Fan, Heng-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Liver Kinase b1 (LKB1/STK11)is a tumor suppressor responsible for the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal-dominant, cancer-prone disorder in which patients develop neoplasms in several organs, including the oviduct, ovary, and cervix. Besides, the C allele of a SNP in the Lkb1 gene impedes the likelihood of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women treated with metformin, a known LKB1-AMPK activator. It is very likely that LKB1 plays roles in female fertility. To identify the physiological functions of LKB1 in the mouse ovary, we selectively disrupted LKB1 in oocytes by the Cre-LoxP conditional knockout system and found that Lkb1fl/fl; Gdf9-Cre mice were severely subfertile with significantly enlarged ovaries compared to Lkb1fl/fl mice. Interestingly, without Lkb1 expression in oocytes from the primordial follicle stage, the entire primordial follicle pool was activated but failed to mature and ovulate, subsequently causing premature ovarian failure (POF). Further investigation demonstrated that elevated mTOR signaling regulated by an AKT-independent LKB1-AMPK pathway was responsible for the excessive follicle activation and growth. Our findings reveal the role of LKB1 as an indispensable gatekeeper for the primordial follicle pool, offer new functional understanding for the tumor suppressor genes in reproductive organs, and might also provide valuable information for understanding POF and infertility. PMID:26745759

  2. LKB1 suppresses proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer through hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiyuan; Cai, Fei; Liu, Xiaofei; Guo, Lele

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of many human malignancies. Hh signaling target genes, such as patched (PTCH), smoothened (SMO) and sonic hedgehog (SHH), are markers of Hh signaling activation in most Hh-associated tumors. The protein kinase LKB1 has been shown to slow proliferation and induce cell-cycle arrest in many cell lines. However, the function of LKB1 in prostate cancer development remains largely unclear. In this study, the expression of LKB1 in human prostate cancer tissue samples and prostate cancer cell lines was detected, and the effects of LKB1 on prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated. Moreover, the influence of LKB1 on target genes of the Hh signaling pathway was analyzed. The results indicated that knockdown of LKB1 expression by RNA interference promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Meanwhile, we observed that LKB1 siRNA increased the expression of factors related to Hh signaling reporter activity in prostate cancer cells, including PTCH, SMO and SHH. These findings suggest that LKB1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer, and that LKB1 is negatively correlated with the expression of Hh signaling related transcription factors. Our results suggest that LKB1 may inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the Hh signaling pathway in certain cancers.

  3. Possible involvement of LKB1-AMPK signaling in non-homologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Ui, A; Ogiwara, H; Nakajima, S; Kanno, S; Watanabe, R; Harata, M; Okayama, H; Harris, C C; Yokota, J; Yasui, A; Kohno, T

    2014-03-27

    LKB1/STK11 is a tumor suppressor gene responsible for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an inherited cancer disorder associated with genome instability. The LKB1 protein functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, polarization and differentiation. Here, we suggest a role of LKB1 in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. LKB1 localized to DNA ends upon the generation of micro-irradiation and I-SceI endonuclease-induced DSBs. LKB1 inactivation either by RNA interference or by kinase-dead mutation compromised NHEJ-mediated DNA repair by suppressing the accumulation of BRM, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, at DSB sites, which promotes the recruitment of an essential NHEJ factor, KU70. AMPK2, a major substrate of LKB1 and a histone H2B kinase, was recruited to DSBs in an LKB1-dependent manner. AMPK2 depletion and a mutation of H2B that disrupted the AMPK2 phoshorylation site impaired KU70 and BRM recruitment to DSB sites. LKB1 depletion induced the formation of chromosome breaks and radials. These results suggest that LKB1-AMPK signaling controls NHEJ and contributes to genome stability.

  4. FOXO3 is a glucocorticoid receptor target and regulates LKB1 and its own expression based on cellular AMP levels via a positive autoregulatory loop.

    PubMed

    Lützner, Nicolas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Krones-Herzig, Anja; Rösl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    FOXO3 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, oxidative stress-response and energy metabolism. Although much is known about its post-translational modification, the transcriptional regulation of FOXO3, as well as the cross-talk between transcription and post-translational events, is still poorly understood. In the present study, we show that FOXO3 is an immediate early glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target, whose transcription is even further enhanced by conditions that mimic metabolic stress. Induction of FOXO3 transcription by GR-binding steroids was reversed by concomitant treatment with the GR antagonist RU-486, but further enhanced by stimuli that activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Analysis of genomic DNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation, as well as luciferase reporter assays, revealed two functional glucocorticoid responsive elements within the FOXO3 promoter. Furthermore, we provide functional evidence for a phosphorylation switch that explains how glucocorticoids induce transcriptional activation of the gene but subsequently inactivate the corresponding protein by site-specific phosphorylation. Only when AMPK is stimulated, pre-existing FOXO3 becomes reverted toward an active form. Energy deprived conditions thus activate FOXO3 on two different levels, namely transcriptional and post-translational. In that way, FOXO3 acts as a metabolic stress sensor that coordinates expression of LKB1, the master upstream kinase involved in metabolic sensing, depending on the energy status of the cell. Additionally, we show that FOXO3 binds and activates its own promoter via a positive autoregulatory feedback loop. In conclusion, our data explain how catabolic glucocorticoid hormones and high intracellular AMP levels cooperate in inducing FOXO3 transcription and in activating the corresponding protein.

  5. Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

    2013-01-01

    The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

  6. Lkb1 deletion promotes ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle progenitor cells and mature muscles.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Bi, Pengpeng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-05-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used Myod(Cre) and Lkb1(flox/flox) mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs.

  7. Loss of the tumor suppressor LKB1 promotes metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells via HIF-1α.

    PubMed

    Faubert, Brandon; Vincent, Emma E; Griss, Takla; Samborska, Bozena; Izreig, Said; Svensson, Robert U; Mamer, Orval A; Avizonis, Daina; Shackelford, David B; Shaw, Reuben J; Jones, Russell G

    2014-02-18

    One of the major metabolic changes associated with cellular transformation is enhanced nutrient utilization, which supports tumor progression by fueling both energy production and providing biosynthetic intermediates for growth. The liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor that couples bioenergetics to cell-growth control through regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity; however, the influence of LKB1 on tumor metabolism is not well defined. Here, we show that loss of LKB1 induces a progrowth metabolic program in proliferating cells. Cells lacking LKB1 display increased glucose and glutamine uptake and utilization, which support both cellular ATP levels and increased macromolecular biosynthesis. This LKB1-dependent reprogramming of cell metabolism is dependent on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which accumulates under normoxia in LKB1-deficient cells and is antagonized by inhibition of mTOR complex I signaling. Silencing HIF-1α reverses the metabolic advantages conferred by reduced LKB1 signaling and impairs the growth and survival of LKB1-deficient tumor cells under low-nutrient conditions. Together, our data implicate the tumor suppressor LKB1 as a central regulator of tumor metabolism and growth control through the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming.

  8. LKB1/Mo25/STRAD uniquely impacts sarcomeric contractile function and posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Behunin, Samantha M; Lopez-Pier, Marissa A; Birch, Camille L; McKee, Laurel A K; Danilo, Christiane; Khalpey, Zain; Konhilas, John P

    2015-03-24

    The myocardium undergoes extensive metabolic and energetic remodeling during the progression of cardiac disease. Central to remodeling are changes in the adenine nucleotide pool. Fluctuations in these pools can activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the central regulator of cellular energetics. Binding of AMP to AMPK not only allosterically activates AMPK but also promotes phosphorylation of AMPK by an upstream kinase complex, LKB1/Mo25/STRAD (liver kinase B 1, mouse protein 25, STE-related adaptor protein). AMPK phosphorylation by the LKB1 complex results in a substantial increase in AMPK activity. Molecular targeting by the LKB1 complex depends on subcellular localization and transcriptional expression. Yet, little is known about the ability of the LKB1 complex to modulate targeting of AMPK after activation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that differing stoichiometric ratios of LKB1 activator complex to AMPK would uniquely impact myofilament function. Demembranated rat cardiac trabeculae were incubated with varying ratios of the LKB1 complex to AMPK or the LKB1 complex alone. After incubation, we measured the Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension, rate constant for tension redevelopment, maximum tension generation, length-dependent activation, cooperativity, and sarcomeric protein phosphorylation status. We found that the Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension and cross-bridge dynamics were dependent on the LKB1 complex/AMPK ratio. We also found that the LKB1 complex desensitizes and suppresses myofilament function independently of AMPK. A phospho-proteomic analysis of myofilament proteins revealed site-specific changes in cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation, as well as a unique distribution of cTnI phosphospecies that were dependent on the LKB1 complex/ AMPK ratio. Fibers treated with the LKB1 complex alone did not alter cTnI phosphorylation or phosphospecies distribution. However, LKB1 complex treatment independent of AMPK increased phosphorylation of myosin

  9. Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Luo, Yuechen; Guo, Wei; Niu, Qing; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Song; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingru; Sun, Zhina; Zhao, Chunxiao; Huang, Huifang; Liao, Fang; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Dongming; Yang, Yongguang; Xu, Guogang; Cheng, Tao; Feng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a distinct T-cell lineage characterized by sustained Foxp3 expression and potent suppressor function, but the upstream dominant factors that preserve Treg lineage-specific features are mostly unknown. Here, we show that Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity by stabilizing Foxp3 expression and enforcing suppressor function. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation Lkb1 protein expression is upregulated in Treg cells but not in conventional T cells. Mice with Treg cell-specific deletion of Lkb1 develop a fatal early-onset autoimmune disease, with no Foxp3 expression in most Treg cells. Lkb1 stabilizes Foxp3 expression by preventing STAT4-mediated methylation of the conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) in the Foxp3 locus. Independent of maintaining Foxp3 expression, Lkb1 programs the expression of a wide spectrum of immunosuppressive genes, through mechanisms involving the augmentation of TGF-β signalling. These findings identify a critical function of Lkb1 in maintaining Treg cell lineage identity. PMID:28621313

  10. Drosophila LKB1 is required for the assembly of the polarized actin structure that allows spermatid individualization.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Jean-Louis; Richard, Graziella; Vachias, Caroline; Mirouse, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, a testis-specific isoform of the protein kinase LKB1 is required for spermiogenesis, but its exact function and specificity are not known. Human LKB1 rescues the functions of Drosophila Lkb1 essential for viability, but these males are sterile, revealing a new function for this genes in fly. We also identified a testis-specific transcript generated by an alternative promoter and that only differs by a longer 5'UTR. We show that dLKB1 is required in the germline for the formation of the actin cone, the polarized structure that allows spermatid individualization and cytoplasm excess extrusion during spermiogenesis. Three of the nine LKB1 classical targets in the Drosophila genome (AMPK, NUAK and KP78b) are required for proper spermiogenesis, but later than dLKB1. dLkb1 mutant phenotype is reminiscent of that of myosin V mutants, and both proteins show a dynamic localization profile before actin cone formation. Together, these data highlight a new dLKB1 function and suggest that dLKB1 posttranscriptional regulation in testis and involvement in spermatid morphogenesis are evolutionarily conserved features.

  11. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  12. LKB1 and lung cancer: more than the usual suspects.

    PubMed

    Shah, Usman; Sharpless, Norman E; Hayes, D Neil

    2008-05-15

    Often, the problem in cancer research is figuring out how a gene or pathway works in regulating cellular transformation. The question of what RAS activates or PTEN inhibits have been classic dilemmas of modern cancer biology. In these cases, biochemical and genetic studies have provided us with a fairly clear picture of the cancer relevant functions of these genes. For LKB1, a more recently identified human tumor suppressor gene, however, the problem is different. This serine-threonine kinase that is conserved from yeast to mammals seems to play a role in many diverse cellular pathways. Therefore, although elegant functional and genetic approaches have established critical roles for LKB1 in the regulation of metabolism, motility, polarity, and the cell cycle, the role(s) responsible for its true tumor suppressor function(s) is unknown. One is reminded of an Agatha Christie murder mystery where nearly every character in the book has reason to be suspected of committing the crime-there are too many suspects for how LKB1 might repress lung cancer.

  13. Gene Expression of the Tumour Suppressor LKB1 Is Mediated by Sp1, NF-Y and FOXO Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lützner, Nicolas; De-Castro Arce, Johanna; Rösl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 is a tumour suppressor that regulates multiple biological pathways, including cell cycle control, cell polarity and energy metabolism by direct phosphorylation of 14 different AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Although many downstream targets have been described, the regulation of LKB1 gene expression is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the human LKB1 upstream regulatory region. We used 200 base pair deletion constructs of the 5′-flanking region fused to a luciferase reporter to identify the core promoter. It encompasses nucleotides −345 to +52 relative to the transcription start site and coincides with a DNase I hypersensitive site. Based on extensive deletion and substitution mutant analysis of the LKB1 promoter, we identified four cis-acting elements which are critical for transcriptional activation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays as well as chromatin immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate that the transcription factors Sp1, NF-Y and two forkhead box O (FOXO) family members FOXO3 and FOXO4 bind to these elements. Overexpression of these factors significantly increased the LKB1 promoter activity. Conversely, small interfering RNAs directed against NF-Y alpha and the two FOXO proteins greatly reduced endogenous LKB1 expression and phosphorylation of LKB1's main substrate AMPK in three different cell lines. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sp1, NF-Y and FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of LKB1 transcription. PMID:22412893

  14. LKB1 inhibits the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by suppressing the nuclear translocation of Yap and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lian-Gang; Bian, Shi-Bo; Cui, Jian-Xin; Xi, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Ke-Cheng; Qin, Hong-Zhen; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is known to suppress the proliferation, energy metabolism and mesenchymal transition of various cancer cells, and is involved in the regulation of Hippo-Yes-associated protein (Yap) and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. However, the role of LKB1 in gastric cancer (GC) was not fully understood. Thus, in the present study, we studied LKB1 and found that protein expression (0.37±0.061 vs. 0.59±0.108, P=0.006) and the protein ratio of p-Yap/Yap (0.179±0.085 vs. 0.8±0.126, P=0.001) were reduced in 54 gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues, using western blotting and RT-qPCR assays. LKB1 expression was also observed decreased in 109 GAC tissues compared with 54 adjacent non-cancerous tissues (χ2=4.678, P=0.0306), and negatively correlated with the nuclear expression of Yap (r=-0.6997) and β-catenin (r=-0.3510), using immunohistochemical analysis. In GC patients, LKB1 expression was negatively associated with tumor size, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis and the TNM stage. LKB1 expression was determined to be positively correlated with longer overall survival of GC patients using Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001). Subsequently, LKB1 expression in human GAC AGS cells was enhanced with a full‑length LKB1 transfection. In vitro and in vivo proliferation was inhibited in LKB1-overexpressing GC cells compared with the control cells. Yap and β-catenin expression were assessed by western blotting and RT-qPCR, and were found to be increased in the cytoplasm but decreased in the nucleus in LKB1-overexpressing GC cells compared with the control cells. The increase in cytoplasmic β-catenin was reversed by the silencing of LKB1 or Yap with shRNAs in LKB1-overexpressing GC cells. Moreover, Yap and β-catenin mRNA were barely altered by LKB1 overexpression. Thus, we concluded that LKB1 expression was reduced in GAC tissues but that it correlated positively with better prognosis for GC

  15. Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in the Pathogenesis of UVB-induced Murine Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Byekova, Yevgeniya A.; Herrmann, Jennifer L.; Xu, Jianmin; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    LKB1, a known tumor suppressor, is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). It is responsible for the enhanced cancer risk in patients with PJS. Dysregulation of LKB1-dependent signaling also occurs in various epithelial cancers. UVB alters the expression of LKB1, though its role in the pathogenesis of skin cancer is unknown. Here we describe upregulation of LKB1 expression in UVB-induced murine basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in human skin tumor keratinocytes. AMP-kinase and acetyl Co-A carboxylase, the downstream LKB1 targets, are also enhanced in this neoplasm. In addition, p-Akt, a kinase which inactivates GSK3β by its phosphorylation, is enhanced in BCCs. Consistently, an accumulation of p-GSK3β and an increase in activated nuclear β-catenin are found. mTOR signaling, which is also inhibited by LKB1, remains upregulated in BCCs. However, a marked decrease in the expression of sestrins, which function as potent negative regulators of mTOR is observed. Metformin, a known chemical inducer of this pathway, was found effective in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes, but failed to activate the LKB1-dependent signaling in human carcinoma A431 cells. Thus, our data show that the LKB1/AMPK axis fails to regulate mTOR pathway, and a complex regulatory mechanism exists for the persistent mTOR activation in murine BCCs. PMID:21272562

  16. Novel splice isoforms of STRADalpha differentially affect LKB1 activity, complex assembly and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Marignani, P A; Scott, K D; Bagnulo, R; Cannone, D; Ferrari, E; Stella, A; Guanti, G; Simone, C; Resta, N

    2007-10-01

    STRADalpha is a pseudokinase that forms a heterotrimeric complex with the scaffolding protein MO25 and the tumor suppressor serine threonine protein kinase LKB1. Mutations in the LKB1 gene are responsible for the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) characterized by a predisposition to hamartomatous polyps and hyperpigmentation of the buccal mucosa. Mutations in LKB1 have also been observed in some sporadic tumours unrelated to PJS. The LKB1/STRAD/MO25 complex is involved in the regulation of numerous signaling pathways including metabolism, proliferation and cellular polarity of human intestinal epithelial cells. Cell polarization, together with tissue-restricted transcription, represents the main feature of enterocyte differentiation. Since a full-length STRADalpha transcript has not been identified thus far in these cells, we evaluated the expression of endogenous STRADalpha in five colorectal cancer cell lines characterized by their diverse ability to differentiate in vitro. We report herein the discovery of several novel splice isoforms of STRADalpha that differentially affect the kinase activity, complex assembly, subcellular localization of LKB1 and the activation of the LKB1-dependent AMPK pathway.

  17. 2-Deoxyglucose Suppresses ERK Phosphorylation in LKB1 and Ras Wild-Type Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linlin; Liu, Xiuju; Fu, Haian; Zhou, Wei; Zhong, Diansheng

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to generate ATP, namely the "Warburg" effect. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) is well characterized as a glycolytic inhibitor, but its effect on cellular signaling pathways has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we sought to investigate the effect of 2-DG on ERK function in lung cancer cells. We found that 2-DG inhibits ERK phosphorylation in a time and dose-dependent manner in lung cancer cells. This inhibition requires functional LKB1. LKB1 knockdown in LKB1 wildtype cells correlated with an increase in the basal level of p-ERK. Restoration of LKB1 in LKB1-null cells significantly inhibits ERK activation. Blocking AMPK function with AMPK inhibitor, AMPK siRNA or DN-AMPK diminishes the inhibitory effect of 2-DG on ERK, suggesting that 2-DG—induced ERK inhibition is mediated by LKB1/AMPK signaling. Moreover, IGF1-induced ERK phosphorylation is significantly decreased by 2-DG. Conversely, a subset of oncogenic mutants of K-Ras, the main upstream regulator of ERK, blocks 2-DG—induced LKB1/AMPK signaling. These findings reveal the potential cross-talk between LKB1/AMPK and ERK signaling and help to better understand the mechanism of action of 2-DG. PMID:28033353

  18. Uncoupling of the LKB1-AMPKalpha energy sensor pathway by growth factors and oncogenic BRAF.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Canals, Francesc; Colomé, Núria; Merlino, Glenn; Recio, Juan Angel

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical mechanisms contributing to melanoma development and progression is critical for therapeutical intervention. LKB1 is a multi-task Ser/Thr kinase that phosphorylates AMPK controlling cell growth and apoptosis under metabolic stress conditions. Additionally, LKB1(Ser428) becomes phosphorylated in a RAS-Erk1/2-p90(RSK) pathway dependent manner. However, the connection between the RAS pathway and LKB1 is mostly unknown. Using the UV induced HGF transgenic mouse melanoma model to investigate the interplay among HGF signaling, RAS pathway and PI3K pathway in melanoma, we identified LKB1 as a protein directly modified by HGF induced signaling. A variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture revealed that LKB1(Ser428) (Ser431 in the mouse) is constitutively phosphorylated in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cell lines and spontaneous mouse tumors with high RAS pathway activity. Interestingly, BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells showed a very limited response to metabolic stress mediated by the LKB1-AMPK-mTOR pathway. Here we show for the first time that RAS pathway activation including BRAF(V600E) mutation promotes the uncoupling of AMPK from LKB1 by a mechanism that appears to be independent of LKB1(Ser428) phosphorylation. Notably, the inhibition of the RAS pathway in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells recovered the complex formation and rescued the LKB1-AMPKalpha metabolic stress-induced response, increasing apoptosis in cooperation with the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bim, and the down-regulation of Mcl-1. These data demonstrate that growth factor treatment and in particular oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli and resistance to low energy conditions in tumor cells. Importantly, this mechanism reveals a new level for therapeutical intervention particularly

  19. Resveratrol prevents the prohypertrophic effects of oxidative stress on LKB1.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Chan, Anita Y M; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Light, Peter E; Des Rosiers, Christine; Dyck, Jason R B

    2009-03-31

    Master regulators of protein synthesis such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy. These prohypertrophic pathways are modulated by a number of kinase cascades, including the hierarchical LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) energy-sensing pathway. Because oxidative stress inhibits the LKB1/AMPK signaling axis to promote abnormal cell growth in cancer cells, we investigated whether oxidative stress associated with hypertension also results in the inhibition of this kinase circuit to contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat, a well-established genetic model of hypertension and subsequent cardiac hypertrophy, the development of left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with an increase in the electrophilic lipid peroxidation byproduct 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Using isolated cardiomyocytes, we show that elevated levels of HNE result in the formation of HNE-LKB1 adducts that inhibit LKB1 and subsequent AMPK activity. Consistent with inhibition of the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway, the mTOR/p70S6 kinase system is activated, which is permissive for cardiac myocyte cell growth. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with resveratrol prevents HNE modification of the LKB1/AMPK signaling axis and blunts the prohypertrophic p70S6 kinase response. Furthermore, administration of resveratrol to spontaneously hypertensive rats results in increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity and reduced left ventricular hypertrophy. Our data identify a molecular mechanism in the cardiomyocyte involving the oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation byproduct HNE and the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway that contributes to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. We also suggest that resveratrol may be a potential therapy for patients at risk for developing pathological cardiac hypertrophy by preventing this prohypertrophic process.

  20. LKB1 is essential for the proliferation of T-cell progenitors and mature peripheral T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tamás, Peter; Macintyre, Andrew; Finlay, David; Clarke, Rosemary; Feijoo-Carnero, Carmen; Ashworth, Alan; Cantrell, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 has a conserved role in Drosophila and nematodes to co-ordinate cell metabolism. During T lymphocyte development in the thymus, progenitors need to synchronize increased metabolism with the onset of proliferation and differentiation to ensure that they can meet the energy requirements for development. The present study explores the role of LKB1 in this process and shows that loss of LKB1 prevents thymocyte differentiation and the production of peripheral T lymphocytes. We find that LKB1 is required for several key metabolic processes in T-cell progenitors. For example, LKB1 controls expression of CD98, a key subunit of the l-system aa transporter and is also required for the pre-TCR to induce and sustain the regulated phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 subunit, a key regulator of protein synthesis. In the absence of LKB1 TCR-β-selected thymocytes failed to proliferate and did not survive. LBK1 was also required for survival and proliferation of peripheral T cells. These data thus reveal a conserved and essential role for LKB1 in the proliferative responses of both thymocytes and mature T cells. PMID:19830737

  1. Role of LKB1-CRTC1 on Glycosylated COX-2 and Response to COX-2 Inhibition in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chunxia; Gao, Ruli; Zhang, Min; Amelio, Antonio L.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Chen, Zirong; Gu, Yumei; Hu, Chengbin; Welsh, Eric A.; Engel, Brienne E.; Haura, Eric B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Wu, Lizi; Zajac-Kaye, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) directs the synthesis of prostaglandins including PGE-2 linking inflammation with mitogenic signaling. COX-2 is also an anticancer target, however, treatment strategies have been limited by unreliable expression assays and by inconsistent tumor responses to COX-2 inhibition. Methods: We analyzed the TCGA and Director’s Challenge lung cancer datasets (n = 188) and also generated an LKB1-null lung cancer gene signature (n = 53) to search the Broad Institute/Connectivity-MAP (C-MAP) dataset. We performed ChIP analyses, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and drug testing of tumor cell lines (n = 8) and primary lung adenocarcinoma surgical resections (n = 13). Results: We show that COX-2 is a target of the cAMP/CREB coactivator CRTC1 signaling pathway. In addition, we detected a correlation between LKB1 status, CRTC1 activation, and presence of glycosylated, but not inactive hypoglycosylated COX-2 in primary lung adenocarcinoma. A search of the C-MAP drug database discovered that all high-ranking drugs positively associated with the LKB1-null signature are known CRTC1 activators, including forskolin and six different PGE-2 analogues. Somatic LKB1 mutations are present in 20.0% of lung adenocarcinomas, and we observed growth inhibition with COX-2 inhibitors in LKB1-null lung cancer cells with activated CRTC1 as compared with LKB1-wildtype cells (NS-398, P = .002 and Niflumic acid, P = .006; two-tailed t test). Conclusion: CRTC1 activation is a key event that drives the LKB1-null mRNA signature in lung cancer. We also identified a positive feedback LKB1/CRTC1 signaling loop for COX-2/PGE2 regulation. These data suggest a role for LKB1 status and glycosylated COX-2 as specific biomarkers that provide a framework for selecting patients for COX-2 inhibition studies. PMID:25465874

  2. LKB1 loss links serine metabolism to DNA methylation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kottakis, Filippos; Nicolay, Brandon N; Roumane, Ahlima; Karnik, Rahul; Gu, Hongcang; Nagle, Julia M; Boukhali, Myriam; Hayward, Michele C; Li, Yvonne Y; Chen, Ting; Liesa, Marc; Hammerman, Peter S; Wong, Kwok Kin; Hayes, D Neil; Shirihai, Orian S; Dyson, Nicholas J; Haas, Wilhelm; Meissner, Alexander; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2016-11-17

    Intermediary metabolism generates substrates for chromatin modification, enabling the potential coupling of metabolic and epigenetic states. Here we identify a network linking metabolic and epigenetic alterations that is central to oncogenic transformation downstream of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as STK11) tumour suppressor, an integrator of nutrient availability, metabolism and growth. By developing genetically engineered mouse models and primary pancreatic epithelial cells, and employing transcriptional, proteomics, and metabolic analyses, we find that oncogenic cooperation between LKB1 loss and KRAS activation is fuelled by pronounced mTOR-dependent induction of the serine-glycine-one-carbon pathway coupled to S-adenosylmethionine generation. At the same time, DNA methyltransferases are upregulated, leading to elevation in DNA methylation with particular enrichment at retrotransposon elements associated with their transcriptional silencing. Correspondingly, LKB1 deficiency sensitizes cells and tumours to inhibition of serine biosynthesis and DNA methylation. Thus, we define a hypermetabolic state that incites changes in the epigenetic landscape to support tumorigenic growth of LKB1-mutant cells, while resulting in potential therapeutic vulnerabilities.

  3. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, David B.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, studies of the human tumor suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signaling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose, a function that has made it a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumor suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway with established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer. PMID:19629071

  4. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumour suppression.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, David B; Shaw, Reuben J

    2009-08-01

    In the past decade, studies of the human tumour suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signalling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine-threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues, such as liver, muscle and adipose tissue. This function has made AMPK a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumour suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway using established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer.

  5. Genistein-induced LKB1-AMPK activation inhibits senescence of VSMC through autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Young; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2016-06-01

    Genistein, the primary isoflavone from soy products, enhances antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibits tyrosine kinase. However, the mechanisms underlying genistein-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. Autophagy refers to a regulated cellular process for the lysosomal-dependent turnover of organelles and proteins. During starvation or nutrient deficiency, autophagy provides an endogenous mechanism for prolonging survival. Here, we investigated whether genistein exerts autophagic effects through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling in VSMCs. Genistein dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPK in VSMCs. LKB1 and AMPK induced autophagy through the downregulation of mTOR in VSMCs. Genistein-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation on Western blots and by increased perinuclear LC3-II puncta in genistein-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, genistein-induced autophagy attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-b-gal staining. These results suggest that genistein-dependent autophagy diminishes VSMC senescence and genistein may attenuate the VSMC senescence via an LKB1-AMPK-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LKB1 expression reverses the tumorigenicity of L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ge; Gao, Qing; Tao, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The tumor-suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein kinase, plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we revealed that human hepatic L02 cells had severely impaired endogenous LKB1 expression as gauged by western blot, northern blot and RT-PCR analyses. Stable ectopic expression of LKB1 in L02 cells resulted in decreased cell growth, hypophosphorylation of Rb, and marked attenuation of colony formation on soft agar. Inoculation of L02 cells into immunocompromised mice resulted in the development of subcutaneous tumors, which could be completely abrogated by ectopic LKB1 expression. The tumors that formed in the mouse model recapitulated the histopathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma under the microscope. Our results jointly suggest that severely compromised endogenous LKB1 expression in the L02 cell line may confer to L02 cells tumor-initiating capacities in vivo and in vitro, and ectopic LKB1 expression antagonizes the tumorigenic properties of L02 cells. Our findings imply that caution may be needed to interpret the results obtained on the widely used human hepatic L02 cell line. The L02 cell line may be a new model to define the cellular mechanisms of liver transformation, and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth suppressive effect of LKB1.

  7. The role of LKB1 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2011-09-01

    In humans, the LKB1 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 19, which is frequently deleted in lung tumors. Unlike most cancers of sporadic origin, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nearly half of the tumors harbor somatic and homozygous inactivating mutations in LKB1. In NSCLC, LKB1 inactivation strongly predominates in adenocarcinomas from smokers and coexists with mutations at other important cancer genes, including KRAS and TP53. Remarkably, LKB1 alterations frequently occur simultaneously with inactivation at another important tumor suppressor gene, BRG1 (also called SMARCA4), which is also located on chromosome 19p. The present review considers the frequency and pattern of LKB1 mutations in lung cancer and the distinct biological pathways in which the LKB1 protein is involved in the development of this type of cancer. Finally, the possible clinical applications in cancer management, especially in lung cancer treatment, associated with the presence of absence of LKB1 are discussed.

  8. BRG1 and LKB1: tales of two tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 19p and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Nieto, Salvador; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2009-04-01

    Losses of heterozygosity (LOH) of the short arm of chromosome 19 are frequent in lung cancer, suggesting that one or more tumor suppressor genes are present in this region. The LKB1 gene, also called STK11, is somatically inactivated through point mutations and large deletions in lung tumors, demonstrating that LKB1 is a target of the LOH of this chromosomal arm. Data from several independent groups have provided information about the profiles of lung tumors with LKB1 inactivation and it is generally agreed that this alteration strongly predominates in non-small cell lung cancer, in particular adenocarcinomas, in smokers. The LKB1 protein has serine-threonine kinase activity and is involved in the regulation of the cell energetic checkpoint through the phosphorylation and activation of adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK). LKB1 is also involved in other processes such as cell polarization, probably through substrates other than AMPK. Interestingly, another gene on chromosome 19p, BRG1, encoding a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, has emerged as a tumor suppressor gene that is altered in lung tumors. Similar to LKB1, BRG1 is somatically inactivated by point mutations or large deletions in lung tumors featuring LOH of chromosome 19p. These observations suggest an important role for BRG1 in lung cancer and highlight the need to further our understanding of the function of Brahma/SWI2-related gene 1 (BRG1) in cancer. Finally, simultaneous mutations at LKB1 and BRG1 are common in lung cancer cells, which exemplifies how a single event, LOH of chromosome 19p in this instance, targets two different tumor suppressors.

  9. Targeting Redox Homeostasis in LKB1-Deficient NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    toward NADPH production and redox homeostasis under normal and stress conditions. ROS production correlates with Nrf2 -associated gene expression...of Nrf2 target genes involved in ROS detoxification, including enzymes involved in NADPH production. Nrf2 activation is observed in approximately...half of tumors that have lost LKB1 function, but only 6% of LKB1 wild-type tumors. Analysis of mutation data reveals that this Nrf2 -associated gene

  10. The LKB1-salt-inducible kinase pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic suppressor in the liver.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kashyap; Foretz, Marc; Marion, Allison; Campbell, David G; Gourlay, Robert; Boudaba, Nadia; Tournier, Emilie; Titchenell, Paul; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Wan, Min; Kaestner, Klaus H; Göransson, Olga; Viollet, Benoit; Gray, Nathanael S; Birnbaum, Morris J; Sutherland, Calum; Sakamoto, Kei

    2014-08-04

    LKB1 is a master kinase that regulates metabolism and growth through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other closely related kinases. Liver-specific ablation of LKB1 causes increased glucose production in hepatocytes in vitro and hyperglycaemia in fasting mice in vivo. Here we report that the salt-inducible kinases (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, play a key role as gluconeogenic suppressors downstream of LKB1 in the liver. The selective SIK inhibitor HG-9-91-01 promotes dephosphorylation of transcriptional co-activators CRTC2/3 resulting in enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in hepatocytes, an effect that is abolished when an HG-9-91-01-insensitive mutant SIK is introduced or LKB1 is ablated. Although SIK2 was proposed as a key regulator of insulin-mediated suppression of gluconeogenesis, we provide genetic evidence that liver-specific ablation of SIK2 alone has no effect on gluconeogenesis and insulin does not modulate SIK2 phosphorylation or activity. Collectively, we demonstrate that the LKB1-SIK pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic gatekeeper in the liver.

  11. CPS1 maintains pyrimidine pools and DNA synthesis in KRAS/LKB1-mutant lung cancer cells. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Metabolic reprogramming by oncogenic signals promotes cancer initiation and progression. The oncogene KRAS and tumor suppressor STK11, which encodes the kinase LKB1, regulate metabolism and are frequently mutated in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Concurrent occurrence of oncogenic KRAS and loss of LKB1 (KL) in cells specifies aggressive oncological behavior. Here we show that human KL cells and tumors share metabolic signatures of perturbed nitrogen handling.

  12. Mutation of Lkb1 and p53 genes exert a cooperative effect on tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongjuan; Amos, Christopher I; Stephens, L Clifton; Campos, Imelda; Deng, Jian Min; Behringer, Richard R; Rashid, Asif; Frazier, Marsha L

    2005-12-15

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation. Germ line mutations in LKB1 cause PJS. We have generated mice carrying an Lkb1 exon 2 to 8 deletion by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Heterozygotes develop gastric hamartomas that are histologically similar to those found in humans with PJS. LKB1 is also reportedly a mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis. To explore the potential combined effects of p53 and Lkb1 alterations on tumorigenesis, we carried out a series of matings with Lkb1(+/-) and p53 null mice to generate Lkb1(+/-)/p53(+/-) and Lkb1(+/-)/p53(-/-) mice. Similar to the Lkb1(+/-) mice, gastrointestinal hamartomas have also been detected in the mice with these two genotypes. The Lkb1(+/-)/p53(+/-) mice displayed a dramatically reduced life span and increased tumor incidence compared to the mice with either Lkb1 or p53 single gene knockout. The time to onset of polyposis in Lkb1(+/-)/p53(-/-) mice is approximately 2 months earlier than Lkb1(+/-)/p53(+/-) and Lkb1(+/-) mice, whereas the latter two show a similar time to onset which is at approximately 6 months of age. These results strongly suggested that mutations of p53 and Lkb1 gene cooperate in the acceleration of tumorigenesis.

  13. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

  14. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the α-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPKα2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPKα2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPKα2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPKα2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AMP as a low-energy charge signal autonomously initiates assembly of AXIN-AMPK-LKB1 complex for AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Lin; Guo, Huiling; Zhang, Chen-Song; Lin, Shu-Yong; Yin, Zhenyu; Peng, Yongying; Luo, Hui; Shi, Yuzhe; Lian, Guili; Zhang, Cixiong; Li, Mengqi; Ye, Zhiyun; Ye, Jing; Han, Jiahuai; Li, Peng; Wu, Jia-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Cai

    2013-10-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis by sensing cellular energy status. AMPK is mainly activated via phosphorylation by LKB1 when cellular AMP/ADP levels are increased. However, how AMP/ADP brings about AMPK phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we show that it is AMP, but not ADP, that drives AXIN to directly tether LKB1 to phosphorylate AMPK. The complex formation of AXIN-AMPK-LKB1 is greatly enhanced in glucose-starved or AICAR-treated cells and in cell-free systems supplemented with exogenous AMP. Depletion of AXIN abrogated starvation-induced AMPK-LKB1 colocalization. Importantly, adenovirus-based knockdown of AXIN in the mouse liver impaired AMPK activation and caused exacerbated fatty liver after starvation, underscoring an essential role of AXIN in AMPK activation. These findings demonstrate an initiating role of AMP and demonstrate that AXIN directly transmits AMP binding of AMPK to its activation by LKB1, uncovering the mechanistic route for AMP to elicit AMPK activation by LKB1.

  16. Deletion of Lkb1 in adult mice results in body weight reduction and lethality.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xiong, Yan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-11-08

    Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) plays crucial roles in development, metabolism and survival. As constitutive knockout of Lkb1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, whether Lkb1 is required for the growth and survival of adult mice is unclear. Here we address this question using a tamoxifen-inducible Lkb1 knockout (KO) mouse model: Rosa26-Cre(ER): Lkb1(flox/flox) (abbreviated as Rosa-Lkb1). The Rosa-Lkb1 mice exhibited body weight reduction and died within 6 weeks after tamoxifen induction. The body weight reduction was due to reduced weight of various tissues but the brown and white adipose tissues underwent much more pronounced weight reduction relative to the overall body weight reduction. Accordingly, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had increased blood glucose levels and were intolerant to glucose challenge. Expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in adipose tissues were also dramatically reduced by Lkb1 deletion. Additionally, Lkb1 deletion reduced lipid deposition and increased expression of mitochondrial (Pgc1a, Cox5b and Cox7a) and hepatic gluconeogenesis related genes (Pepck) in liver. Finally, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had much reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy expenditure. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 plays an important role in maintaining body weight, liver and adipose tissue function, blood glucose homeostasis and survival in adult mice.

  17. CPS1 maintains pyrimidine pools and DNA synthesis in KRAS/LKB1-mutant lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hu, Zeping; Cai, Ling; Li, Kailong; Choi, Eunhee; Faubert, Brandon; Bezwada, Divya; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Villalobos, Pamela; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ni, Min; Huffman, Kenneth E; Girard, Luc; Byers, Lauren A; Unsal-Kacmaz, Keziban; Peña, Christopher G; Heymach, John V; Wauters, Els; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Castrillon, Diego H; Chen, Benjamin P C; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lambrechts, Diether; Xu, Jian; Minna, John D; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2017-06-01

    Metabolic reprogramming by oncogenic signals promotes cancer initiation and progression. The oncogene KRAS and tumour suppressor STK11, which encodes the kinase LKB1, regulate metabolism and are frequently mutated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Concurrent occurrence of oncogenic KRAS and loss of LKB1 (KL) in cells specifies aggressive oncological behaviour. Here we show that human KL cells and tumours share metabolomic signatures of perturbed nitrogen handling. KL cells express the urea cycle enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS1), which produces carbamoyl phosphate in the mitochondria from ammonia and bicarbonate, initiating nitrogen disposal. Transcription of CPS1 is suppressed by LKB1 through AMPK, and CPS1 expression correlates inversely with LKB1 in human NSCLC. Silencing CPS1 in KL cells induces cell death and reduces tumour growth. Notably, cell death results from pyrimidine depletion rather than ammonia toxicity, as CPS1 enables an unconventional pathway of nitrogen flow from ammonia into pyrimidines. CPS1 loss reduces the pyrimidine to purine ratio, compromises S-phase progression and induces DNA-polymerase stalling and DNA damage. Exogenous pyrimidines reverse DNA damage and rescue growth. The data indicate that the KL oncological genotype imposes a metabolic vulnerability related to a dependence on a cross-compartmental pathway of pyrimidine metabolism in an aggressive subset of NSCLC.

  18. mTOR and HIF-1alpha-mediated tumor metabolism in an LKB1 mouse model of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, David B; Vasquez, Debbie S; Corbeil, Jacqueline; Wu, Shulin; Leblanc, Mathias; Wu, Chin-Lee; Vera, David R; Shaw, Reuben J

    2009-07-07

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a familial cancer disorder due to inherited loss of function mutations in the LKB1/ STK11 serine/threonine kinase. PJS patients develop gastrointestinal hamartomas with 100% penetrance often in the second decade of life, and demonstrate an increased predisposition toward the development of a number of additional malignancies. Among mitogenic signaling pathways, the mammalian-target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is hyperactivated in tissues and tumors derived from LKB1-deficient mice. Consistent with a central role for mTORC1 in these tumors, rapamycin as a single agent results in a dramatic suppression of preexisting GI polyps in LKB1+/- mice. However, the key targets of mTORC1 in LKB1-deficient tumors remain unknown. We demonstrate here that these polyps, and LKB1- and AMPK-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, show dramatic up-regulation of the HIF-1alpha transcription factor and its downstream transcriptional targets in an rapamycin-suppressible manner. The HIF-1alpha targets hexokinase II and Glut1 are up-regulated in these polyps, and using FDG-PET, we demonstrate that LKB1+/- mice show increased glucose utilization in focal regions of their GI tract corresponding to these gastrointestinal hamartomas. Importantly, we demonstrate that polyps from human Peutz-Jeghers patients similarly exhibit up-regulated mTORC1 signaling, HIF-1alpha, and GLUT1 levels. Furthermore, like HIF-1alpha and its target genes, the FDG-PET signal in the GI tract of these mice is abolished by rapamycin treatment. These findings suggest a number of therapeutic modalities for the treatment and detection of hamartomas in PJS patients, and potential for the screening and treatment of the 30% of sporadic human lung cancers bearing LKB1 mutations.

  19. LKB1 Inhibits HPV-Associated Cancer Progression by Targeting Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T.; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is mutationally inactivated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of cancers including human papillomavirus (HPV)-caused cervical cancer. However, the significance of LKB1 mutations in cervical cancer initiation and progress has not been examined. Herein, we demonstrated that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of LKB1 and transduction of HPV16 E6/E7 had an additive effect on constraining cell senescence while promoting cell proliferation and increasing glucose consumption, lactate production, and ATP generation. Knock-down of LKB1 increased and ectopic expression of LKB1 decreased glycolysis, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration and invasion in HPV transformed cells. In the tumorigenesis and lung metastasis model in syngeneic mice, depletion of LKB1 markedly increased tumor metastatic colonies in lungs without affecting subcutaneous tumor growth. We showed that HPV16 E6/E7 enhanced the expression of hexokinase-ll (HK-II) in the glycolytic pathway through elevated c-MYC. Ectopic LKB1 reduced HK-II along with glycolysis. The inverse relationship between HK-II and LKB1 was also observed in normal and HPV-associated cervical lesions. We propose that LKB1 acts as a safeguard against HPV-stimulated aerobic glycolysis and tumor progression. These findings may eventually aid in the development of therapeutic strategy for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:27546620

  20. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  1. LKB1 inactivation sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to pharmacological aggravation of ER stress.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Friel, Jacqueline M; Richer, Amanda L; Fowler, Aaron J; Whitsett, Timothy; Smith, Michael A; Tran, Nhan L; Bremner, Ross M

    2014-10-01

    Five-year survival rates for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have seen minimal improvement despite aggressive therapy with standard chemotherapeutic agents, indicating a need for new treatment approaches. Studies show inactivating mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor are common in NSCLC. Genetic and mechanistic analysis has defined LKB1-deficient NSCLC tumors as a phenotypically distinct subpopulation of NSCLC with potential avenues for therapeutic gain. In expanding on previous work indicating hypersensitivity of LKB1-deficient NSCLC cells to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), we find that 2DG has in vivo efficacy in LKB1-deficient NSCLC using transgenic murine models of NSCLC. Deciphering of the molecular mechanisms behind this phenotype reveals that loss of LKB1 in NSCLC cells imparts increased sensitivity to pharmacological compounds that aggravate ER stress. In comparison to NSCLC cells with functional LKB1, treatment of NSCLC cells lacking LKB1 with the ER stress activators (ERSA), tunicamycin, brefeldin A or 2DG, resulted in aggravation of ER stress, increased cytotoxicity, and evidence of ER stress-mediated cell death. Based upon these findings, we suggest that ERSAs represent a potential treatment avenue for NSCLC patients whose tumors are deficient in LKB1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. Objective As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog) 1 (Sirt1). Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway

  3. Galangin inhibits proliferation of HepG2 cells by activating AMPK via increasing the AMP/TAN ratio in a LKB1-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Li, Ning; Wu, Jun; Su, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lin, Biyun; Luo, Hui

    2013-10-15

    Galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis and autophagy to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by increasing the ratio of AMP/TAN in HepG2 cells. It stimulated the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and LKB1, but inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Inhibition of AMPK activation suppressed the dephosphorylation of mTOR to block galangin-induced autophagy. AMPK activation by galangin appeared to be independent of the LKB1 signaling pathway because the down-regulation of LKB1 by its siRNA failed to affect galangin-induced autophagy. Collectively, the findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of how galangin induces autophagy via activating AMPK in a LKB1- independent manner. The induction of autophagy can thus reflect the anti-proliferation effect of galangin in HCC cells.

  4. Pre-clinical study of drug combinations that reduce breast cancer burden due to aberrant mTOR and metabolism promoted by LKB1 loss

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Goguen, Donna; Bentley, Heidi A.; Bowen, Chris V.; Marignani, Paola A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer therapies that simultaneously target activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cell metabolism are urgently needed. The goal of our study was to identify therapies that effectively inhibited both mTOR activity and cancer cell metabolism in primary tumors in vivo. Using our mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer promoted by loss of LKB1 expression in an ErbB2 activated model; referred to as LKB1−/−NIC mice, we evaluated the effect of novel therapies in vivo on primary tumors. Treatment of LKB1−/−NIC mice with AZD8055 and 2-DG mono-therapies significantly reduced mammary gland tumorigenesis by inhibiting mTOR pathways and glycolytic metabolism; however simultaneous inhibition of these pathways with AZD8055/2-DG combination was significantly more effective at reducing tumor volume and burden. At the molecular level, combination treatment inhibited mTORC1/mTORC2 activity, selectively inhibited mitochondria function and blocked MAPK pro-survival signaling responsible for the ERK-p90RSK feedback loop. Our findings suggest that loss of LKB1 expression be considered a marker for metabolic dysfunction given its role in regulating AMPK and mTOR function. Finally, the outcome of our pre-clinical study confirms therapies that simultaneously target mTORC1/mTORC2 and glycolytic metabolism in cancer produce the best therapeutic outcome for the treatment of patients harboring metabolically active HER2 positive breast cancers. PMID:25436981

  5. AMPK Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in LKB1-deficient Cells via Activation of CAMKK2

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Sarah; Ross, Fiona A.; Ciruelos, Diana Vara; Gray, Alexander; Gowans, Graeme J.; Hardie, D. Grahame

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172, either by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 or by an alternate pathway involving the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, CAMKK2. Increases in AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios, signifying energy deficit, promote allosteric activation and net Thr172 phosphorylation mediated by LKB1, so that the LKB1-AMPK pathway acts as an energy sensor. Many tumor cells carry loss-of-function mutations in the STK11 gene encoding LKB1, but LKB1 re-expression in these cells causes cell cycle arrest. Therefore, it was investigated as to whether arrest by LKB1 is caused by activation of AMPK or of one of the AMPK-related kinases, which are also dependent on LKB1 but are not activated by CAMKK2. In three LKB1-null tumor cell lines, treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 caused a G1-arrest that correlated with AMPK activation and Thr172 phosphorylation. In G361 cells, expression of a truncated, CAMKK2 mutant also caused G1-arrest similar to that caused by expression of LKB1, while expression of a dominant negative AMPK mutant, or a double knockout of both AMPK-α subunits, also prevented the cell cycle arrest caused by A23187. These mechanistic findings confirm that AMPK activation triggers cell cycle arrest, and also suggest that the rapid proliferation of LKB1-null tumor cells is due to lack of the restraining influence of AMPK. However, cell cycle arrest can be restored by re-expressing LKB1 or a constitutively active CAMKK2, or by pharmacological agents that increase intracellular Ca2+ and thus activate endogenous CAMKK2. Implications Evidence here reveals that the rapid growth and proliferation of cancer cells lacking the tumor suppressor LKB1 is due to reduced activity of AMPK, and suggests a therapeutic approach by which this block might be circumvented. PMID:27141100

  6. Dialogue between LKB1 and AMPK: a hot topic at the cellular pole.

    PubMed

    Forcet, Christelle; Billaud, Marc

    2007-09-18

    Disruption of cell architecture and change of energy metabolism are two traits of malignant cells. Yet, there was scant evidence that these two cancer hallmarks involved perturbations of a common signaling pathway. Enter LKB1, a kinase that is a tumor suppressor and that is an upstream activator of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor of cellular energy status. Four studies now reveal that LKB1 signals through AMPK to facilitate the formation of tight junctions and to maintain epithelial polarity. Thus, LKB1 appears to be a novel class of tumor suppressor that acts as an energy-sensing and polarity checkpoint.

  7. Benzyl Isothiocyanate potentiates p53 signaling and antitumor effects against breast cancer through activation of p53-LKB1 and p73-LKB1 axes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bei; Nagalingam, Arumugam; Kuppusamy, Panjamurthy; Muniraj, Nethaji; Langford, Peter; Győrffy, Balázs; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Functional reactivation of p53 pathway, although arduous, can potentially provide a broad-based strategy for cancer therapy owing to frequent p53 inactivation in human cancer. Using a phosphoprotein-screening array, we found that Benzyl Isothiocynate, (BITC) increases p53 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells and reveal an important role of ERK and PRAS40/MDM2 in BITC-mediated p53 activation. We show that BITC rescues and activates p53-signaling network and inhibits growth of p53-mutant cells. Mechanistically, BITC induces p73 expression in p53-mutant cells, disrupts the interaction of p73 and mutant-p53, thereby releasing p73 from sequestration and allowing it to be transcriptionally active. Furthermore, BITC-induced p53 and p73 axes converge on tumor-suppressor LKB1 which is transcriptionally upregulated by p53 and p73 in p53-wild-type and p53-mutant cells respectively; and in a feed-forward mechanism, LKB1 tethers with p53 and p73 to get recruited to p53-responsive promoters. Analyses of BITC-treated xenografts using LKB1-null cells corroborate in vitro mechanistic findings and establish LKB1 as the key node whereby BITC potentiates as well as rescues p53-pathway in p53-wild-type as well as p53-mutant cells. These data provide first in vitro and in vivo evidence of the integral role of previously unrecognized crosstalk between BITC, p53/LKB1 and p73/LKB1 axes in breast tumor growth-inhibition. PMID:28071670

  8. Expression of LKB1 tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer determines sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Coon, Keith D; Smith, Michael A; Bremner, Ross M

    2009-03-01

    Targeted therapy promises to improve patient outcome in non-small cell lung cancer. Biomarkers can direct targeted therapy toward patients who are most likely to respond, thus optimizing benefit. A novel agent with antineoplastic potential is the glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose. 2-Deoxyglucose targets tumor cells, owing to their increased glucose uptake, inhibiting cellular metabolism and inducing energetic stress, resulting in decreased cellular viability. The tumor suppressor LKB1 is activated by energetic stress, and cells that lack LKB1 fail to respond and undergo cell death, suggesting that LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer may have an increased susceptibility to 2-deoxyglucose. Inasmuch as somatic loss of LKB1 is a frequent event in non-small cell lung cancer, LKB1 expression could be used as a biomarker for directing 2-deoxyglucose therapy in patients with this type of cancer. LKB1-positive and LKB1-negative non-small cell lung cancer cell lines were evaluated for cell viability, markers of apoptosis, and gene expression after 2-deoxyglucose treatment and compared with vehicle control. LKB1-negative cells treated with 2-deoxyglucose displayed a significant decrease in cell viability compared with LKB1-positive cells. Gene expression profiles of 2-deoxyglucose treated cells revealed changes in apoptotic markers in LKB1-negative cells, correlating with activation of apoptosis. Re-expression of LKB1 prevented 2-deoxyglucose mediated apoptosis, demonstrating the critical role of LKB1 in mediating 2-deoxyglucose toxicity. LKB1 loss increases susceptibility to 2-deoxyglucose treatment in non-small cell lung cancer lines, even at low doses. Thus, determination of LKB1 status may help direct therapy to those patients most likely to benefit from this novel approach, making it useful in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. Genetic Screening and Analysis of LKB1 Gene in Chinese Patients with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunyan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Deqiang; Wang, Fangyu; Pan, Jian; Wang, Zhenkai; Liu, Chang; Wu, Lin; Lu, Heng; Li, Nan; Wei, Juan; Shi, Hui; Wan, Haijun; Zhu, Ming; Chen, Senqing; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Liu; Liu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease. It severely decreases patient quality of life and leads elevated cancer risk. Germline mutation of LKB1 is the leading cause of familial PJS. Material/Methods To characterize the germline mutation of LKB1 gene in Chinese familial and sporadic PJS patients, 14 PJS families, 5 sporadic PJS patients, and 250 healthy adults were collected and genomic DNAs of peripheral blood were extracted. Mutation screenings of LKB1 were performed using MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), PCR, direct sequencing, and PCR-DHPLC (denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography). Results A total of 12 kinds of germline mutations were found in 9 familial PJS patients, most of which were point mutations (7/12); 4 large deletions of LKB1 were also observed. Of the 12 mutations, 7 were pathogenic (2 were de novo), 4 were just polymorphisms, and 1 was indefinitely pathogenic. No pathogenic mutation in exons of the LKB1 gene was detected in the 5 sporadic PJS patients. The mutation detection rate for the LKB1 gene was 85.7% in our Chinese familial PJS and 63.2% in all Chinese PJS patients. Eight familial PJS patients were identified with pathogenic germline mutations in 14 unrelated families (57.1%). Further methylation detection and analysis showed promoter methylation in carcinomatous polyps. Conclusions LKB1 gene germline mutation with pathogenic effect is a common cause of familial PJS in Chinese patients; however, it is not the only molecular pathogen of PJS. Methylation in the LKB1 gene promoter region may cause carcinomatous change in intestinal polyps. PMID:27721366

  10. Methylisoindigo preferentially kills cancer stem cells by interfering cell metabolism via inhibition of LKB1 and activation of AMPK in PDACs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinlai; Kim, Jee Young; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Duvaci, Tijen; Rafiee, Roya; Theobald, Jannick; Alborzinia, Hamed; Holenya, Pavlo; Fredebohm, Johannes; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Saffari, Arash; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Wölfl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinically has a very poor prognosis. No small molecule is available to reliably achieve cures. Meisoindigo is chemically related to the natural product indirubin and showed substantial efficiency in clinical chemotherapy for CML in China. However, its effect on PDAC is still unknown. Our results showed strong anti-proliferation effect of meisoindigo on gemcitabine-resistant PDACs. Using a recently established primary PDAC cell line, called Jopaca-1 with a larger CSCs population as model, we observed a reduction of CD133+ and ESA+/CD44+/CD24+ populations upon treatment and concomitantly a decreased expression of CSC-associated genes, and reduced cellular mobility and sphere formation. Investigating basic cellular metabolic responses, we detected lower oxygen consumption and glucose uptake, while intracellular ROS levels increased. This was effectively neutralized by the addition of antioxidants, indicating an essential role of the cellular redox balance. Further analysis on energy metabolism related signaling revealed that meisoindigo inhibited LKB1, but activated AMPK. Both of them were involved in cellular apoptosis. Additional in situ hybridization in tissue sections of PDAC patients reproducibly demonstrated co-expression and -localization of LKB1 and CD133 in malignant areas. Finally, we detected that CD133+/CD44+ were more vulnerable to meisoindigo, which could be mimicked by LKB1 siRNAs. Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that LKB1 sustains the CSC population in PDACs and demonstrate a clear benefit of meisoindigo in treatment of gemcitabine-resistant cells. This novel mechanism may provide a promising new treatment option for PDAC. Copyright © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorylation of LKB1/Par-4 Establishes Schwann Cell Polarity to Initiate and Control Myelin Extent

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yun-An A.; Chen, Yan; Dao, Dang Q.; Mayoral, Sonia R.; Wu, Laiman; Meijer, Dies; Ullian, Erik M.; Chan, Jonah R.; Lu, Q. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Schwann cell (SC)-axon interface represents a membrane specialization that integrates axonal signals to coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics resulting in myelination. Here we show that LKB1/Par-4 is asymmetrically localized to the SC-axon interface and colocalizes with the polarity protein Par-3. Using purified SCs and myelinating cocultures, we demonstrate that localization is dependent on the phosphorylation of LKB1 at serine-431. SC-specific deletion of LKB1 significantly attenuates developmental myelination, delaying the initiation and altering the myelin extent into adulthood, resulting in a 30% reduction in the conduction velocity along adult sciatic nerves. Phosphorylation of LKB1 by protein kinase A is essential to establish the asymmetric localization of LKB1 and Par-3 and rescues the delay in myelination observed in the SC-specific knockout of LKB1. Our findings suggest that SC polarity may coordinate multiple signaling complexes that couple SC-axon contact to the redistribution of specific membrane components necessary to initiate and control myelin extent. PMID:25255972

  12. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Cheng, Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding, Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. PMID:21767558

  13. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Cheng, Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding, Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Folliculin Controls Lung Alveolar Enlargement and Epithelial Cell Survival through E-cadherin, LKB1 and AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova, Elena A.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; James, Melane L.; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Stepanova, Victoria; Hong, Seung-Beom; Li, Hua; Gonzales, Linda; Baba, Masaya; Linehan, W. Marston; Gow, Andrew J.; Margulies, Susan; Guttentag, Susan; Schmidt, Laura S.; Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous pneumothoraces due to lung cyst rupture afflict patients with the rare disease Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene folliculin (FLCN) by unknown mechanism. BHD lungs exhibit increased alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. We show that Flcn deletion in lung epithelium leads to cell apoptosis, alveolar enlargement and impaired lung function. FLCN loss also impairs alveolar epithelial barrier function. Flcn-null epithelial cell apoptosis is the result of impaired AMPK activation and increased cleaved caspase-3. AMPK activator LKB1 and E-cadherin are downregulated by Flcn loss and restored by its expression. Flcn-null cell survival is rescued by AICAR or constitutively active AMPK. AICAR also improves lung condition of Flcnf/f:SP-C-Cre mice. Our data show that Flcn regulates lung epithelial cell survival and alveolar size and suggest that lung cysts in BHD may result from an underlying defect in alveolar epithelial cell survival attributable to FLCN regulation of the E-cadherin-LKB1-AMPK axis. PMID:24726356

  15. LKB1 inactivation dictates therapeutic response of non-small cell lung cancer to the metabolism drug phenformin.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, David B; Abt, Evan; Gerken, Laurie; Vasquez, Debbie S; Seki, Atsuko; Leblanc, Mathias; Wei, Liu; Fishbein, Michael C; Czernin, Johannes; Mischel, Paul S; Shaw, Reuben J

    2013-02-11

    The LKB1 (also called STK11) tumor suppressor is mutationally inactivated in ∼20% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). LKB1 is the major upstream kinase activating the energy-sensing kinase AMPK, making LKB1-deficient cells unable to appropriately sense metabolic stress. We tested the therapeutic potential of metabolic drugs in NSCLC and identified phenformin, a mitochondrial inhibitor and analog of the diabetes therapeutic metformin, as selectively inducing apoptosis in LKB1-deficient NSCLC cells. Therapeutic trials in Kras-dependent mouse models of NSCLC revealed that tumors with Kras and Lkb1 mutations, but not those with Kras and p53 mutations, showed selective response to phenformin as a single agent, resulting in prolonged survival. This study suggests phenformin as a cancer metabolism-based therapeutic to selectively target LKB1-deficient tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LKB1 inactivation dictates therapeutic response of non-small cell lung cancer to the metabolism drug phenformin

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, David B.; Abt, Evan; Gerken, Laurie; Vasquez, Debbie S.; Seki, Atsuko; Leblanc, Mathias; Wei, Liu; Fishbein, Michael C.; Czernin, Johannes; Mischel, Paul S.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The LKB1 (also called STK11) tumor suppressor is mutationally inactivated in ~20% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). LKB1 is the major upstream kinase activating the energy-sensing kinase AMPK, making LKB1-deficient cells unable to appropriately sense metabolic stress. We tested the therapeutic potential of metabolic drugs in NSCLC and identified phenformin, a mitochondrial inhibitor and analog of the diabetes therapeutic metformin, as selectively inducing apoptosis in LKB1-deficient NSCLC cells. Therapeutic trials in Kras-dependent mouse models of NSCLC revealed that tumors with Kras and Lkb1 mutations, but not those with Kras and p53 mutations showed selective response to phenformin as a single agent, resulting in prolonged survival. This study suggests phenformin as a cancer metabolism-based therapeutic to selectively target LKB1-deficient tumors. PMID:23352126

  17. Pancreatic cancer modeling using retrograde viral vector delivery and in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Heng; Winters, Ian P.; Wang, Jing; Naranjo, Santiago; Dudgeon, Crissy; Tamburini, Fiona B.; Brady, Jennifer J.; Yang, Dian; Grüner, Barbara M.; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Caswell, Deborah R.; Zeng, Hong; Chu, Pauline; Kim, Grace E.; Carpizo, Darren R.; Kim, Seung K.; Winslow, Monte M.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a genomically diverse, prevalent, and almost invariably fatal malignancy. Although conventional genetically engineered mouse models of human PDAC have been instrumental in understanding pancreatic cancer development, these models are much too labor-intensive, expensive, and slow to perform the extensive molecular analyses needed to adequately understand this disease. Here we demonstrate that retrograde pancreatic ductal injection of either adenoviral-Cre or lentiviral-Cre vectors allows titratable initiation of pancreatic neoplasias that progress into invasive and metastatic PDAC. To enable in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene inactivation in the pancreas, we generated a Cre-regulated Cas9 allele and lentiviral vectors that express Cre and a single-guide RNA. CRISPR-mediated targeting of Lkb1 in combination with oncogenic Kras expression led to selection for inactivating genomic alterations, absence of Lkb1 protein, and rapid tumor growth that phenocopied Cre-mediated genetic deletion of Lkb1. This method will transform our ability to rapidly interrogate gene function during the development of this recalcitrant cancer. PMID:26178787

  18. Pancreatic cancer modeling using retrograde viral vector delivery and in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic genome editing.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shin-Heng; Winters, Ian P; Wang, Jing; Naranjo, Santiago; Dudgeon, Crissy; Tamburini, Fiona B; Brady, Jennifer J; Yang, Dian; Grüner, Barbara M; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Caswell, Deborah R; Zeng, Hong; Chu, Pauline; Kim, Grace E; Carpizo, Darren R; Kim, Seung K; Winslow, Monte M

    2015-07-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a genomically diverse, prevalent, and almost invariably fatal malignancy. Although conventional genetically engineered mouse models of human PDAC have been instrumental in understanding pancreatic cancer development, these models are much too labor-intensive, expensive, and slow to perform the extensive molecular analyses needed to adequately understand this disease. Here we demonstrate that retrograde pancreatic ductal injection of either adenoviral-Cre or lentiviral-Cre vectors allows titratable initiation of pancreatic neoplasias that progress into invasive and metastatic PDAC. To enable in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene inactivation in the pancreas, we generated a Cre-regulated Cas9 allele and lentiviral vectors that express Cre and a single-guide RNA. CRISPR-mediated targeting of Lkb1 in combination with oncogenic Kras expression led to selection for inactivating genomic alterations, absence of Lkb1 protein, and rapid tumor growth that phenocopied Cre-mediated genetic deletion of Lkb1. This method will transform our ability to rapidly interrogate gene function during the development of this recalcitrant cancer.

  19. Folliculin controls lung alveolar enlargement and epithelial cell survival through E-cadherin, LKB1, and AMPK.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; James, Melane L; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Stepanova, Victoria; Hong, Seung-Beom; Li, Hua; Gonzales, Linda; Baba, Masaya; Linehan, W Marston; Gow, Andrew J; Margulies, Susan; Guttentag, Susan; Schmidt, Laura S; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2014-04-24

    Spontaneous pneumothoraces due to lung cyst rupture afflict patients with the rare disease Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which is caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene folliculin (FLCN). The underlying mechanism of the lung manifestations in BHD is unclear. We show that BHD lungs exhibit increased alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and that Flcn deletion in mouse lung epithelium leads to cell apoptosis, alveolar enlargement, and an impairment of both epithelial barrier and overall lung function. We find that Flcn-null epithelial cell apoptosis is the result of impaired AMPK activation and increased cleaved caspase-3. AMPK activator LKB1 and E-cadherin are downregulated by Flcn loss and restored by its expression. Correspondingly, Flcn-null cell survival is rescued by the AMPK activator AICAR or constitutively active AMPK. AICAR also improves lung condition of Flcn(f/f):SP-C-Cre mice. Our data suggest that lung cysts in BHD may result from an underlying defect in alveolar epithelial cell survival, attributable to FLCN regulation of the E-cadherin-LKB1-AMPK axis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heightening Energetic Stress Selectively Targets LKB1-Deficient Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Momcilovic, Milica; McMickle, Robert; Abt, Evan; Seki, Atsuko; Simko, Sarah A; Magyar, Clara; Stout, David B; Fishbein, Michael C; Walser, Tonya C; Dubinett, Steven M; Shackelford, David B

    2015-11-15

    Inactivation of the LKB1 tumor suppressor is a frequent event in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) leading to the activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and sensitivity to the metabolic stress inducer phenformin. In this study, we explored the combinatorial use of phenformin with the mTOR catalytic kinase inhibitor MLN0128 as a treatment strategy for NSCLC bearing comutations in the LKB1 and KRAS genes. NSCLC is a genetically and pathologically heterogeneous disease, giving rise to lung tumors of varying histologies that include adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We demonstrate that phenformin in combination with MLN0128 induced a significant therapeutic response in KRAS/LKB1-mutant human cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models of NSCLC that develop both adenocarcinomas and SCCs. Specifically, we found that KRAS/LKB1-mutant lung adenocarcinomas responded strongly to phenformin + MLN0128 treatment, but the response of SCCs to single or combined treatment with MLN0128 was more attenuated due to acquired resistance to mTOR inhibition through modulation of the AKT-GSK signaling axis. Combinatorial use of the mTOR inhibitor and AKT inhibitor MK2206 robustly inhibited the growth and viability of squamous lung tumors, thus providing an effective strategy to overcome resistance. Taken together, our findings define new personalized therapeutic strategies that may be rapidly translated into clinical use for the treatment of KRAS/LKB1-mutant adenocarcinomas and squamous cell tumors.

  1. Heightening energetic stress selectively targets LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Momcilovic, Milica; McMickle, Robert; Abt, Evan; Seki, Atsuko; Simko, Sarah A.; Magyar, Clara; Stout, David B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Walser, Tonya C.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Shackelford, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the LKB1 tumor suppressor is a frequent event in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) leading to the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and sensitivity to the metabolic stress inducer phenformin. In this study, we explored the combinatorial use of phenformin with the mTOR catalytic kinase inhibitor MLN0128 as a treatment strategy for NSCLC bearing co-mutations in the LKB1 and KRAS genes. NSCLC is a genetically and pathologically heterogeneous disease, giving rise to lung tumors of varying histologies that include adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). We demonstrate that phenformin in combination with MLN0128 induced a significant therapeutic response in KRAS/LKB1 mutant human cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models of NSCLC that develop both ADCs and SCCs. Specifically, we found that KRAS/LKB1 mutant lung ADCs responded strongly to phenformin + MLN0128 treatment, but the response of SCCs to single or combined treatment with MLN0128 was more attenuated due to acquired resistance to mTOR inhibition through modulation of the AKT-GSK signaling axis. Combinatorial use of the mTOR inhibitor and AKT inhibitor MK2206 robustly inhibited the growth and viability of squamous lung tumors thus providing an effective strategy to overcome resistance. Taken together, our findings define new personalized therapeutic strategies that may be rapidly translated into clinical use for the treatment of KRAS/LKB1 mutant adenocarcinomas and squamous cell tumors. PMID:26574479

  2. AMPK induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence via LKB1 dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Jin Young; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Kwang Youn; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} An aging model was established by stimulating VSMC with adriamycin. {yields} Adriamycin increased p-LKB1, p-AMPK, p53 and p21 expressions. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK diminished SA-{beta}-gal staining and restored VSMC proliferation. {yields} p53 and p21 siRNA attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining in VSMC. {yields} p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK induced VSMC senescence. -- Abstract: Vascular cells have a limited lifespan with limited cell proliferation and undergo cellular senescence. The functional changes associated with cellular senescence are thought to contribute to age-related vascular disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been discussed in terms of beneficial or harmful effects for aging-related diseases. However, the detailed functional mechanisms of AMPK are largely unclear. An aging model was established by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) with adriamycin. Adriamycin progressively increased the mRNA and protein expressions of AMPK. The phosphorylation levels of LKB1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the upstream and downstream of AMPK, were dramatically increased by adriamycin stimulation. The expressions of p53 and p21, which contribute to vascular senescence, were also increased. Inhibition of AMPK diminished senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, and restored VSMC proliferation. Cytosolic translocation of LKB1 by adriamycin could be a mechanism for AMPK activation in senescence. Furthermore, p53 siRNA and p21 siRNA transfection attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining. These results suggest that LKB1 dependent AMPK activation elicits VSMC senescence and p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK-induced senescence.

  3. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fakeng; Jin, Rui; Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-19

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells.

  4. YAP inhibits squamous transdifferentiation of Lkb1-deficient lung adenocarcinoma through ZEB2-dependent DNp63 repression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yijun; Zhang, Wenjing; Han, Xiangkun; Li, Fuming; Wang, Xujun; Wang, Rui; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Tong, Xinyuan; Yao, Shun; Li, Fei; Feng, Yan; Sun, Yihua; Hou, Yingyong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Guan, Kunliang; Chen, Haiquan; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Hongbin

    2014-08-13

    Whether the Hippo pathway contributes to cell lineage transition under pathological conditions, especially tumorigenesis, remains largely unknown. Here we show that YAP, the major effector of the Hippo pathway, displays a distinct activation pattern in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); YAP is initially activated by LKB1 loss in lung ADC, which upregulates ZEB2 expression and represses DNp63 transcription in a default manner. During transdifferentiation, YAP is inactivated, which in turn relieves ZEB2-mediated default repression of DNp63 and triggers squamous differentiation reprogramming. Disruption of the YAP barrier for phenotypic transition significantly accelerates squamous transdifferentiation, whereas constitutive YAP activation conversely inhibits this transition. More importantly, ectopic DNp63 expression rescues the inhibitory effect of YAP on squamous transdifferentiation. These findings have established YAP as an essential barrier for lung cancer cell fate conversion and provided a mechanism for regulating cancer plasticity, which might hold important implication for YAP-targeted therapies.

  5. Honokiol activates the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1h, and then exposed to 1mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28days, and honokiol (10mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intact LKB1 activity is required for survival of dormant ovarian cancer spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Peart, Teresa; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Correa, Rohann J. M.; Fazio, Elena; Bertrand, Monique; McGee, Jacob; Préfontaine, Michel; Sugimoto, Akira; DiMattia, Gabriel E.; Shepherd, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells can form multicellular spheroids while in suspension and disperse directly throughout the peritoneum to seed secondary lesions. There is growing evidence that EOC spheroids are key mediators of metastasis, and they use specific intracellular signalling pathways to control cancer cell growth and metabolism for increased survival. Our laboratory discovered that AKT signalling is reduced during spheroid formation leading to cellular quiescence and autophagy, and these may be defining features of tumour cell dormancy. To further define the phenotype of EOC spheroids, we have initiated studies of the Liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway as a master controller of the metabolic stress response. We demonstrate that activity of AMPK and its upstream kinase LKB1 are increased in quiescent EOC spheroids as compared with proliferating adherent EOC cells. We also show elevated AMPK activity in spheroids isolated directly from patient ascites. Functional studies reveal that treatment with the AMP mimetic AICAR or allosteric AMPK activator A-769662 led to a cytostatic response in proliferative adherent ovarian cancer cells, but they fail to elicit an effect in spheroids. Targeted knockdown of STK11 by RNAi to reduce LKB1 expression led to reduced viability and increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment in spheroids only, a phenomenon which was AMPK-independent. Thus, our results demonstrate a direct impact of altered LKB1-AMPK signalling function in EOC. In addition, this is the first evidence in cancer cells demonstrating a pro-survival function for LKB1, a kinase traditionally thought to act as a tumour suppressor. PMID:26068970

  7. Berberine inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Dong, Hui; Li, Jing-Bin; Xu, Li-Jun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er; Yi, Ping

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of berberine inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in a diabetic rat model. The 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was selected as the normal group. In the remaining groups (n = 8 each), the rats were fed on a high-fat diet for 1 mo and received intravenous injection of streptozotocin for induction of the diabetic models. Berberine (156 mg/kg per day) (berberine group) or metformin (184 mg/kg per day) (metformin group) was intragastrically administered to the diabetic rats and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.5 mg/kg per day) (AICAR group) was subcutaneously injected to the diabetic rats for 12 wk. The remaining eight diabetic rats served as the model group. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels as well as lipid profile were tested. The expressions of proteins were examined by western blotting. The nuclear translocation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator (TORC)2 was observed by immunohistochemical staining. Berberine improved impaired glucose tolerance and decreased plasma hyperlipidemia. Moreover, berberine decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Berberine upregulated protein expression of liver kinase (LK)B1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK). The level of phophorylated TORC2 (p-TORC2) protein in the cytoplasm was higher in the berberine group than in the model group, and no significant difference in total TORC2 protein level was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more TORC2 was localized in the cytoplasm of the berberine group than in the model group. Moreover, berberine treatment downregulated protein expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in the liver tissues. Our findings revealed that berberine inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis via the regulation of the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2

  8. Berberine inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Dong, Hui; Li, Jing-Bin; Xu, Li-Jun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er; Yi, Ping

    2015-01-01

    regulation of the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway. PMID:26167077

  9. Inactivation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway does not contribute to salivary gland tumor development - a short report.

    PubMed

    Cidlinsky, Natascha; Dogliotti, Giada; Pukrop, Tobias; Jung, Rudolf; Weber, Florian; Krahn, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Activation of AMPK by the tumor suppressor LKB1 represents an essential gatekeeping step for cells under energetic stress to prevent their growth and proliferation by inhibiting mTOR activation, until the energy supply normalizes. The LKB1/AMPK pathway is frequently downregulated in various types of cancer, thereby uncoupling tumor cell growth and proliferation from energy supply. As yet, little information is available on the role of the LKB1/AMPK pathway in tumors derived from salivary gland tissues. We performed LKB1 protein expression and AMPK and mTOR activation analyses in several salivary gland tumor types and their respective healthy control tissues using immunohistochemistry. No significant downregulation of LKB1 expression or decreased activation of AMPK or mTOR were observed in any of the salivary gland tumors tested. In contrast, we found that the salivary gland tumors exhibited an increased rather than a decreased AMPK activation. Although the PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be activated in most of the analyzed tumor samples, the unchanged robust activity of LKB1/AMPK likely prevents (over)activation of mTOR. In contrast to many other types of cancer, inactivation or downregulation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway does not substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

  10. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K.; Siow, Yaw L.; House, James D.

    2015-01-01

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver. PMID:26400185

  11. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  12. Endothelial SIRT1 prevents adverse arterial remodeling by facilitating HERC2-mediated degradation of acetylated LKB1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bo; Man, Andy W.C.; Yang, Kangmin; Guo, Yumeng; Xu, Cheng; Tse, Hung-Fat; Han, Weiping; Bloksgaard, Maria; De Mey, Jo G.R.; Vanhoutte, Paul M.; Xu, Aimin; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Aims-SIRT1 exerts potent activity against cellular senescence and vascular ageing. By decreasing LKB1 protein levels, it promotes the survival and regeneration of endothelial cells. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT1-mediated LKB1 degradation for the prevention of vascular ageing. Methods and Results-Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that SIRT1, via its amino-terminus, binds to the DOC domain of HERC2 [HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2], which then ubiquitinates LKB1 in the nuclear compartment of endothelial cells. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that acetylation at lysine (K) 64 of LKB1 triggers the formation of SIRT1/HERC2/LKB1 protein complex and subsequent proteasomal degradation. In vitro cellular studies suggested that accumulation of acetylated LKB1 in the nucleus leads to endothelial activation, in turn stimulating the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the production of extracellular matrix proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative PCR confirmed that acetylated LKB1 interacts with and activates TGFβ1 promoter, which is inhibited by SIRT1. Knocking down either SIRT1 or HERC2 results in an increased association of LKB1 with the positive regulatory elements of TGFβ1 promoter. In mice without endothelial nitric oxide synthase, selective overexpression of human SIRT1 in endothelium prevents hypertension and age-related adverse arterial remodeling. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HERC2 abolishes the beneficial effects of endothelial SIRT1 on both arterial remodeling and arterial blood pressure control. Conclusion-By downregulating acetylated LKB1 protein via HERC2, SIRT1 fine-tunes the crosstalk between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells to prevent adverse arterial remodeling and maintain vascular homeostasis. PMID:27259994

  13. Endothelial SIRT1 prevents adverse arterial remodeling by facilitating HERC2-mediated degradation of acetylated LKB1.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bo; Man, Andy W C; Yang, Kangmin; Guo, Yumeng; Xu, Cheng; Tse, Hung-Fat; Han, Weiping; Bloksgaard, Maria; De Mey, Jo G R; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-28

    Aims-SIRT1 exerts potent activity against cellular senescence and vascular ageing. By decreasing LKB1 protein levels, it promotes the survival and regeneration of endothelial cells. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT1-mediated LKB1 degradation for the prevention of vascular ageing.Methods and Results-Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that SIRT1, via its amino-terminus, binds to the DOC domain of HERC2 [HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2], which then ubiquitinates LKB1 in the nuclear compartment of endothelial cells. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that acetylation at lysine (K) 64 of LKB1 triggers the formation of SIRT1/HERC2/LKB1 protein complex and subsequent proteasomal degradation. In vitro cellular studies suggested that accumulation of acetylated LKB1 in the nucleus leads to endothelial activation, in turn stimulating the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the production of extracellular matrix proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative PCR confirmed that acetylated LKB1 interacts with and activates TGFβ1 promoter, which is inhibited by SIRT1. Knocking down either SIRT1 or HERC2 results in an increased association of LKB1 with the positive regulatory elements of TGFβ1 promoter. In mice without endothelial nitric oxide synthase, selective overexpression of human SIRT1 in endothelium prevents hypertension and age-related adverse arterial remodeling. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HERC2 abolishes the beneficial effects of endothelial SIRT1 on both arterial remodeling and arterial blood pressure control.Conclusion-By downregulating acetylated LKB1 protein via HERC2, SIRT1 fine-tunes the crosstalk between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells to prevent adverse arterial remodeling and maintain vascular homeostasis.

  14. Transdifferentiation of lung adenocarcinoma in mice with Lkb1 deficiency to squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiangkun; Li, Fuming; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Gao, Yijun; Li, Fei; Fang, Rong; Yao, Shun; Sun, Yihua; Li, Li; Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Huimin; Xiao, Qian; Ge, Gaoxiang; Fang, Jing; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Lei; Wong, Kwok-kin; Chen, Haiquan; Hou, Yingyong; Ji, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Lineage transition in adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of non-small cell lung cancer, as implicated by clinical observation of mixed ADC and SCC pathologies in adenosquamous cell carcinoma, remains a fundamental yet unsolved question. Here we provide in vivo evidence showing the transdifferentiation of lung cancer from ADC to SCC in mice: Lkb1-deficient lung ADC progressively transdifferentiates into SCC, via a pathologically mixed mAd-SCC intermediate. We find that reduction of lysyl oxidase (Lox) in Lkb1-deficient lung ADC decreases collagen disposition and triggers extracellular matrix remodelling and upregulates p63 expression, a SCC lineage survival oncogene. Pharmacological Lox inhibition promotes the transdifferentiation, whereas ectopic Lox expression significantly inhibits this process. Notably, ADC and SCC show differential responses to Lox inhibition. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the de novo transdifferentiation of lung ADC to SCC in mice and provide mechanistic insight that may have important implications for lung cancer treatment. PMID:24531128

  15. Catechin-induced activation of the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi

    2009-07-01

    Catechins are abundant in green tea and induce a variety of biologic actions, including anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes effects, and their clinical application has been widely investigated. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of these actions, we examined the effect of catechins on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured cells and in mice. In Hepa 1-6, L6, and 3T3-L1 cells, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) induced increases in AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, and AMPKalpha activity. Analysis of the molecular specificity of eight naturally occurring catechins revealed that catechins with a gallocatechin moiety or a galloyl residue act as AMPK activators. In addition, phosphorylation of LKB1, which is a tumor-suppressor protein and a major AMPK-kinase, was increased by catechin treatment. EGCG-induced phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPKalpha was suppressed by treatment with catalase, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are involved in EGCG-induced activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Oral administration of EGCG (200mg/kg body weight) to BALB/c mice induced an increase in AMPKalpha activity in the liver concomitant with a significant increase in AMPKalpha and ACC phosphorylation. EGCG administration also increased oxygen consumption and fat oxidation, as determined by indirect calorimetry. These findings suggest that multiple effects of catechins, including anti-obesity and anti-cancer effects, are mediated, at least in part, by the activation of LKB1/AMPK in various tissues, and that these effects vary according to the catechin structure.

  16. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  17. WEE1 Kinase Inhibitor AZD1775 Has Preclinical Efficacy in LKB1-Deficient Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Richer, Amanda L; Cala, Jacqueline M; O'Brien, Kelley; Carson, Vashti M; Inge, Landon J; Whitsett, Timothy G

    2017-09-01

    G1-S checkpoint loss contributes to carcinogenesis and increases reliance upon the G2-M checkpoint for adaptation to stress and DNA repair, making G2-M checkpoint inhibition a target for novel therapeutic development. AZD1775, an inhibitor against the critical G2-M checkpoint protein WEE1, is currently in clinical trials across a number of tumor types. AZD1775 and DNA-damaging agents have displayed favorable activity in several preclinical tumor models, often in the molecular context of TP53 loss. Whether AZD1775 efficacy is modulated by other molecular contexts remains poorly understood. The tumor suppressor serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1/STK11) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is commonly comutated with oncogenic KRAS mutations. We investigated the preclinical effects of AZD1775 in the context of KRAS/LKB1 in NSCLC. Using NSCLC cell lines, we found that AZD1775 alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (e.g., cisplatin and radiation) decreased tumor cell viability in LKB1-deficient NSCLC cells. In vitro, LKB1 deficiency enhanced DNA damage and apoptosis in response to AZD1775 exposure compared with wild-type LKB1 cells. In a genetically engineered mouse model of mutant Kras with concomitant loss of Lkb1, combined AZD1775 and cisplatin extended overall survival compared with cisplatin alone. Our data suggest that lack of phosphorylation of LKB1 by ATM was involved in AZD1775-mediated cytotoxicity. Collectively, these findings provide a clinical application for AZD1775 with DNA-damaging agents in KRAS/LKB1 NSCLC. Cancer Res; 77(17); 4663-72. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. LKB1 kinase-dependent and -independent defects disrupt polarity and adhesion signaling to drive collagen remodeling during invasion

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Jessica; Wilkinson, Scott; Lee, Byoungkoo; Fu, Haian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Marcus, Adam I.

    2016-01-01

    LKB1 is a serine/threonine kinase and a commonly mutated gene in lung adenocarcinoma. The majority of LKB1 mutations are truncations that disrupt its kinase activity and remove its C-terminal domain (CTD). Because LKB1 inactivation drives cancer metastasis in mice and leads to aberrant cell invasion in vitro, we sought to determine how compromised LKB1 function affects lung cancer cell polarity and invasion. Using three-dimensional models, we show that LKB1 kinase activity is essential for focal adhesion kinase–mediated cell adhesion and subsequent collagen remodeling but not cell polarity. Instead, cell polarity is overseen by the kinase-independent function of its CTD and more specifically its farnesylation. This occurs through a mesenchymal-amoeboid morphological switch that signals through the Rho-GTPase RhoA. These data suggest that a combination of kinase-dependent and -independent defects by LKB1 inactivation creates a uniquely invasive cell with aberrant polarity and adhesion signaling that drives invasion into the microenvironment. PMID:26864623

  19. Regulation of pancreatic cancer growth by superoxide.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Nelson, Elke S; Simons, Andrean L; Olney, Kristen E; Moser, Justin C; Schrock, Hannah E; Wagner, Brett A; Buettner, Garry R; Smith, Brian J; Teoh, Melissa L T; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cullen, Joseph J

    2013-07-01

    K-ras mutations have been identified in up to 95% of pancreatic cancers, implying their critical role in the molecular pathogenesis. Expression of K-ras oncogene in an immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line, originally derived from normal pancreas (H6c7), induced the formation of carcinoma in mice. We hypothesized that K-ras oncogene correlates with increased non-mitochondrial-generated superoxide (O 2.-), which could be involved in regulating cell growth contributing to tumor progression. In the H6c7 cell line and its derivatives, H6c7er-Kras+ (H6c7 cells expressing K-ras oncogene), and H6c7eR-KrasT (tumorigenic H6c7 cells expressing K-ras oncogene), there was an increase in hydroethidine fluorescence in cell lines that express K-ras. Western blots and activity assays for the antioxidant enzymes that detoxify O 2.- were similar in these cell lines suggesting that the increase in hydroethidine fluorescence was not due to decreased antioxidant capacity. To determine a possible non-mitochondrial source of the increased levels of O 2.-, Western analysis demonstrated the absence of NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) in H6c7 cells but present in the H6c7 cell lines expressing K-ras and other pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of NOX2 decreased hydroethidine fluorescence and clonogenic survival. Furthermore, in the cell lines with the K-ras oncogene, overexpression of superoxide dismutases that detoxify non-mitochondrial sources of O 2.-, and treatment with the small molecule O 2.- scavenger Tempol, also decreased hydroethidine fluorescence, inhibited clonogenic survival and inhibited growth of tumor xenografts. Thus, O 2.- produced by NOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells with K-ras, may regulate pancreatic cancer cell growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Differential control of Yorkie activity by LKB1/AMPK and the Hippo/Warts cascade in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Gailite, Ieva; Aerne, Birgit L.; Tapon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a highly conserved tumor suppressor network that restricts developmental tissue growth and regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation. At the heart of the Hpo pathway is the progrowth transcriptional coactivator Yorkie [Yki–Yes-activated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in mammals]. Yki activity is restricted through phosphorylation by the Hpo/Warts core kinase cascade, but increasing evidence indicates that core kinase-independent modes of regulation also play an important role. Here, we examine Yki regulation in the Drosophila larval central nervous system and uncover a Hpo/Warts-independent function for the tumor suppressor kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and its downstream effector, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in repressing Yki activity in the central brain/ventral nerve cord. Although the Hpo/Warts core cascade restrains Yki in the optic lobe, it is dispensable for Yki target gene repression in the late larval central brain/ventral nerve cord. Thus, we demonstrate a dramatically different wiring of Hpo signaling in neighboring cell populations of distinct developmental origins in the central nervous system. PMID:26324895

  1. Honokiol activates LKB1-miR-34a axis and antagonizes the oncogenic actions of leptin in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Avtanski, Dimiter B; Nagalingam, Arumugam; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Saxena, Neeraj K; Sharma, Dipali

    2015-10-06

    Leptin, a major adipocytokine produced by adipocytes, is emerging as a key molecule linking obesity with breast cancer therefore, it is important to find effective strategies to antagonize oncogenic effects of leptin to disrupt obesity-cancer axis. Here, we examine the potential of honokiol (HNK), a bioactive polyphenol from Magnolia grandiflora, as a leptin-antagonist and systematically elucidate the underlying mechanisms. HNK inhibits leptin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and mammosphere-formation along with a reduction in the expression of stemness factors, Oct4 and Nanog. Investigating the downstream mediator(s), that direct leptin-antagonist actions of HNK; we discovered functional interactions between HNK, LKB1 and miR-34a. HNK increases the expression and cytoplasmic-localization of LKB1 while HNK-induced SIRT1/3 accentuates the cytoplasmic-localization of LKB1. We found that HNK increases miR-34a in LKB1-dependent manner as LKB1-silencing impedes HNK-induced miR-34a which can be rescued by LKB1-overexpression. Finally, an integral role of miR-34a is discovered as miR-34a mimic potentiates HNK-mediated inhibition of EMT, Zeb1 expression and nuclear-localization, mammosphere-formation, and expression of stemness factors. Leptin-antagonist actions of HNK are further enhanced by miR-34a mimic whereas miR-34a inhibitor results in inhibiting HNK's effect on leptin. These data provide evidence for the leptin-antagonist potential of HNK and reveal the involvement of LKB1 and miR-34a.

  2. Honokiol activates LKB1-miR-34a axis and antagonizes the oncogenic actions of leptin in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael Y.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, a major adipocytokine produced by adipocytes, is emerging as a key molecule linking obesity with breast cancer therefore, it is important to find effective strategies to antagonize oncogenic effects of leptin to disrupt obesity-cancer axis. Here, we examine the potential of honokiol (HNK), a bioactive polyphenol from Magnolia grandiflora, as a leptin-antagonist and systematically elucidate the underlying mechanisms. HNK inhibits leptin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and mammosphere-formation along with a reduction in the expression of stemness factors, Oct4 and Nanog. Investigating the downstream mediator(s), that direct leptin-antagonist actions of HNK; we discovered functional interactions between HNK, LKB1 and miR-34a. HNK increases the expression and cytoplasmic-localization of LKB1 while HNK-induced SIRT1/3 accentuates the cytoplasmic-localization of LKB1. We found that HNK increases miR-34a in LKB1-dependent manner as LKB1-silencing impedes HNK-induced miR-34a which can be rescued by LKB1-overexpression. Finally, an integral role of miR-34a is discovered as miR-34a mimic potentiates HNK-mediated inhibition of EMT, Zeb1 expression and nuclear-localization, mammosphere-formation, and expression of stemness factors. Leptin-antagonist actions of HNK are further enhanced by miR-34a mimic whereas miR-34a inhibitor results in inhibiting HNK's effect on leptin. These data provide evidence for the leptin-antagonist potential of HNK and reveal the involvement of LKB1 and miR-34a. PMID:26359358

  3. Hydrogen-rich medium protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts from oxidative stress by activating LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Young-Joo; Tran, Quynh Hoa; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2017-09-23

    Persistent oxidative stress is recognized as a major cause of many pathological conditions as well as ageing. However, most clinical trials of dietary antioxidants have failed to produce successful outcomes in treating oxidative stress-induced diseases. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has recently received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent owing to its novel antioxidant properties, a selective scavenger of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. Beyond this, numerous reports support that H2 can modulate the activity of various cellular signal pathways. However, its effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway, a central regulator of energy hemostasis, has remained almost elusive. Here, we report that hydrogen-rich medium activated LKB1-AMPK signal pathway without ATP depletion, which in turn induced FoxO1-dependent transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, hydrogen-rich media effectively reduced the level of reactive oxygen species in cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and protected these cells from apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results suggest that the LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signaling pathway is a critical mediator of the antioxidant properties of H2, further supporting the idea that H2 acts as a signaling molecule to serve various physiological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RIP2-mediated LKB1 deletion causes axon degeneration in the spinal cord and hind-limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gao; Reynolds, Richard; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    Axon degeneration is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The molecular basis of this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. Microtubule structures were also affected in the degenerated foci, with diminished neurofilament and tubulin expression. Deletion of both PRKAA1 genes, whose products AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are also downstream targets of LKB1, with the same strategy was without effect. We thus define LKB1 as an intrinsic suppressor of axon degeneration and a possible target for strategies that can reverse this process.

  5. STK11/LKB1 deficiency promotes neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine production to suppress T cell activity in the lung tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A.; Li, Yvonne Y.; Aref, Amir R.; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Buczkowski, Kevin A.; Liu, Yan; Awad, Mark M.; Denning, Warren L.; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Soucheray, Margaret; Thai, Tran C.; Asahina, Hajime; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Altabef, Abigail; Cavanaugh, Jillian D.; Rhee, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haikuo; Fecci, Peter E.; Shimamura, Takeshi; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Heymach, John V.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J.; Barbie, David A.; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-01-01

    STK11/LKB1 is among the most commonly inactivated tumor suppressors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in tumors harboring KRAS mutations. Many oncogenes promote immune escape, undermining the effectiveness of immunotherapies, but it is unclear whether inactivation of tumor suppressor genes such as STK11/LKB1 exert similar effects. In this study, we investigated the consequences of STK11/LKB1 loss on the immune microenvironment in a mouse model of KRAS-driven NSCLC. Genetic ablation of STK11/LKB1 resulted in accumulation of neutrophils with T cell suppressive effects, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of T cell exhaustion markers and tumor-promoting cytokines. The number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was also reduced in LKB1-deficient mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, STK11/LKB1 inactivating mutations were associated with reduced expression of PD-1 ligand PD-L1 in mouse and patient tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines. Consistent with these results, PD-1 targeting antibodies were ineffective against Lkb1-deficient tumors. In contrast, treating Lkb1-deficient mice with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or a neutrophil-depleting antibody yielded therapeutic benefits associated with reduced neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our findings illustrate how tumor suppressor mutations can modulate the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and they offer specific implications for addressing STK11/LKB1 mutated tumors with PD-1 targeting antibody therapies. PMID:26833127

  6. STK11/LKB1 Deficiency Promotes Neutrophil Recruitment and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production to Suppress T-cell Activity in the Lung Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A; Li, Yvonne Y; Aref, Amir R; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Buczkowski, Kevin A; Liu, Yan; Awad, Mark M; Denning, Warren L; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin R; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Soucheray, Margaret; Thai, Tran; Asahina, Hajime; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Altabef, Abigail; Cavanaugh, Jillian D; Rhee, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haikuo; Fecci, Peter E; Shimamura, Takeshi; Hellmann, Matthew D; Heymach, John V; Hodi, F Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J; Barbie, David A; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-03-01

    STK11/LKB1 is among the most commonly inactivated tumor suppressors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in tumors harboring KRAS mutations. Many oncogenes promote immune escape, undermining the effectiveness of immunotherapies, but it is unclear whether the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, such as STK11/LKB1, exerts similar effects. In this study, we investigated the consequences of STK11/LKB1 loss on the immune microenvironment in a mouse model of KRAS-driven NSCLC. Genetic ablation of STK11/LKB1 resulted in accumulation of neutrophils with T-cell-suppressive effects, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of T-cell exhaustion markers and tumor-promoting cytokines. The number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was also reduced in LKB1-deficient mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, STK11/LKB1-inactivating mutations were associated with reduced expression of PD-1 ligand PD-L1 in mouse and patient tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines. Consistent with these results, PD-1-targeting antibodies were ineffective against Lkb1-deficient tumors. In contrast, treating Lkb1-deficient mice with an IL6-neutralizing antibody or a neutrophil-depleting antibody yielded therapeutic benefits associated with reduced neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our findings illustrate how tumor suppressor mutations can modulate the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and they offer specific implications for addressing STK11/LKB1-mutated tumors with PD-1-targeting antibody therapies.

  7. Phenformin enhances the therapeutic effect of selumetinib in KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer irrespective of LKB1 status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Nannapaneni, Sreenivas; Wang, Dongsheng; Liu, Fakeng; Wang, Xu; Jin, Rui; Liu, Xiuju; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Peng, Xianghong; Qian, Guoqing; Chen, Zhuo G; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Khuri, Fadlo R; Zhou, Wei; Shin, Dong M

    2017-08-29

    MEK inhibition is potentially valuable in targeting KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we analyzed whether concomitant LKB1 mutation alters sensitivity to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, and whether the metabolism drug phenformin can enhance the therapeutic effect of selumetinib in isogenic cell lines with different LKB1 status. Isogenic pairs of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines A549, H460 and H157, each with wild-type and null LKB1, as well as genetically engineered mouse-derived cell lines 634 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(wt/wt)) and t2 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(-/-)) were used in vitro to analyze the activities of selumetinib, phenformin and their combination. Synergy was measured and potential mechanisms investigated. The in vitro findings were then confirmed in vivo using xenograft models. The re-expression of wild type LKB1 increased phospho-ERK level, suggesting that restored dependency on MEK->ERK->MAPK signaling might have contributed to the enhanced sensitivity to selumetinib. In contrast, the loss of LKB1 sensitized cells to phenformin. At certain combination ratios, phenformin and selumetinib showed synergistic activity regardless of LKB1 status. Their combination reduced phospho-ERK and S6 levels and induced potent apoptosis, but was likely through different mechanisms in cells with different LKB1 status. Finally, in xenograft models bearing isogenic A549 cells, we confirmed that loss of LKB1 confers resistance to selumetinib, and phenformin significantly enhances the therapeutic effect of selumetinib. Irrespective of LKB1 status, phenformin may enhance the anti-tumor effect of selumetinib in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. The dual targeting of MEK and cancer metabolism may provide a useful strategy to treat this subset of lung cancer.

  8. Activation of tumor suppressor LKB1 by honokiol abrogates cancer stem-like phenotype in breast cancer via inhibition of oncogenic Stat3.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Nagalingam, A; Muniraj, N; Bonner, M Y; Mistriotis, P; Afthinos, A; Kuppusamy, P; Lanoue, D; Cho, S; Korangath, P; Shriver, M; Begum, A; Merino, V F; Huang, C-Y; Arbiser, J L; Matsui, W; Győrffy, B; Konstantopoulos, K; Sukumar, S; Marignani, P A; Saxena, N K; Sharma, D

    2017-06-05

    Tumor suppressor and upstream master kinase Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) plays a significant role in suppressing cancer growth and metastatic progression. We show that low-LKB1 expression significantly correlates with poor survival outcome in breast cancer. In line with this observation, loss-of-LKB1 rendered breast cancer cells highly migratory and invasive, attaining cancer stem cell-like phenotype. Accordingly, LKB1-null breast cancer cells exhibited an increased ability to form mammospheres and elevated expression of pluripotency-factors (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2), properties also observed in spontaneous tumors in Lkb1(-/-) mice. Conversely, LKB1-overexpression in LKB1-null cells abrogated invasion, migration and mammosphere-formation. Honokiol (HNK), a bioactive molecule from Magnolia grandiflora increased LKB1 expression, inhibited individual cell-motility and abrogated the stem-like phenotype of breast cancer cells by reducing the formation of mammosphere, expression of pluripotency-factors and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. LKB1, and its substrate, AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) are important for HNK-mediated inhibition of pluripotency factors since LKB1-silencing and AMPK-inhibition abrogated, while LKB1-overexpression and AMPK-activation potentiated HNK's effects. Mechanistic studies showed that HNK inhibited Stat3-phosphorylation/activation in an LKB1-dependent manner, preventing its recruitment to canonical binding-sites in the promoters of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Thus, inhibition of the coactivation-function of Stat3 resulted in suppression of expression of pluripotency factors. Further, we showed that HNK inhibited breast tumorigenesis in mice in an LKB1-dependent manner. Molecular analyses of HNK-treated xenografts corroborated our in vitro mechanistic findings. Collectively, these results present the first in vitro and in vivo evidence to support crosstalk between LKB1, Stat3 and pluripotency factors in breast cancer and effective anticancer modulation

  9. Pulsed Azidohomoalanine Labeling in Mammals (PALM) Detects Changes in Liver-Specific LKB1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of proteomes by mass spectrometry has proven to be useful to study human pathology recapitulated in cellular or animal models of disease. Enriching and quantifying newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) at set time points by mass spectrometry has the potential to identify important early regulatory or expression changes associated with disease states or perturbations. NSP can be enriched from proteomes by employing pulsed introduction of the noncanonical amino acid, azidohomoalanine (AHA). We demonstrate that pulsed introduction of AHA in the feed of mice can label and identify NSP from multiple tissues. Furthermore, we quantitate differences in new protein expression resulting from CRE-LOX initiated knockout of LKB1 in mouse livers. Overall, the PALM strategy allows for the first time in vivo labeling of mouse tissues to differentiate protein synthesis rates at discrete time points. PMID:26445171

  10. Pulsed Azidohomoalanine Labeling in Mammals (PALM) Detects Changes in Liver-Specific LKB1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    McClatchy, Daniel B; Ma, Yuanhui; Liu, Chao; Stein, Benjamin D; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Vasquez, Debbie; Hellberg, Kristina; Shaw, Reuben J; Yates, John R

    2015-11-06

    Quantification of proteomes by mass spectrometry has proven to be useful to study human pathology recapitulated in cellular or animal models of disease. Enriching and quantifying newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) at set time points by mass spectrometry has the potential to identify important early regulatory or expression changes associated with disease states or perturbations. NSP can be enriched from proteomes by employing pulsed introduction of the noncanonical amino acid, azidohomoalanine (AHA). We demonstrate that pulsed introduction of AHA in the feed of mice can label and identify NSP from multiple tissues. Furthermore, we quantitate differences in new protein expression resulting from CRE-LOX initiated knockout of LKB1 in mouse livers. Overall, the PALM strategy allows for the first time in vivo labeling of mouse tissues to differentiate protein synthesis rates at discrete time points.

  11. LKB1 Knockout Mouse Develops Spontaneous Atrial Fibrillation and Provides Mechanistic Insights Into Human Disease Process

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Cevher; Battaglia, Emily; Young, Rebeccah; Suzuki, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease process, and the molecular mechanisms underlying initiation and progression of the disease are unclear. Consequently, AF has been difficult to model. In this study, we have presented a novel transgenic mouse model of AF that mimics human disease and characterized the mechanisms of atrial electroanatomical remodeling in the genesis of AF. Methods and Results Cardiac‐specific liver kinase B1 (LKB1) knockout (KO) mice were generated, and 47% aged 4 weeks and 95% aged 12 weeks developed spontaneous AF from sinus rhythm by demonstrating paroxysmal and persistent stages of the disease. Electrocardiographic characteristics of sinus rhythm were similar in KO and wild‐type mice. Atrioventricular block and atrial flutter were common in KO mice. Heart rate was slower with persistent AF. In parallel with AF, KO mice developed progressive biatrial enlargement with inflammation, heterogeneous fibrosis, and loss of cardiomyocyte population with apoptosis and necrosis. Atrial tissue was infiltrated with inflammatory cells. C‐reactive protein, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α were significantly elevated in serum. KO atria demonstrated elevated reactive oxygen species and decreased AMP‐activated protein kinase activity. Cardiomyocyte and myofibrillar ultrastructure were disrupted. Intercellular matrix and gap junction were interrupted. Connexins 40 and 43 were reduced. Persistent AF caused left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. Survival and exercise capacity were worse in KO mice. Conclusions LKB1 KO mice develop spontaneous AF from sinus rhythm and progress into persistent AF by replicating the human AF disease process. Progressive inflammatory atrial cardiomyopathy is the genesis of AF, through mechanistic electrical and structural remodeling. PMID:25773299

  12. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  13. Pancreatic Mesenchyme Regulates Epithelial Organogenesis throughout Development

    PubMed Central

    Landsman, Limor; Nijagal, Amar; Whitchurch, Theresa J.; VanderLaan, Renee L.; Zimmer, Warren E.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The developing pancreatic epithelium gives rise to all endocrine and exocrine cells of the mature organ. During organogenesis, the epithelial cells receive essential signals from the overlying mesenchyme. Previous studies, focusing on ex vivo tissue explants or complete knockout mice, have identified an important role for the mesenchyme in regulating the expansion of progenitor cells in the early pancreas epithelium. However, due to the lack of genetic tools directing expression specifically to the mesenchyme, the potential roles of this supporting tissue in vivo, especially in guiding later stages of pancreas organogenesis, have not been elucidated. We employed transgenic tools and fetal surgical techniques to ablate mesenchyme via Cre-mediated mesenchymal expression of Diphtheria Toxin (DT) at the onset of pancreas formation, and at later developmental stages via in utero injection of DT into transgenic mice expressing the Diphtheria Toxin receptor (DTR) in this tissue. Our results demonstrate that mesenchymal cells regulate pancreatic growth and branching at both early and late developmental stages by supporting proliferation of precursors and differentiated cells, respectively. Interestingly, while cell differentiation was not affected, the expansion of both the endocrine and exocrine compartments was equally impaired. To further elucidate signals required for mesenchymal cell function, we eliminated β-catenin signaling and determined that it is a critical pathway in regulating mesenchyme survival and growth. Our study presents the first in vivo evidence that the embryonic mesenchyme provides critical signals to the epithelium throughout pancreas organogenesis. The findings are novel and relevant as they indicate a critical role for the mesenchyme during late expansion of endocrine and exocrine compartments. In addition, our results provide a molecular mechanism for mesenchymal expansion and survival by identifying β-catenin signaling as an essential mediator

  14. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  15. CD44 regulates pancreatic cancer invasion through MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yaqing; Kane, Kevin T; Collins, Meredith A; Simeone, Diane M; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Nguyen, Kevin Tri

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies due to its early metastatic spread and resistance to therapy. The mechanisms regulating pancreatic cancer metastasis are so far poorly understood. Here, using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, it is demonstrated that CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on a subset of pancreatic cancer cells, is required for the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of an invasive program in pancreatic cancer. Mechanistically, the transcription factor Snail1 (SNAI1), a regulator of the EMT program, is a downstream target of CD44 in primary pancreatic cancer cells and regulates membrane bound metalloproteinase (MMP14/MT1-MMP) expression. In turn, MT1-MMP expression is required for pancreatic cancer invasion. Thus, these data establish the CD44-Snail-MMP axis as a key regulator of the EMT program and of invasion in pancreatic cancer. This study sets the stage for CD44 and MT1-MMP as therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer, for which small molecule or biologic inhibitors are available. Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2014/09/10/1541-7786.MCR-14-0076/F1.large.jpg. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. CD44 regulates pancreatic cancer invasion through MT1-MMP

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yaqing; Kane, Kevin T.; Collins, Meredith A.; Simeone, Diane M.; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Nguyen, Kevin Tri

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies due to its early metastatic spread and resistance to therapy. The mechanisms regulating pancreatic cancer metastasis are so far poorly understood. Here, using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, it is demonstrated that CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on a subset of pancreatic cancer cells, is required for the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of an invasive program in pancreatic cancer. Mechanistically, the transcription factor Snail1 (SNAI1), a regulator of the EMT program, is a downstream target of CD44 in primary pancreatic cancer cells and regulates membrane bound metalloproteinase (MMP14/MT1-MMP) expression. In turn, MT1-MMP expression is required for pancreatic cancer invasion. Thus, these data establish the CD44-Snail-MMP axis as a key regulator of the EMT program and of invasion in pancreatic cancer. (135) IMPLICATIONS This study sets the stage for CD44 and MT1-MMP as therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer, for which small molecule or biologic inhibitors are available. PMID:25566991

  17. Protein Kinase D Regulates Cell Death Pathways in Experimental Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Liu, Yannan; Tan, Tanya; Guha, Sushovan; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-κB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK) in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, up-regulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:22470346

  18. Pancreatic regeneration: basic research and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Okita, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Toru; Shigenori, Ota; Ishii, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Ueki, Tomomi; Meguro, Makoto; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kojima, Takashi; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Noriyuki; Sawada, Norimasa; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic regeneration (PR) is an interesting phenomenon that could provide clues as to how the control of diabetes mellitus might be achieved. Due to the different regenerative abilities of the pancreas and liver, the molecular mechanism responsible for PR is largely unknown. In this review, we describe five representative murine models of PR and thirteen humoral mitogens that stimulate β-cell proliferation. We also describe pancreatic ontogenesis, including the molecular transcriptional differences between α-cells and β-cells. Furthermore, we review 14 murine models which carry defects in genes related to key transcription factors for pancreatic ontogenesis to gain further insight into pancreatic development.

  19. Lkb1 inactivation drives lung cancer lineage switching governed by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haikuo; Fillmore Brainson, Christine; Koyama, Shohei; Redig, Amanda J.; Chen, Ting; Li, Shuai; Gupta, Manav; Garcia-de-Alba, Carolina; Paschini, Margherita; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Lu, Gang; Zhang, Xin; Marsh, Bryan P.; Tuminello, Stephanie J.; Xu, Chunxiao; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Xiaoen; Akbay, Esra A.; Zheng, Mei; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Sholl, Lynette M.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Diehl, J Alan; Bass, Adam J.; Sharpless, Norman E.; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S.; Ji, Hongbin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Saur, Dieter; Watanabe, Hideo; Kim, Carla F.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2017-01-01

    Adenosquamous lung tumours, which are extremely poor prognosis, may result from cellular plasticity. Here, we demonstrate lineage switching of KRAS+ lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) through deletion of Lkb1 (Stk11) in autochthonous and transplant models. Chromatin analysis reveals loss of H3K27me3 and gain of H3K27ac and H3K4me3 at squamous lineage genes, including Sox2, ΔNp63 and Ngfr. SCC lesions have higher levels of the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 than the ADC lesions, but there is a clear lack of the essential Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunit EED in the SCC lesions. The pattern of high EZH2, but low H3K27me3 mark, is also prevalent in human lung SCC and SCC regions within ADSCC tumours. Using FACS-isolated populations, we demonstrate that bronchioalveolar stem cells and club cells are the likely cells-of-origin for SCC transitioned tumours. These findings shed light on the epigenetics and cellular origins of lineage-specific lung tumours. PMID:28387316

  20. LKB1/KRAS mutant lung cancers constitute a genetic subset of NSCLC with increased sensitivity to MAPK and mTOR signalling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, C L; Choudhury, B; Davies, H; Edkins, S; Greenman, C; Haaften, G van; Mironenko, T; Santarius, T; Stevens, C; Stratton, M R; Futreal, P A

    2009-01-01

    LKB1/STK11 is a multitasking tumour suppressor kinase. Germline inactivating mutations of the gene are responsible for the Peutz-Jeghers hereditary cancer syndrome. It is also somatically inactivated in approximately 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report that LKB1/KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines are sensitive to the MEK inhibitor CI-1040 shown by a dose-dependent reduction in proliferation rate, whereas LKB1 and KRAS mutations alone do not confer similar sensitivity. We show that this subset of NSCLC is also sensitised to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Importantly, the data suggest that LKB1/KRAS mutant NSCLCs are a genetically and functionally distinct subset and further suggest that this subset of lung cancers might afford an opportunity for exploitation of anti-MAPK/mTOR-targeted therapies. PMID:19165201

  1. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on rat livers after partial hepatectomy via LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, X P; Wang, S; Yang, Y; Qiu, Y D

    2011-12-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) are considered to be associated with liver regeneration. We investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on hepatic tight junction (TJs) and liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham group; control group, fish oil (FO; 1 mL/kg), and the FO (2 mL/kg) group. We examined changes in expression of hepatic TJs by at confocal microscopy in liver regeneration by routine clinical chemistry methods for hepatic function, and in activation of liver kinase B1-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Using Western blot analysis. After PH survival was higher in the FO than the control group. We observed treatment with n-3 PUFA to activated the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway as well as to earlier, stronger and prolonged of the expression of Occludin, Claudin-3, zonula occludens-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen proteins. In addition, hepatic TJ structures and the level of liver function were protected after n-3 PUFA treatment. After PH in rats, n-3 PUFA enhanced expression and protected the structure of hepatic TJs via the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. Moreover, it may promote liver regeneration partly via the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. It protected postoperative hepatic function and may be a liver protective agent against liver failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lkb1 inactivation is sufficient to drive endometrial cancers that are aggressive yet highly responsive to mTOR inhibitor monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Cristina M.; Akbay, Esra A.; Gallardo, Teresa D.; Haynie, J. Marshall; Sharma, Sreenath; Tagao, Osamu; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Takahashi, Masaya; Settleman, Jeff; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Castrillon, Diego H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Endometrial cancer – the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract – arises from the specialized epithelial cells that line the inner surface of the uterus. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of this disease in recent years, one significant limitation has been the lack of a diverse genetic toolkit for the generation of mouse models. We identified a novel endometrial-specific gene, Sprr2f, and developed a Sprr2f-Cre transgene for conditional gene targeting within endometrial epithelium. We then used this tool to generate a completely penetrant Lkb1 (also known as Stk11)-based mouse model of invasive endometrial cancer. Strikingly, female mice with homozygous endometrial Lkb1 inactivation did not harbor discrete endometrial neoplasms, but instead underwent diffuse malignant transformation of their entire endometrium with rapid extrauterine spread and death, suggesting that Lkb1 inactivation was sufficient to promote the development of invasive endometrial cancer. Mice with heterozygous endometrial Lkb1 inactivation only rarely developed tumors, which were focal and arose with much longer latency, arguing against the idea – suggested by some prior studies – that Lkb1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Lastly, the finding that endometrial cancer cell lines were especially sensitive to the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin prompted us to test its efficacy against Lkb1-driven endometrial cancers. Rapamycin monotherapy not only greatly slowed disease progression, but also led to striking regression of pre-existing tumors. These studies demonstrate that Lkb1 is a uniquely potent endometrial tumor suppressor, but also suggest that the clinical responses of some types of invasive cancers to mTOR inhibitors may be linked to Lkb1 status. PMID:20142330

  3. Alterations of LKB1 and KRAS and Risk of Brain Metastasis: Comprehensive Characterization by Mutation Analysis, Copy Number, and Gene Expression in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ni; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Shah, Usman; Yin, Xiaoying; Wang, Anyou; Hayward, Michele C.; Roberts, Patrick; Lee, Carrie B.; Parsons, Alden M.; Thorne, Leigh B.; Haithcock, Benjamin E.; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Funkhouser, William K.; Wong, Kwok K.; Sharpless, Norman E.; Hayes, D. Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain metastases are one of the most malignant complications of lung cancer and constitute a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent years of investigation suggested a role of LKB1 in NSCLC development and progression, in synergy with KRAS alteration. In this study, we systematically analyzed how LKB1 and KRAS alteration, measured by mutation, gene expression (GE) and copy number (CN), are associated with brain metastasis in NSCLC. Materials and Methods Patients treated at University of North Carolina Hospital from 1990 to 2009 with NSCLC provided frozen, surgically extracted tumors for analysis. GE was measured using Agilent 44,000 custom-designed arrays, CN was assessed by Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 250K Sty Array or the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and gene mutation was detected using ABI sequencing. Integrated analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between these genetic markers and brain metastasis. A model was proposed for brain metastasis prediction using these genetic measurements. Results 17 of the 174 patients developed brain metastasis. LKB1 wild type tumors had significantly higher LKB1 CN (p < 0.001) and GE (p = 0.002) than the LKB1 mutant group. KRAS wild type tumors had significantly lower KRAS GE (p < 0.001) and lower CN, although the latter failed to be significant (p = 0.295). Lower LKB1 CN (p = 0.039) and KRAS mutation (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with more brain metastasis. The predictive model based on nodal (N) stage, patient age, LKB1 CN and KRAS mutation had a good prediction accuracy, with area under the ROC curve of 0.832 (p < 0.001). Conclusion LKB1 CN in combination with KRAS mutation predicted brain metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25224251

  4. The epigenetic regulators Bmi1 and Ring1B are differentially regulated in pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Carles; Rooman, Ilse; Skoudy, Anouchka; Guerra, Carmen; Molero, Xavier; González, Ana; Iglesias, Mar; Lobato, Tania; Bosch, Almudena; Barbacid, Mariano; Real, Francisco X; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2009-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are associated with major changes in cell differentiation. These changes may be at the basis of the increased risk for PDAC among patients with chronic pancreatitis. Polycomb proteins are epigenetic silencers expressed in adult stem cells; up-regulation of Polycomb proteins has been reported to occur in a variety of solid tumours such as colon and breast cancer. We hypothesized that Polycomb might play a role in preneoplastic states in the pancreas and in tumour development/progression. To test these ideas, we determined the expression of PRC1 complex proteins (Bmi1 and Ring1b) during pancreatic development and in pancreatic tissue from mouse models of disease: acute and chronic pancreatic injury, duct ligation, and in K-Ras(G12V) conditional knock-in and caerulein-treated K-Ras(G12V) mice. The study was extended to human pancreatic tissue samples. To obtain mechanistic insights, Bmi1 expression in cells undergoing in vitro exocrine cell metaplasia and the effects of Bmi1 depletion in an acinar cancer cell line were studied. We found that Bmi1 and Ring1B are expressed in pancreatic exocrine precursor cells during early development and in ductal and islet cells-but not acinar cells-in the adult pancreas. Bmi1 expression was induced in acinar cells during acute injury, in acinar-ductal metaplastic lesions, as well as in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC. In contrast, Ring1B expression was only significantly and persistently up-regulated in high-grade PanINs and in PDAC. Bmi1 knockdown in cultured acinar tumour cells led to changes in the expression of various digestive enzymes. Our results suggest that Bmi1 and Ring1B are modulated in pancreatic diseases and could contribute differently to tumour development. 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10–30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1–42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  6. microRNA regulation of human pancreatic cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Hannafon, Bethany N.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs that function primarily in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants and animals. Deregulation of miRNA expression in cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, is well documented, and the involvement of miRNAs in orchestrating tumor genesis and cancer progression has been recognized. This review focuses on recent reports demonstrating that miRNAs are involved in regulation of pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs). A number of miRNA species have been identified to be involved in regulating pancreatic CSCs, including miR-21, miR-34, miR-1246, miR-221, the miR-17-92 cluster, the miR-200 and let-7 families. Furthermore, the Notch-signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process are associated with miRNA regulation of pancreatic CSCs. Given the significant contribution of CSCs to chemo-resistance and tumor progression, a better understanding of how miRNAs function in pancreatic CSCs could provide novel strategies for the development of therapeutics and diagnostics for this devastating disease. PMID:28217707

  7. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  8. Tuft Cell Regulation of miRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Stanton L Young Blvd , WP1345 Oklahoma City, OK 73104 9. SPONSORING I MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) A ND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S...Sureban SM, May R, Lightfoot SA, Hoskins AB, Lerner M, Brackett DJ, et al. DCAMKL-1 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cells

  9. Liver kinase B1 regulates hepatocellular tight junction distribution and function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tietgens, Amber J.; Van Itallie, Christina M.; Vitale‐Cross, Lynn; Jarnik, Michal; Harding, Olivia J.; Anderson, James M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Weigert, Roberto; Arias, Irwin M.

    2016-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and its downstream effector AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) play critical roles in polarity establishment by regulating membrane trafficking and energy metabolism. In collagen sandwich‐cultured hepatocytes, loss of LKB1 or AMPK impaired apical ABCB11 (Bsep) trafficking and bile canalicular formation. In the present study, we used liver‐specific (albumin‐Cre) LKB1 knockout mice (LKB1−/−) to investigate the role of LKB1 in the maintenance of functional tight junction (TJ) in vivo. Transmission electron microscopy examination revealed that hepatocyte apical membrane with microvilli substantially extended into the basolateral domain of LKB1−/− livers. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that loss of LKB1 led to longer and wider canalicular structures correlating with mislocalization of the junctional protein, cingulin. To test junctional function, we used intravital microscopy to quantify the transport kinetics of 6‐carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6‐CFDA), which is processed in hepatocytes into its fluorescent derivative 6‐carboxyfluorescein (6‐CF) and secreted into the canaliculi. In LKB1−/− mice, 6‐CF remained largely in hepatocytes, canalicular secretion was delayed, and 6‐CF appeared in the blood. To test whether 6‐CF was transported through permeable TJ, we intravenously injected low molecular weight (3 kDa) dextran in combination with 6‐CFDA. In wild‐type mice, 3 kDa dextran remained in the vasculature, whereas it rapidly appeared in the abnormal bile canaliculi in LKB1−/− mice, confirming that junctional disruption resulted in paracellular exchange between the blood stream and the bile canaliculus. Conclusion: LKB1 plays a critical role in regulating the maintenance of TJ and paracellular permeability, which may explain how various drugs, chemicals, and metabolic states that inhibit the LKB1/AMPK pathway result in cholestasis. (Hepatology 2016;64:1317‐1329) PMID:27396550

  10. Leucine markedly regulates pancreatic exocrine secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z P; Xu, M; Liu, K; Yao, J H; Yu, H X; Wang, F

    2014-02-01

    Four goats (30.1 ± 1.3 kg) with common bile duct re-entrant catheter and duodenal catheter were used to evaluate the effects of duodenal leucine infusion on pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma parameters with two 4 × 4 Latin square design experiments. In the long-term infusion experiment, goats were fed twice daily [700 g/day, dry matter (DM) basis] at 8:00 and 18:00 hours and were duodenally infused with 0, 3, 6, 9 g/day leucine for 14 days. Pancreatic juice and jugular blood samples were collected over 1-h intervals for 6 h daily from d 11 to 14 days to encompass a 24-h day. In the short-term experiment, goats were infused leucine for 10 h continuously at the same infusion rate with Experiment 1 after feed deprivation for 24 h repeated every 10 days. Pancreatic juice and blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of infusion. The results showed that the long-term leucine infusion did not affect pancreatic juice secretion, protein output, trypsin and lipase secretion and plasma insulin concentration, but linearly increased α-amylase secretion. No changes in pancreatic protein and lipase secretion were observed in the short-term infusion. Pancreatic juice and α-amylase secretion responded quadratically, with the greatest values observed in the 3 and 6 g/day leucine respectively. Trypsin secretion linearly decreased, while plasma insulin concentration increased linearly with increased leucine infusion. The results demonstrated that duodenal leucine infusion dose and time dependently regulated pancreatic enzyme secretion not associated with the change in plasma insulin concentration.

  11. Astrocytic exportin-7 responds to ischemia through mediating LKB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai Jie; Chai, Rui Chao; Li, Xi; Kong, Jin Ge; Jiang, Jiao Hua; Ma, Ju; Vatcher, Greg; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi

    2015-02-01

    The superfamily of importin-β-related proteins is the largest class of nuclear transport receptors and can be generally divided into importins and exportins according to their transport directions. Eleven importins and seven exportins have been identified, and the expression patterns of both classes are important for their functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport activities. This study demonstrates that all of the importins (importin-β; transportin-1, -2, and -3; and importin-4, -5, -7, -8, -9, -11, and -13) and all the exportins (exportin-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -t) are differentially expressed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and brainstem and in primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes and neurons. For astrocytes, we observed that different importins and exportins displayed different expression changes during 0-6 hr of ischemia treatment, especially an increase of both the mRNA and the protein of exportin-7. Immunostaining showed that exportin-7 accumulated inside the nucleus and around the nuclear envelope. In addition, we noticed an increased cytoplasmic distribution of one of the cargo proteins of exportin-7, LKB1, an important element in maintaining energy homeostasis. This increased cytoplasmic distribution was accompanied by an increased expression of exportin-7 under ischemia in astrocytes. We demonstrate that exportin-7 responds to ischemia in astrocytes and that this response involves translocation of LKB1, a protein that plays important roles during metabolic stress, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

  12. LKB1/AMPK inhibits TGF-β1 production and the TGF-β signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nian-Shuang; Zou, Jun-Rong; Lin, Hui; Ke, Rong; He, Xiao-Ling; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Deqiang; Luo, Lingyu; Lv, Nonghua; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-06-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a fuel gauge that maintains energy homeostasis in both normal and cancerous cells, and has emerged as a tumor suppressor. The present study aims to delineate the functional relationship between AMPK and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Our results showed that expression of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream kinase of AMPK, impeded TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and their transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells, whereas knockdown of LKB1 or AMPKα1 subunit by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) enhanced the effect of TGF-β. Furthermore, AMPK activation reduced the promoter activity of TGF-β1. In accordance, type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin displayed a trend of reduction of serum TGF-β1, as compared with those without metformin. A significant reduction of serum TGF-β1 was found in mice after treatment with metformin. These results suggest that AMPK inhibits the transcription of TGF-β1, leading to reduction of its concentration in serum. Finally, metformin suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that AMPK exerts multiple actions on TGF-β signaling and supports that AMPK can serve as a therapeutic drug target for breast cancer.

  13. Honokiol activates AMP-activated protein kinase in breast cancer cells via an LKB1-dependent pathway and inhibits breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Honokiol, a small-molecule polyphenol isolated from magnolia species, is widely known for its therapeutic potential as an antiinflammatory, antithrombosis, and antioxidant agent, and more recently, for its protective function in the pathogenesis of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to examine the effectiveness of honokiol in inhibiting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Clonogenicity and three-dimensional colony-formation assays were used to examine breast cancer cell growth with honokiol treatment. The effect of honokiol on invasion and migration of breast cancer cells was evaluated by using Matrigel invasion, scratch-migration, spheroid-migration, and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)-based migration assays. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis were used to examine activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis. Isogenic LKB1-knockdown breast cancer cell line pairs were developed. Functional importance of AMPK activation and LKB1 overexpression in the biologic effects of honokiol was examined by using AMPK-null and AMPK-wild type (WT) immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and isogenic LKB1-knockdown cell line pairs. Finally, mouse xenografts, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of tumors were used. Results Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that honokiol treatment increases AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the downstream target of AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of phosphorylation of p70S6kinase (pS6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). By using AMPK-null and AMPK-WT (MEFs), we found that AMPK is required for honokiol-mediated modulation of pACC-pS6K. Intriguingly, we discovered that honokiol treatment increased the expression

  14. Honokiol activates AMP-activated protein kinase in breast cancer cells via an LKB1-dependent pathway and inhibits breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Arumugam; Arbiser, Jack L; Bonner, Michael Y; Saxena, Neeraj K; Sharma, Dipali

    2012-02-21

    Honokiol, a small-molecule polyphenol isolated from magnolia species, is widely known for its therapeutic potential as an antiinflammatory, antithrombosis, and antioxidant agent, and more recently, for its protective function in the pathogenesis of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to examine the effectiveness of honokiol in inhibiting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Clonogenicity and three-dimensional colony-formation assays were used to examine breast cancer cell growth with honokiol treatment. The effect of honokiol on invasion and migration of breast cancer cells was evaluated by using Matrigel invasion, scratch-migration, spheroid-migration, and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)-based migration assays. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis were used to examine activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis. Isogenic LKB1-knockdown breast cancer cell line pairs were developed. Functional importance of AMPK activation and LKB1 overexpression in the biologic effects of honokiol was examined by using AMPK-null and AMPK-wild type (WT) immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and isogenic LKB1-knockdown cell line pairs. Finally, mouse xenografts, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of tumors were used. Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that honokiol treatment increases AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the downstream target of AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of phosphorylation of p70S6kinase (pS6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). By using AMPK-null and AMPK-WT (MEFs), we found that AMPK is required for honokiol-mediated modulation of pACC-pS6K. Intriguingly, we discovered that honokiol treatment increased the expression and cytoplasmic

  15. Pirfenidone inhibits pancreatic cancer desmoplasia by regulating stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Shingo; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Eguchi, Daiki; Ikenaga, Naoki; Fujiwara, Kenji; Cui, Lin; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC), which are implicated in desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer, enhance the malignancy of cancer cells and confer resistance to established treatments. We investigated whether the antifibrotic agent pirfenidone can suppress desmoplasia and exert antitumor effects against pancreatic cancer. Primary PSCs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained during surgery. In vitro, pirfenidone inhibited the proliferation, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Although supernatants of untreated PSCs increased the proliferation, invasiveness, and migration of pancreatic cancer cells (PCC), supernatants of pirfenidone-treated PSCs decreased these effects. Exposure to PCC supernatant increased the production of platelet-derived growth factor-A, hepatic growth factor, collagen type I, fibronectin, and periostin in PSCs, which was significantly reduced by pirfenidone. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with PCCs (SUIT-2 cells) and PSCs into the right flank and PCCs alone into the left flank. Oral administration of pirfenidone to these mice significantly reduced tumor growth of co-implanted PCCs and PSCs, but not of PCCs alone. Pirfenidone also decreased the proliferation of PSCs and the deposition of collagen type I and periostin in tumors. In mice with orthotopic tumors consisting of PCCs co-implanted with PSCs, pirfenidone suppressed tumor growth, reduced the number of peritoneal disseminated nodules, and reduced the incidence of liver metastasis. Pirfenidone in combination with gemcitabine more effectively suppressed orthotopic tumor growth compared with pirfenidone or gemcitabine alone. In conclusion, our findings indicate that pirfenidone is a promising antitumor agent for pancreatic cancer, owing to its suppression of desmoplasia through regulating PSCs.

  16. CaMKKβ Is Involved in AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Baicalin in LKB1 Deficient Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Du, Zhiyan; Liu, Daihua; Guo, Hongxia; Shen, Jingkang; Peng, Hongli

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in mediating energy metabolism and is controlled mainly by two upstream kinases, LKB1 or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ). Previously, we found that baicalin, one of the major flavonoids in a traditional Chinese herb medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis, protects against the development of hepatic steatosis in rats feeding with a high-fat diet by the activation of AMPK, but, the underlying mechanism for AMPK activation is unknown. Here we show that in two LKB1-deficient cells, HeLa and A549 cells, baicalin activates AMPK by α Thr-172 phosphorylation and subsequent phosphorylation of its downstream target, acetyl CoA carboxylase, at Ser-79, to a similar degree as does in HepG2 cells (that express LKB1). Pharmacologic inhibition of CaMKKβ by its selective inhibitor STO-609 markedly inhibits baicalin-induced AMPK activation in both HeLa and HepG2 cells, indicating that CaMKKβ is the responsible AMPK kinase. We also show that treatment of baicalin causes a larger increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), although the maximal level of [Ca2+]i is lower in HepG2 cells compared to HeLa cells. Chelation of intracellular free Ca2+ by EDTA and EGTA, or depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abrogates baicalin-induced activation of AMPK in HeLa cells. Neither cellular ATP nor the production of reactive oxygen species is altered by baicalin. Finally, in HeLa cells, baicalin treatment no longer decreases intracellular lipid accumulation caused by oleic acid after inhibition of CaMKKβ by STO-609. These results demonstrate that a potential Ca2+/CaMKKβ dependent pathway is involved in the activation of AMPK by baicalin and suggest that CaMKKβ likely acts as an upstream kinase of AMPK in response to baicalin. PMID:23110126

  17. Mild Electrical Stimulation Increases Stress Resistance and Suppresses Fat Accumulation via Activation of LKB1-AMPK Signaling Pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Shingo; Moriuchi, Masataka; Suico, Mary Ann; Yano, Shuichiro; Morino-Koga, Saori; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Kondo, Tatsuya; Araki, Eiichi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Electrical current at physiological strength has been applied as a therapeutic approach for various diseases. Several of our works showed that mild electrical stimulation (MES) at 0.1-ms pulse width has positive impact on organisms. But despite the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of MES, its effects on individual animals and the molecular underpinnings are poorly understood and rarely studied. Here, we examined the effects of MES on individual animal and its mechanisms by mainly using Caenorhabditis elegans, a powerful genetic model organism. Interestingly, MES increased stress resistance and suppressed excess fat accumulation in wild-type N2 worms but not in AMPK/AAK-2 and LKB1/PAR-4 mutant worms. MES promoted the nuclear localization of transcription factors DAF-16 and SKN-1 and consequently increased the expression of anti-stress genes, whereas MES inhibited the nuclear localization of SBP-1 and suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes. Moreover, we found that MES induced the activation of LKB1/PAR4-AMPK/AAK2 pathway in C. elegans and in several mammalian cell lines. The mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP level were slightly and transiently decreased by MES leading to the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. Together, we firstly and genetically demonstrated that MES exerts beneficial effects such as stress resistance and suppression of excess fat accumulation, via activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:25490091

  18. LKB1-mediated spatial control of GSK3beta and adenomatous polyposis coli contributes to centrosomal forward movement and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex.

    PubMed

    Asada, Naoyuki; Sanada, Kamon

    2010-06-30

    Neuronal migration is an essential process for the development of the cerebral cortex. We have previously shown that LKB1, an evolutionally conserved polarity kinase, plays a critical role in neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Here we show that LKB1 mediates Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3beta to inactivate the kinase at the leading process tip of migrating neurons in the developing neocortex. This enables the microtubule plus-end binding protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to localize at the distal ends of microtubules in the tip, thereby stabilizing microtubules near the leading edge. We also show that LKB1 activity, Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3beta, and APC binding to the distal ends of microtubules are required for the microtubule stabilization in the leading process tip, centrosomal forward movement, and neuronal migration. These findings suggest that LKB1-induced spatial control of GSK3beta and APC at the leading process tip mediates the stabilization of microtubules within the tip and is critical for centrosomal forward movement and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex.

  19. Apelin Regulates Nuclear Factor-κB's Involvement in the Inflammatory Response of Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Englander, Ella W; Gomez, Guillermo A; Greeley, George H

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatitis. Earlier studies from our laboratory showed that experimental pancreatitis activated the pancreatic apelin-APJ axis robustly in mice. Apelin signaling reduced neutrophil invasion and the activation of pancreatic nuclear factor (NF)-κB in mice with experimental pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to assess whether apelin-induced inhibition of pancreatic NF-κB activation was linked mechanistically to apelin's inhibition of pancreatic inflammatory mediator up-regulation in mice with cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis (CP). Whether apelin's inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB binding to the promoter region of IL-1β was examined. The effects of apelin exposure on pancreatic IκB degradation/replenishment and membrane levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C were measured. Results demonstrated that apelin inhibited the up-regulation of pancreatic tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α/β, and IL-1β expression significantly in mice with CP. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay findings showed that apelin inhibited NF-κB binding to a putative NF-κB binding site in the IL-1β promoter. Apelin exposure reduced the pancreatic membrane levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C-δ and enhanced the replenishment of pancreatic IκB proteins. Together, these findings indicated that the inhibition of NF-κB activation by apelin was a mechanism behind the reduced pancreatic levels of inflammatory mediators in CP mice exposed to apelin.

  20. Minireview: Dopaminergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion from the Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous dopamine inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, but the lack of dopaminergic neurons in pancreatic islets has led to controversy regarding the importance of this effect. Recent data, however, suggest a plausible physiologic role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We review the literature underlying our current understanding of dopaminergic signaling that can down-regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In this negative feedback loop, dopamine is synthesized in the β-cells from circulating l-dopa, serves as an autocrine signal that is cosecreted with insulin, and causes a tonic inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. On the whole animal scale, l-dopa is produced by cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and its concentration in the blood plasma increases following a mixed meal. By reviewing the outcome of certain types of bariatric surgery that result in rapid amelioration of glucose tolerance, we hypothesize that dopamine serves as an “antiincretin” signal that counterbalances the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1. PMID:23744894

  1. MUC1 Regulates PDGFA Expression During Pancreatic Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Mahnaz; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Curry, Jennifer M; Teresa, Tinder L; Nath, Sritama; Besmer, Dahlia; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Dalia, Ritu; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) has one of the worst prognoses of all cancers. Mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein, is a key modulator of several signaling pathways that affect oncogenesis, motility, and metastasis. Its expression is known to be associated with poor prognosis in patients. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We report a novel association of MUC1 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). PDGFA is one of the many drivers of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in PDA. Using mouse PDA models as well as human samples, we show clear evidence that MUC1 regulates the expression and secretion of PDGFA. This, in turn, influences proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells leading to higher tumor burden in vivo. In addition, we reveal that MUC1 over expressing cells are heavily dependent on PDGFA both for proliferation and invasion while MUC1-null cells are not. Moreover, PDGFA and MUC1 are critical for translocation of βcatenin to the nucleus for oncogenesis to ensue. Finally, we elucidate the underlying mechanism by which MUC1 regulates PDGFA expression and secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. We show that MUC1 associates with Hif1-α, a known transcription factor involved in controlling PDGFA expression. Furthermore, MUC1 facilitates Hif1-α translocation to the nucleus. In summary, we have demonstrated that MUC1-induced invasion and proliferation occurs via increased exogenous production of PDGFA. Thus, impeding MUC1 regulation of PDGFA signaling may be therapeutically beneficial for patients with PDA. PMID:22266848

  2. Deoxypodophyllotoxin suppresses tumor vasculature in HUVECs by promoting cytoskeleton remodeling through LKB1-AMPK dependent Rho A activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yurong; Wang, Bin; Guerram, Mounia; Sun, Li; Shi, Wei; Tian, Chongchong; Zhu, Xiong; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Luyong

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth and metastasis of tumors, which makes it an attractive target for anti-tumor drug development. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a natural product isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris, inhibits cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell types. Our previous studies indicate that DPT possesses both anti-angiogenic and vascular-disrupting activities. Although the RhoA/ RhoA kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is implicated in DPT-stimulated cytoskeleton remodeling and tumor vasculature suppressing, the detailed mechanisms by which DPT mediates these effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we found that DPT promotes cytoskeleton remodeling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that this effect is abolished by either treatment with a selective AMPK inhibitor or knockdown. Moreover, the cellular levels of LKB1, a kinase upstream of AMPK, were enhanced following DPT exposure. DPT-induced activation of AMPK in tumor vasculature effect was also verified by transgenic zebrafish (VEGFR2:GFP), Matrigel plug assay, and xenograft model in nude mice. The present findings may lay the groundwork for a novel therapeutic approach in treating cancer. PMID:26470595

  3. Integrin β3 and LKB1 are independently involved in the inhibition of proliferation by lovastatin in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng-Huei; Lin, Hung-Yun; Changou, Chun A; Chen, Chun-Han; Liu, Yun-Ru; Wang, Jinghan; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Luh, Frank; Yen, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are one of the most difficult cancers to treat. In our study, Lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, demonstrated anticancer properties by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, cell migration and cell adhesion. Lovastatin inhibited the expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Furthermore, lovastatin inhibited the expressions of integrin β1 and integrin β3 but not integrin αv or integrin β5. While Lovastatin's inhibitory effects on TGFβ1, COX2, and ICAM-1 expression were independently controlled by the tumor suppressor LKB1, integrin β3 expression was not affected. Lovastatin's inhibitory effect on cell adhesion was associated with the decreased expression of integrin β3 and cell surface heterodimer integrin αvβ3. Quantitative real time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, and cell migration assays all confirmed that Lovastatin inhibits integrin αvβ3 downstream signaling including FAK activation, and β-catenin, vimentin, ZO-1, and β-actin. Overall, Lovastatin reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration by modifying the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and other critical cellular processes. Our study highlights novel anti-cancer properties of Lovastatin and supports further exploration of statins in the context of cholangiocarcinoma therapy. PMID:26517522

  4. Integrin β3 and LKB1 are independently involved in the inhibition of proliferation by lovastatin in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Huei; Lin, Hung-Yun; Changou, Chun A; Chen, Chun-Han; Liu, Yun-Ru; Wang, Jinghan; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Luh, Frank; Yen, Yun

    2016-01-05

    Human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are one of the most difficult cancers to treat. In our study, Lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, demonstrated anticancer properties by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, cell migration and cell adhesion. Lovastatin inhibited the expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Furthermore, lovastatin inhibited the expressions of integrin β1 and integrin β3 but not integrin αv or integrin β5. While Lovastatin's inhibitory effects on TGFβ1, COX2, and ICAM-1 expression were independently controlled by the tumor suppressor LKB1, integrin β3 expression was not affected. Lovastatin's inhibitory effect on cell adhesion was associated with the decreased expression of integrin β3 and cell surface heterodimer integrin αvβ3. Quantitative real time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, and cell migration assays all confirmed that Lovastatin inhibits integrin αvβ3 downstream signaling including FAK activation, and β-catenin, vimentin, ZO-1, and β-actin. Overall, Lovastatin reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration by modifying the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and other critical cellular processes. Our study highlights novel anti-cancer properties of Lovastatin and supports further exploration of statins in the context of cholangiocarcinoma therapy.

  5. Renoprotective Effects of Fenofibrate via Modulation of LKB1/AMPK mRNA Expression and Endothelial Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Attia, Hala A; Al-Amin, Maha A; Al-Ajmi, Hanaa N; Hasan, Iman H; Mohamad, Raeesa A; Sinjilawi, Nasr A

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the renoprotective effects of fenofibrate are mediated via attenuation of endothelial dysfunction and modulating the mRNA expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg kg(-1)). Fenofibrate (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was given to diabetic rats daily for 12 weeks. Treatment with fenofibrate significantly improved the renal function as revealed by the significant reductions in urinary albumin excretion and serum levels of creatinine and urea, in addition to the significant increase in creatinine clearance compared with the diabetic control group. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage was ameliorated by treatment with fenofibrate as indicated by the significantly increased levels of glutathione and catalase together with the significant decrease in lipid peroxidation. Administration of fenofibrate caused significant increases in renal nitric oxide (NO) production and mRNA expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), AMPK and LKB1, reflecting improvement of endothelial function. Our results give further insights into the mechanisms underlying the protective role of fenofibrate in DN via modulation of AMPK, LKB1 and eNOS mRNA expression.

  6. Paracrine regulation of pancreatic cancer cell invasion by peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ziv; Cavel, Oren; Kelly, Kaitlyn; Brader, Peter; Rein, Avigail; Gao, Sizhi P; Carlson, Diane L; Shah, Jatin P; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J

    2010-01-20

    The ability of cancer to infiltrate along nerves is a common clinical observation in pancreas, head and neck, prostate, breast, and gastrointestinal carcinomas. For these tumors, nerves may provide a conduit for local cancer progression into the central nervous system. Although neural invasion is associated with poor outcome, the mechanism that triggers it is unknown. We used an in vitro Matrigel dorsal root ganglion and pancreatic cancer cell coculture model to assess the dynamic interactions between nerves and cancer cell migration and the role of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). An in vivo murine sciatic nerve model was used to study how nerve invasion affects sciatic nerve function. Nerves induced a polarized neurotrophic migration of cancer cells (PNMCs) along their axons, which was more efficient than in the absence of nerves (migration distance: mean = 187.1 microm, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 148 to 226 microm vs 14.4 microm, 95% CI = 9.58 to 19.22 microm, difference = 143 microm; P < .001; n = 20). PNMC was induced by secretion of GDNF, via phosphorylation of the RET-Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Nerves from mice deficient in GDNF had reduced ability to attract cancer cells (nerve invasion index: wild type vs gdnf+/-, mean = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.77 vs 0.43, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.44; P < .001; n = 60-66). Tumor specimens excised from patients with neuroinvasive pancreatic carcinoma had higher expression of the GDNF receptors RET and GRFalpha1 as compared with normal tissue. Finally, systemic therapy with pyrazolopyrimidine-1, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the RET pathway, suppressed nerve invasion toward the spinal cord and prevented paralysis in mice. These data provide evidence for paracrine regulation of pancreatic cancer invasion by nerves, which may have important implications for potential therapy directed against nerve invasion by cancer.

  7. Par3 regulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells via interaction with Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingjun; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xin; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Feng; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Li, Xu; Peng, Feng; Zhang, Hang; Feng, Yechen; Xie, Yu; Xu, Xiaodong; Jia, Wei; He, Ruizhi; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Jun; Tian, Rui; Qin, Renyi

    2016-08-01

    The conserved polarity complex, which comprises partitioning-defective proteins Par3, Par6, and the atypical protein kinase C, affects various cell-polarization events, including assembly of tight junctions. Control of tight junction assembly is closely related to invasion and migration potential. However, as the importance of conserved polarity complexes in regulating pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis is unclear, we investigated their role and mechanism in pancreatic cancers. We first detect that the key protein of the conserved polarity complex finds that only Par3 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues while Par6 and aPKC show no difference. What is more, Par3 tissues level was significantly and positively associated with patient overall survival. Knocking-down Par3 promotes pancreatic cancer cells invasion and migration. And Par3 requires interaction with Tiam1 to affect tight junction assembly, and then affect invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Then, we find that tight junction marker protein ZO-1 and claudin-1 are down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. And the relationship of the expression of Par3 and ZO-1 in pancreatic cancer tissue is linear correlation. We establish liver metastasis model of human pancreatic cancer cells in Balb/c nude mice and find that knocking down Par3 promotes invasion and metastasis and disturbs tight junction assembly in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par3 regulates invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancers by controlling tight junction assembly.

  8. Overexpression of Ecdysoneless in Pancreatic Cancer and its Role in Oncogenesis by Regulating Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Singh, Pankaj K.; Zhao, Xiangshan; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Anderson, Judy M.; Lele, Subodh; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Band, Vimla; Batra, Surinder K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the expression and function of a novel cell-cycle regulatory protein, human ecdysoneless (Ecd), during pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Experimental Design Immunohistochemical expression profiling of Ecd was done in nonneoplastic normal pancreatic tissues and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma lesions (from tissue microarray and Rapid Autopsy program) as well as precancerous PanIN lesions and metastatic organs. To analyze the biological significance of Ecd in pancreatic cancer progression, Ecd was stably knocked down in pancreatic cancer cell line followed by in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Results Normal pancreatic ducts showed very weak to no Ecd expression compared to significant positive expression in pancreatic cancer tissues (mean ± SE composite score: 0.3 ± 0.2 and 3.8 ± 0.2 respectively, P < 0.0001) as well as in PanIN precursor lesions with a progressive increase in Ecd expression with increasing dysplasia (PanIN-1–PanIN-3). Analysis of matched primary tumors and metastases from patients with pancreatic cancer revealed that Ecd is highly expressed in both primary pancreatic tumor and in distant metastatic sites. Furthermore, knockdown of Ecd suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in mice orthotopic tumors. Microarray study revealed that Ecd regulates expression of glucose transporter GLUT4 in pancreatic cancer cells and was subsequently shown to modulate glucose uptake, lactate production, and ATP generation by pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, knockdown of Ecd also reduced level of pAkt, key signaling molecule known to regulate aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Conclusion Ecd is a novel tumor-promoting factor that is differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer and potentially regulates glucose metabolism within cancer cells. PMID:22977192

  9. TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Mario; Chhatriwala, Mariya; Berry, Andrew; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Jennings, Rachel E.; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Morán, Ignasi; Castro, Natalia; Hanley, Neil A.; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Vallier, Ludovic; Ferrer, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The genomic regulatory programs that underlie human organogenesis are poorly understood. Pancreas development, in particular, has pivotal implications for pancreatic regeneration, cancer, and diabetes. We have now characterized the regulatory landscape of embryonic multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to all pancreatic epithelial lineages. Using human embryonic pancreas and embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors we identify stage-specific transcripts and associated enhancers, many of which are co-occupied by transcription factors that are essential for pancreas development. We further show that TEAD1, a Hippo signaling effector, is an integral component of the transcription factor combinatorial code of pancreatic progenitor enhancers. TEAD and its coactivator YAP activate key pancreatic signaling mediators and transcription factors, and regulate the expansion of pancreatic progenitors. This work therefore uncovers a central role of TEAD and YAP as signal-responsive regulators of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, and provides a resource for the study of embryonic development of the human pancreas. PMID:25915126

  10. TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Inês; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A; Cho, Candy H-H; Bessa, José; Rovira, Meritxell; Luengo, Mario; Chhatriwala, Mariya; Berry, Andrew; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Jennings, Rachel E; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Morán, Ignasi; Castro, Natalia; Hanley, Neil A; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Vallier, Ludovic; Ferrer, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    The genomic regulatory programmes that underlie human organogenesis are poorly understood. Pancreas development, in particular, has pivotal implications for pancreatic regeneration, cancer and diabetes. We have now characterized the regulatory landscape of embryonic multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to all pancreatic epithelial lineages. Using human embryonic pancreas and embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors we identify stage-specific transcripts and associated enhancers, many of which are co-occupied by transcription factors that are essential for pancreas development. We further show that TEAD1, a Hippo signalling effector, is an integral component of the transcription factor combinatorial code of pancreatic progenitor enhancers. TEAD and its coactivator YAP activate key pancreatic signalling mediators and transcription factors, and regulate the expansion of pancreatic progenitors. This work therefore uncovers a central role for TEAD and YAP as signal-responsive regulators of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, and provides a resource for the study of embryonic development of the human pancreas.

  11. Fibrogenesis in pancreatic cancer is a dynamic process regulated by macrophage-stellate cell interaction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chanjuan; Washington, M. Kay; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Drosos, Yiannis; Revetta, Frank L.; Weaver, Connie J.; Buzhardt, Emily; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Whitehead, Robert H.; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Wilson, Keith T.; Means, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer occurs in the setting of a profound fibrotic microenvironment that often dwarfs the actual tumor. While pancreatic fibrosis has been well-studied in chronic pancreatitis, its development in pancreatic cancer is much less well understood. This manuscript describes the dynamic remodeling that occurs from pancreatic precursors (PanINs) to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, highlighting similarities and differences between benign and malignant disease. While collagen matrix is a commonality throughout this process, early stage PanINs are virtually free of periostin while late stage PanIN and pancreatic cancer are surrounded by an increasing abundance of this extracellular matrix protein. Myofibroblasts also become increasingly abundant during progression from PanIN to cancer. From the earliest stages of fibrogenesis, macrophages are associated with this ongoing process. In vitro co-culture indicates there is cross-regulation between macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells, precursors to at least some of the fibrotic cell populations. When quiescent pancreatic stellate cells were co-cultured with macrophage cell lines, the stellate cells became activated and the macrophages increased cytokine production. In summary, fibrosis in pancreatic cancer involves a complex interplay of cells and matrices that regulate not only the tumor epithelium but the composition of the microenvironment itself. PMID:24535260

  12. Interplay between Polo kinase, LKB1-activated NUAK1 kinase, PP1βMYPT1 phosphatase complex and the SCFβTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sourav; Zagórska, Anna; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; Prescott, Alan R; Alessi, Dario R

    2014-07-15

    NUAK1 (NUAK family SnF1-like kinase-1) and NUAK2 protein kinases are activated by the LKB1 tumour suppressor and have been implicated in regulating multiple processes such as cell survival, senescence, adhesion and polarity. In the present paper we present evidence that expression of NUAK1 is controlled by CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase), PLK (Polo kinase) and the SCFβTrCP (Skp, Cullin and F-boxβTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Our data indicate that CDK phosphorylates NUAK1 at Ser445, triggering binding to PLK, which subsequently phosphorylates NUAK1 at two conserved non-catalytic serine residues (Ser476 and Ser480). This induces binding of NUAK1 to βTrCP, the substrate-recognition subunit of the SCFβTrCP E3 ligase, resulting in NUAK1 becoming ubiquitylated and degraded. We also show that NUAK1 and PLK1 are reciprocally controlled in the cell cycle. In G2-M-phase, when PLK1 is most active, NUAK1 levels are low and vice versa in S-phase, when PLK1 expression is low, NUAK1 is more highly expressed. Moreover, NUAK1 inhibitors (WZ4003 or HTH-01-015) suppress proliferation by reducing the population of cells in S-phase and mitosis, an effect that can be rescued by overexpression of a NUAK1 mutant in which Ser476 and Ser480 are mutated to alanine. Finally, previous work has suggested that NUAK1 phosphorylates and inhibits PP1βMYPT1 (where PP1 is protein phosphatase 1) and that a major role for the PP1βMYPT1 complex is to inhibit PLK1 by dephosphorylating its T-loop (Thr210). We demonstrate that activation of NUAK1 leads to a striking increase in phosphorylation of PLK1 at Thr210, an effect that is suppressed by NUAK1 inhibitors. Our data link NUAK1 to important cell-cycle signalling components (CDK, PLK and SCFβTrCP) and suggest that NUAK1 plays a role in stimulating S-phase, as well as PLK1 activity via its ability to regulate the PP1βMYPT1 phosphatase.

  13. Alterations of Epigenetic Regulators in Pancreatic Cancer and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Brittany R.; Shi, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancer types with a five-year survival less than 7%. Emerging evidence revealed that many genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer target epigenetic regulators. Some of these mutations are driver mutations in cancer development. Several most important mechanisms of epigenetic regulations include DNA methylation, histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination), chromatin remodeling, and non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs). These modifications can alter chromatin structure and promoter accessibility, and thus lead to aberrant gene expression. However, exactly how these alterations affect epigenetic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells and in different stages of tumor development is still not clear. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge of epigenetic alterations in pancreatic cancer development and progression, and discusses the clinical applications of epigenetic regulators as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27999365

  14. Characterization of WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 as selective inhibitors of the LKB1-tumour-suppressor-activated NUAK kinases

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sourav; Buhrlage, Sara J.; Huang, Hai-Tsang; Deng, Xianming; Zhou, Wenjun; Wang, Jinhua; Traynor, Ryan; Prescott, Alan R.; Alessi, Dario R.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2013-01-01

    The related NUAK1 and NUAK2 are members of the AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) family of protein kinases that are activated by the LKB1 (liver kinase B1) tumour suppressor kinase. Recent work suggests they play important roles in regulating key biological processes including Myc-driven tumorigenesis, senescence, cell adhesion and neuronal polarity. In the present paper we describe the first highly specific protein kinase inhibitors of NUAK kinases namely WZ4003 and HTH-01-015. WZ4003 inhibits both NUAK isoforms (IC50 for NUAK1 is 20 nM and for NUAK2 is 100 nM), whereas HTH-01-015 inhibits only NUAK1 (IC50 is 100 nM). These compounds display extreme selectivity and do not significantly inhibit the activity of 139 other kinases that were tested including ten AMPK family members. In all cell lines tested, WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 inhibit the phosphorylation of the only well-characterized substrate, MYPT1 (myosin phosphate-targeting subunit 1) that is phosphorylated by NUAK1 at Ser445. We also identify a mutation (A195T) that does not affect basal NUAK1 activity, but renders it ~50-fold resistant to both WZ4003 and HTH-01-015. Consistent with NUAK1 mediating the phosphorylation of MYPT1 we find that in cells overexpressing drug-resistant NUAK1[A195T], but not wild-type NUAK1, phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Ser445 is no longer suppressed by WZ4003 or HTH-01-015. We also demonstrate that administration of WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 to MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts) significantly inhibits migration in a wound-healing assay to a similar extent as NUAK1-knockout. WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 also inhibit proliferation of MEFs to the same extent as NUAK1 knockout and U2OS cells to the same extent as NUAK1 shRNA knockdown. We find that WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 impaired the invasive potential of U2OS cells in a 3D cell invasion assay to the same extent as NUAK1 knockdown. The results of the present study indicate that WZ4003 and HTH-01-015 will serve as useful chemical probes to

  15. Prostaglandin E2 regulates pancreatic stellate cell activity via the EP4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Charo, Chantale; Holla, Vijaykumar; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Hwang, Rosa; Yang, Peiying; Dubois, Raymond N; Menter, David G; Logsdon, Craig D; Ramachandran, Vijaya

    2013-04-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells are source of dense fibrotic stroma, a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We observed correlation between levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the extent of pancreatic fibrosis. The aims of this study were to delineate the effects of PGE2 on immortalized human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSCs) and to identify the receptor involved. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to assess COX-2, extracellular matrix, and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression. Eicosanoid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Human pancreatic stellate cell proliferation was assessed by MTS assay, migration by Boyden chamber assay, and invasion using an invasion chamber. Transient silencing was obtained by small interfering RNA. Human pancreatic stellate cells express COX-2 and synthesize PGE2. Prostaglandin E2 stimulated HPSC proliferation, migration, and invasion and stimulated expression of both extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinase genes. Human pancreatic stellate cells expressed all 4 EP receptors. Only blocking the EP4 receptor resulted in abrogation of PGE2-mediated HPSC activation. Specificity of EP4 for the effects of PGE2 on stellate cells was confirmed using specific antagonists. Our data indicate that PGE2 regulates pancreatic stellate cell profibrotic activities via EP4 receptor, thus suggesting EP4 receptor as useful therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer to reduce desmoplasia.

  16. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal is sometimes performed along with a sphincterotomy. Stent placement. Using the endoscope, the doctor places a ... a narrowed pancreatic or bile duct. A temporary stent may be placed for a few months to ...

  17. The Role of miRNAs in the Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Leongito, Maddalena; Palma, Giuseppe; del Vecchio, Vitale; Falco, Michela; Palaia, Raffaele; Albino, Vittorio; Piccirillo, Mauro; Amore, Alfonso; Petrillo, Antonella; Granata, Vincenza; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is currently one of the deadliest cancers with low overall survival rate. This disease leads to an aggressive local invasion and early metastases and is poorly responsive to treatment with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Several studies have shown that pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) play different roles in the regulation of drug resistance and recurrence in pancreatic cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of newly emerging small noncoding RNAs, is involved in the modulation of several biological activities ranging from invasion to metastases development, as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer. In this review, we synthesize the latest findings on the role of miRNAs in regulating different biological properties of pancreatic cancer stem cells. PMID:27006664

  18. Stromal cues regulate the pancreatic cancer epigenome and metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Mara H.; Yu, Ruth T.; Tseng, Tiffany W.; Sousa, Cristovao M.; Liu, Sihao; Truitt, Morgan L.; He, Nanhai; Ding, Ning; Liddle, Christopher; Atkins, Annette R.; Leblanc, Mathias; Collisson, Eric A.; Asara, John M.; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.

    2017-01-01

    A fibroinflammatory stromal reaction cooperates with oncogenic signaling to influence pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation, progression, and therapeutic outcome, yet the mechanistic underpinning of this crosstalk remains poorly understood. Here we show that stromal cues elicit an adaptive response in the cancer cell including the rapid mobilization of a transcriptional network implicated in accelerated growth, along with anabolic changes of an altered metabolome. The close overlap of stroma-induced changes in vitro with those previously shown to be regulated by oncogenic Kras in vivo suggests that oncogenic Kras signaling—a hallmark and key driver of PDAC—is contingent on stromal inputs. Mechanistically, stroma-activated cancer cells show widespread increases in histone acetylation at transcriptionally enhanced genes, implicating the PDAC epigenome as a presumptive point of convergence between these pathways and a potential therapeutic target. Notably, inhibition of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic readers, and of Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) in particular, blocks stroma-inducible transcriptional regulation in vitro and tumor progression in vivo. Our work suggests the existence of a molecular “AND-gate” such that tumor activation is the consequence of mutant Kras and stromal cues, providing insight into the role of the tumor microenvironment in the origin and treatment of Ras-driven tumors. PMID:28096419

  19. VEGF Promotes Glycolysis in Pancreatic Cancer via HIF1α Up-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, S; Xu, J; Zhang, B; Ji, S; Xu, W; Liu, J; Jin, K; Liang, D; Liang, C; Liu, L; Liu, C; Qin, Y; Yu, X

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in many types of tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Tumor cellderived VEGF promotes angiogenesis and tumor progression. However, the role of VEGF in glucose metabolism remains unclear. We investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of VEGF in the glucose metabolism of pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer cells were stimulated with VEGF165 for 1 or 2 h. The oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) were measured using the Seahorse XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Glycolytic enzymes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) was silenced by shRNA in order to investigate its role in VEGF-induced glycolysis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to identify the correlation among VEGF, NRP1 and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in pancreatic cancer tissues. VEGF stimulation led to a metabolic transition from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in pancreatic cancer. HIF1α and NRP1 protein levels were both increased after VEGF stimulation. The down-regulation of NRP1 reduced glycolysis in pancreatic cancer cells. NRP1 and VEGF levels both correlated with HIF1α expression in pancreatic tumor tissues. VEGF enhances glycolysis in pancreatic cancer via HIF1α up-regulation. NRP1 plays a key role in VEGF-induced glycolysis.

  20. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    PSCs. Silencing of ALCAM by siRNA revealed no significant alteration in the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, however, it inhibited the invasive ability of PSCs, and decreased the interaction between Panc-1 cells and PSCs. In conclusion, ALCAM is upregulated in PSCs of pancreatic cancer tissues, suggesting a potential role of ALCAM in regulating pancreatic cancer cell-PSC interactions. PMID:27573419

  1. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-10-01

    1 and T3M4 cells, and also in PSCs. Silencing of ALCAM by siRNA revealed no significant alteration in the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, however, it inhibited the invasive ability of PSCs, and decreased the interaction between Panc‑1 cells and PSCs. In conclusion, ALCAM is upregulated in PSCs of pancreatic cancer tissues, suggesting a potential role of ALCAM in regulating pancreatic cancer cell‑PSC interactions.

  2. Pax6 is regulated by Meis and Pbx homeoproteins during pancreatic development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Rowan, Sheldon; Yue, Yingzi; Heaney, Shaun; Pan, Yi; Brendolan, Andrea; Selleri, Licia; Maas, Richard L

    2006-12-15

    Pancreatic development depends on the transcription factor Pax6, which controls islet cell differentiation and hormone production. To understand the regulation of Pax6 pancreatic expression, we have identified a minimal Pax6 pancreatic enhancer and show that it contains a composite binding site for Meis and Pbx homeoproteins. We further show that Meis proteins are expressed during pancreatic development, and together with Pbx, are able to form a synergistic binding complex on the Pax6 pancreatic enhancer. When tested in transgenic mice, both the Meis and Pbx sites are essential for Pax6 pancreatic enhancer activity, and the composite site can be functionally replaced by a consensus Meis-Pbx sequence. In addition, analysis of Pbx1 and Pbx2 knockout mice demonstrates that, during pancreatic islet formation, Pax6 expression becomes dependent upon Pbx1 and Pbx2 function. As Meis homeoproteins have been previously demonstrated to regulate Pax6 expression during lens development, these results suggest a conserved mechanism of Pax6 regulation by Meis homeoproteins in two different organs.

  3. TNF-α-dependent Regulation of Acute Pancreatitis Severity by Ly-6Chi Monocytes in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R.; Michael, Emily S.; Laukkarinen, Johanna M.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Steer, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6Chi monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-α+/+ donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-α−/− donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6Chi monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6Chi monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6Chi monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:21343291

  4. The small heat shock protein αA-crystallin negatively regulates pancreatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaoxia; Hu, Xiaohui; Gong, Lili; Arrigo, Andre-Patrick; Tang, Xiangcheng; Xiang, Jia-Wen; Liu, Fangyuan; Deng, Mi; Ji, Weike; Hu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Chen, Baojiang; Bridge, Julia; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Gigantelli, James; Liu, Yizhi; Nguyen, Quan D.; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study has shown that αA-crystallin appears to act as a tumor suppressor in pancreas. Here, we analyzed expression patterns of αA-crystallin in the pancreatic tumor tissue and the neighbor normal tissue from 74 pancreatic cancer patients and also pancreatic cancer cell lines. Immunocytochemistry revealed that αA-crystallin was highly expressed in the normal tissue from 56 patients, but barely detectable in the pancreatic tumor tissue. Moreover, a low level of αA-crystallin predicts poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the 12 pancreatic cell lines analyzed, except for Capan-1 and Miapaca-2 where the level of αA-crystallin was about 80% and 65% of that in the control cell line, HPNE, the remaining pancreatic cancer cells have much lower αA-crystallin levels. Overexpression of αA-crystallin in MiaPaca-1 cells lacking endogenous αA-crystallin significantly decreased its tumorigenicity ability as shown in the colony formation and wound healing assays. In contrast, knockdown of αA-crystallin in the Capan-1 cells significantly increased its tumorigenicity ability as demonstrated in the above assays. Together, our results further demonstrate that αA-crystallin negatively regulates pancreatic tumorigenesis and appears to be a prognosis biomarker for PDAC. PMID:27588467

  5. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 exhibits oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ziwei; Yang, Yang; Xie, Songbo; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely grim prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5%, as a result of its rapid metastasis and late diagnosis. To combat this disease, it is crucial to better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenesis. Herein, we report that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with the histological grade of pancreatic cancer. The expression of ASK1 is also elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ASK1 promotes the proliferation and stimulates the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. These functions of ASK1 are abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of its kinase activity or by introduction of a kinase-dead mutation, suggesting that the kinase activity of ASK1 is required for its role in pancreatic cancer. However, the alteration of ASK1 expression or activity does not significantly affect the migration or invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for ASK1 in the development of pancreatic cancer and have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27655673

  6. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through modulating the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binger; Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We have reported that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2) can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Neonatal rat CMECs were isolated and subjected to H/R. Pretreatment of F2 leads to a reduction in H/R injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptosis, together with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation in H/R ECs. Blockade of AMPK with compound C reversed F2-induced inhibition of H/R injury, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, increased LDH release and apoptosis. Moreover, compound C also blocked the ability of F2 to reduce H/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Supplementation with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, increased cell survival rate, and decreased both LDH release and apoptosis after H/R. In conclusion, our data indicate that F2 may mitigate H/R injury by stimulating LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway and subsequent suppression of ROS production in CMECs. PMID:27166184

  7. Ethanol Extract of Pinus koraiensis Leaf Ameliorates Alcoholic Fatty Liver via the Activation of LKB1-AMPK Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Nam, Min-Ho; Shim, Bum-Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-05-01

    Although Pinus koraiensis leaf (PKL) was reported for its anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anticancer effects as a folk remedy, the inhibitory effect of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver has never been elucidated yet. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver in HepG2 cells, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Pinus koraiensis leaf increased phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, low-density lipoprotein receptor and decreased fatty acid biosynthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in HepG2 cells. In SD rats with 25% alcohol-induced fatty liver, PKL suppressed the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride and also enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione s-transferase compared with untreated control. Furthermore, PKL increased serum alcohol dehydrogenase and serum aldehyde dehydrogenase, but decreased serum alcohol concentration in ICR mice after alcohol administration. Consistently, histochemical analysis revealed that PKL attenuated alcohol-induced fatty liver in SD rats. Overall, these findings suggest that PKL ameliorates alcohol-induced fatty liver via activation of LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase and modulation of proteins related to lipogenesis synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sirtuin 1-mediated cellular metabolic memory of high glucose via the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway and therapeutic effects of metformin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Haibing; Li, Jun; Li, Tao; Zheng, Bingqing; Zheng, Ying; Jin, Huiyi; He, Ying; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun

    2012-01-01

    Cellular metabolic memory occurs in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and metformin in this phenomenon. In bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) and retinas of diabetic rats, the inflammatory gene, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the proapoptotic gene, Bax, induced by hyperglycemia, remained elevated after returning to normoglycemia. BRECs with small interfering RNA-mediated SIRT1 knockdown had increased sensitivity to hyperglycemia stress, whereas SIRT1 overexpression or activation by metformin inhibited the increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity through the upregulation of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK), ultimately suppressing NF-κB and Bax expression. Furthermore, we showed that hyperglycemia led to PARP activation, which in turn may have downregulated SIRT1. Of importance, this study also demonstrated that metformin suppressed the "memory" of hyperglycemia stress in the diabetic retinas, which may be involved in the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway. Our data suggest that SIRT1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of the cellular metabolic memory, and the use of metformin specifically for such therapy may be a new avenue of investigation in the diabetes field.

  9. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Weiping; Guo, Ting; Jia, Zhuqing; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • ISL-1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL. • ISL-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. • c-Myc positively regulates ISL-1 expression in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells. • ISL-1 and c-Myc forms an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex only in DLBCL. • Positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 does not exist in normal pancreatic β-cell. - Abstract: Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic β-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic β-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes.

  10. Context-Dependent Epigenetic Regulation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells 1 in Pancreatic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nai-Ming; Neesse, Albrecht; Dyck, Moritz Lino; Steuber, Benjamin; Koenig, Alexander O; Lubeseder-Martellato, Clara; Winter, Thore; Forster, Teresa; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Kitz, Julia; Reuter-Jessen, Kirsten; Griesmann, Heidi; Gaedcke, Jochen; Grade, Marian; Zhang, Jin-San; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Siveke, Jens; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Ströbel, Philipp; Johnsen, Steven A; Ellenrieder, Volker; Hessmann, Elisabeth

    2017-05-01

    The ability of exocrine pancreatic cells to change the cellular phenotype is required for tissue regeneration upon injury, but also contributes to their malignant transformation and tumor progression. We investigated context-dependent signaling and transcription mechanisms that determine pancreatic cell fate decisions toward regeneration and malignancy. In particular, we studied the function and regulation of the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATC1) in pancreatic cell plasticity and tissue adaptation. We analyzed cell plasticity during pancreatic regeneration and transformation in mice with pancreas-specific expression of a constitutively active form of NFATC1, or depletion of enhancer of zeste 2 homologue 2 (EZH2), in the context of wild-type or constitutively activate Kras, respectively. Acute and chronic pancreatitis were induced by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein. EZH2-dependent regulation of NFATC1 expression was studied in mouse in human pancreatic tissue and cells by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches of EZH2 and NFATC1 inhibition to study the consequences of pathway disruption on pancreatic morphology and function. Epigenetic modifications on the NFATC1 gene were investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. NFATC1 was rapidly and transiently induced in early adaptation to acinar cell injury in human samples and in mice, where it promoted acinar cell transdifferentiation and blocked proliferation of metaplastic pancreatic cells. However, in late stages of regeneration, Nfatc1 was epigenetically silenced by EZH2-dependent histone methylation, to enable acinar cell redifferentiation and prevent organ atrophy and exocrine insufficiency. In contrast, oncogenic activation of KRAS signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells reversed the EZH2-dependent effects on the NFATC1 gene and was

  11. Sox9: A Master Regulator of the Pancreatic Program

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, it has been discovered that the transcription factor Sox9 plays several critical roles in governing the development of the embryonic pancreas and the homeostasis of the mature organ. While analysis of pancreata from patients affected by the Sox9 haploinsufficiency syndrome campomelic dysplasia initially alluded to a functional role of Sox9 in pancreatic morphogenesis, transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in mechanistically dissecting such roles. Although initially defined as a marker and maintenance factor for pancreatic progenitors, Sox9 is now considered to fulfill additional indispensable functions during pancreogenesis and in the postnatal organ through its interactions with other transcription factors and signaling pathways such as Fgf and Notch. In addition to maintaining both multipotent and bipotent pancreatic progenitors, Sox9 is also required for initiating endocrine differentiation and maintaining pancreatic ductal identity, and it has recently been unveiled as a key player in the initiation of pancreatic cancer. These functions of Sox9 are discussed in this article, with special emphasis on the knowledge gained from various loss-of-function and lineage tracing mouse models. Also, current controversies regarding Sox9 function in healthy and injured adult pancreas and unanswered questions and avenues of future study are discussed. PMID:25148367

  12. Mechanism and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M; Mee, Lisa; Sekar, V Thillai; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Pandol, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon metabolism, and a relationship exists between methyl group metabolism and pancreatic exocrine function. Little, however, is known about the mechanism(s) and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using the rat-derived pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J and freshly isolated primary rat pancreatic acinar cells as models. We found [(3)H]folic acid uptake to be 1) temperature and pH dependent with a higher uptake at acidic than at neutral/alkaline pH; 2) saturable as a function of substrate concentration at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 3) inhibited by folate structural analogs and by anion transport inhibitors at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 4) trans-stimulated by unlabeled folate; 5) adaptively regulated by the prevailing extracellular folate level, and 6) inhibited by modulators of the cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway. Both the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) were found to be expressed in AR42J and in primary pancreatic acinar cells, as well as in native human pancreas with expression of RFC being higher than PCFT. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats (4 wk; 36% of calories from ethanol) led to a significant decrease in folate uptake by freshly isolated primary pancreatic acinar cells compared with cells from pair-fed controls; this effect was associated with a parallel decrease in the level of expression of RFC and PCFT. These studies reveal that folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a regulated carrier-mediated process which may involve RFC and PCFT. In addition, chronic alcohol feeding leads to a marked inhibition in folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells, an effect that is associated with reduction in level of expression of RFC and PCFT.

  13. Gene array identification of Ipf1/Pdx1-/- regulated genes in pancreatic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Per; Williams, Cecilia; Lundeberg, Joakim; Rydén, Patrik; Bergqvist, Ingela; Edlund, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Background The homeodomain transcription factor IPF1/PDX1 exerts a dual role in the pancreas; Ipf1/Pdx1 global null mutants fail to develop a pancreas whereas conditional inactivation of Ipf1/Pdx1 in β-cells leads to impaired β-cell function and diabetes. Although several putative target genes have been linked to the β-cell function of Ipf1/Pdx1, relatively little is known with respect to genes regulated by IPF1/PDX1 in early pancreatic progenitor cells. Results Microarray analyses identified a total of 111 genes that were differentially expressed in e10.5 pancreatic buds of Ipf1/Pdx1-/- embryos. The expression of one of these, Spondin 1, which encodes an extracellular matrix protein, has not previously been described in the pancreas. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses and immunohistochemical analyses also revealed that the expression of FgfR2IIIb, that encodes the receptor for FGF10, was down-regulated in Ipf1/Pdx1-/- pancreatic progenitor cells. Conclusion This microarray analysis has identified a number of candidate genes that are differentially expressed in Ipf1/Pdx1-/- pancreatic buds. Several of the differentially expressed genes were known to be important for pancreatic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation whereas others have not previously been associated with pancreatic development. PMID:18036209

  14. Adrenomedullin is Up-regulated in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer and Causes Insulin Resistance in β Cells and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Gaurav; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Javeed, Naureen; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Dutta, Shamit; Klee, George G.; Klee, Eric W.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Bamlet, William; Han, Jing Jing; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B.; De Andrade, Mariza; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Petersen, Gloria M.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Chari, Suresh T.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims New-onset diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer is likely to be a paraneoplastic phenomenon caused by tumor-secreted products. We aimed to identify the diabetogenic secretory product(s) of pancreatic cancer Methods Using microarray analysis, we identified adrenomedullin as a potential mediator of diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer. Adrenomedullin was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines, in which supernatants reduced insulin signaling in beta cell lines. We performed quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on human pancreatic cancer and healthy pancreatic tissues (controls) to determine expression of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein, respectively. We studied the effects of adrenomedullin on insulin secretion by beta cell lines and whole islets from mice and on glucose tolerance in pancreatic xenografts in mice. We measured plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and individuals with normal fasting glucose levels (controls) Results Levels of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein were increased in human pancreatic cancer samples compared with controls. Adrenomedullin and conditioned media from pancreatic cell lines inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cell lines and islets isolated from mice; the effects of conditioned media from pancreatic cancer cells were reduced by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of adrenomedullin. Conversely, overexpression of adrenomedullin in mice with pancreatic cancer led to glucose intolerance. Mean plasma levels of adrenomedullin (femtomoles per liter) were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer compared with patients with diabetes or controls. Levels of adrenomedullin were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer who developed diabetes compared those who did not. Conclusions Adrenomedullin is up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer and

  15. Intracellular and extracellular adenosine triphosphate in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells (β).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjiong; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Guan, Youfei; Yang, Jichun

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and release in mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly characterized by a decrease in ATP production, which is a central event in the progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and diabetes. ATP has been demonstrated to regulate insulin secretion via several pathways: (i) Intracellular ATP directly closes ATP-sensitive potassium channel to open L-type calcium channel, leading to an increase in free cytosolic calcium levels and exocytosis of insulin granules; (ii) A decrease in ATP production is always associated with an increase in production of reactive oxygen species, which exerts deleterious effects on pancreatic β cell survival and insulin secretion; and (iii) ATP can be co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic β cells, and the released ATP functions as an autocrine signal to modulate insulin secretory process via P2 receptors on the cell membrane. In this review, the recent findings regarding the role and mechanism of ATP synthesis and release in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells will be summarized and discussed.

  16. Green Tea Extract Rich in Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Fatty Liver by AMPK Activation via LKB1 in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, Aline B; Oliveira, Juliana L; Silva, Fernanda P; Carnier, June; Mennitti, Laís V; Santana, Aline A; de Souza, Gabriel H I; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Lira, Fábio S; Oyama, Lila M

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice.

  17. Green Tea Extract Rich in Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Fatty Liver by AMPK Activation via LKB1 in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Santamarina, Aline B.; Oliveira, Juliana L.; Silva, Fernanda P.; Carnier, June; Mennitti, Laís V.; Santana, Aline A.; de Souza, Gabriel H. I.; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M.; Lira, Fábio S.; Oyama, Lila M.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice. PMID:26536464

  18. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Zhengkui; Liu, Xiaoran; Gao, Hongqiao; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Pei; Kornmann, Marko; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Yinmo

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucially involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness properties and chemoresistance of human pancreatic Panc-1 cancer stem cells (CSCs). Panc-1 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors to silence SMO and serum-free floating-culture system was used to isolate Panc-1 tumorspheres. The expression of CSC and EMT markers was detected by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Malignant behaviors of Panc-1 CSC were evaluated by tumorigenicity assays and nude mouse lung metastasis model. We found that tumorspheres derived from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 possessed self-renewal, differentiation and stemness properties. Hh pathway and EMT were active in Panc-1 tumorspheres. Inhibition of Hh signaling by SMO knockdown inhibited self-renewal, EMT, invasion, chemoresistance, pulmonary metastasis, tumorigenesis of pancreatic CSCs. In conclusion, Hh signaling contributes to the maintenance of stem-like properties and chemoresistance of pancreatic CSC and promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Hh pathway is a potential molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for pancreatic CSCs. PMID:26918054

  19. PGE2 Regulates Pancreatic Stellate Cell Activity Via The EP4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Charo, Chantale; Holla, Vijaykumar; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Hwang, Rosa; Yang, Peiying; Dubois, Raymond N.; Menter, David G.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Ramachandran, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic stellate cells are source of dense fibrotic stroma, a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We observed correlation between levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the extent of pancreatic fibrosis. Aim of this study was to delineate the effects of PGE2 on immortalized human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSC) and to identify the receptor involved. Methods IHC, RT-PCR and Q-RT-PCR were used to assess COX-2, extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) gene expression. Eicosanoid profile was determined by LC/MS/MS. HPSC proliferation was assessed by MTS assay; migration by Boyden chamber assay and invasion using an invasion chamber. Transient silencing was obtained by siRNA. Results HPSC express COX-2 and synthesize PGE2. PGE2 stimulated HPSC proliferation, migration and invasion; stimulated expression of both ECM and MMP genes. HPSC expressed all four EP receptors. Only blocking the EP4 receptor resulted in abrogation of PGE2 mediated HPSC activation. Specificity of EP4 for the effects of PGE2 on stellate cells was confirmed using specific antagonists. Conclusion Our data indicate that PGE2 regulates PSC profibrotic activities via EP4 receptor thus suggesting EP4 receptor as useful therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer to reduce desmoplasia. PMID:23090667

  20. TRPM3 channels provide a regulated influx pathway for zinc in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Thomas F J; Drews, Anna; Loch, Sabine; Mohr, Florian; Philipp, Stephan E; Lambert, Sachar; Oberwinkler, Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Zinc is stored in insulin-containing dense core vesicles of pancreatic beta-cells where it forms crystals together with insulin and calcium ions. Zinc ions are therefore released together with insulin upon exocytosis of these vesicles. Consequently, pancreatic beta-cells need to take up large amounts of zinc from the extracellular space across their plasma membrane. The pathways for zinc uptake are only partially understood. TRPM3 channels are present in pancreatic beta-cells and can be activated by the endogenous steroid pregnenolone sulfate. We demonstrate here that recombinant TRPM3 channels are highly permeable for many divalent cations, in particular also for zinc ions. Importantly, TRPM3 channels endogenously expressed in pancreatic beta-cells are also highly permeable for zinc ions. Using FluoZin3 to image changes of the intracellular zinc concentration, we show that pancreatic beta-cells take up zinc through TRPM3 channels even when extracellular zinc concentrations are low and physiological levels of calcium and magnesium are present. Activation of TRPM3 channels also leads to depolarization of beta-cells and to additional zinc influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Our data establish that TRPM3 channels constitute a regulated entry pathway for zinc ions in pancreatic beta-cells.

  1. Leucine metabolism in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jichun; Chi, Yujing; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Guan, Youfei; Wolf, Bryan A

    2010-01-01

    Leucine, a the branched-chain amino acids that must be supplied in daily diet, plays an important role in controlling protein synthesis and regulating cell metabolism in various cell types. In pancreatic β cells, leucine acutely stimulates insulin secretion by serving as both metabolic fuel and allosteric activator of glutamate dehydrogenase to enhance glutaminolysis. Leucine has also been shown to regulate gene transcription and protein synthesis in pancreatic islet β cells via both mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways at physiological concentrations. Long-term treatment of leucine has been shown to improve insulin secretory dysfunction of human diabetic islets via upregulation of certain key metabolic genes. In vivo, leucine administration improves glycemic control in humans and rodents with type 2 diabetes. This review aims to summarize and discuss the recent findings regarding the effects of leucine metabolism on pancreatic β cell function. PMID:20500788

  2. Proteasome regulates turnover of toxic human amylin in pancreatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanghamitra; Trikha, Saurabh; Sarkar, Anjali; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxic human amylin (hA) oligomers and aggregates are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although recent studies demonstrated a causal connection between hA uptake and toxicity in pancreatic cells, the mechanism of amylin’s clearance following its internalization and its relationship to toxicity is yet to be determined, and hence was investigated here. Using pancreatic rat insulinoma β-cells and human islets as model systems, we show that hA, following its internalization, first accumulates in the cytosol followed by its translocation into nucleus, and to a lesser extent lysosomes, keeping the net cytosolic amylin content low. An increase in hA accumulation in the nucleus of pancreatic cells correlated with its cytotoxicity, suggesting that its excessive accumulation in the nucleus is detrimental. hA interacted with 20S core and 19S lid subunits of the β-cell proteasomal complex, as suggested by immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies, which subsequently resulted in a decrease in the proteasome’s proteolytic activity in these cells. In vitro binding and activity assays confirmed an intrinsic and potent ability of amylin to interact with the 20S core complex thereby modulating its proteolytic activity. Interestingly, less toxic and aggregation incapable rat amylin (rA) showed a comparable inhibitory effect on proteasome activity and protein ubiquitination, decoupling amylin aggregation/toxicity and amylin-induced protein stress. In agreement with these studies, inhibition of proteasomal proteolytic activity significantly increased intracellular amylin content and toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest a pivotal role of proteasomes in amylin’s turnover and detoxification in pancreatic cells. PMID:27340132

  3. MicroRNAs Targeting Oncogenes Are Down-Regulated in Pancreatic Malignant Transformation from Benign Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Long R.; Frampton, Adam E.; Jacob, Jimmy; Pellegrino, Loredana; Krell, Jonathan; Giamas, Georgios; Tsim, Nicole; Vlavianos, Panagiotis; Cohen, Patrizia; Ahmad, Raida; Keller, Andreas; Habib, Nagy A.; Stebbing, Justin; Castellano, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been described in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but these have not been compared with pre-malignant pancreatic tumors. We wished to compare the miRNA expression signatures in pancreatic benign cystic tumors (BCT) of low and high malignant potential with PDAC, in order to identify miRNAs deregulated during PDAC development. The mechanistic consequences of miRNA dysregulation were further evaluated. Methods Tissue samples were obtained at a tertiary pancreatic unit from individuals with BCT and PDAC. MiRNA profiling was performed using a custom microarray and results were validated using RT-qPCR prior to evaluation of miRNA targets. Results Widespread miRNA down-regulation was observed in PDAC compared to low malignant potential BCT. We show that amongst those miRNAs down-regulated, miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d regulate known PDAC oncogenes (targeting BCL2, CRK and KRAS respectively). Notably, miR-126 also directly targets the KRAS transcript at a “seedless” binding site within its 3′UTR. In clinical specimens, miR-126 was strongly down-regulated in PDAC tissues, with an associated elevation in KRAS and CRK proteins. Furthermore, miR-21, a known oncogenic miRNA in pancreatic and other cancers, was not elevated in PDAC compared to serous microcystic adenoma (SMCA), but in both groups it was up-regulated compared to normal pancreas, implicating early up-regulation during malignant change. Conclusions Expression profiling revealed 21 miRNAs down-regulated in PDAC compared to SMCA, the most benign lesion that rarely progresses to invasive carcinoma. It appears that miR-21 up-regulation is an early event in the transformation from normal pancreatic tissue. MiRNA expression has the potential to distinguish PDAC from normal pancreas and BCT. Mechanistically the down-regulation of miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d promotes PDAC transformation by post-transcriptional up-regulation of crucial PDAC oncogenes. We show

  4. Osteoprotegerin Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis upon Microbial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Maruyama, Kenta; Fujii, Hideki; Sugawara, Isamu; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Yasuda, Hisataka; Matsui, Hidenori; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL’s osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria or influenza virus also show elevated serum OPG levels. We then asked whether OPG upregulation following microbial invasion had an effect outside of bone. To do so, we treated mice with LPS and observed OPG production in pancreas, especially in β-cells of pancreatic islets. Insulin release following LPS administration was enhanced in mice lacking OPG, suggesting that OPG inhibits insulin secretion under acute inflammatory conditions. Consistently, treatment of MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with OPG decreased their insulin secretion following glucose stimulation in the presence of LPS. Finally, our findings suggest that LPS-induced OPG upregulation is mediated in part by activator protein (AP)-1 family transcription factors, particularly Fos proteins. Overall, we report that acute microbial infection elevates serum OPG, which maintains β-cell homeostasis by restricting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly preventing microbe-induced exhaustion of β-cell secretory capacity. PMID:26751951

  5. Tectonic 1 Is a Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shiyong; Chen, Xuedong; Wan, Ming; Jiang, Xingming; Li, Chunlong; Cui, Yunfu; Kang, Pengcheng

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is notoriously becoming one of the most devastating human cancers leading to death. However, clinical challenges still remain in diagnosis and treatment of this ticklish cancer. In the present study, the authors identified a new gene, Tectonic 1 (TCTN1), as a key regulator of cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to knock down endogenous TCTN1 expression in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of TCTN1 expression potently inhibited cell viability and proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Western blotting analysis also showed that knockdown of TCTN1 suppressed the expression of cdc2, while it induced that of p21 and p27. Flow cytometry analysis showed that depletion of TCTN1 in PANC-1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as well as apoptosis. Besides, depletion of TCTN1 led to the increase of Bax and cleavage of PARP-1, but the decrease of bcl2 by western blotting. The data indicate that TCTN1 is indispensable for pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, which provides a novel alternative to targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer and deserves further investigation.

  6. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  7. miR-210 regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Tetsuya; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Nakano, Eriko; Yoshida, Naoki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-08-02

    There is accumulating evidence that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs acting as negative regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. This study aimed to clarify the role of miRNAs in the interaction between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer cells were mono-cultured or indirectly co-cultured with PSCs. miRNAs were prepared, and Agilent's miRNA microarray containing probes for 904 human miRNAs was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs. miR-210 was identified as an upregulated miRNA by co-culture with PSCs. Conditioned media of PSCs activated ERK and Akt, but not hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway. PSCs-induced miR-210 upregulation was inhibited by inhibitors of ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Inhibition of miR-210 expression decreased migration, decreased the expression of vimentin and snai-1, and increased the membrane-associated expression of β-catenin in Panc-1 cells co-cultured with PSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role of miR-210 in the interaction between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein kinase D2 induces invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by regulating matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Christoph; Köhler, Conny; Armacki, Milena; Jamali, Arsia; Gössele, Ulrike; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Seufferlein, Thomas; Eiseler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis are major challenges for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Protein kinase D (PKD) isoforms are involved in controlling tumor cell motility, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In particular PKD2 expression is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer, whereas PKD1 expression is lowered. We report that both kinases control pancreatic cancer cell invasive properties in an isoform-specific manner. PKD2 enhances invasion in three-dimensional extracellular matrix (3D-ECM) cultures by stimulating expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 9 (MMP7/9), by which MMP7 is likely to act upstream of MMP9. Knockdown of MMP7/9 blocks PKD2-mediated invasion in 3D-ECM assays and in vivo using tumors growing on chorioallantois membranes. Furthermore, MMP9 enhances PKD2-mediated tumor angiogenesis by releasing extracellular matrix–bound vascular endothelial growth factor A, increasing its bioavailability and angiogenesis. Of interest, specific knockdown of PKD1 in PKD2-expressing pancreatic cancer cells further enhanced the invasive properties in 3D-ECM systems by generating a high-motility phenotype. Loss of PKD1 thus may be beneficial for tumor cells to enhance their matrix-invading abilities. In conclusion, we define for the first time PKD1 and 2 isoform–selective effects on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis, in vitro and in vivo, addressing PKD isoform specificity as a major factor for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:24336522

  9. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) enhances the accumulation and functional activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhoi; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Jinsil; Jo, Seongyea; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Baek, Ji Eun; Kwon, Eun-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Yang, Siyoung; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kang, Tae Heung; Park, Yun-Yong; Chang, Suhwan; Cho, Hee Jun; Kim, Song Cheol; Koh, Sang Seok; Kim, Seokho

    2016-08-09

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) with a profound immune infiltrate populated by a significant number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs have been increasingly recognized for their role in immune evasion and cancer progression as well as their potential as a target for immunotherapy. However, not much is known about the mechanisms regulating their behavior and function in the pancreatic TME. Here we report that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a soluble protein involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis, plays a role as an enhancer of tumor-infiltrating MDSC and its functional activity. We show that PAUF enhanced the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleen and tumor tissues of PAUF-overexpressing tumor cell-injected mice. In addition, PAUF was found to enhance the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs via the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway, which was demonstrated by PAUF-induced increased levels of arginase, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The role of PAUF in modulating the functional properties of MDSCs was further demonstrated by the use of a PAUF-neutralizing antibody that caused a decreased number of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and reduced MDSC immunosuppressive activity. The observations made in mice were confirmed in human pancreatic cancer patient-derived MDSCs, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. Collectively, we conclude that the PAUF is a powerful and multifunctional promoter of tumor growth through increase and functional activation of MDSCs, suggesting therapeutic potential for targeting PAUF in pancreatic cancers.

  10. Amazing pancreas: specific regulation of pancreatic secretion of individual digestive enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Maouyo, D; Morisset, J

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the effects of somatostatin (SMS)-201-995, atropine, and MK-329 on the role of cholinergic- and cholecystokinin-related systems and on the secretory relationship between five pancreatic digestive enzymes in rats. Animals kept in restraint cages and provided with pancreatic, biliary, duodenal, and jugular vein cannulas were treated as follows: 1) 0.25 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 caerulein alone, 2) both 0.25 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 caerulein and 100 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 atropine, 3) both caerulein and 5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 SMS, 4) 91.3 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 carbachol alone, 5) both carbachol and 0.5 mg.kg-1.h-1 MK-329, and 6) both carbachol and 5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 SMS, respectively. Food, but not water, was denied rats starting 10 h before the experiment and throughout the 6-h experimental period. The secretory patterns over the 6-h experimental period showed noticeably independent regulation of pancreatic secretion of individual digestive enzymes. The relationship between paired enzymes significantly varied according to the treatment. The correlation between chymotrypsinogen and the other enzymes was markedly modulated by MK-329. Our results suggest that SMS is a major "gate-keeper" in the regulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion and that the secretion of each digestive enzyme is individually regulated. Furthermore, they suggest that cholecystokinin and acetylcholine and their respective agonists are essentially initiators of secretory processes of the pancreas. Therefore, the paradigms of the regulation of pancreatic secretion heretofore accepted should be reexamined.

  11. Sonic hedgehog signaling inhibition provides opportunities for targeted therapy by sulforaphane in regulating pancreatic cancer stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Rodova, Mariana; Fu, Junsheng; Watkins, Dara Nall; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Shankar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been associated with cancer stem cells (CSC) and implicated in the initiation of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic CSCs are rare tumor cells characterized by their ability to self-renew, and are responsible for tumor recurrence accompanied by resistance to current therapies. The lethality of these incurable, aggressive and invasive pancreatic tumors remains a daunting clinical challenge. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of Shh pathway in pancreatic cancer and to examine the molecular mechanisms by which sulforaphane (SFN), an active compound in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits self-renewal capacity of human pancreatic CSCs. Interestingly, we demonstrate here that Shh pathway is highly activated in pancreatic CSCs and plays important role in maintaining stemness by regulating the expression of stemness genes. Given the requirement for Hedgehog in pancreatic cancer, we investigated whether hedgehog blockade by SFN could target the stem cell population in pancreatic cancer. In an in vitro model, human pancreatic CSCs derived spheres were significantly inhibited on treatment with SFN, suggesting the clonogenic depletion of the CSCs. Interestingly, SFN inhibited the components of Shh pathway and Gli transcriptional activity. Interference of Shh-Gli signaling significantly blocked SFN-induced inhibitory effects demonstrating the requirement of an active pathway for the growth of pancreatic CSCs. SFN also inhibited downstream targets of Gli transcription by suppressing the expression of pluripotency maintaining factors (Nanog and Oct-4) as well as PDGFRα and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, SFN induced apoptosis by inhibition of BCL-2 and activation of caspases. Our data reveal the essential role of Shh-Gli signaling in controlling the characteristics of pancreatic CSCs. We propose that pancreatic cancer preventative effects of SFN may result from inhibition of the Shh pathway. Thus

  12. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer.

  13. SerpinB2 regulates stromal remodelling and local invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L E; Vennin, C; Conway, J R W; Vine, K L; Pinese, M; Cowley, M J; Shearer, R F; Lucas, M C; Herrmann, D; Allam, A H; Pajic, M; Morton, J P; Biankin, A V; Ranson, M; Timpson, P; Saunders, D N

    2017-03-27

    Pancreatic cancer has a devastating prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of ~8%, restricted treatment options and characteristic molecular heterogeneity. SerpinB2 expression, particularly in the stromal compartment, is associated with reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and our genomic analysis revealed that SERPINB2 is frequently deleted in PDAC. We show that SerpinB2 is required by stromal cells for normal collagen remodelling in vitro, regulating fibroblast interaction and engagement with collagen in the contracting matrix. In a pancreatic cancer allograft model, co-injection of PDAC cancer cells and SerpinB2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in increased tumour growth, aberrant remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and increased local invasion from the primary tumour. These tumours also displayed elevated proteolytic activity of the primary biochemical target of SerpinB2-urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In a large cohort of patients with resected PDAC, we show that increasing uPA mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival following pancreatectomy. This study establishes a novel role for SerpinB2 in the stromal compartment in PDAC invasion through regulation of stromal remodelling and highlights the SerpinB2/uPA axis for further investigation as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 March 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.63.

  14. SerpinB2 regulates stromal remodelling and local invasion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N L E; Vennin, C; Conway, J R W; Vine, K L; Pinese, M; Cowley, M J; Shearer, R F; Lucas, M C; Herrmann, D; Allam, A H; Pajic, M; Morton, J P; Biankin, A V; Ranson, M; Timpson, P; Saunders, D N

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a devastating prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of ~8%, restricted treatment options and characteristic molecular heterogeneity. SerpinB2 expression, particularly in the stromal compartment, is associated with reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and our genomic analysis revealed that SERPINB2 is frequently deleted in PDAC. We show that SerpinB2 is required by stromal cells for normal collagen remodelling in vitro, regulating fibroblast interaction and engagement with collagen in the contracting matrix. In a pancreatic cancer allograft model, co-injection of PDAC cancer cells and SerpinB2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in increased tumour growth, aberrant remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and increased local invasion from the primary tumour. These tumours also displayed elevated proteolytic activity of the primary biochemical target of SerpinB2—urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In a large cohort of patients with resected PDAC, we show that increasing uPA mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival following pancreatectomy. This study establishes a novel role for SerpinB2 in the stromal compartment in PDAC invasion through regulation of stromal remodelling and highlights the SerpinB2/uPA axis for further investigation as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. PMID:28346421

  15. The pancreatitis-associated protein VMP1, a key regulator of inducible autophagy, promotes KrasG12D-mediated pancreatic cancer initiation

    PubMed Central

    Loncle, C; Molejon, M I; Lac, S; Tellechea, J I; Lomberk, G; Gramatica, L; Fernandez Zapico, M F; Dusetti, N; Urrutia, R; Iovanna, J L

    2016-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental evidence have firmly established that chronic pancreatitis, in particular in the context of Kras oncogenic mutations, predisposes to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the repertoire of molecular mediators of pancreatitis involved in Kras-mediated initiation of pancreatic carcinogenesis remains to be fully defined. In this study we demonstrate a novel role for vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1), a pancreatitis-associated protein critical for inducible autophagy, in the regulation of Kras-induced PDAC initiation. Using a newly developed genetically engineered model, we demonstrate that VMP1 increases the ability of Kras to give rise to preneoplastic lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). This promoting effect of VMP1 on PanIN formation is due, at least in part, by an increase in cell proliferation combined with a decrease in apoptosis. Using chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, we show that this drug antagonizes the effect of VMP1 on PanIN formation. Thus, we conclude that VMP1-mediated autophagy cooperate with Kras to promote PDAC initiation. These findings are of significant medical relevance, molecules targeting autophagy are currently being tested along chemotherapeutic agents to treat PDAC and other tumors in human trials. PMID:27415425

  16. TRIM21 is a novel regulator of Par-4 in colon and pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jeffrey Q.; Irby, Rosalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor that has been shown to induce cancer-cell selective apoptosis in a variety of cancers. The regulation of Par-4 expression and activity is a relatively understudied area, and identifying novel regulators of Par-4 may serve as novel therapeutic targets. To identify novel regulators of Par-4, a co-immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cells, and co-precipitated proteins were identified by mass-spectometry. TRIM21 was identified as a novel interacting partner of Par-4, and further shown to interact with Par-4 endogenously and through its PRY-SPRY domain. Additional studies show that TRIM21 downregulates Par-4 levels in response to cisplatin, and that TRIM21 can increase the resistance of colon cancer cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, forced Par-4 expression can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to cisplatin. Finally, we demonstrate that TRIM21 expression predicts survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Our work highlights a novel mechanism of Par-4 regulation, and identifies a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27830973

  17. Disruption of BASIGIN decreases lactic acid export and sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to biguanides independently of the LKB1 status

    PubMed Central

    Floch, Renaud Le; Moura, Conceição Souto

    2015-01-01

    Most cancers rely on aerobic glycolysis to generate energy and metabolic intermediates. To maintain a high glycolytic rate, cells must efficiently export lactic acid through the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1/4). These transporters require a chaperone, CD147/BASIGIN (BSG) for trafficking to the plasma membrane and function. To validate the key role of these transporters in lung cancer, we first analysed the expression of MCT1/4 and BSG in 50 non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. These proteins were specifically upregulated in tumour tissues. We then disrupted BSG in three NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1975 and H292) via ‘Zinc-Finger Nucleases’. The three homozygous BSG−/− cell lines displayed a low MCT activity (10- to 5-fold reduction, for MCT1 and MCT4, respectively) compared to wild-type cells. Consequently, the rate of glycolysis, compared to the wild-type counterpart, was reduced by 2.0- to 3.5-fold, whereas the rate of respiration was stimulated in BSG−/− cell lines. Both wild-type and BSG-null cells were extremely sensitive to the mitochondria inhibitor metformin/phenformin in normoxia. However, only BSG-null cells, independently of their LKB1 status, remained sensitive to biguanides in hypoxia in vitro and tumour growth in nude mice. Our results demonstrate that inhibiting glycolysis by targeting lactic acid export sensitizes NSCLC to phenformin. PMID:25894929

  18. Disruption of BASIGIN decreases lactic acid export and sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to biguanides independently of the LKB1 status.

    PubMed

    Granja, Sara; Marchiq, Ibtissam; Le Floch, Renaud; Moura, Conceição Souto; Baltazar, Fátima; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2015-03-30

    Most cancers rely on aerobic glycolysis to generate energy and metabolic intermediates. To maintain a high glycolytic rate, cells must efficiently export lactic acid through the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1/4). These transporters require a chaperone, CD147/BASIGIN (BSG) for trafficking to the plasma membrane and function.To validate the key role of these transporters in lung cancer, we first analysed the expression of MCT1/4 and BSG in 50 non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. These proteins were specifically upregulated in tumour tissues. We then disrupted BSG in three NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1975 and H292) via 'Zinc-Finger Nucleases'. The three homozygous BSG-/- cell lines displayed a low MCT activity (10- to 5-fold reduction, for MCT1 and MCT4, respectively) compared to wild-type cells. Consequently, the rate of glycolysis, compared to the wild-type counterpart, was reduced by 2.0- to 3.5-fold, whereas the rate of respiration was stimulated in BSG-/- cell lines. Both wild-type and BSG-null cells were extremely sensitive to the mitochondria inhibitor metformin/phenformin in normoxia. However, only BSG-null cells, independently of their LKB1 status, remained sensitive to biguanides in hypoxia in vitro and tumour growth in nude mice. Our results demonstrate that inhibiting glycolysis by targeting lactic acid export sensitizes NSCLC to phenformin.

  19. RNA editing by ADAR2 is metabolically regulated in pancreatic islets and beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhenji; Zhao, Liyun; Yang, Liu; Huang, Ping; Zhao, Feng; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Yong

    2006-11-03

    RNA editing via the conversion of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) is catalyzed by two major families of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), ADAR1 and ADAR2. This genetic recoding process is known to play essential roles in the brain, due in part to changes in functional activities of edited neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Little is known, however, about the physiological regulation and function of A to I RNA editing in peripheral tissues and other biological processes. Here, we report that both ADAR1 and ADAR2 are expressed in the murine pancreatic islets, and ADAR2 is primarily localized in the islet endocrine cells. In contrast to ADAR1, ADAR2 transcripts in the pancreatic islets exhibit a nearly 2-fold increase in insulin-resistant mice chronically fed a high fat diet. Concurrent with this diet-induced metabolic stress, RNA editing in the islets is dramatically enhanced for the RNA transcripts encoding the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit B. Moreover, ADAR2 protein expression is repressed in the islets under fuel deficiency condition during fasting, and this repression can be completely reversed by refeeding. We also show that, specifically in pancreatic beta-cell lines, not only the expression of ADAR2 but also the glutamate receptor subunit B editing and ADAR2 self-editing are markedly augmented in response to glucose at the physiological concentration for insulin secretion stimulation. Thus, RNA editing by ADAR2 in pancreatic islets and beta-cells is metabolically regulated by nutritional and energy status, suggesting that A to I RNA editing is most likely involved in the modulation of pancreatic islet and beta-cell function.

  20. [Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Diacylglycerol Kinases in Pancreatic β-cells].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukiko K; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells is essential for regulating blood glucose levels. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) involves the following steps: Glucose uptake by pancreatic β-cells is metabolized to produce ATP. Increased ATP levels result in the closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, resulting in membrane depolarization that activates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels to subsequently trigger insulin secretion. In addition to this primary mechanism through KATP channels, insulin secretion is regulated by cyclic AMP and diacylglycerol (DAG), which mediate the effects of receptor agonists such as GLP-1 and acetylcholine. Glucose by itself can also increase the levels of these second messengers. Recently, we have shown an obligatory role of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid, in GSIS. Of the 10 known DGK isoforms, we focused on type-I DGK isoforms (i.e., DGKα, DGKβ, and DGKγ), which are activated by Ca(2+). The protein expression of DGKα and DGKγ was detected in mouse pancreatic islets and the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6. Depletion of these DGKs by a specific inhibitor or siRNA decreased both [Ca(2+)]i and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Similar [Ca(2+)]i responses were induced by DiC8, a membrane-permeable DAG analog. These results suggest that DGKα and DGKγ play crucial roles in insulin secretion, and that their depletion impairs insulin secretion through DAG accumulation. In this article, we review the current understanding of the roles of DAG- and DGK-signaling in pancreatic β-cells, and discuss their pathophysiological roles in the progression of type-2 diabetes.

  1. CXCR2 signaling regulates KRAS(G12D)-induced autocrine growth of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Abhilasha; Varney, Michelle; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Ouellette, Michel M.; Batra, Surinder K.; Singh, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of RAS, the master regulator of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), continues to be a challenge. Mutations in various isoforms of RAS gene, including KRAS are known to upregulate CXC chemokines; however, their precise role in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this report, we reveal a previously unidentified tumor cell-autonomous role of KRAS(G12D)-induced CXCR2 signaling in mediating growth of neoplastic PDAC cells. Progressively increasing expression of mCXCR2 and its ligands was detected in the malignant ductal cells of Pdx1-cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice. Knocking-down CXCR2 in KRAS(G12D)-bearing human pancreatic duct-derived cells demonstrated a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, CXCR2 antagonists showed selective growth inhibition of KRAS(G12D)-bearing cells in vitro. Intriguingly, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-bearing pancreatic ductal cells reduced the levels of KRAS protein, strongly implying the presence of a KRAS-CXCR2 feed-forward loop. Together, these data demonstrate the role of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-induced growth transformation and progression in PDAC. PMID:26771140

  2. Apicidin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine by epigenetically regulating MUC4 expression.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Urey, Carlos; Hilmersson, Katarzyna Said; Bauden, Monika P; Ek, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger; Andersson, Roland

    2014-10-01

    Mucin 4 (MUC4) has been linked to resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess whether epigenetic control of MUC4 expression can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment. A 76-member combined epigenetics and phosphatase small-molecule inhibitor library was screened for anti-proliferative activity against the MUC4(+) gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1, followed by high-content screening of protein expression. Apicidin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, showed the greatest anti-proliferative activity with a lethal dose 50 (LD50) value of 5.17 μM. Apicidin significantly reduced the expression of MUC4 and its transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. Combined treatment with a sub-therapeutic concentration of apicidin and gemcitabine synergistically inhibited growth of Capan-1 cells. Apicidin appears to be a novel anti-proliferative agent against pancreatic cancer cells that may reverse chemoresistance by epigenetically regulating MUC4 expression. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Macrophage/Epithelium Cross-Talk Regulates Cell Cycle Progression and Migration in Pancreatic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Linsey; Gearhart, Addie; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J.; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Crisa, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon “paired-less” isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates. PMID:24586821

  4. Two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, stimulate GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fujinami, Aya; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Amano, Akiko; Ishigami, Akihito; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  5. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Seok; Rho, Jun Gi; Shin, Jung Jae; Song, Woo Keun; Lee, Eun Kyung; Egan, Josephine M.; Kim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212–2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes. PMID:26967640

  6. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic mice through interleukin-12 regulation on Klotho.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiuli

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in the obese rat model. However, the related inflammatory mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of periodontitis on the function of pancreatic β-cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines-related immune mechanism in a mouse model. C57BL/6-db/db and inbred C57BL/6 mice were chosen here to establish a mouse model with periodontitis, which was induced by ligatures for 8 weeks. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was introduced to evaluate the function of pancreatic islets and β-cells. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Klotho were also measured, and the correlation between immunostimulation and Klotho level was deeply investigated in vitro. Pancreatic β-cell failure, with insulin resistance, was observed in db/db mice, while periodontitis could aggravate β-cell dysfunction-related features. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and Klotho showed a negatively synergistic change, whereas the expression of Klotho was also inhibited under IL-12 treatment in MIN6 β-cells or isolated islets. Furthermore, IL-12-induced immune stimulation and also decreased insulin secretion were proven to be reversed by Klotho overexpression. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell failure in diabetic mice. Further in vitro studies showed IL-12 regulation on Klotho, while Klotho also acted as an inhibitor on IL-12, indicating the potential of Klotho for preserving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetes.

  7. TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R; Michael, Emily S; Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Steer, Michael L

    2011-04-15

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(+/+) donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(-/-) donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6C(hi) monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Pancreatic polypeptide regulates glucagon release through PPYR1 receptors expressed in mouse and human alpha-cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, F; Karaca, M; Novials, A; Maldonado, R; Maechler, P; Rubí, B

    2015-02-01

    Plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) rise upon food intake. Although other pancreatic islet hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, have been extensively investigated, PP secretion and actions are still poorly understood. The release of PP upon glucose stimulation and the effects of PP on glucagon and insulin secretion were analyzed in isolated pancreatic islets. Expression of PP receptor (PPYR1) was investigated by immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR on sorted pancreatic islet cells, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated mouse pancreatic islets, glucose stimulation increased PP release, while insulin secretion was up and glucagon release was down. Direct exposure of islets to PP inhibited glucagon release. In mouse islets, PPYR1 protein was observed by immunoblotting and quantitative RT-PCR revealed PPYR1 expression in the FACS-enriched glucagon alpha-cell fraction. Immunohistochemistry on pancreatic sections showed the presence of PPYR1 in alpha-cells of both mouse and human islets, while the receptor was absent in other islet cell types and exocrine pancreas. Glucose stimulates PP secretion and PP inhibits glucagon release in mouse pancreatic islets. PP receptors are present in alpha-cells of mouse and human pancreatic islets. These data demonstrate glucose-regulated secretion of PP and its effects on glucagon release through PPYR1 receptors expressed by alpha-cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. β2-Adrenogenic signaling regulates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer progression via upregulation of HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiguang; Chen, Xin; Sheng, Liang; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Xu, Qinhong; Duan, Wanxing; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xuqi; Wu, Zheng; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong; Huo, Xiongwei

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. It is suggested that 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, mediates the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoking by promoting cancer growth. In the present study, we show that smoking, HIF-1α expression and β2-adrenogenic receptor (β2-AR) expression are negatively correlated with the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Moreover, HIF-1α expression and β2-AR expression are positively correlated with smoking status, different histological differentiation and among the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages in pancreatic cancer patients. NNK increases HIF-1α expression in pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of HIF-1α and ICI118, 551 (a β2-AR selective antagonist) abrogates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer proliferation and invasion in vitro and inhibits NNK-induced pancreatic cancer growth in vivo. However, using CoCl2 (a HIF-1α stabilizing agent which decreases HIF-1α degradation under normoxia conditions) reverses ICI118, 551 induced effects under NNK exposure. Thus, our data indicate that β2-AR signaling regulates NNK-induced pancreatic cancer progression via upregulation of HIF-1α. Taken together, β2-AR signaling and HIF-1α may represent promising therapeutic targets for preventing smoking induced pancreatic cancer progression. PMID:26497365

  10. Down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors and incretin receptors in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent induction of oxidative stress deteriorate pancreatic β-cell function, which leads to the aggravation of type 2 diabetes. Although such phenomena are well known as glucose toxicity, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this review article, we describe the possible molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes, focusing on (1) oxidative stress, (2) pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and (3) incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors). Under such conditions, nuclear expression levels of PDX-1 and MafA are decreased, which leads to suppression of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In addition, expression levels of GLP-1 and GIP receptors are decreased, which likely contributes to the impaired incretin effects found in diabetes. Taken together, it is likely that down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and down-regulation of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) explain, at least in part, the molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24379916

  11. Pancreatic Mesenchyme Regulates Islet Cellular Composition in a Patched/Hedgehog-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hibsher, Daniel; Epshtein, Alona; Oren, Nufar; Landsman, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas development requires restrained Hedgehog (Hh) signaling activation. While deregulated Hh signaling in the pancreatic mesenchyme has been long suggested to be detrimental for proper organogenesis, this association was not directly shown. Here, we analyzed the contribution of mesenchymal Hh signaling to pancreas development. To increase Hh signaling in the pancreatic mesenchyme of mouse embryos, we deleted Patched1 (Ptch1) in these cells. Our findings indicate that deregulated Hh signaling in mesenchymal cells was sufficient to impair pancreas development, affecting both endocrine and exocrine cells. Notably, transgenic embryos displayed disrupted islet cellular composition and morphology, with a reduced β-cell portion. Our results indicate that the cell-specific growth rates of α- and β-cell populations, found during normal development, require regulated mesenchymal Hh signaling. In addition, we detected hyperplasia of mesenchymal cells upon elevated Hh signaling, accompanied by them acquiring smooth-muscle like phenotype. By specifically manipulating mesenchymal cells, our findings provide direct evidence for the non-autonomous roles of the Hh pathway in pancreatic epithelium development. To conclude, we directly show that regulated mesenchymal Hh signaling is required for pancreas organogenesis and establishment of its proper cellular composition. PMID:27892540

  12. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) enhances the accumulation and functional activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seongyea; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Baek, Ji Eun; Kwon, Eun-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Yang, Siyoung; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kang, Tae Heung; Park, Yun-Yong; Chang, Suhwan; Cho, Hee Jun; Kim, Song Cheol; Koh, Sang Seok; Kim, Seokho

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) with a profound immune infiltrate populated by a significant number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs have been increasingly recognized for their role in immune evasion and cancer progression as well as their potential as a target for immunotherapy. However, not much is known about the mechanisms regulating their behavior and function in the pancreatic TME. Here we report that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a soluble protein involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis, plays a role as an enhancer of tumor-infiltrating MDSC and its functional activity. We show that PAUF enhanced the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleen and tumor tissues of PAUF-overexpressing tumor cell-injected mice. In addition, PAUF was found to enhance the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs via the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway, which was demonstrated by PAUF-induced increased levels of arginase, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The role of PAUF in modulating the functional properties of MDSCs was further demonstrated by the use of a PAUF-neutralizing antibody that caused a decreased number of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and reduced MDSC immunosuppressive activity. The observations made in mice were confirmed in human pancreatic cancer patient-derived MDSCs, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. Collectively, we conclude that the PAUF is a powerful and multifunctional promoter of tumor growth through increase and functional activation of MDSCs, suggesting therapeutic potential for targeting PAUF in pancreatic cancers. PMID:27322081

  13. Interplay between menin and Dnmt1 reversibly regulates pancreatic cancer cell growth downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Wang, Yun-Feng; Li, Gang; Yang, Sheng-sheng; Liu, Che; Hu, Hao; Jin, Gang; Hu, Xian-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Menin, the product of the Men1 gene, which is frequently mutated in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, acts as a chromatin-remodeling factor to modulate the transcription of cell cycle regulators by interacting with histone modification factors. However, the function of menin and its underlying mechanisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain unknown. Here, we found that menin inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and that its expression was gradually lost during pancreatic carcinogenesis. Menin overexpression significantly activated the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p18 and p27, accompanied with a decrease in DNA methylation levels of p18 and p27 promoters. Mechanistically, we found that interaction of menin with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) competitively pulled down Dnmt1 from p18 and p27 promoters, leading to the downregulation of DNA methylation levels. Moreover, menin expression was suppressed by Dnmt1 downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, and menin overexpression strongly antagonized the promotion effect of hedgehog signaling on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Taken together, the interaction between menin and Dnmt1 reversibly regulates pancreatic cancer cell growth downstream of Hedgehog pathways with complex mutual modulation networks, suggesting that the Hedgehog/Dnmt1/menin axis is a potential molecular target for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  14. Metformin Induces a Dietary Restriction–Like State and the Oxidative Stress Response to Extend C. elegans Healthspan via AMPK, LKB1, and SKN-1

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Brian; Driscoll, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug commonly used to treat type-2 diabetes, has been noted to extend healthspan of nondiabetic mice, but this outcome, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie it, have received relatively little experimental attention. To develop a genetic model for study of biguanide effects on healthspan, we investigated metformin impact on aging Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that metformin increases nematode healthspan, slowing lipofuscin accumulation, extending median lifespan, and prolonging youthful locomotory ability in a dose-dependent manner. Genetic data suggest that metformin acts through a mechanism similar to that operative in eating-impaired dietary restriction (DR) mutants, but independent of the insulin signaling pathway. Energy sensor AMPK and AMPK-activating kinase LKB1, which are activated in mammals by metformin treatment, are essential for health benefits in C. elegans, suggesting that metformin engages a metabolic loop conserved across phyla. We also show that the conserved oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 is essential for metformin healthspan benefits in C. elegans, a mechanistic requirement not previously described in mammals. skn-1, which functions in nematode sensory neurons to promote DR longevity benefits and in intestines for oxidative stress resistance lifespan benefits, must be expressed in both neurons and intestines for metformin-promoted healthspan extension, supporting that metformin improves healthy middle-life aging by activating both DR and antioxidant defense longevity pathways. In addition to defining molecular players operative in metformin healthspan benefits, our data suggest that metformin may be a plausible pharmacological intervention to promote healthy human aging. PMID:20090912

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of the Pancreatic Islet: Implications for Islet Function

    PubMed Central

    Stitzel, Michael L.; Kycia, Ina; Kursawe, Romy; Ucar, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans contain multiple hormone-producing endocrine cells controlling glucose homeostasis. Transcription establishes and maintains islet cellular fates and identities. Genetic and environmental disruption of islet transcription triggers cellular dysfunction and disease. Early transcriptional regulation studies of specific islet genes, including insulin (INS) and the transcription factor PDX1, identified the first cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors governing islet function. Here, we review how human islet “omics” studies are reshaping our understanding of transcriptional regulation in islet (dys)function and diabetes. First, we highlight the expansion of islet transcript number, form, and function and of DNA transcriptional regulatory elements controlling their production. Next, we cover islet transcriptional effects of genetic and environmental perturbation. Finally, we discuss how these studies’ emerging insights should empower our diabetes research community to build mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and to equip clinicians with tailored, precision medicine options to prevent and treat islet dysfunction and diabetes. PMID:26272056

  16. Metformin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates phenylephrine-mediated contraction of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-05-11

    The aim of the present study is to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms by which activation of LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by metformin regulates vascular smooth muscle contraction. The essential ability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to contract and relax in response to an elevation and reduction in intravascular pressure is necessary for appropriate blood flow regulation. Thus, vessel contraction is a critical mechanism for systemic blood flow regulation. In cultured rat VSMCs, AMPK activation through LKB1 by metformin-inhibited phenylephrine-mediated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphorylation (p-MLC). Conversely, inhibition of AMPK and LKB1 reversed phenylephrine-induced MLCK and p-MLC phosphorylation. Measurement of the tension trace in rat aortic rings also showed that the effect of AMPK activation by metformin decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction. Metformin inhibited PE-induced p-MLC and α-smooth muscle actin co-localization. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by LKB1 decreases VSMC contraction by inhibiting MLCK and p-MLC, indicating that induction by the AMPK-LKB1 pathway may be a new therapeutic target to lower high blood pressure.

  17. HuR is a post-transcriptional regulator of core metabolic enzymes in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Richard A; Pineda, Danielle M; Chand, Saswati N; Romeo, Carmella; Londin, Eric R; Karoly, Edward D; Cozzitorto, Joseph A; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Yeo, Charles J; Brody, Jonathan R; Winter, Jordan M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs from normal cells, yet the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these differences are incompletely understood, particularly in response to acute changes in the tumor microenvironment. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, acts under acute stress to regulate core signaling pathways in cancer through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA targets. We demonstrate that HuR regulates the metabolic phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells and is critical for survival under acute glucose deprivation. Using three pancreatic cancer cell line models, HuR-proficient cells demonstrated superior survival under glucose deprivation when compared with isogenic cells with siRNA-silencing of HuR expression (HuR-deficient cells). We found that HuR-proficient cells utilized less glucose, but produced greater lactate, as compared with HuR-deficient cells. Acute glucose deprivation was found to act as a potent stimulus for HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where HuR stabilizes its mRNA targets. We performed a gene expression array on ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitated mRNAs bound to HuR and identified 11 novel HuR target transcripts that encode enzymes central to glucose metabolism. Three (GPI, PRPS2 and IDH1) were selected for validation studies, and confirmed as bona fide HuR targets. These findings establish HuR as a critical regulator of pancreatic cancer cell metabolism and survival under acute glucose deprivation. Further explorations into HuR’s role in cancer cell metabolism should uncover novel therapeutic targets that are critical for cancer cell survival in a metabolically compromised tumor microenvironment. PMID:23807417

  18. Notch1 activation up-regulates pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-He; Zhou, Guisheng; Yu, Juehua; Wu, James; Nemunaitis, John; Senzer, Neil; Dawson, David; Li, Min; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2013-07-19

    Transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) plays an essential role in pancreatic development, β-cell differentiation, maintenance of normal β-cell function and tumorigenesis. PDX-1 expression is tightly controlled through a variety of mechanisms under different cellular contexts. We report here that overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), an activated form of Notch1, enhanced PDX-1 expression in both PDX-1 stable HEK293 cells and mouse insulinoma β-TC-6 cells, while NICD shRNA inhibited the enhancing effect. NICD-enhanced PDX-1 expression was accompanied by increased insulin expression/secretion and cell proliferation in β-TC-6 cells, which was reversed by NICD shRNA. Cre activation-induced specific expression of NICD in islet β cells of transgenic βNICD+/+ mice induced increased expression of PDX-1, insulin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and decreased expression of p27 with accompanied fasting hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia and altered responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Systemically delivered NICD shRNA suppressed islet expression of PDX-1 and reversed the hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Moreover, expression levels of NICD were correlated with those of PDX-1 in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Thus, Notch1 acts as a positive regulator for PDX-1 expression, cooperates with PDX-1 in the development of insulin overexpression and islet cell neoplasia and represents a potential therapeutic target for islet neoplasia.

  19. UHRF1 regulation of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in pancreatic cancer contributes to oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Alainin, Wafa; Gana, Thompson; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Olayanju, Adedamola; Barrera, Lawrence N; Ferguson, Robert; Campbell, Fiona; Andrews, Timothy; Goldring, Christopher; Kitteringham, Neil; Park, Brian K; Nedjadi, Taoufik; Schmid, Michael C; Slupsky, Joseph R; Greenhalf, William; Neoptolemos, John P; Costello, Eithne

    2016-02-01

    The cellular defence protein Nrf2 is a mediator of oncogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and other cancers. However, the control of Nrf2 expression and activity in cancer is not fully understood. We previously reported the absence of Keap1, a pivotal regulator of Nrf2, in ∼70% of PDAC cases. Here we describe a novel mechanism whereby the epigenetic regulator UHRF1 suppresses Keap1 protein levels. UHRF1 expression was observed in 20% (5 of 25) of benign pancreatic ducts compared to 86% (114 of 132) of pancreatic tumours, and an inverse relationship between UHRF1 and Keap1 levels in PDAC tumours (n = 124) was apparent (p = 0.002). We also provide evidence that UHRF1-mediated regulation of the Nrf2 pathway contributes to the aggressive behaviour of PDAC. Depletion of UHRF1 from PDAC cells decreased growth and enhanced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. UHRF1 depletion also led to reduced levels of Nrf2-regulated downstream proteins and was accompanied by heightened oxidative stress, in the form of lower glutathione levels and increased reactive oxygen species. Concomitant depletion of Keap1 and UHRF1 restored Nrf2 levels and reversed cell cycle arrest and the increase in reactive oxygen species. Mechanistically, depletion of UHRF1 reduced global and tumour suppressor promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, and KEAP1 gene promoter methylation was reduced in one of three cell lines examined. Thus, methylation of the KEAP1 gene promoter may contribute to the suppression of Keap1 protein levels by UHRF1, although our data suggest that additional mechanisms need to be explored. Finally, we demonstrate that K-Ras drives UHRF1 expression, establishing a novel link between this oncogene and Nrf2-mediated cellular protection. Since UHRF1 over-expression occurs in other cancers, its ability to regulate the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway may be critically important to the malignant behaviour of these cancers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pathology published

  20. Deep sequencing and in silico analyses identify MYB-regulated gene networks and signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Shafquat; Zubair, Haseeb; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Bhardwaj, Arun; Zubair, Asif; Ahmad, Aamir; Singh, Seema; Khushman, Moh’d.; Singh, Ajay P.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor MYB can modulate several cancer-associated phenotypes in pancreatic cancer. In order to understand the molecular basis of these MYB-associated changes, we conducted deep-sequencing of transcriptome of MYB-overexpressing and -silenced pancreatic cancer cells, followed by in silico pathway analysis. We identified significant modulation of 774 genes upon MYB-silencing (p < 0.05) that were assigned to 25 gene networks by in silico analysis. Further analyses placed genes in our RNA sequencing-generated dataset to several canonical signalling pathways, such as cell-cycle control, DNA-damage and -repair responses, p53 and HIF1α. Importantly, we observed downregulation of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma signaling pathway in MYB-silenced pancreatic cancer cells exhibiting suppression of EGFR and NF-κB. Decreased expression of EGFR and RELA was validated by both qPCR and immunoblotting and they were both shown to be under direct transcriptional control of MYB. These observations were further confirmed in a converse approach wherein MYB was overexpressed ectopically in a MYB-null pancreatic cancer cell line. Our findings thus suggest that MYB potentially regulates growth and genomic stability of pancreatic cancer cells via targeting complex gene networks and signaling pathways. Further in-depth functional studies are warranted to fully understand MYB signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27354262

  1. Biotin uptake by mouse and human pancreatic beta cells/islets: a regulated, lipopolysaccharide-sensitive carrier-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Sekar, Thillai V; Said, Hamid M

    2014-08-01

    Biotin is essential for the normal function of pancreatic beta cells. These cells obtain biotin from their surroundings via transport across their cell membrane. Little is known about the uptake mechanism involved, how it is regulated, and how it is affected by internal and external factors. We addressed these issues using the mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated mouse and human primary pancreatic beta cells as models. The results showed biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells occurs via a Na(+)-dependent, carrier-mediated process, that is sensitive to desthiobiotin, as well as to pantothenic acid and lipoate; the process is also saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km = 22.24 ± 5.5 μM). These cells express the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), whose knockdown (with doxycycline-inducible shRNA) led to a sever inhibition in biotin uptake. Similarly, uptake of biotin by mouse and human primary pancreatic islets is Na(+)-dependent and carrier-mediated, and both cell types express SMVT. Biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells is also adaptively regulated (via transcriptional mechanism) by extracellular substrate level. Chronic treatment of pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) leads to inhibition in biotin uptake. This inhibition is mediated via a Toll-Like receptor 4-mediated process and involves a decrease in membrane expression of SMVT. These findings show, for the first time, that pancreatic beta cells/islets take up biotin via a specific and regulated carrier-mediated process, and that the process is sensitive to the effect of LPS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Biotin uptake by mouse and human pancreatic beta cells/islets: a regulated, lipopolysaccharide-sensitive carrier-mediated process

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2014-01-01

    Biotin is essential for the normal function of pancreatic beta cells. These cells obtain biotin from their surroundings via transport across their cell membrane. Little is known about the uptake mechanism involved, how it is regulated, and how it is affected by internal and external factors. We addressed these issues using the mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated mouse and human primary pancreatic beta cells as models. The results showed biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells occurs via a Na+-dependent, carrier-mediated process, that is sensitive to desthiobiotin, as well as to pantothenic acid and lipoate; the process is also saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km = 22.24 ± 5.5 μM). These cells express the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), whose knockdown (with doxycycline-inducible shRNA) led to a sever inhibition in biotin uptake. Similarly, uptake of biotin by mouse and human primary pancreatic islets is Na+-dependent and carrier-mediated, and both cell types express SMVT. Biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells is also adaptively regulated (via transcriptional mechanism) by extracellular substrate level. Chronic treatment of pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) leads to inhibition in biotin uptake. This inhibition is mediated via a Toll-Like receptor 4-mediated process and involves a decrease in membrane expression of SMVT. These findings show, for the first time, that pancreatic beta cells/islets take up biotin via a specific and regulated carrier-mediated process, and that the process is sensitive to the effect of LPS. PMID:24904078

  3. Hepatic nutrient and hormonal regulation of the PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER) promoter.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Whitney A; Athanason, Mark G; Chechele, Alicia C; Kuehl, Melanie N; Fernandez, Amanda M; MarElia, Catherine B; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2015-09-15

    PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) has been shown to regulate glycemic levels via interactions with both pancreatic islets and the liver. Although PANDER is predominantly expressed from the endocrine pancreas, recent work has provided sufficient evidence that the liver may also be an additional tissue source of PANDER production. At physiological levels, PANDER is capable of disrupting insulin signaling and promoting increased hepatic glucose production. As shown in some animal models, strong expression of PANDER, induced by viral delivery within the liver, induces hepatic steatosis. However, no studies to date have explicitly characterized the transcriptional regulation of PANDER from the liver. Therefore, our investigation elucidated the nutrient and hormonal regulation of the hepatic PANDER promoter. Initial RNA-ligated rapid amplification of cDNA ends identified a novel transcription start site (TSS) approximately 26 bp upstream of the PANDER translational start codon not previously revealed in pancreatic β-cell lines. Western evaluation of various murine tissues demonstrated robust expression in the liver and brain. Promoter analysis identified strong tissue-specific activity of the PANDER promoter in both human and murine liver-derived cell lines. The minimal element responsible for maximal promoter activity within hepatic cell lines was located between -293 and -3 of the identified TSS. PANDER promoter activity was inhibited by both insulin and palmitate, whereas glucose strongly increased expression. The minimal element was responsible for maximal glucose-responsive and basal activity. Co-transfection reporter assays, chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) increased PANDER promoter activity and interacted with the PANDER promoter. E-box 3 was shown to be critical for basal and glucose responsive expression. In summary, in-vitro and in-vivo glucose

  4. Identification of key regulators of pancreatic cancer progression through multidimensional systems-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Deepa; Bhasin, Manoj K

    2016-05-03

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer with dismal prognosis, urgently necessitating better biomarkers to improve therapeutic options and early diagnosis. Traditional approaches of biomarker detection that consider only one aspect of the biological continuum like gene expression alone are limited in their scope and lack robustness in identifying the key regulators of the disease. We have adopted a multidimensional approach involving the cross-talk between the omics spaces to identify key regulators of disease progression. Multidimensional domain-specific disease signatures were obtained using rank-based meta-analysis of individual omics profiles (mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation) related to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). These domain-specific PDAC signatures were integrated to identify genes that were affected across multiple dimensions of omics space in PDAC (genes under multiple regulatory controls, GMCs). To further pin down the regulators of PDAC pathophysiology, a systems-level network was generated from knowledge-based interaction information applied to the above identified GMCs. Key regulators were identified from the GMC network based on network statistics and their functional importance was validated using gene set enrichment analysis and survival analysis. Rank-based meta-analysis identified 5391 genes, 109 miRNAs and 2081 methylation-sites significantly differentially expressed in PDAC (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Bimodal integration of meta-analysis signatures revealed 1150 and 715 genes regulated by miRNAs and methylation, respectively. Further analysis identified 189 altered genes that are commonly regulated by miRNA and methylation, hence considered GMCs. Systems-level analysis of the scale-free GMCs network identified eight potential key regulator hubs, namely E2F3, HMGA2, RASA1, IRS1, NUAK1, ACTN1, SKI and DLL1, associated with important pathways driving cancer progression. Survival analysis on individual key regulators revealed

  5. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet.

  6. Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Dae; Toda, Chitoku; D’Agostino, Giuseppe; Zeiss, Caroline J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Elsworth, John D.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Chan, Owen; Harvey, Brandon K.; Richie, Christopher T.; Savolainen, Mari; Myöhänen, Timo; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuronal functions. Here we report that hypothalamic PREP is predominantly expressed in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), where it regulates glucose-induced neuronal activation. PREP knockdown mice (Prepgt/gt) exhibited glucose intolerance, decreased fasting insulin, increased fasting glucagon levels, and reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with this, central infusion of a specific PREP inhibitor, S17092, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels in wild-type mice. Arguing further for a central mode of action of PREP, isolated pancreatic islets showed no difference in glucose-induced insulin release between Prepgt/gt and wild-type mice. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed no difference between Prepgt/gt and wild-type control mice. Central PREP regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion appears to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system because Prepgt/gt mice have elevated sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine levels in the pancreas, and propranolol treatment reversed glucose intolerance in these mice. Finally, re-expression of PREP by bilateral VMH injection of adeno-associated virus–PREP reversed the glucose-intolerant phenotype of the Prepgt/gt mice. Taken together, our results unmask a previously unknown player in central regulation of glucose metabolism and pancreatic function. PMID:25071172

  7. Age-Dependent Pancreatic Gene Regulation Reveals Mechanisms Governing Human β Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Arda, H Efsun; Li, Lingyu; Tsai, Jennifer; Torre, Eduardo A; Rosli, Yenny; Peiris, Heshan; Spitale, Robert C; Dai, Chunhua; Gu, Xueying; Qu, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jing; Grompe, Markus; Scharfmann, Raphael; Snyder, Michael S; Bottino, Rita; Powers, Alvin C; Chang, Howard Y; Kim, Seung K

    2016-05-10

    Intensive efforts are focused on identifying regulators of human pancreatic islet cell growth and maturation to accelerate development of therapies for diabetes. After birth, islet cell growth and function are dynamically regulated; however, establishing these age-dependent changes in humans has been challenging. Here, we describe a multimodal strategy for isolating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from children and adults to identify age-dependent gene expression and chromatin changes on a genomic scale. These profiles revealed distinct proliferative and functional states of islet α cells or β cells and histone modifications underlying age-dependent gene expression changes. Expression of SIX2 and SIX3, transcription factors without prior known functions in the pancreas and linked to fasting hyperglycemia risk, increased with age specifically in human islet β cells. SIX2 and SIX3 were sufficient to enhance insulin content or secretion in immature β cells. Our work provides a unique resource to study human-specific regulators of islet cell maturation and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Different levels of Notch signaling regulate quiescence, renewal and differentiation in pancreatic endocrine progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Ninov, Nikolay; Borius, Maxim; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies have implicated Notch signaling in the maintenance of pancreatic progenitors. However, how Notch signaling regulates the quiescent, proliferative or differentiation behaviors of pancreatic progenitors at the single-cell level remains unclear. Here, using single-cell genetic analyses and a new transgenic system that allows dynamic assessment of Notch signaling, we address how discrete levels of Notch signaling regulate the behavior of endocrine progenitors in the zebrafish intrapancreatic duct. We find that these progenitors experience different levels of Notch signaling, which in turn regulate distinct cellular outcomes. High levels of Notch signaling induce quiescence, whereas lower levels promote progenitor amplification. The sustained downregulation of Notch signaling triggers a multistep process that includes cell cycle entry and progenitor amplification prior to endocrine differentiation. Importantly, progenitor amplification and differentiation can be uncoupled by modulating the duration and/or extent of Notch signaling downregulation, indicating that these processes are triggered by distinct levels of Notch signaling. These data show that different levels of Notch signaling drive distinct behaviors in a progenitor population. PMID:22492351

  9. Up-regulation of CXCR4 expression contributes to persistent abdominal pain in rats with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xuelian; Miao, Xiuhua; Li, Di; Wang, Shusheng; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background Pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis is critical hallmark that accompanied inflammation, fibrosis, and destruction of glandular pancreas. Many researchers have demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (also named as CXCL12) and its cognate receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) involved in mediating neuropathic and bone cancer pain. However, their roles in chronic pancreatic pain remain largely unclear. Methods Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to the pancreas. Von Frey filament tests were conducted to evaluate pancreas hypersensitivity of rat. Expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, NaV1.8, and pERK in rat dorsal root ganglion was detected by Western blot analyses. Dorsal root ganglion neuronal excitability was assessed by electrophysiological recordings. Results We showed that both CXCL12 and CXCR4 were dramatically up-regulated in the dorsal root ganglion in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced chronic pancreatitis pain model. Intrathecal application with AMD3100, a potent and selective CXCR4 inhibitor, reversed the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the pancreas of rats following trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid injection. Furthermore, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and Nav1.8 up-regulation in dorsal root ganglias were reversed by intrathecal application with AMD3100 as well as by blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by intrathecal U0126. More importantly, the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced persistent pain was significantly suppressed by CXCR4 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors. Conclusions The present results suggest that the activation of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling might contribute to pancreatic pain and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent Nav1.8 up-regulation might lead to hyperexcitability of the primary nociceptor neurons in rats with

  10. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Il-Rae; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Moon, Jeong; Choi, Young-Whan; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Oh, Sangtaek; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of {beta}-catenin and its transcriptional activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of {beta}-catenin expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin is not required for GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 but for proteosome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of {beta}-catenin, we postulated that {beta}-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target {beta}-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses {beta}-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of {beta}-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced {beta}-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of {beta}-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored {beta}-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 stabilizes {beta}-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished {beta}-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1

  11. Epigenetic regulation and role of metastasis suppressor genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is distinguished by rapid dissemination. Thus, genetic and/or epigenetic deregulation of metastasis suppressor genes (MSG) is a likely event during early pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential diagnostic marker for the disease. We investigated 9 known MSGs for their role in the dissemination of PDAC and examined their promoters for methylation and its use in PDAC detection. Methods MRNA expression of 9 MSGs was determined in 18 PDAC cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by Methylation Specific PCR and validated by Bisulfite Sequencing PCR. These data were compared to the cell lines’ in vivo metastatic and invasive potential that had been previously established. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20 using 2-tailed Spearman’s correlation with P < 0.05 being considered significant. Results Complete downregulation of MSG-mRNA expression in PDAC cell lines vs. normal pancreatic RNA occurred in only 1 of 9 investigated genes. 3 MSGs (CDH1, TIMP3 and KiSS-1) were significantly methylated. Methylation only correlated to loss of mRNA expression in CDH1 (P < 0.05). Bisulfite Sequencing PCR showed distinct methylation patterns, termed constant and variable methylation, which could distinguish methylation-regulated from non methylation-regulated genes. Higher MSG mRNA-expression did not correlate to less aggressive PDAC-phenotypes (P > 0.14). Conclusions Genes with metastasis suppressing functions in other tumor entities did not show evidence of assuming the same role in PDAC. Inactivation of MSGs by promoter methylation was an infrequent event and unsuitable as a diagnostic marker of PDAC. A distinct methylation pattern was identified, that resulted in reduced mRNA expression in all cases. Thus, constant methylation patterns could predict regulatory significance of a promoter’s methylation prior to expression analysis and hence present an additional tool during

  12. Regulation of Insulin Synthesis and Secretion and Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhuo; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Insulin, which is produced in β-cells, is a critical regulator of metabolism. Insulin is synthesized as preproinsulin and processed to proinsulin. Proinsulin is then converted to insulin and C-peptide and stored in secretary granules awaiting release on demand. Insulin synthesis is regulated at both the transcriptional and translational level. The cis-acting sequences within the 5′ flanking region and trans-activators including paired box gene 6 (PAX6), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), MafA, and B-2/Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) regulate insulin transcription, while the stability of preproinsulin mRNA and its untranslated regions control protein translation. Insulin secretion involves a sequence of events in β-cells that lead to fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane. Insulin is secreted primarily in response to glucose, while other nutrients such as free fatty acids and amino acids can augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition, various hormones, such as melatonin, estrogen, leptin, growth hormone, and glucagon like peptide-1 also regulate insulin secretion. Thus, the β-cell is a metabolic hub in the body, connecting nutrient metabolism and the endocrine system. Although an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] is the primary insulin secretary signal, cAMP signaling-dependent mechanisms are also critical in the regulation of insulin secretion. This article reviews current knowledge on how β-cells synthesize and secrete insulin. In addition, this review presents evidence that genetic and environmental factors can lead to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and autoimmunity, resulting in β-cell dysfunction, thereby triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:22974359

  13. Differential gene expression in well-regulated and dysregulated pancreatic beta-cell (MIN6) sublines.

    PubMed

    Lilla, Valérie; Webb, Gene; Rickenbach, Katharina; Maturana, Andres; Steiner, Donald F; Halban, Philippe A; Irminger, Jean-Claude

    2003-04-01

    To identify genes involved in regulated insulin secretion, we have established and characterized two sublines derived from the mouse pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6, designated B1 and C3. They have a similar insulin content, but differ in their secretory properties. B1 responded to glucose in a concentration- and cell confluence-dependent manner, whereas C3 did not. B1 cells were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, leucine, arginine, glibenclamide, isobutylmethylxanthine, and KCl, whereas C3 did not respond (leucine, arginine, and glibenclamide) or responded to a lesser extent (isobutylmethylxanthine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and KCl). Although intracellular Ca(2+) rose in response to glucose in B1 but not C3 cells, KCl increased intracellular Ca(2+) in a similar manner in both sublines. GLUT-1, GLUT-2, Kir6.2, and SUR1 expression was not significantly different between B1 and C3 cells, whereas E-cadherin was more abundantly expressed in B1 cells. A more complete list of differentially expressed genes was established by suppression subtractive hybridization and high density (Affymetrix) oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes were clustered according to known or putative function. Those involved in metabolism, intracellular signaling, cytoarchitecture, and cell adhesion are of potential interest. These two sublines should be useful for identification of the genes and mechanisms involved in regulated insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta-cell.

  14. MicroRNA-7 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene by regulating ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yiliang; Shen, Wei; Min, Min; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) has been found to be markedly upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma and is involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Thus, ILF2 may be a potential target for therapy. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms of ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that ILF2 functioned as an oncogene and regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes in pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) suppressed ILF2 mRNA expression and the protein level in PANC-1 cells. Contrary to ILF2, miRNA-7 functioned as a tumor-suppressor gene and negatively regulated EMT-associated genes in the PANC-1 cells. Curcumin, a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has emerged as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. We found that treatment with curcumin increased miR-7 expression and suppressed ILF2 protein in the PANC-1 cells. Thus, we identified ILF2 as a new downstream target gene of curcumin. The results revealed that ILF2 is regulated by miR-7 and suggest that downregulation of miR-7 may be an important factor for the ILF2 overexpression in pancreatic carcinoma.

  15. MicroRNA-7 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene by regulating ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yiliang; Shen, Wei; Min, Min; Liu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) has been found to be markedly upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma and is involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Thus, ILF2 may be a potential target for therapy. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms of ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that ILF2 functioned as an oncogene and regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes in pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) suppressed ILF2 mRNA expression and the protein level in PANC-1 cells. Contrary to ILF2, miRNA-7 functioned as a tumor-suppressor gene and negatively regulated EMT-associated genes in the PANC-1 cells. Curcumin, a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has emerged as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. We found that treatment with curcumin increased miR-7 expression and suppressed ILF2 protein in the PANC-1 cells. Thus, we identified ILF2 as a new downstream target gene of curcumin. The results revealed that ILF2 is regulated by miR-7 and suggest that downregulation of miR-7 may be an important factor for the ILF2 overexpression in pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:28259961

  16. RLIP76 Regulates PI3K/Akt Signaling and Chemo-Radiotherapy Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Kathryn; Singhal, Jyotsana; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with characteristic metastatic course of disease and resistance to conventional chemo-radiotherapy. RLIP76 is a multi-functional cell membrane protein that functions as a major mercapturic acid pathway transporter as well as key regulator of receptor-ligand complexes. In this regard, we investigated the significance of targeting RLIP76 on PI3K/Akt pathway and mechanisms regulating response to chemo-radiotherapy. Research Design and Methods Cell survival was assessed by MTT and colony forming assays. Cellular levels of proteins and phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analyses. The impact on apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. The anti-cancer effects of RLIP76 targeted interventions in vivo were determined using mice xenograft model of the pancreatic cancer. The regulation of doxorubicin transport and radiation sensitivity were determined by transport studies and colony forming assays, respectively. Results Our current studies reveal an encompassing model for the role of RLIP76 in regulating the levels of fundamental proteins like PI3K, Akt, E-cadherin, CDK4, Bcl2 and PCNA which are of specific importance in the signal transduction from critical upstream signaling cascades that determine the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of pancreatic cancer cells. RLIP76 depletion also caused marked and sustained regression of established human BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer tumors in nude mouse xenograft model. RLIP76 turned out to be a major regulator of drug transport along with contributing to the radiation resistance in pancreatic cancer. Conclusions/Significance RLIP76 represents a mechanistically significant target for developing effective interventions in aggressive and refractory pancreatic cancers. PMID:22509328

  17. The Phosphatase PHLPP1 Regulates Akt2, Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Death, and Inhibits Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    NITSCHE, CLAUDIA; EDDERKAOUI, MOUAD; MOORE, RYAN M.; EIBL, GUIDO; KASAHARA, NORIYUKI; TREGER, JANET; GRIPPO, PAUL J.; MAYERLE, JULIA; LERCH, MARKUS M.; GUKOVSKAYA, ANNA S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The kinase Akt mediates resistance of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cells to death and is constitutively active (phosphorylated) in cancer cells. Whereas the kinases that activate Akt are well characterized, less is known about phosphatases that dephosporylate and thereby inactivate it. We investigated regulation of Akt activity and cell death by the phosphatases PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 in PaCa cells, mouse models of PaCa, and human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS We measured the effects of PHLPP overexpression or knockdown with small interfering RNAs on Akt activation and cell death. We examined regulation of PHLPPs by growth factors and reactive oxygen species, as well as associations between PHLPPs and tumorigenesis. RESULTS PHLPP overexpression inactivated Akt, whereas PHLPP knockdown increased phosphorylation of Akt in PaCa cells. Levels of PHLPPs were greatly reduced in human PDAC and in mouse genetic and xenograft models of PaCa. PHLPP activities in PaCa cells were down-regulated by growth factors and Nox4 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. PHLPP1 selectively dephosphorylated Akt2, whereas PHLPP2 selectively dephosphorylated Akt1. Akt2, but not Akt1, was up-regulated in PDAC, and Akt2 levels correlated with mortality. Consistent with these results, high levels of PHLPP1, which dephosphorylates Akt2 (but not PHLPP2, which dephosphorylates Akt1), correlated with longer survival times of patients with PDAC. In mice, xenograft tumors derived from PaCa cells that overexpress PHLPP1 (but not PHLPP2) had inactivated Akt, greater extent of apoptosis, and smaller size. CONCLUSIONS PHLPP1 has tumor suppressive activity and might represent a therapeutic or diagnostic tool for PDAC. PMID:22044669

  18. The Matricellular Protein CCN1/Cyr61 Is a Critical Regulator of Sonic Hedgehog in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Inamul; De, Archana; Majumder, Monami; Mehta, Smita; McGregor, Douglas; Banerjee, Sushanta K.; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Banerjee, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein and a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CCN1 is associated with the development of various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our recent studies found that CCN1 plays a critical role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through the induction of EMT and stemness. CCN1 mRNA and protein were detected in the early precursor lesions, and their expression intensified with disease progression. However, biochemical activity and the molecular targets of CCN1 in pancreatic cancer cells are unknown. Here we show that CCN1 regulates the Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) signaling pathway, which is associated with the PDAC progression and poor prognosis. SHh regulation by CCN1 in pancreatic cancer cells is mediated through the active Notch-1. Notably, active Notch-1is recruited by CCN1 in these cells via the inhibition of proteasomal degradation results in stabilization of the receptor. We find that CCN1-induced activation of SHh signaling might be necessary for CCN1-dependent in vitro pancreatic cancer cell migration and tumorigenicity of the side population of pancreatic cancer cells (cancer stem cells) in a xenograft in nude mice. Moreover, the functional role of CCN1 could be mediated through the interaction with the αvβ3 integrin receptor. These extensive studies propose that targeting CCN1 can provide a new treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer since blocking CCN1 simultaneously blocks two critical pathways (i.e. SHh and Notch1) associated with the development of the disease as well as drug resistance. PMID:23027863

  19. The matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61 is a critical regulator of Sonic Hedgehog in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haque, Inamul; De, Archana; Majumder, Monami; Mehta, Smita; McGregor, Douglas; Banerjee, Sushanta K; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Banerjee, Snigdha

    2012-11-09

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein and a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CCN1 is associated with the development of various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our recent studies found that CCN1 plays a critical role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through the induction of EMT and stemness. CCN1 mRNA and protein were detected in the early precursor lesions, and their expression intensified with disease progression. However, biochemical activity and the molecular targets of CCN1 in pancreatic cancer cells are unknown. Here we show that CCN1 regulates the Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) signaling pathway, which is associated with the PDAC progression and poor prognosis. SHh regulation by CCN1 in pancreatic cancer cells is mediated through the active Notch-1. Notably, active Notch-1is recruited by CCN1 in these cells via the inhibition of proteasomal degradation results in stabilization of the receptor. We find that CCN1-induced activation of SHh signaling might be necessary for CCN1-dependent in vitro pancreatic cancer cell migration and tumorigenicity of the side population of pancreatic cancer cells (cancer stem cells) in a xenograft in nude mice. Moreover, the functional role of CCN1 could be mediated through the interaction with the αvβ3 integrin receptor. These extensive studies propose that targeting CCN1 can provide a new treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer since blocking CCN1 simultaneously blocks two critical pathways (i.e. SHh and Notch1) associated with the development of the disease as well as drug resistance.

  20. Pancreatic beta cells and islets take up thiamin by a regulated carrier-mediated process: studies using mice and human pancreatic preparations

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Lisa; Nabokina, Svetlana M.; Sekar, V. Thillai; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Maedler, Kathrin; Said, Hamid M.

    2009-01-01

    Thiamin is essential for the normal function of the endocrine pancreas, but very little is known about uptake mechanism(s) and regulation by beta cells. We addressed these issues using mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells, and freshly isolated primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Results showed that thiamin uptake by beta-TC-6 cells involves a pH (but not Na+)-dependent carrier-mediated process that is saturable at both the nanomolar (apparent Km = 37.17 ± 9.9 nM) and micromolar (apparent Km = 3.26 ± 0.86 μM) ranges, cis-inhibited by thiamin structural analogs, and trans-stimulated by unlabeled thiamin. Involvement of carrier-mediated process was also confirmed in primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Both THTR-1 and THTR-2 were found to be expressed in these mouse and human pancreatic preparations. Maintaining beta-TC-6 cells in the presence of a high level of thiamin led to a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in thiamin uptake, which was associated with a significant downregulation in level of expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein and mRNA levels and a decrease in transcriptional (promoter) activity. Modulators of intracellular Ca2+/calmodulin- and protein-tyrosine kinase-mediated pathways also altered thiamin uptake. Finally, confocal imaging of live beta-TC-6 cells showed that clinical mutants of THTR-1 have mixed expression phenotypes and all led to impairment in thiamin uptake. These studies demonstrate for the first time that thiamin uptake by the endocrine pancreas is carrier mediated and is adaptively regulated by the prevailing vitamin level via transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, clinical mutants of THTR-1 impair thiamin uptake via different mechanisms. PMID:19423748

  1. RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene-induced senescence in murine Kras-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lesina, Marina; Wörmann, Sonja Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope Nina; Korneeva, Olga; Wimmer, Margit; Sperveslage, Jan; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Kehl, Timo; Saur, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Steiner, Jörg Manfred; Wang, Timothy Cragin; Sansom, Owen J.; Schmid, Roland Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppression that is mediated by oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered to function as a safeguard during development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanisms that regulate OIS in PDAC are poorly understood. Here, we have determined that nuclear RelA reinforces OIS to inhibit carcinogenesis in the Kras mouse model of PDAC. Inactivation of RelA accelerated pancreatic lesion formation in Kras mice by abrogating the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene transcription signature. Using genetic and pharmacological tools, we determined that RelA activation promotes OIS via elevation of the SASP factor CXCL1 (also known as KC), which activates CXCR2, during pancreatic carcinogenesis. In Kras mice, pancreas-specific inactivation of CXCR2 prevented OIS and was correlated with increased tumor proliferation and decreased survival. Moreover, reductions in CXCR2 levels were associated with advanced neoplastic lesions in tissue from human pancreatic specimens. Genetically disabling OIS in Kras mice caused RelA to promote tumor proliferation, suggesting a dual role for RelA signaling in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest a pivotal role for RelA in regulating OIS in preneoplastic lesions and implicate the RelA/CXCL1/CXCR2 axis as an essential mechanism of tumor surveillance in PDAC. PMID:27454298

  2. CacyBP/SIP enhances multidrug resistance of pancreatic cancer cells by regulation of P-gp and Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiong; Zheng, Peichan; Xue, Zengfu; Li, Jie; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Xi; Xie, Fangwei; Yu, Zongyang; Ouyang, Xuenong

    2013-07-01

    Our former report indicates that calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) is over-expressed in the SGC7901/ADR cell line. However, the potential role of CacyBP/SIP in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) of pancreatic cancer is still uncertain. In this paper, we investigated the role of CacyBP/SIP in MDR of pancreatic cancer cells and its possible underlying mechanisms, and found that CacyBP/SIP was over-expressed in the Gemcitabine induced MDR pancreatic cancer cell PC-3/Gem compared with its parental cell PC-3. Up-regulation of CacyBP/SIP expression could enhance resistance of chemotherapy drugs on PC-3 cells and inhibit Adriamycin-induced apoptosis accompanied by decreased accumulation of intracellular Adriamycin. Furthermore, CacyBP/SIP could significantly up-regulate the expression of P-gp, Bcl-2, and the transcription of the MDR1 gene. In addition, the decrease of CacyBP/SIP expression using RNA interference or P-gp inhibitor could partially reverse CacyBP/SIP-mediated MDR. In brief, our study demonstrated that CacyBP/SIP could enhance the MDR phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells by increasing the expression of P-gp and Bcl-2, thus inhibiting apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cell.

  3. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  4. Metformin and salinomycin as the best combination for the eradication of NSCLC monolayer cells and their alveospheres (cancer stem cells) irrespective of EGFR, KRAS, EML4/ALK and LKB1 status

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiguang; Sperl, Bianca; Ullrich, Axel; Knyazev, Pjotr

    2014-01-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is linked to preexisting or acquired drug resistance and tumor relapse. Therefore, targeting both differentiated tumor cells and CSCs was suggested as an effective approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. After screening of chemotherapeutic agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or monoclonal antibody in combination with the putative stem cell killer Salinomycin (SAL), we found Metformin (METF), which modestly exerted a growth inhibitory effect on monolayer cells and alveospheres/CSCs of 5 NSCLC cell lines regardless of their EGFR, KRAS, EML4/ALK and LKB1 status, interacted synergistically with SAL to effectively promote cell death. Inhibition of EGFR (AKT, ERK1/2) and mTOR (p70 s6k) signaling with the combination of METF and SAL can be augmented beyond that achieved using each agent individually. Phospho-kinase assay further suggested the multiple roles of this combination in reducing oncogenic effects of modules, such as ß-catenin, Src family kinases (Src, Lyn, Yes), Chk-2 and FAK. Remarkably, significant reduction of sphere formation was seen under combinatorial treatment in all investigated NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, METF in combination with SAL could be a promising treatment option for patients with advanced NSCLC irrespective of their EGFR, KRAS, EML4/ALK and LKB1 status. PMID:25375092

  5. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:27143989

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Allende, Maria L; Mizukami, Hiroki; Cook, Emily K; Gavrilova, Oksana; Tuymetova, Galina; Clarke, Benjamin A; Chen, Weiping; Olivera, Ana; Proia, Richard L

    2016-06-03

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite that regulates basic cell functions through metabolic and signaling pathways. Intracellular metabolism of S1P is controlled, in part, by two homologous S1P phosphatases (SPPases), 1 and 2, which are encoded by the Sgpp1 and Sgpp2 genes, respectively. SPPase activity is needed for efficient recycling of sphingosine into the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. SPPase 1 is important for skin homeostasis, but little is known about the functional role of SPPase 2. To identify the functions of SPPase 2 in vivo, we studied mice with the Sgpp2 gene deleted. In contrast to Sgpp1(-/-) mice, Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal skin and were viable into adulthood. Unexpectedly, WT mice expressed Sgpp2 mRNA at high levels in pancreatic islets when compared with other tissues. Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal pancreatic islet size; however, they exhibited defective adaptive β-cell proliferation that was demonstrated after treatment with either a high-fat diet or the β-cell-specific toxin, streptozotocin. Importantly, β-cells from untreated Sgpp2(-/-) mice showed significantly increased expression of proteins characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response compared with β-cells from WT mice, indicating a basal islet defect. Our results show that Sgpp2 deletion causes β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a known cause of β-cell dysfunction, and reveal a juncture in the sphingolipid recycling pathway that could impact the development of diabetes.

  7. Regulation of the Nampt-mediated NAD salvage pathway and its therapeutic implications in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huai-Qiang; Zhuang, Zhuo-Nan; Li, Hao; Tian, Tian; Lu, Yun-Xin; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Mo, Hai-Yu; Sheng, Hui; Chiao, Paul J; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2016-08-28

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a crucial cofactor for the redox reactions in the metabolic pathways of cancer cells that have elevated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). Cancer cells are reported to rely on NAD recycling and inhibition of the NAD salvage pathway causes metabolic collapse and cell death. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications for the NAD salvage pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. This study showed that the expression of Nampt, the rate-limiting enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway, was significantly increased in PDAC cells and PDAC tissues. Additionally, inhibition of Nampt impaired tumor growth in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, which was accompanied by a decreased cellular NAD level and glycolytic activity. Mechanistically, the Nampt expression was independent of Kras and p16 status, but it was directly regulated by miR-206, which was inversely correlated with the expression of Nampt in PDAC tissues. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by its inhibitor, FK866, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in PDAC cells and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In conclusion, the present study revealed a novel regulatory mechanism for Nampt in PDAC and suggested that Nampt inhibition may override gemcitabine resistance by decreasing the NAD level and suppressing glycolytic activity, warranting further clinical investigation for pancreatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase: from basics to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Matschinsky, Franz M

    2002-12-01

    Glucokinase (GK) serves as glucose sensor in pancreatic beta-cells and in other glucose sensor cells in the body. Biochemical genetic studies have characterized many activating and inactivating GK mutants that have been discovered in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia or diabetes, all inherited as autosomal dominant traits. Mathematical modeling of the kinetic data of recombinant human wild-type and mutant GK accurately predicts the effects of GK mutations on the threshold of glucose-stimulated insulin release and glucose homeostasis. Structure/function studies of the enzyme suggest the existence of a hitherto unknown allosteric activator site of the enzyme that has significant implications for the physiological chemistry of GK-containing cells, particularly the pancreatic beta-cells. Glucose is the preeminent positive regulator of beta-cell GK expression and involves molecular mechanisms that are still to be elucidated in detail, but seem to have a specific requirement for increased glucose metabolism. Pharmaceutical chemists, motivated by the clear tenets of the GK glucose-sensor paradigm, have searched for and have discovered a novel class of GK activator molecules. The therapeutic application of this basic discovery offers a new principle for drug therapy of diabetes.

  9. Master Regulators of Oncogenic KRAS Response in Pancreatic Cancer: An Integrative Network Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background KRAS is the most frequently mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic KRAS are still not fully understood. We aimed to uncover transcription factors that regulate the transcriptional response of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer and to understand their clinical relevance. Methods and Findings We applied a well-established network biology approach (master regulator analysis) to combine a transcriptional signature for oncogenic KRAS derived from a murine isogenic cell line with a coexpression network derived by integrating 560 human pancreatic cancer cases across seven studies. The datasets included the ICGC cohort (n = 242), the TCGA cohort (n = 178), and five smaller studies (n = 17, 25, 26, 36, and 36). 55 transcription factors were coexpressed with a significant number of genes in the transcriptional signature (gene set enrichment analysis [GSEA] p < 0.01). Community detection in the coexpression network identified 27 of the 55 transcription factors contributing to three major biological processes: Notch pathway, down-regulated Hedgehog/Wnt pathway, and cell cycle. The activities of these processes define three distinct subtypes of PDAC, which demonstrate differences in survival and mutational load as well as stromal and immune cell composition. The Hedgehog subgroup showed worst survival (hazard ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.72, coxPH test p = 0.018) and the Notch subgroup the best (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93, coxPH test p = 0.019). The cell cycle subtype showed highest mutational burden (ANOVA p < 0.01) and the smallest amount of stromal admixture (ANOVA p < 2.2e–16). This study is limited by the information provided in published datasets, not all of which provide mutational profiles, survival data, or the specifics of treatment history. Conclusions Our results characterize the regulatory mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic

  10. Sirt1 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Repressing UCP2 in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordone, Laura; Jhala, Ulupi S; Apfeld, Javier; McDonagh, Thomas; Lemieux, Madeleine; McBurney, Michael; Szilvasi, Akos; Easlon, Erin J; Lin, Su-Ju; Guarente, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP) gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In β cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin) levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in β cells to affect insulin secretion. PMID:16366736

  11. UCP-2 and UCP-3 Proteins Are Differentially Regulated in Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Maedler, Kathrin; Shu, Luan; Haataja, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Background Increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression has been associated with impaired insulin secretion, whereas UCP-3 protein levels are decreased in the skeleton muscle of type-2 diabetic subjects. In the present studies we hypothesize an opposing effect of glucose on the regulation of UCP-2 and UCP-3 in pancreatic islets. Methodology Dominant negative UCP-2 and wild type UCP-3 adenoviruses were generated, and insulin release by transduced human islets was measured. UCP-2 and UCP-3 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative PCR. UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein expression was investigated in human islets cultured in the presence of different glucose concentrations. Human pancreatic sections were analyzed for subcellular localization of UCP-3 using immunohistochemistry. Principal Findings Dominant negative UCP-2 expression in human islets increased insulin secretion compared to control islets (p<0.05). UCP-3 mRNA is expressed in human islets, but the relative abundance of UCP-2 mRNA was 8.1-fold higher (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed co-localization of UCP-3 protein with mitochondria in human beta-cells. UCP-2 protein expression in human islets was increased ∼2-fold after high glucose exposure, whereas UCP-3 protein expression was decreased by ∼40% (p<0.05). UCP-3 overexpression improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions UCP-2 and UCP-3 may have distinct roles in regulating beta-cell function. Increased expression of UCP-2 and decreased expression of UCP-3 in humans with chronic hyperglycemia may contribute to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data imply that mechanisms that suppress UCP-2 or mechanisms that increase UCP-3 expression and/or function are potential therapeutic targets to offset defects of insulin secretion in humans with type-2 diabetes. PMID:18167556

  12. Voltage-dependent metabolic regulation of Kv2.1 channels in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masashi; Nakata, Masanori; Yamato, Shiho; Dezaki, Katsuya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, San-e; Kawakami, Masanobu; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2010-05-28

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) play a crucial role in formation of action potentials in response to glucose stimulation in pancreatic beta-ells. We previously reported that the Kv channel is regulated by glucose metabolism, particularly by MgATP. We examined whether the regulation of Kv channels is voltage-dependent and mechanistically related with phosphorylation of the channels. In rat pancreatic beta-cells, suppression of glucose metabolism with low glucose concentrations of 2.8mM or less or by metabolic inhibitors decreased the Kv2.1-channel activity at positive membrane potentials, while increased it at potentials negative to -10 mV, suggesting that modulation of Kv channels by glucose metabolism is voltage-dependent. Similarly, in HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant Kv2.1 channels, 0mM but not 10mM MgATP modulated the channel activity in a manner similar to that in beta-cells. Both steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel were shifted toward the negative potential in association with the voltage-dependent modulation of the channels by cytosolic dialysis of alkaline phosphatase in beta-cells. The modulation of Kv-channel current-voltage relations were also observed during and after glucose-stimulated electrical excitation. These results suggest that the cellular metabolism including MgATP production and/or channel phosphorylation/dephosphorylation underlie the physiological modulation of Kv2.1 channels during glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  13. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured guinea pig pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, S.R.; Brown, M.E.; Williams, J.A.; Logsdon, C.D.

    1986-07-01

    Regulation of muscarinic receptors in cultured guinea pig pancreatic acini was investigated by assessing the effects of cholinergic agonists on binding of (N-methyl-TH)scopolamine ((TH)NMS) and on amylase release. Freshly dispersed acini bound (TH)NMS with a K/sub d/ of 74 pM and a maximal binding level (B/sub max/) of 908 fmol/mg DNA. Carbachol (CCh) stimulated amylase secretion and inhibited (TH)NMS binding. Incubation of acini for 30 min with 0.1 mM CCh decreased the subsequent efficacy of CCh in stimulating amylase release by threefold but had no effect on its potency. In contrast, amylase release in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was not altered by CCh preincubation. (TH)NMS binding to acini was decreased only 15-20% after 30-min incubation with CCh. However, culture of acini with 0.1 mM CCh decreased (TH)NMS binding by 50% at 3-4 h and by 85-90% at 24 h. This decrease was attributable primarily to a reduction in B/sub max/ (TH)NMS binding also was decreased to a similar extent by the cholinergic agonists bethanechol and methacholine but not by other secretagogues. The decrease in antagonist binding induced by CCh was dose dependent, with the IC50, 5.8 M, approximating the EC50 for amylase release, 4.3 M. Cultured of acini for 24 h with CCh abolished subsequent amylase release in response to CCh but not to CCK-8. The results indicate that muscarinic receptor turnover in the pancreatic acinus is regulated by receptor activation and that both a decease in receptor numbers and sensitivity to agonists follows prolonged cholinergic agonist exposure.

  14. MYB is a novel regulator of pancreatic tumour growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Arora, Sumit; Singh, Seema; Azim, Shafquat; Tyagi, Nikhil; Carter, James E; Wang, Bin; Singh, Ajay P

    2015-12-22

    MYB encodes for a transcription factor regulating the expression of a wide array of genes involved in cellular functions. It is reported to be amplified in a sub-set of pancreatic cancer (PC) cases; however, its pathobiological association has remained unclear thus far. Expression of MYB and other cellular proteins was analysed by immunoblot or qRT-PCR analyses. MYB was stably overexpressed in non-expressing (BxPC3) and silenced in highly expressing (MiaPaCa and Panc1) PC cells. Effect on growth was analysed by automated cell counting at 24-h interval. Cell-cycle progression and apoptotic indices of PC cells with altered MYB expression were measured through flow cytometry upon staining with respective biomarkers. Cell motility/invasion was examined in a Boyden's chamber assay using non-coated or Matrigel-coated membranes. Effect on tumorigenicity and metastatic potential was examined by non-invasive imaging and through end-point measurements of luciferase-tagged MYB-altered PC implanted in the pancreas of nude mice. MYB was aberrantly expressed in all malignant cases of pancreas, whereas remained undetectable in normal pancreas. All the tested established PC cell lines except BxPC3 also exhibited MYB expression. Forced expression of MYB in BxPC3 cells promoted their growth, cell-cycle progression, survival and malignant behaviour, whereas its silencing in MiaPaCa and Panc1 cells produced converse effects. More importantly, ectopic MYB expression was sufficient to confer tumorigenic and metastatic capabilities to non-tumorigenic BxPC3 cells, while its silencing resulted in significant loss of the same in MYB-overexpressing cells as demonstrated in orthotopic mouse model. We also identified several MYB-regulated genes in PC cells that might potentially mediate its effect on tumour growth and metastasis. MYB is aberrantly overexpressed in PC cells and acts as a key determinant of pancreatic tumour growth and metastasis.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Metformin and Rapamycin Reduce Pancreatic Cancer Growth in Obese Prediabetic Mice by Distinct MicroRNA-Regulated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cifarelli, Vincenza; Lashinger, Laura M.; Devlin, Kaylyn L.; Dunlap, Sarah M.; Huang, Jennifer; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pollak, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Metformin treatment is associated with a decreased risk and better prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of metformin’s PC growth inhibition in the context of a prediabetic state is unknown. We used a Panc02 pancreatic tumor cell transplant model in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to compare the effects of metformin and the direct mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin on PC growth, glucose regulation, mTOR pathway signaling, and candidate microRNA (miR) expression. In DIO/prediabetic mice, metformin and rapamycin significantly reduced pancreatic tumor growth and mTOR-related signaling. The rapamycin effects centered on decreased mTOR-regulated growth and survival signaling, including increased expression of let-7b and cell cycle–regulating miRs. Metformin (but not rapamycin) reduced glucose and insulin levels and expression of miR-34a and its direct targets Notch, Slug, and Snail. Metformin also reduced the number and size of Panc02 tumor spheres in vitro and inhibited the expression of Notch in spheroids. Our results suggest that metformin and rapamycin can both inhibit pancreatic tumor growth in obese, prediabetic mice through shared and distinct mechanisms. Metformin and direct mTOR inhibitors, alone or possibly in combination, represent promising intervention strategies for breaking the diabetes-PC link. PMID:25576058

  17. Dexamethasone down-regulates the inflammatory mediators but fails to reduce the tissue injury in the lung of acute pancreatitis rat models.

    PubMed

    Yubero, Sara; Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; Vicente, Secundino; De Dios, Isabel

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are frequent in the course of acute pancreatitis. We investigate the effects of dexamethasone on lung injury in mild and severe AP. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction and infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) was given by intramuscular injection 1 h after acute pancreatitis. Plasma amylase activity was measured to evaluate the pancreas damage. Lungs were harvested for analysing mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (as index of neutrophil infiltration) and histological examination. Dexamethasone reduced the hyperamylasemia and hindered the pulmonary upregulation of MCP-1, CINC, P-selectin and ICAM-1, in both mild and severe acute pancreatitis. Despite this, dexamethasone treatment failed to reduce MPO activity and histological alterations developed in lungs during acute pancreatitis, either in bile-pancreatic duct obstruction or sodium taurocholate model. We conclude that pulmonary local factors different from inflammatory mediators contribute to leukocyte recruitment, so that although dexamethasone down-regulated the lung expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules during acute pancreatitis it was not able to prevent leukocyte infiltration, which could be responsible for maintaining the lung injury in either mild or severe acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epigenetic regulation of SOX9 by the NF-κB signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Mathews, Lesley A; Cabarcas, Stephanie M; Zhang, Xiaohu; Yang, Acong; Zhang, Ying; Young, Matthew R; Klarmann, Kimberly D; Keller, Jonathan R; Farrar, William L

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Pancreatic cancer can be localized, locally advanced, or metastatic. The median 1- and 5-year survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation play a significant role during both normal human development and cancer progression. To investigate epigenetic regulation of genes in the tumor-initiating population of pancreatic cancer cells, which are also termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), we conducted epigenetic arrays in PANC1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines and compared the global DNA methylation status of CpG promoters in invasive cells, demonstrated to be CSCs, to their noninvasive counterparts, or non-CSCs. Our results suggested that the NF-κB pathway is one of the most activated pathways in pancreatic CSCs. In agreement with this, we determined that upon treatment with NF-κB pathway inhibitors, the stem cell-like properties of cells are significantly disrupted. Moreover, SOX9, demethylated in CSCs, is shown to play a crucial role in the invasion process. Additionally, we found a potential NF-κB binding site located in the SOX9 promoter and determined that the NF-κB subunit p65 positively regulates SOX9 expression by binding to its promoter directly. This interaction can be efficiently blocked by NF-κB inhibitors. Thus, our work establishes a link between the classic NF-κB signaling transduction pathway and the invasiveness of pancreatic CSCs, which may result in the identification of novel signals and molecules that function at an epigenetic level, and could potentially be targeted for pharmaceutical investigations and clinical trials.

  19. Purinergic regulation of CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels and K(+) channels in human pancreatic duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Haanes, Kristian A; Novak, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Purinergic agonists have been considered for the treatment of respiratory epithelia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The pancreas, one of the most seriously affected organs in CF, expresses various purinergic receptors. Studies on the rodent pancreas show that purinergic signaling regulates pancreatic secretion. In the present study we aim to identify Cl(-) and K(+) channels in human pancreatic ducts and their regulation by purinergic receptors. Human pancreatic duct epithelia formed by Capan-1 or CFPAC-1 cells were studied in open-circuit Ussing chambers. In Capan-1 cells, ATP/UTP effects were dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). Apically applied ATP/UTP stimulated CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) channels, which were inhibited by CFTRinh-172 and niflumic acid, respectively. The basolaterally applied ATP stimulated CFTR. In CFPAC-1 cells, which have mutated CFTR, basolateral ATP and UTP had negligible effects. In addition to Cl(-) transport in Capan-1 cells, the effects of 5,6-dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (DC-EBIO) and clotrimazole indicated functional expression of the intermediate conductance K(+) channels (IK, KCa3.1). The apical effects of ATP/UTP were greatly potentiated by the IK channel opener DC-EBIO. Determination of RNA and protein levels revealed that Capan-1 cells have high expression of TMEM16A (ANO1), a likely CaCC candidate. We conclude that in human pancreatic duct cells ATP/UTP regulates via purinergic receptors both Cl(-) channels (TMEM16A/ANO1 and CFTR) and K(+) channels (IK). The K(+) channels provide the driving force for Cl(-)-channel-dependent secretion, and luminal ATP provided locally or secreted from acini may potentiate secretory processes. Future strategies in augmenting pancreatic duct function should consider sidedness of purinergic signaling and the essential role of K(+) channels.

  20. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  1. Inhibition of Calcium Influx Reduces Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Lipotoxic Pancreatic β-Cells via Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang; Wang, Heyao

    2015-01-01

    Lipotoxicity plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged exposure of β-cells to elevated free fatty acids level could cause deterioration of β-cell function and induce cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of fatty acids-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis might provide benefit for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. The present study examined whether regulation of fatty acids-triggered calcium influx could protect pancreatic β-cells from lipotoxicity. Two small molecule compounds, L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine and potassium channel activator diazoxide were used to inhibit palmitic acid-induced calcium influx. And whether the compounds could reduce palmitic acid-induced β-cell failure and the underlying mechanism were also investigated. It was found that both nifedipine and diazoxide protected MIN6 pancreatic β-cells and primary cultured murine islets from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, the impaired insulin secretion was also recovered to varying degrees by these two compounds. Our results verified that nifedipine and diazoxide could reduce palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress to generate protective effects on pancreatic β-cells. More importantly, it suggested that regulation of calcium influx by small molecule compounds might provide benefits for the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26147439

  2. Molecular regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Burak; Darville, Martine I; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Eizirik, Décio L

    2003-02-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells are selectively destroyed during the course of type 1 diabetes. In the early stages of the disease, inflammatory infiltrates of mononuclear cells, containing predominantly monocytes and T-cells, are present in the islets (insulitis). Chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), play a key role in the recruitment and activation of these immunocytes. We have previously described cytokine-induced MCP-1 gene expression in human and rat pancreatic islets. In the present study, the transcriptional regulation by cytokines of the rat MCP-1 gene in fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified rat beta-cells, insulin-producing INS-1E cells, and RINm5F cells was investigated. Transient transfections with luciferase-reporter constructs identified an interleukin (IL)-1beta-responsive enhancer region between -2,180 bp and -2,478 bp. Mutation of either of the two nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB sites present in this region abrogated IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 promoter activity. Binding of NF-kappaB to the two sites was shown in vitro by gel shift assays, while supershift assays revealed the presence of p65/p50 heterodimers and p65 homodimers. In vivo binding of NF-kappaB was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Blocking of NF-kappaB activation in cytokine-exposed primary beta-cells by an adenovirus overexpressing a nondegradable form of IkappaBalpha or by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreased IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that NF-kappaB plays an important role for MCP-1 expression in beta-cells. This transcription factor may be an interesting target for ex vivo gene therapy before islet transplantation.

  3. PARP-1 and YY1 are important novel regulators of CXCL12 gene transcription in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Marković, Jelena; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Karan-Djurašević, Teodora; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Arambašić, Jelena; Mihailović, Mirjana; Pavlović, Sonja; Poznanović, Goran; Vidaković, Melita

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress, the molecular mechanisms responsible for pancreatic beta cell depletion and development of diabetes remain poorly defined. At present, there is no preventive measure against diabetes. The positive impact of CXCL12 expression on the pancreatic beta cell prosurvival phenotype initiated this study. Our aim was to provide novel insight into the regulation of rat CXCL12 gene (Cxcl12) transcription. The roles of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in Cxcl12 transcription were studied by examining their in vitro and in vivo binding affinities for the Cxcl12 promoter in a pancreatic beta cell line by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The regulatory activities of PARP-1 and YY1 were assessed in transfection experiments using a reporter vector with a Cxcl12 promoter sequence driving luciferase gene expression. Experimental evidence for PARP-1 and YY1 revealed their trans-acting potential, wherein PARP-1 displayed an inhibitory, and YY1 a strong activating effect on Cxcl12 transcription. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced general toxicity in pancreatic beta cells was followed by changes in Cxcl12 promoter regulation. PARP-1 binding to the Cxcl12 promoter during basal and in STZ-compromised conditions led us to conclude that PARP-1 regulates constitutive Cxcl12 expression. During the early stage of oxidative stress, YY1 exhibited less affinity toward the Cxcl12 promoter while PARP-1 displayed strong binding. These interactions were accompanied by Cxcl12 downregulation. In the later stages of oxidative stress and intensive pancreatic beta cell injury, YY1 was highly expressed and firmly bound to Cxcl12 promoter in contrast to PARP-1. These interactions resulted in higher Cxcl12 expression. The observed ability of PARP-1 to downregulate, and of YY1 to upregulate Cxcl12 promoter activity anticipates corresponding effects in the natural context where the functional

  4. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  5. DCLK1 Regulates Pluripotency and Angiogenic Factors via microRNA-Dependent Mechanisms in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sureban, Sripathi M.; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Pantazis, Panayotis; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Postier, Russell G.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell pluripotency, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to be significantly upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and many other aggressive cancers. The dysregulation of these processes is believed to play key roles in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, and is contributory to PDAC being the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. The tumor suppressor miRNA miR-145 downregulates critical pluripotency factors and oncogenes and results in repressed metastatic potential in PDAC. Additionally, the miR-200 family regulates several angiogenic factors which have been linked to metastasis in many solid tumors. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of DCLK1 can upregulate critical miRNAs in both in vitro and in vivo cancer models and results in downregulation of c-MYC, KRAS, NOTCH1 and EMT-related transcription factors. A recent report has also shown that Dclk1 can distinguish between normal and tumor stem cells in Apcmin/+ mice and that ablation of Dclk1+ cells resulted in regression of intestinal polyps without affecting homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that the knockdown of DCLK1 using poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-encapsulated-DCLK1-siRNA results in AsPC1 tumor growth arrest. Examination of xenograft tumors revealed, (a) increased miR-145 which results in decreased pluripotency maintenance factors OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 as well as KRAS and RREB1; (b) increased let-7a which results in decreased pluripotency factor LIN28B; and (c) increased miR-200 which results in decreased VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and EMT-related transcription factors ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG. Specificity of DCLK1 post-transcriptional regulation of the downstream targets of miR-145, miR-200 and let-7a was accomplished utilizing a luciferase-based reporter assay. We conclude that DCLK1 plays a significant master regulatory role in pancreatic tumorigenesis through the regulation of multiple tumor suppressor mi

  6. Fyn requires HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 to synergistically regulate apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Yu; Cai, Lei; Zhu, Jin; Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Xiang-De; Wang, Shu-Guang; Bie, Ping; Jiang, Peng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Li, Xiao-Wu

    2011-10-01

    The Src family kinase Fyn, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HnRNP) A2B1 and Sam68 are thought to be associated with the metastasis of tumors, but their roles in the regulation of apoptosis remain unclear. This study investigated the role of Fyn and its potential relationship with HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Experimental design. We examined both the activity of Fyn and the expression of HnRNPA2B1 in human pancreatic cancer tissues and systematically investigated the apoptotic mechanisms induced by Fyn activity using multiple experimental approaches. We found that Fyn activity was increased in metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues. In the pancreatic cancer BxPc3 cell line, the inhibition of Fyn activity by kinase-dead Fyn downregulated HnRNPA2B1 expression. Further analysis showed that HnRNPA2B1 expression was associated with pancreatic cancer progression. In BxPc3 cells, HnRNPA2B1 bound to Bcl-x messenger RNA (mRNA), which affected splicing and therefore, the formation of Bcl-x(s). Downregulation of HnRNPA2B1 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in the increased formation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(s) and promoted apoptosis of BxPc3 cells. In addition, deactivation of Fyn in BxPc3 cells reduced Sam68 phosphorylation. This resulted in increased binding between Sam68 and Bcl-x mRNA, promoting the formation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L). The knockdown of Sam68 by RNAi also increased the formation of Bcl-x(L). Finally, HnRNPA2B1 overexpression or Sam68 knockdown could rescue pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis. Our results suggest a mechanism by which Fyn requires HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 to coordinate and regulate apoptosis, thus promoting the proliferation and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Zebrafish ghrelin is expressed in pancreatic endocrine cells and regulated by metabolic state.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji; Hong, Minsun; Cone, Roger D; Song, Youngsup

    2013-09-13

    Mammalian ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that stimulates secretion of growth hormone and food intake. Zebrafish is an excellent model system for forward genetic studies, and many aspects of energy homeostasis characterized in mammals appear to be conserved in the zebrafish. In this study, we investigated the expression and regulation of zebrafish ghrelin by metabolic status. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that zebrafish ghrelin is highly enriched in anterior gut associated tissues. Using in situ hybridization with adult zebrafish tissues, we found that zebrafish ghrelin mRNA was not expressed in intestine tissue, but rather in clusters of endocrine pancreas cells distinct from insulin-expressing islets. Fasting specifically upregulated pancreatic ghrelin but not brain ghrelin expression by 3- to 4-fold and refeeding restored ghrelin transcript to control levels seen in the fed group within 5 h. These results demonstrate that although ghrelin is expressed in a different site in zebrafish, it is responsive to metabolic state in a similar manner as mammalian ghrelin, suggesting a role in the regulation of feeding in teleosts, and thus validate the utility of zebrafish as a genetic model system for the analysis of the ghrelin system and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CTLA-4/CD80 pathway regulates T cell infiltration into pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Fee; Knoblock, Dawson M; Liu, Anni; McAllister, Florencia; Beatty, Gregory L

    2017-08-30

    The ability of some tumors to exclude effector T cells represents a major challenge to immunotherapy. T cell exclusion is particularly evident in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a disease where blockade of the immune checkpoint molecule CTLA-4 has not produced significant clinical activity. In PDAC, effector T cells are often scarce within tumor tissue and confined to peritumoral lymph nodes and lymphoid aggregates. We hypothesized that CTLA-4 blockade, despite a lack of clinical efficacy seen thus far in PDAC, might still alter T cell immunobiology, which would have therapeutic implications. Using clinically relevant genetic models of PDAC, we found that regulatory T cells (Tregs), which constitutively express CTLA-4, accumulate early during tumor development but are largely confined to peritumoral lymph nodes during disease progression. Tregs were observed to regulate CD4(+), but not CD8(+), T cell infiltration into tumors through a CTLA-4/CD80 dependent mechanism. Disrupting CTLA-4 interaction with CD80 was sufficient to induce CD4 T cell infiltration into tumors. These data have important implications for T cell immunotherapy in PDAC and demonstrate a novel role for CTLA-4/CD80 interactions in regulating T cell exclusion. In addition, our findings suggest distinct mechanisms govern CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration in PDAC.

  9. Role of TFEB-driven autophagy regulation in pancreatic cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kathrin; Werner, Kristin; Teske, Christian; Schenk, Miriam; Giese, Thomas; Weitz, Jürgen; Welsch, Thilo

    2016-07-01

    Autophagy pathways promote the growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the critical role is yet to be determined. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) centrally controls lysosomal and autophagy biogenesis. This study aimed to explore the role of TFEB for autophagy regulation in PDAC. We found that TFEB expression was significantly elevated in human PDAC samples (n=45), and localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus in 11 of 15 cases. In primary PDAC cell lines, TFEB nuclear expression was evident even under basal conditions, and further nuclear enrichment was achieved by starvation. Transient RNA interference reduced TFEB expression to 11-23%, but starvation-induced accumulation of the lipidated, autophagosome-associated LC3-II and the autophago-to-lysosome route was maintained after TFEB silencing. Likewise, gemcitabine treatment of the cancer cells augmented apoptosis and LC3-II as an indicator of autophagy, regardless of the TFEB expression levels. Moreover, the interplay of oncogenic KRAS with TFEB and autophagy was investigated. KRAS silencing caused PDAC cell apoptosis and a reciprocal increase in TFEB expression. This inverse correlation could be confirmed in published data sets of genetically engineered mouse models and human PDAC samples using the the Pubmed GEO and BioPortal databases, and was independent of KRAS mutation status. In conclusion, the central autophagy regulator TFEB is expressed and active in PDAC, but autophagy is sustained after TFEB knockdown, suggesting alternative bypass signaling. TFEB is dispensable for gemcitabine-induced cell death, but inversely correlated with KRAS expression.

  10. Antagonism of microRNA-99a promotes cell invasion and down-regulates E-cadherin expression in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Li, Xiaohan; Cao, Wei; Qi, Yafei; Yang, Xianghong

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNA-99a (miRNA-99a), a potential tumor suppressor, has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many human malignancies. However, the role of miRNA-99a in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we transfected miRNA-99a antagonism into human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells to inhibit miRNA-99a expression and investigated its influence on cell migration and invasion as well as the underlying possible mechanisms. We found that miRNA-99a antagonism significantly increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of AsPC-1 cells, which was accompanied by increased expression of mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and α-SMA), and decreased expression of epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin). Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) remarkably restored miRNA-99a antagonism-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggest that miRNA-99a is involved in pancreatic cancer migration and invasion by regulating mTOR, and may provide a target for effective therapies against pancreatic cancer.

  11. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K(+)-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K(+)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  12. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.

  13. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes.

  14. Downstream of Mutant KRAS, the Transcription Regulator YAP Is Essential for Neoplastic Progression to Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiying; Nandakumar, Nivedita; Shi, Yuhao; Manzano, Mark; Smith, Alias; Graham, Garrett; Gupta, Swati; Vietsch, Eveline E.; Laughlin, Sean Z.; Wadhwa, Mandheer; Chetram, Mahandranauth; Joshi, Mrinmayi; Wang, Fen; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Wellstein, Anton; Yi, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates and frequently carries oncogenic KRAS mutation. However, KRAS has thus far not been a viable therapeutic target. We found that the abundance of YAP mRNA, which encodes Yes-associated protein (YAP), a protein regulated by the Hippo pathway during tissue development and homeostasis, was increased in human PDAC tissue compared with that in normal pancreatic epithelia. In genetically engineered KrasG12D and KrasG12D: Trp53R172H mouse models, pancreas-specific deletion of Yap halted the progression of early neoplastic lesions to PDAC without affecting normal pancreatic development and endocrine function. Although Yap was dispensable for acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initial step in the progression to PDAC, Yap was critically required for the proliferation of mutant Kras or Kras:Trp53 neoplastic pancreatic ductal cells in culture and for their growth and progression to invasive PDAC in mice. Yap functioned as a critical transcriptional switch downstream of the oncogenic KRAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promoting the expression of genes encoding secretory factors that cumulatively sustained neoplastic proliferation, a tumorigenic stromal response in the tumor microenvironment, and PDAC progression in Kras and Kras: Trp53 mutant pancreas tissue. Together, our findings identified Yap as a critical oncogenic KRAS effector and a promising therapeutic target for PDAC and possibly other types of KRAS-mutant cancers. PMID:24803537

  15. miR-221/222 induces pancreatic cancer progression through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinhong; Li, Pei; Chen, Xin; Zong, Liang; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Lei, Jianjun; Duan, Wanxing; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xuqi; Sha, Huanchen; Wu, Zheng; Ma, Qingyong; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-10

    MicroRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we showed that miR-221/222 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. MiR-221/222 overexpression significantly promoted pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion while inhibiting apoptosis. The expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 was increased in miR-221/222 mimic-transfected pancreatic cancer cells. Validation experiments identified TIMP-2 as a direct target of miR-221/222. These data indicate that overexpressed miR-221/222 may play an oncogenic role in pancreatic cancer by inducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, thus leading to cancer cell invasion.

  16. MUC1 mucin stabilizes and activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha to regulate metabolism in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaika, Nina V.; Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Lewallen, Michelle E.; Purohit, Vinee; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Bo; Mehla, Kamiya; Brown, Roger B.; Caffrey, Thomas; Yu, Fang; Johnson, Keith R.; Powers, Robert; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that MUC1, a large, type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in several carcinomas including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, modulates cancer cell metabolism to facilitate growth properties of cancer cells. MUC1 occupies the promoter elements of multiple genes directly involved in glucose metabolism and regulates their expression. Furthermore, MUC1 expression enhances glycolytic activity in pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrate that MUC1 expression enhances in vivo glucose uptake and expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in orthotopic implantation models of pancreatic cancer. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail is known to activate multiple signaling pathways through its interactions with several transcription factors/coregulators at the promoter elements of various genes. Our results indicate that MUC1 acts as a modulator of the hypoxic response in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression/stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). MUC1 physically interacts with HIF-1α and p300 and stabilizes the former at the protein level. By using a ChIP assay, we demonstrate that MUC1 facilitates recruitment of HIF-1α and p300 on glycolytic gene promoters in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Also, by metabolomic studies, we demonstrate that MUC1 regulates multiple metabolite intermediates in the glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways. Thus, our studies indicate that MUC1 acts as a master regulator of the metabolic program and facilitates metabolic alterations in the hypoxic environments that help tumor cells survive and proliferate under such conditions. PMID:22869720

  17. Src family kinase activity regulates adhesion, spreading and migration of pancreatic endocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Alessia; Capurso, Gabriele; Milione, Massimo; Panzuto, Francesco; Geremia, Raffaele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) are rare and 'indolent' neoplasms that usually develop metastatic lesions and exhibit poor response to standard medical treatments. Few studies have investigated pathways responsible for PET cell growth and invasion and no alternative therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In a recent microarray analysis for genes up-regulated in PETs, we have described the up-regulation of soluble Src family tyrosine kinases in this neoplasia, which may represent potentially promising candidates for therapy. Herein, we have investigated the expression and function of Src family kinases in PETS and PET cell lines. Western blot analysis indicated that Src is highly abundant in the PET cell lines CM and QGP-1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that Src is up-regulated also in human PET lesions. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by the specific inhibitor PP2 strongly interfered with adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cell lines. Accordingly, the actin cytoskeleton was profoundly altered after inhibition of Src kinases, whereas even prolonged incubation with PP2 exerted no effect on cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis of PET cells. A transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins was observed in QGP-1 cells adhering to the plate, with a peak at 75 min after seeding, when approximately 80% of cells were attached. Inhibition of Src kinases caused a dramatic reduction in the phosphorylation of proteins with different molecular weight that were isolated from the cell extracts by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation or pull-down with the SH2 domain of Src. Among them, the docking protein p130Cas interacted with Src and is a major substrate of the Src kinases in QGP-1 cells undergoing adhesion. Our results suggest that Src kinases play a specific role during adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cells and may indicate therapeutical approaches directed to limiting the metastatic

  18. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  19. Cyclin D2 Protein Stability Is Regulated in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Lu Mei; Sartori, Daniel J.; Teta, Monica; Opare-Addo, Lynn M.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Long, Simon Y.; Diehl, J. Alan; Kushner, Jake A.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular determinants of β-cell mass expansion remain poorly understood. Cyclin D2 is the major D-type cyclin expressed in β-cells, essential for adult β-cell growth. We hypothesized that cyclin D2 could be actively regulated in β-cells, which could allow mitogenic stimuli to influence β-cell expansion. Cyclin D2 protein was sharply increased after partial pancreatectomy, but cyclin D2 mRNA was unchanged, suggesting posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms influence cyclin D2 expression in β-cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, cyclin D2 protein stability is powerfully regulated in fibroblasts. Threonine 280 of cyclin D2 is phosphorylated, and this residue critically limits D2 stability. We derived transgenic (tg) mice with threonine 280 of cyclin D2 mutated to alanine (T280A) or wild-type cyclin D2 under the control of the insulin promoter. Cyclin D2 T280A protein was expressed at much higher levels than wild-type cyclin D2 protein in β-cells, despite equivalent expression of tg mRNAs. Cyclin D2 T280A tg mice exhibited a constitutively nuclear cyclin D2 localization in β-cells, and increased cyclin D2 stability in islets. Interestingly, threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice had greatly reduced β-cell apoptosis, with suppressed expression of proapoptotic genes. Suppressed β-cell apoptosis in threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice resulted in greatly increased β-cell area in aged mice. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclin D2 is regulated by protein stability in pancreatic β-cells, that signals that act upon threonine 280 limit cyclin D2 stability in β-cells, and that threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 overexpression prolongs β-cell survival and augments β-cell mass expansion. PMID:19628581

  20. Hereditary Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... meals throughout the day that are high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat. Pancreatic enzymes ... the Pancreas NPF Centers Pancreatitis Centers Pancreatitis Center Application Pancreatic Cancer Centers Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer Pancreas ...

  1. Nerve growth factor regulates CD133 function to promote tumor cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xin, Beibei; He, Xiaodan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is extremely high frequency among the various metastatic routes in pancreatic cancer. Nerve growth factor, secreted by astroglial cells, exerts effects on tumor invasion in some cancer cells, but its function on migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we determined the effects of NGF on modulating tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. NGF and CD133 expression were detected in tumor tissues using immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. The effects of NGF on the regulation of CD133 expression and the promotion of cancer migration and invasion were investigated using wound healing and matrigel transwell assay. A related mechanism that NGF regulates CD133's function via activating ERK1/2 signaling also was observed. NGF/CD133 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and promotes the migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the ERK/CD133 signaling cascade. NGF/ERK signaling modulates the cancer cell EMT process, migration and invasion through the regulation of CD133 expression and its subcellular localization. NGF/CD133 signaling initiated the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. NGF/CD133 might be an effective and potent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer metastasis, particularly in PNI. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CCR7 regulates Twist to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Guangying; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As reported, the CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) trigger a series of signaling cascades in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of some malignancies. Meanwhile, Twist promotes EMT in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression. Here, effects of Twist on CCR7-induced EMT in the PDAC were investigated in detail. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Twist, and then, in vitro assays were applied. The expression rate of Twist was 72.0 % in PDAC samples and closely correlated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and invasion. When PDAC cell line PANC1 was subjected to CCL19 stimulation, the expression of p-ERK, p-AKT, Twist, N-cadherin, MMP9, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was induced, while the GSK1120212, BEZ235, and MK2206 prohibited the increase of Twist and EMT biomarkers. For another thing, the si-Twist treatment attenuated CCL19-stimulated EMT occurrence, migration, and invasion phenotypes of PANC1 cells. In conclusion, CCR7 pathway up-regulates Twist expression via ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling to manage the EMT of PDAC. Our work allows for clinical gene or protein-targeted regimen of PDAC patients in the near future.

  3. Calcium co-regulates oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-03-28

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio.

  4. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  5. CANCER-ASSOCIATED FIBROBLAST EXOSOMES REGULATE SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION OF PANCREATIC CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Katherine E.; Zeleniak, Ann E.; Fishel, Melissa L.; Wu, Junmin; Littlepage, Laurie E.; Hill, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) comprise the majority of the tumor bulk of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Current efforts to eradicate these tumors focus predominantly on targeting the proliferation of rapidly growing cancer epithelial cells. We know that this is largely ineffective with resistance arising in most tumors following exposure to chemotherapy. Despite the long-standing recognition of the prominence of CAFs in PDAC, the effect of chemotherapy on CAFs and how they may contribute to drug resistance in neighboring cancer cells is not well characterized. Here we show that CAFs exposed to chemotherapy play an active role in regulating the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. We found that CAFs are intrinsically resistant to gemcitabine, the chemotherapeutic standard of care for PDAC. Further, CAFs exposed to gemcitabine significantly increase the release of extracellular vesicles called exosomes. These exosomes increased chemoresistance-inducing factor, Snail, in recipient epithelial cells and promote proliferation and drug resistance. Finally, treatment of gemcitabine-exposed CAFs with an inhibitor of exosome release, GW4869, significantly reduces survival in co-cultured epithelial cells, signifying an important role of CAF exosomes in chemotherapeutic drug resistance. Collectively, these findings show the potential for exosome inhibitors as treatment options alongside chemotherapy for overcoming PDAC chemoresistance. PMID:27669441

  6. Regulation of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass by growth factor and hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Chang, Yongchang

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals in beta cells will allow development of therapeutic strategies for diabetes, such as preservation and expansion of beta-cell mass and improvement of beta-cell function. During the past several decades, the number of studies analyzing the molecular mechanisms, including growth factor/hormone signaling pathways that impact islet beta-cell mass and function, has increased exponentially. Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their receptors (GHR, PRLR, and IGF-1R) are critically involved in beta-cell growth, survival, differentiation, and insulin secretion. In this chapter, we focus more narrowly on GH, PRL, and IGF-1 signaling, and GH-IGF-1 cross talk. We also discuss how these signaling aspects contribute to the regulation of beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. In particular, our novel findings of GH-induced formation of GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R protein complex and synergistic effects of GH and IGF-1 on beta-cell signaling, proliferation, and antiapoptosis lead to a new concept that IGF-1R may serve as a proximal component of GH/GHR signaling.

  7. GSK3 Inhibitor-BIO Regulates Proliferation of Immortalized Pancreatic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (iPMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Chu, Yuankui; Lv, Xiao; Qiu, Pubin; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Huiru; Li, Dan; Peng, Sha; Dou, Zhongying; Hua, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Background The small molecule 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO), a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, is a pharmacological agent known to maintain self-renewal in human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the precise role of GSK3 in immortalized pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) growth and survival is not completely understood at present. Results To determine whether this molecule is involved in controlling the proliferation of iPMSCs, we examined the effect of BIO on iPMSCs. We found that the inactivation of GSK3 by BIO can robustly stimulate iPMSCs proliferation and mass formation as shown by QRT-PCR, western blotting, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining assay and tunel assay. However, we did not find the related roles of BIO on β cell differentiation by immunostaining, QRT-PCR assay, glucose-stimulated insulin release and C-peptide content analysis. Conclusions These results suggest that BIO plays a key role in the regulation of cell mass proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated state of iPMSCs. PMID:22384031

  8. Induction of human pancreatic beta cell replication by inhibitors of dual specificity tyrosine regulated kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K.; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both result ultimately from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with peak beta cell labeling indices achieving approximately 2% in first year of life1-4. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication rates are very low. While beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts1-8. Hence, there remains an urgent need for diabetes therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput small molecule screen (HTS) revealing a novel class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds, analogues of the small molecule, harmine. We also define dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine, and the Nuclear Factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation as well as beta cell differentiation. These observations suggest that harmine analogues (“harmalogs”) may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing potency and beta cell specificity are important future challenges. PMID:25751815

  9. HuR's post-transcriptional regulation of Death Receptor 5 in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Danielle M; Rittenhouse, David W; Valley, Christopher C; Cozzitorto, Joseph A; Burkhart, Richard A; Leiby, Benjamin; Winter, Jordan M; Weber, Matthew C; Londin, Eric R; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Yeo, Charles J; Gorospe, Myriam; Witkiewicz, Agnieska K; Sachs, Jonathan N; Brody, Jonathan R

    2012-08-01

    Apoptosis is one of the core signaling pathways disrupted in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily that is expressed in cancer cells. Binding of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to DR5 is a potent trigger of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and numerous clinical trials are based on DR5-targeted therapies for cancer, including PDA. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein, regulates a select number of transcripts under stress conditions. Here we report that HuR translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of PDA cells upon treatment with a DR5 agonist. High doses of DR5 agonist induce cleavage of both HuR and caspase 8. HuR binds to DR5 mRNA at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) in PDA cells in response to different cancer-associated stressors and subsequently represses DR5 protein expression; silencing HuR augments DR5 protein production by enabling its translation and thus enhances apoptosis. In PDA specimens (n = 53), negative HuR cytoplasmic expression correlated with elevated DR5 expression (odds ratio 16.1, p < 0.0001). Together, these data demonstrate a feedback mechanism elicited by HuR-mediated repression of the key apoptotic membrane protein DR5.

  10. A karyopherin alpha2 nuclear transport pathway is regulated by glucose in hepatic and pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Cassany, Aurélia; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Klein, Christophe; Dalet, Véronique; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Leturque, Armelle

    2004-01-01

    We studied the role of the karyopherin alpha2 nuclear import carrier (also known as importin alpha2) in glucose signaling. In mhAT3F hepatoma cells, GFP-karyopherin alpha2 accumulated massively in the cytoplasm within minutes of glucose extracellular addition and returned to the nucleus after glucose removal. In contrast, GFP-karyopherin alpha1 distribution was unaffected regardless of glucose concentration. Glucose increased GFP-karyopherin alpha2 nuclear efflux by a factor 80 and its shuttling by a factor 4. These glucose-induced movements were not due to glycolytic ATP production. The mechanism involved was leptomycin B-insensitive, but phosphatase- and energy-dependent. HepG2 and COS-7 cells displayed no glucose-induced GFP-karyopherin alpha2 movements. In pancreatic MIN-6 cells, the glucose-induced movements of karyopherin alpha2 and the stimulation of glucose-induced gene transcription were simultaneously lost between passages 28 and 33. Thus, extracellular glucose regulates a nuclear transport pathway by increasing the nuclear efflux and shuttling of karyopherin alpha2 in cells in which glucose can stimulate the transcription of sugar-responsive genes.

  11. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Teng, Chunying; Yu, Sumei; Wang, Xin; Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Xin; Dong, Liying; Song, Tao; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-PX and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-PX and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.

  12. Regulation of insulin secretion and reactive oxygen species production by free fatty acids in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Valle, Maíra M R; Kowluru, Anjan; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo R

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion through metabolic and intracellular signaling mechanisms such as induction of malonyl-CoA/long-chain CoA pathway, production of lipids, GPRs (G protein-coupled receptors) activation and the modulation of calcium currents. Fatty acids (FA) are also important inducers of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in β-cells. Production of ROS for short periods is associated with an increase in GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion), but excessive or sustained production of ROS is negatively correlated with the insulin secretory process. Several mechanisms for FA modulation of ROS production by pancreatic β-cells have been proposed, such as the control of mitochondrial complexes and electron transport, induction of uncoupling proteins, NADPH oxidase activation, interaction with the renin-angiotensin system, and modulation of the antioxidant defense system. The major sites of superoxide production within mitochondria derive from complexes I and III. The amphiphilic nature of FA favors their incorporation into mitochondrial membranes, altering the membrane fluidity and facilitating the electron leak. The extra-mitochondrial ROS production induced by FA through the NADPH oxidase complex is also an important source of these species in β-cells.

  13. Ski modulate the characteristics of pancreatic cancer stem cells via regulating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Libin; Chen, Xiangyuan; Gao, Song; Zhang, Chenyue; Qu, Chao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Luming

    2016-10-12

    Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies shows that Ski may act as both a tumor proliferation-promoting factor and a metastatic suppressor in human pancreatic cancer and also may be a therapeutic target of integrative therapies. At present, pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor recurrence accompanied by resistance to conventional therapies. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is found to be aberrantly activated in CSCs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of Ski in modulating pancreatic CSCs and to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic cancer treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro study, the results showed that enhanced Ski expression could increase the expression of pluripotency maintaining markers, such as CD24, CD44, Sox-2, and Oct-4, and also components of Shh signaling pathway, such as Shh, Ptch-1, Smo, Gli-1, and Gli-2, whereas depletion of Ski to the contrary. Then, we investigated the underlying mechanism and found that inhibiting Gli-2 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) can decrease the effects of Ski on the maintenance of pancreatic CSCs, indicating that Ski mediates the pluripotency of pancreatic CSCs mainly through Shh pathway. The conclusion is that Ski may be an important factor in maintaining the stemness of pancreatic CSCs through modulating Shh pathway.

  14. MiR-145 functions as a tumor suppressor via regulating angiopoietin-2 in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Hang, Cheng; Ou, Xi-Long; Nie, Jin-Shan; Ding, Yi-Tao; Xue, Shi-Gui; Gao, Hua; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the leading causes of cancer deaths without any effective therapies. Mir-145 has been found to be tumor-suppressive in various types of cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-145 in pancreatic cancer cells and explore its underlying mechanism. Quantitative real time PCR was used to determine the expression level of miR-145 and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) mNRA, and the expression level of Ang-2 protein was measured by western blotting. The anti-cancer activities of miR-145 were tested both in in vitro by using cell invasion and colony formation assay and in vivo by using xenograft assay. The direct action of miR-145 on Ang-2 was predicted by TargetScan and confirmed by luciferase report assay. The vascularization of xenografts were performed by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression level of miR-145 was significantly lower and the expression levels of Ang-2 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in the more aggressive pancreatic cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1) when compared to that in BxPC3 cells. Overexpression of miR-145 in the BxPC3, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells suppressed the cell invasion and colony formation ability, and the expression level of Ang-2 protein in MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells was also suppressed after pre-miR-145 transfection. Intratumoral delivery of miR-145 inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer xenografts and angiogenesis in vivo, and also suppressed the expression level of angiopoietin-2 protein. Luciferase report assay showed that Ang-2 is a direct target of miR-145, and down-regulation of angiopoietin-2 by treatment with Ang-2 siRNA in the BxPC3, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and colony formation ability. The reverse transcription PCR results also showed that Tie1 and Tie2 were expressed in BxPC3, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. MiR-145 functions as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting Ang-2 for translation repression and thus

  15. Role of clathrin in the regulated secretory pathway of pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Molinete, M; Dupuis, S; Brodsky, F M; Halban, P A

    2001-08-01

    The role of clathrin in the sorting of proinsulin to secretory granules, the formation of immature granules and their subsequent maturation is not known. To this end, primary rat pancreatic beta-cells were infected with a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing the Hub fragment, a dominant-negative peptide of the clathrin heavy chain and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP as a marker of infected cells). A population of cells expressing the highest levels of EGFP (and thus Hub) was obtained using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Control cells were infected with an adenovirus expressing EGFP alone. By immunofluorescence, control cells showed intense staining for both clathrin light chain and proinsulin in a perinuclear region. In cells expressing high levels of Hub, the clathrin light-chain signal was faint and diffuse in keeping with its displacement from membranes. There was, however, no detectable effect of Hub expression on proinsulin staining or disposition within the cell. Proinsulin sorting and conversion, and the fate (release and/or degradation) of insulin and C-peptide, was studied by pulse-chase and quantitative reverse phase HPLC. In both Hub-expressing and control cells, >99% of all newly synthesized proinsulin was sorted to the regulated pathway and there was no effect of Hub on proinsulin conversion to insulin. In presence of Hub there was, however, a significant increase in the percentage of C-peptide truncated to des-(27-31)-C-peptide at early times of chase as well as more extensive degradation of C-peptide thereafter. It is concluded that clathrin is not implicated in the sorting or processing of proinsulin or in regulated exocytosis of secretory granules. These results confirm a role for clathrin in the removal of proteases from maturing granules, thus explaining the increased truncation and degradation of C-peptide in cells expressing Hub.

  16. Pancreatic cancer cell migration and metastasis is regulated by chemokine-biased agonism and bioenergetic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ishan; McAllister, Donna M.; Gorse, Egal; Dixon, Kate; Piper, Clinton T.; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Getschman, Anthony E.; Tsai, Susan; Engle, Dannielle D.; Evans, Douglas B.; Volkman, Brian F.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) invariably succumb to metastatic disease, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate PDAC cell movement and metastasis remain little understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the chemokine gene CXCL12, which is silenced in PDAC tumors yet is sufficient to suppress growth and metastasis when re-expressed. Chemokines like CXCL12 regulate cell movement in a biphasic pattern, with peak migration typically in the low nanomolar concentration range. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the biphasic cell migration pattern induced by CXCL12 reflected a bias of agonist bioenergetic signaling that might be exploited to interfere with PDAC metastasis. In human and murine PDAC cell models, we observed that non-migratory doses of CXCL12 were sufficient to decrease oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic capacity and to increase levels of phosphorylated forms of the master metabolic kinase AMPK. Those same doses of CXCL12 locked myosin light chain into a phosphorylated state, thereby decreasing F-actin polymerization and preventing cell migration in a manner dependent upon AMPK and the calcium-dependent kinase CAMKII. Notably, at elevated concentrations of CXCL12 that were insufficient to trigger chemotaxis of PDAC cells, AMPK blockade resulted in increased cell movement. In two preclinical mouse models of PDAC, administration of CXCL12 decreased tumor dissemination, supporting our hypothesis that chemokine-biased agonist signaling may offer a useful therapeutic strategy. Our results offer a mechanistic rationale for further investigation of CXCL12 as a potential therapy to prevent or treat PDAC metastasis. PMID:26330165

  17. Synergistic Combination of Gemcitabine and Dietary Molecule Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Down Regulates PKM2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Archana; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Singh, Shashank K.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gemcitabine, an effective agent in treatment of cancer of pancreas, has undergone failures in many instances after multiple cycles of therapy due to emergence of drug resistance. Combination of dietary compounds with clinically validated drugs has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach to treat pancreatic tumors, refractory to gemcitabine therapy. In order to optimize a possible synergistic combination of Gemcitabine (GCB) with dietary molecules, Betuilnic acid (BA) and Thymoquinone (TQ), stand-alone IC50 dose of GCB, BA and TQ was calculated for pancreatic cancer cell lines. Fixed IC50 dose ratio of the dietary molecules in combination with reduced IC50 dose of GCB was tested on GCB resistant PANC-1 and sensitive MIA PaCa-2 cells for synergism, additive response and antagonism, using calcusyn. Combination index (CI) revealed that pre-treatment of BA and TQ along with GCB synergistically inhibited the cancer cell proliferation in in-vitro experiments. Pyruvate kinase (PK) M2 isoform, a promising target involved in cancer cell metabolism, showed down-regulation in presence of TQ or BA in combination with GCB. GCB with BA acted preferentially on tumor mitochondria and triggered mitochondrial permeability transition. Pre-exposure of the cell lines, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, to TQ in combination with GCB induced apoptosis. Thus, the effectiveness of BA or TQ in combination with GCB to inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and down-regulate the expression of PKM2, reflects promise in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:25197966

  18. Synergistic combination of gemcitabine and dietary molecule induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and down regulates PKM2 expression.

    PubMed

    Pandita, Archana; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Singh, Shashank K; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Gemcitabine, an effective agent in treatment of cancer of pancreas, has undergone failures in many instances after multiple cycles of therapy due to emergence of drug resistance. Combination of dietary compounds with clinically validated drugs has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach to treat pancreatic tumors, refractory to gemcitabine therapy. In order to optimize a possible synergistic combination of Gemcitabine (GCB) with dietary molecules, Betuilnic acid (BA) and Thymoquinone (TQ), stand-alone IC50 dose of GCB, BA and TQ was calculated for pancreatic cancer cell lines. Fixed IC50 dose ratio of the dietary molecules in combination with reduced IC50 dose of GCB was tested on GCB resistant PANC-1 and sensitive MIA PaCa-2 cells for synergism, additive response and antagonism, using calcusyn. Combination index (CI) revealed that pre-treatment of BA and TQ along with GCB synergistically inhibited the cancer cell proliferation in in-vitro experiments. Pyruvate kinase (PK) M2 isoform, a promising target involved in cancer cell metabolism, showed down-regulation in presence of TQ or BA in combination with GCB. GCB with BA acted preferentially on tumor mitochondria and triggered mitochondrial permeability transition. Pre-exposure of the cell lines, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, to TQ in combination with GCB induced apoptosis. Thus, the effectiveness of BA or TQ in combination with GCB to inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and down-regulate the expression of PKM2, reflects promise in pancreatic cancer treatment.

  19. Up-regulation of glycolysis promotes the stemness and EMT phenotypes in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengqiang; Duan, Qingke; Zhang, Zhengle; Li, Hehe; Wu, Heshui; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chunyou; Yin, Tao

    2017-02-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-type cells are considered as underlying causes of chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. We aimed to describe the mechanisms - particularly glycolysis - involved in the regulation of the CSC and EMT phenotypes. We used a gemcitabine-resistant (GR) Patu8988 cell line, which exhibited clear CSC and EMT phenotypes and showed reliance on glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine and inhibited the CSC and EMT phenotypes in GR cells both in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, the use of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) restored the CSC and EMT phenotypes. H2 O2 produced changes similar to those of 2-DG, indicating that ROS were involved in the acquired cancer stemness and EMT phenotypes of GR cells. Moreover, doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1), a pancreatic CSC marker, was highly expressed and regulated the stemness and EMT phenotypes in GR cell. Both 2-DG and H2 O2 treatment suppressed DCLK1 expression, which was also rescued by NAC. Together, these findings revealed that glycolysis promotes the expression of DCLK1 and maintains the CSC and EMT phenotypes via maintenance of low ROS levels in chemoresistant GR cells. The glycolysis-ROS-DCLK1 pathway may be potential targets for reversing the malignant behaviour of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Sp1-driven up-regulation of miR-19a decreases RHOB and promotes pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yonggang; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Heying; Fang, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Li, Dan; Li, Yue; Cao, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liang, Yusi; Zeng, Juan; Zou, Huawei; Fu, Weineng; Yang, Xianghong

    2015-07-10

    Cancer treatment alters microRNA (miRNA) expression, revealing potential therapeutic targets (oncotarget). Here we treated pancreatic cancer (ASPC-1) cells with either recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) or gemcitabine. Then high-throughput sequencing assay was performed to screen for altered miRNAs. Both treatments decreased levels of MiR-19a. We found that miR-19a stimulated cell proliferation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. High levels of miR-19a correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Ras homolog family member B (RHOB) was identified as a direct target of miR-19a. Furthermore, RHOB was down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer samples. Restoration of RHOB induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and migration of ASPC-1 cells. SP-1 was identified as an upstream transcription factor of miR-19a gene, promoting miR-19a transcription. Rh-endostatin decreased miR-19a expression by down-regulating SP-1. These findings suggest that miR-19a is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Regulation of miR-155 affects pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness and migration by modulating the STAT3 signaling pathway through SOCS1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Li, Haidong; Wu, Weidong; Jiang, Tao; Qiu, Zhengjun

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of miR-155 on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro, underlying gene expression, expression of miR-155 and its target genes in pancreatic cancer tissues, and their association with metastasis and clinical stage. miR-155 mimics and an inhibitor were transfected into Panc-1 and Capan-2 cells in order to regulate the expression of miR-155. qPCR and western immunoblotting were performed in order to detect gene expression. Transwell assays were performed to characterize the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization were used to detect the expression of protein and microRNA in pancreatic cancer tissue. miR-155 mimics and an inhibitor upregulated and downregulated, respectively, the expression of miR-155 in pancreatic cancer cells. The invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells increased or decreased along with miR-155 expression in vitro. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) protein expression was upregulated when miR-155 was inhibited and downregulated when miR-155 was increased. However, the expression of P-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was synchronized with that of miR-155. Transcription of SOCS1 and STAT3 was unchanged by miR-155 regulation. miR-155 expression was high in pancreatic cancer tissues and SOCS1 expression was high in tumor-adjacent tissues. There was no relationship between these genes in cancer and tumor-adjacent tissues. In addition, miR-155 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. In conclusion, miR-155 plays an important role in the regulation of pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration by modulating the STAT3 signaling pathway and reducing SOCS1 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. Zinc and Zinc Transporter Regulation in Pancreatic Islets and the Potential Role of Zinc in Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Mariea D.; Mohanasundaram, Daisy M.; Drogemuller, Chris J.; Lang, Carol J.; Zalewski, Peter D.; Coates, P. Toby

    2010-01-01

    The critical trace element zinc is essential for normal insulin production, and plays a central role in cellular protection against apoptosis and oxidative stress. The regulation of zinc within the pancreas and β-cells is controlled by the zinc transporter families ZnT and ZIP. Pancreatic islets display wide variability in the occurrence of these molecules. The zinc transporter, ZnT8 is an important target for autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. Gene polymorphisms of this transporter confer sensitivity for immunosuppressive drugs used in islet transplantation. Understanding the biology of zinc transport within pancreatic islets will provide insight into the mechanisms of β-cell death, and may well reveal new pathways for improvement of diabetes therapy, including islet transplantation. This review discusses the possible roles of zinc in β-cell physiology with a special focus on islet transplantation. PMID:21713314

  3. PIP2 in pancreatic β-cells regulates voltage-gated calcium channels by a voltage-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Lizbeth; Puente, Erika I; Reyes-Vaca, Arturo; Arenas, Isabel; Garduño, Julieta; Bravo-Martínez, Jorge; Garcia, David E

    2016-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a membrane phosphoinositide that regulates the activity of many ion channels. Influx of calcium primarily through voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels promotes insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. However, whether CaV channels are regulated by PIP2, as is the case for some non-insulin-secreting cells, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CaV channels are regulated by PIP2 depletion in pancreatic β-cells through activation of a muscarinic pathway induced by oxotremorine methiodide (Oxo-M). CaV channel currents were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. The CaV current amplitude was reduced by activation of the muscarinic receptor 1 (M1R) in the absence of kinetic changes. The Oxo-M-induced inhibition exhibited the hallmarks of voltage-independent regulation and did not involve PKC activation. A small fraction of the Oxo-M-induced CaV inhibition was diminished by a high concentration of Ca(2+) chelator, whereas ≥50% of this inhibition was prevented by diC8-PIP2 dialysis. Localization of PIP2 in the plasma membrane was examined by transfecting INS-1 cells with PH-PLCδ1, which revealed a close temporal association between PIP2 hydrolysis and CaV channel inhibition. Furthermore, the depletion of PIP2 by a voltage-sensitive phosphatase reduced CaV currents in a way similar to that observed following M1R activation. These results indicate that activation of the M1R pathway inhibits the CaV channel via PIP2 depletion by a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism in pancreatic β- and INS-1 cells and thereby support the hypothesis that membrane phospholipids regulate ion channel activity by interacting with ion channels.

  4. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  5. Toll-like receptor 7 regulates pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Atsuo; Graffeo, Christopher S; Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Rehman, Adeel; Hackman, Michael; Fallon, Nina; Barilla, Rocky M; Henning, Justin R; Jamal, Mohsin; Rao, Raghavendra; Greco, Stephanie; Deutsch, Michael; Medina-Zea, Marco V; Bin Saeed, Usama; Ego-Osuala, Melvin O; Hajdu, Cristina; Miller, George

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer that interacts with stromal cells to produce a highly inflammatory tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth and invasiveness. The precise interplay between tumor and stroma remains poorly understood. TLRs mediate interactions between environmental stimuli and innate immunity and trigger proinflammatory signaling cascades. Our finding that TLR7 expression is upregulated in both epithelial and stromal compartments in human and murine pancreatic cancer led us to postulate that carcinogenesis is dependent on TLR7 signaling. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, TLR7 ligation vigorously accelerated tumor progression and induced loss of expression of PTEN, p16, and cyclin D1 and upregulation of p21, p27, p53, c-Myc, SHPTP1, TGF-β, PPARγ, and cyclin B1. Furthermore, TLR7 ligation induced STAT3 activation and interfaced with Notch as well as canonical NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways, but downregulated expression of Notch target genes. Moreover, blockade of TLR7 protected against carcinogenesis. Since pancreatic tumorigenesis requires stromal expansion, we proposed that TLR7 ligation modulates pancreatic cancer by driving stromal inflammation. Accordingly, we found that mice lacking TLR7 exclusively within their inflammatory cells were protected from neoplasia. These data suggest that targeting TLR7 holds promise for treatment of human pancreatic cancer.

  6. Regulation of AMPK Activation by CD36 Links Fatty Acid Uptake to β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingyu; Pietka, Terri; Gross, Richard W.; Eckel, Robert H.; Su, Xiong; Stahl, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in muscle energy needs activate AMPK and induce sarcolemmal recruitment of the fatty acid (FA) translocase CD36. The resulting rises in FA uptake and FA oxidation are tightly correlated, suggesting coordinated regulation. We explored the possibility that membrane CD36 signaling might influence AMPK activation. We show, using several cell types, including myocytes, that CD36 expression suppresses AMPK, keeping it quiescent, while it mediates AMPK activation by FA. These dual effects reflect the presence of CD36 in a protein complex with the AMPK kinase LKB1 (liver kinase B1) and the src kinase Fyn. This complex promotes Fyn phosphorylation of LKB1 and its nuclear sequestration, hindering LKB1 activation of AMPK. FA interaction with CD36 dissociates Fyn from the protein complex, allowing LKB1 to remain cytosolic and activate AMPK. Consistent with this, CD36−/− mice have constitutively active muscle and heart AMPK and enhanced FA oxidation of endogenous triglyceride stores. The molecular mechanism described, whereby CD36 suppresses AMPK, with FA binding to CD36 releasing this suppression, couples AMPK activation to FA availability and would be important for the maintenance of cellular FA homeostasis. Its dysfunction might contribute to the reported association of CD36 variants with metabolic complications of obesity in humans. PMID:25157091

  7. Deletion Of XIAP reduces the severity of acute pancreatitis via regulation of cell death and nuclear factor-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yu, Jiang; Chi, Jun-Lin; Long, Fei-Wu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ke-Ling; Lv, Zhao-Ying; Zhou, Bin; Peng, Zhi-Hai; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2017-03-16

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) still remains a clinical challenge, not only for its high mortality but the uncontrolled inflammatory progression from acute pancreatitis (AP) to SAP. Cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis are critical pathology of AP, since the severity of pancreatitis correlates directly with necrosis and inversely with apoptosis Therefore, regulation of cell death from necrosis to apoptosis may have practicably therapeutic value. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the best characterized member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family, but its function in AP remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of XIAP in regulation of cell death and inflammation during acute pancreatitis. The in vivo pancreatitis model was induced by the administration of cerulein with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or by the administration of l-arginine in wild-type or XIAP-deficient mice, and ex vivo model was induced by the administration of cerulein+LPS in AR42J cell line following XIAP inhibition. The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined by serum amylase activity and histological grading. XIAP deletion on cell apoptosis, necrosis and inflammatory response were examined. Caspases activities, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and receptor-interacting protein kinase1 (RIP1) degradation were assessed by western blot. Deletion of XIAP resulted in the reduction of amylase activity, decrease of NF-κB activation and less release of TNF-α and IL-6, together with increased caspases activities and RIP1 degradation, leading to enhanced apoptosis and reduced necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells and ameliorated the severity of acute pancreatitis. Our results indicate that deletion of XIAP switches cell death away from necrosis to apoptosis and decreases the inflammatory response, effectively attenuating the severity of AP/SAP. The critical role of XIAP in cell death and inflammation suggests that

  8. Regulation of pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion by RhoC GTPase and Caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; DiVito, Melinda M; Merajver, Sofia D; Boyanapalli, Madanamohan; van Golen, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    Background In the current study we investigated the role of caveolin-1 (cav-1) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) cell migration and invasion; initial steps in metastasis. Cav-1 is the major structural protein in caveolae; small Ω-shaped invaginations within the plasma membrane. Caveolae are involved in signal transduction, wherein cav-1 acts as a scaffolding protein to organize multiple molecular complexes regulating a variety of cellular events. Recent evidence suggests a role for cav-1 in promoting cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been described. The small monomeric GTPases are among several molecules which associate with cav-1. Classically, the Rho GTPases control actin cytoskeletal reorganization during cell migration and invasion. RhoC GTPase is overexpressed in aggressive cancers that metastasize and is the predominant GTPase in PC. Like several GTPases, RhoC contains a putative cav-1 binding motif. Results Analysis of 10 PC cell lines revealed high levels of cav-1 expression in lines derived from primary tumors and low expression in those derived from metastases. Comparison of the BxPC-3 (derived from a primary tumor) and HPAF-II (derived from a metastasis) demonstrates a reciprocal relationship between cav-1 expression and p42/p44 Erk activation with PC cell migration, invasion, RhoC GTPase and p38 MAPK activation. Furthermore, inhibition of RhoC or p38 activity in HPAF-II cells leads to partial restoration of cav-1 expression. Conclusion Cav-1 expression inhibits RhoC GTPase activation and subsequent activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in primary PC cells thus restricting migration and invasion. In contrast, loss of cav-1 expression leads to RhoC-mediated migration and invasion in metastatic PC cells. PMID:15969750

  9. NMDA receptors mediate leptin signaling and regulate potassium channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Fortin, Dale A; Cochrane, Veronica A; Chen, Pei-Chun; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2017-08-02

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are Ca2+-permeant, ligand-gated ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and have well-characterized roles in the nervous system. The expression and function of NMDARs in pancreatic β cells, by contrast, are poorly understood. Here, we report a novel function of NMDARs in β-cells. Using a combination of biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging techniques we now show that NMDARs have a key role in mediating the effect of leptin to modulate β-cell electrical activity by promoting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent trafficking of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane. Blocking NMDAR activity inhibited the ability of leptin to activate AMPK, induce KATP and Kv2.1 channel trafficking, and promote membrane hyperpolarization. Conversely, activation of NMDARs mimicked the effect of leptin, causing Ca2+ influx, AMPK activation, increased trafficking of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane, and triggered membrane hyperpolarization. Moreover, leptin potentiated NMDAR currents and triggered NMDAR-dependent Ca2+ influx. Importantly, NMDAR-mediated signaling was observed in rat insulinoma 832/13 cells and in human β-cells indicating that this pathway is conserved across species. The ability of NMDARs to regulate potassium channel surface expression and thus, β-cell excitability provides mechanistic insight into the recently reported insulinotropic effects of NMDAR antagonists, and therefore highlights the therapeutic potential of these drugs in managing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Involvement of the clock gene Rev-erb alpha in the regulation of glucagon secretion in pancreatic alpha-cells.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elaine; Marroquí, Laura; Figueroa, Ana Lucia C; Merino, Beatriz; Fernandez-Ruiz, Rebeca; Nadal, Angel; Burris, Thomas P; Gomis, Ramon; Quesada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60-70% inhibition) in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05) and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold) and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001). High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05). AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01) and glucagon release (p<0.05). These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway.

  11. Inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingying; Zhong, Xiangqin; Ding, Yaqin; Bai, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Hongbin; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is important to maintain glucose homeostasis and is regulated by electrical activities. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone-derived protein, has been reported to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, stimulating β cell proliferation and improving insulin sensitivity. But the underlying mechanisms of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion and voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, voltage-gated calcium channels in rat β cells. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Channel currents and membrane action potentials were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Calcium imaging system was used to analyze intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). The data show that under 16.7mmol/l glucose conditions uncarboxylated osteocalcin alone increased insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, but with no such effects on insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i in the presence of a KV channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride. In the patch-clamp experiments, uncarboxylated osteocalcin lengthened action potential duration and significantly inhibited KV currents, but had no influence on the characteristics of voltage-gated calcium channels. These results indicate that KV channels are involved in uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells. By inhibiting KV channels, uncarboxylated osteocalcin prolongs action potential duration, increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and finally promotes insulin secretion. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion.

  12. MiR-93 Promotes Tumorigenesis and Metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Activating the PI3K/Akt Pathway via Inhibition of LKB1/PTEN/CDKN1A

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Lyu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of clinical lung cancer cases. MicroRNA-93 (miR-93) is an oncomiR in many types of human cancer, exerting pivotal effects in the development and progression of malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the mechanism underlying miR-93 involvement in NSCLC is unknown. Our purpose was to reveal and explain this mechanism, with the goal of contributing to the development of new diagnostic biomarkers and individualized therapeutic tools. Methods: The expression of miR-93 was determined in NSCLC cell lines A549, H1975, and H1299. The cells were transfected with control plasmids (Mock group), miR-93 overexpression plasmids (miR-93 Up group), or miR-93 inhibitor plasmids (miR-93 Down group) to generate stable miR-93-overexpressing or -depleted cells. The effects of miR-93 on proliferation, migration, and invasion of these cells were determined. The in vivo effects of miR-93 on tumor metastasis were determined in an NSCLC xenograft mouse model. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated via dual luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. Results: MiR-93 expression levels were significantly greater in the NSCLC cell lines than in normal lung epithelial cells. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly stimulated by miR-93 upregulation (all P<0.05) and inhibited by miR-93 downregulation. Dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-93 directly bound with the 3′-untranslated region of the tumor suppressor gene LKB1. Western blotting analysis indicated that miR-93 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway by inhibiting LKB1, PTEN, and p21. Increased expression of miR-93 induced significant hepatic metastasis of lung cancer in the xenograft mouse model. Conclusion: Overexpression of miR-93 facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis of NSCLC. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of miR-93 involvement in NSCLC, suggesting that miR-93 may

  13. Olfactory receptor Olfr544 responding to azelaic acid regulates glucagon secretion in α-cells of mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kang, NaNa; Bahk, Young Yil; Lee, NaHye; Jae, YoonGyu; Cho, Yoon Hee; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Byun, Youngjoo; Lee, Eun Jig; Kim, Min-Soo; Koo, JaeHyung

    2015-05-08

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are extensively expressed in olfactory as well as non-olfactory tissues. Although many OR transcripts are expressed in non-olfactory tissues, only a few studies demonstrate the functional role of ORs. Here, we verified that mouse pancreatic α-cells express potential OR-mediated downstream effectors. Moreover, high levels of mRNA for the olfactory receptors Olfr543, Olfr544, Olfr545, and Olfr1349 were expressed in α-cells as assessed using RNA-sequencing, microarray, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses. Treatment with dicarboxylic acids (azelaic acid and sebacic acid) increased intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in pancreatic α-cells. The azelaic acid-induced Ca(2+) response as well as glucagon secretion was concentration- and time-dependent manner. Olfr544 was expressed in α-cells, and the EC50 value of azelaic acid to Olfr544 was 19.97 μM, whereas Olfr545 did not respond to azelaic acid. Our findings demonstrate that Olfr544 responds to azelaic acid to regulate glucagon secretion through Ca(2+) mobilization in α-cells of the mouse pancreatic islets, suggesting that Olfr544 may be an important therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reverse-migrated neutrophils regulated by JAM-C are involved in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Deqing; Zeng, Yue; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Jianghong; Mulatibieke, Tunike; Ni, Jianbo; Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xingpeng; Hu, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) plays a key role in the promotion of the reverse transendothelial migration (rTEM) of neutrophils, which contributes to the dissemination of systemic inflammation and to secondary organ damage. During acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory responses lead to distant organ damage and typically result in acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we investigated the role of rTEM neutrophils in AP-associated ALI and the molecular mechanisms by which JAM-C regulates neutrophil rTEM in this disorder. In this study, rTEM neutrophils were identified in the peripheral blood both in murine model of AP and human patients with AP, which elevated with increased severity of lung injury. Pancreatic JAM-C was downregulated during murine experimental pancreatitis, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with both increased neutrophil rTEM and severity of lung injury. Knockout of JAM-C resulted in more severe lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significantly greater numbers of rTEM neutrophils were present both in the circulation and pulmonary vascular washout in JAM-C knockout mice with AP. This study demonstrates that during AP, neutrophils that are recruited to the pancreas may migrate back into the circulation and then contribute to ALI. JAM-C downregulation may contribute to AP-associated ALI via promoting neutrophil rTEM. PMID:26841848

  15. Reverse-migrated neutrophils regulated by JAM-C are involved in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deqing; Zeng, Yue; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Jianghong; Mulatibieke, Tunike; Ni, Jianbo; Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xingpeng; Hu, Guoyong

    2016-02-04

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) plays a key role in the promotion of the reverse transendothelial migration (rTEM) of neutrophils, which contributes to the dissemination of systemic inflammation and to secondary organ damage. During acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory responses lead to distant organ damage and typically result in acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we investigated the role of rTEM neutrophils in AP-associated ALI and the molecular mechanisms by which JAM-C regulates neutrophil rTEM in this disorder. In this study, rTEM neutrophils were identified in the peripheral blood both in murine model of AP and human patients with AP, which elevated with increased severity of lung injury. Pancreatic JAM-C was downregulated during murine experimental pancreatitis, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with both increased neutrophil rTEM and severity of lung injury. Knockout of JAM-C resulted in more severe lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significantly greater numbers of rTEM neutrophils were present both in the circulation and pulmonary vascular washout in JAM-C knockout mice with AP. This study demonstrates that during AP, neutrophils that are recruited to the pancreas may migrate back into the circulation and then contribute to ALI. JAM-C downregulation may contribute to AP-associated ALI via promoting neutrophil rTEM.

  16. Ion transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, and purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, purinergic receptors, and determine their effects on ion transport. Human adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1 cells were grown on permeable supports and set in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological recordings. Transepithelial voltage (Vte), resistance, and short-circuit currents (Isc) were measured in response to agonists. Secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), acetylcholine, forskolin, ionomycin, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP, and adenosine induced lumen negative Vte and Isc. These changes were consistent with anion secretion, as verified in forskolin-stimulated preparations. Extracellular nucleotides, ATP, and UTP, applied from luminal and basolateral sides, caused largest responses: Vte increased up to -5 mV, Isc increased to 20 to 30 μA/cm, and resistance decreased by up to 200 Ω·cm. Transepithelial transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, adenosine, and purinergic P2 receptors; and this human model has a good potential for studies of physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic duct ion transport.

  17. MicroRNA-21 induces 5-fluorouracil resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells by regulating PTEN and PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueju; Wang, Weibin; Wang, Lanlan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xian; Chen, Mingtai; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jia; Ma, Yanni; Sun, Guotao

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer patients are often resistant to chemotherapy treatment, which results in poor prognosis. The objective of this study was to delineate the mechanism by which miR-21 induces drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human pancreatic cancer cells (PATU8988 and PANC-1). We report that PATU8988 cells resistant to 5-FU express high levels of miR-21 in comparison to sensitive primary PATU8988 cells. Suppression of miR-21 expression in 5-Fu-resistant PATU8988 cells can alleviate its 5-FU resistance. Meanwhile, lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 not only conferred resistance to 5-FU but also promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of PATU8988 and PANC-1 cells. The proresistance effects of miR-21 were attributed to the attenuated expression of tumor suppressor genes, including PTEN and PDCD4. Overexpression of PTEN and PDCD4 antagonized miR-21-induced resistance to 5-FU and migration activity. Our work demonstrates that miR-21 can confer drug resistance to 5-FU in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression of tumor suppressor genes, as the target genes of miR-21, PTEN and PDCD4 can rescue 5-FU sensitivity and the phenotypic characteristics disrupted by miR-21.

  18. Up-Regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL-2 by a Novel Mouse Model of Pancreatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E.; Baird, Brandon Jackson; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Cardona, Diana M.; Li, Zhiguo; Weinhold, Kent J.; Sudan, Debra L.; Brennan, Todd V.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the immunologic events surrounding pancreatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) due to a lack of established experimental models. The purpose of the current study was to develop a mouse model for pancreatic IRI to serve as a basis for immunologic characterization of pancreatic organ damage at transplantation. Methods Reversible ischemia was surgically induced by vascular isolation of the distal pancreas for 0, 10, 20, or 30 minutes. Mice receiving laparotomy without clamping served as sham-operated controls. Following reperfusion, mice were serially assayed for biochemical and histologic evidence of inflammation, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and inflammatory gene up-regulation. Results Following induction of pancreatic IRI, serum amylase and LDH peaked at 6 hours and returned to baseline by 120 hours following injury in all groups. Mice undergoing 30 minutes of IRI demonstrated greatest biochemical evidence of inflammation. Histologic scoring similarly demonstrated marked inflammation in mice subjected to 30 minutes IRI compared to controls. Serum cytokine/chemokine analysis demonstrated significant up-regulation of G-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2, CCL-5, CXCL-1, and MIP-2. Similar up-regulation of ccl2, il1b, il6, fos, hspa1a, hspd1, and cd14 gene expression was detected by real-time PCR analysis of pancreatic tissue. Conclusions This novel model of distal pancreatic IRI in the mouse demonstrates time-limited pancreatic inflammation and injury by histologic and biochemical indices. Inflammation may be, in part, a result of the immunologic effects of IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL-2. This model provides a method by which immunologic mechanisms of pancreatic IRI can be elucidated. PMID:23416685

  19. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology.

  20. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... fluids through an intravenous (IV) tube in your vein and nutrition through a feeding tube or IV. ...

  1. Hereditary Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate E-News Sign-Up Home Hereditary Pancreatitis Hereditary Pancreatitis Hereditary Pancreatitis (HP) is a rare genetic condition characterized ... at least 1,000 individuals are affected with hereditary pancreatitis. HP has also been linked to an ...

  2. GAIP Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy and Exosome Biogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer through Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Santanu; Pal, Krishnendu; Sharma, Anil K.; Dutta, Shamit K.; Lau, Julie S.; Yan, Irene K.; Wang, Enfeng; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Sanyal, Arunik; Patel, Tushar C.; Chari, Suresh T.; Spaller, Mark R.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular shedding, and observed that GIPC status determines the loading of cellular cargo in the exosome. Furthermore, we have shown the overexpression of the drug resistance gene ABCG2 in exosomes from GIPC-depleted pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrated that depletion of GIPC from cancer cells sensitized them to gemcitabine treatment, an avenue that can be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer. PMID:25469510

  3. GAIP interacting protein C-terminus regulates autophagy and exosome biogenesis of pancreatic cancer through metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Santanu; Pal, Krishnendu; Sharma, Anil K; Dutta, Shamit K; Lau, Julie S; Yan, Irene K; Wang, Enfeng; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Sanyal, Arunik; Patel, Tushar C; Chari, Suresh T; Spaller, Mark R; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular shedding, and observed that GIPC status determines the loading of cellular cargo in the exosome. Furthermore, we have shown the overexpression of the drug resistance gene ABCG2 in exosomes from GIPC-depleted pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrated that depletion of GIPC from cancer cells sensitized them to gemcitabine treatment, an avenue that can be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer.

  4. NADPH Oxidase Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Is Mediated through Akt-dependent Up-regulation of p22phox*

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Nitsche, Claudia; Zheng, Ling; Pandol, Stephen J.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that Nox4 NADPH oxidase is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and that it is activated by growth factors and plays a pro-survival, anti-apoptotic role. Here we investigate the mechanisms through which insulin-like growth factor I and serum (FBS) activate NADPH oxidase in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cells. We show that in PaCa cells, NADPH oxidase is composed of Nox4 and p22phox catalytic subunits, which are both required for NADPH oxidase activity. Insulin-like growth factor I and FBS activate NADPH oxidase through transcriptional up-regulation of p22phox. This involves activation of the transcription factor NF-κB mediated by Akt kinase. Up-regulation of p22phox by the growth factors results in increased Nox4-p22phox complex formation and activation of NADPH oxidase. This mechanism is different from that for receptor-induced activation of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, which is mediated by phosphorylation of its regulatory subunits. Up-regulation of p22phox represents a novel pro-survival mechanism through which growth factors and Akt inhibit apoptosis in PaCa cells. PMID:21118808

  5. CD271+ Subpopulation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells Correlates with Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer and Is Regulated by Interaction with Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kenji; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Shindo, Koji; Eguchi, Daiki; Kozono, Shingo; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Aishima, Shinichi; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a crucial role in the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer. Although heterogeneity of PSCs has been identified, the functional differences remain unclear. We characterized CD271+ PSCs in human pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry for CD271 was performed for 31 normal pancreatic tissues and 105 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We performed flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, and assessed CD271 expression in PSCs isolated from pancreatic tissues and the changes in CD271 expression in PSCs cocultured with cancer cells. We also investigated the pattern of CD271 expression in a SCID mouse xenograft model. In the immunohistochemical analyses, the CD271-high staining rates in pancreatic stroma in normal pancreatic tissues and PDACs were 2/31 (6.5%) and 29/105 (27.6%), respectively (p = 0.0069). In PDACs, CD271+ stromal cells were frequently observed on the edge rather than the center of the tumors. Stromal CD271 high expression was associated with a good prognosis (p = 0.0040). Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated CD271-positive rates in PSCs were 0–2.1%. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that CD271 mRNA expression was increased in PSCs after coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. However, the level of CD271 mRNA expression subsequently decreased after the transient increase. Furthermore, CD271 mRNA expression was decreased in PSCs migrating toward pancreatic cancer cells through Matrigel. In the xenograft model, CD271+ PSCs were present at tumor margins/periphery and were absent in the tumor core. In conclusion, CD271 was expressed in PSCs around pancreatic tumors, but not in the center of the tumors, and expression decreased after long coculture with pancreatic cancer cells or after movement toward pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that CD271+ PSCs appear at the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis and that CD271 expression is significantly correlated with a better prognosis in

  6. Differential regulation of pancreatic digestive enzymes during chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Birk, Ruth Z; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Boekschoten, Mark V; Danino, Hila; Müller, Michael; Daniel, Hannelore

    2014-07-28

    Exocrine pancreatic digestive enzymes are essential for the digestion of dietary components and are regulated by them. Chronic excess dietary high fat (HF) consumption is a contributing factor of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated chronic diseases and requires adaptation by the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chronic HF diet feeding on exocrine pancreatic digestive enzyme transcript levels in DIO C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed diets containing either 10 or 45% energy (E%) derived from fat for 12 weeks (n 10 mice per diet group). Pancreatic tissue and blood samples were collected at 0, 4 and 12 weeks. The expression of a panel of exocrine pancreatic digestive enzymes was analysed using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The HF (45 E%) diet-fed C57BL/6J mice developed obesity, hyperleptinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. The transcript levels of pancreatic lipase (PL), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) and pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were initially elevated; however, they were down-regulated to basal control levels at week 12. The transcript levels of colipase were significantly affected by diet and time. The protein levels of PL and PLRP2 responded to HF diet feeding. The transcript levels of amylase and proteases were not significantly affected by diet and time. The transcript levels of specific lipases in hyperinsulinaemic, hyperleptinaemic and hyperglycaemic DIO C57BL/6J mice are down-regulated. However, these mice compensate for this by the post-transcriptional regulation of the levels of proteins that respond to dietary fat. This suggests a complex regulatory mechanism involved in the modulation of fat digestion.

  7. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  8. Receptor strategies in pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Grendell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of receptors on pancreatic acinar and duct cells regulate both pancreatic exocrine secretion and intracellular processes. These receptors are potential sites of action for therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists, which may reduce the level of metabolic "stress" on acinar cells, have been shown to mitigate the severity of acute pancreatitis in a number of models. Not all studies have shown a benefit, however, and differences may exist between different structural classes of antagonists. Because increased pancreatic stimulation due to loss of feedback inhibition of CCK has been proposed to contribute to the pain of some patients with chronic pancreatitis, CCK receptor antagonists could also be of benefit in this setting. Somatostatin and its analogs diminish pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes and have been effective in treating pancreatic fistulas and pseudocysts. These agents are also being evaluated for their ability to reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis (perhaps by reducing ductal pressure by diminishing secretory volume) and mitigating the severity of acute pancreatitis (possibly by reducing the metabolic load on acinar cells). Recently described secretin receptor antagonists may also have therapeutic value as a means of selectively inhibiting pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes. PMID:1340060

  9. Role of endogenous cortistatin in the regulation of ghrelin system expression at pancreatic level under normal and obese conditions.

    PubMed

    Chanclón, Belén; Luque, Raúl M; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; Castaño, Justo P; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin-system components [native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT) and receptors (GHS-Rs)] are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the pancreas, where they exert different biological actions including regulation of neuroendocrine secretions, food intake and pancreatic function. The expression of ghrelin system is regulated by metabolic conditions (fasting/obesity) and is associated with the progression of obesity and insulin resistance. Cortistatin (CORT), a neuropeptide able to activate GHS-R, has emerged as an additional link in gut-brain interplay. Indeed, we recently reported that male CORT deficient mice (cort-/-) are insulin-resistant and present a clear dysregulation in the stomach ghrelin-system. The present work was focused at analyzing the expression pattern of ghrelin-system components at pancreas level in cort-/- mice and their control littermates (cort +/+) under low- or high-fat diet. Our data reveal that all the ghrelin-system components are expressed at the mouse pancreatic level, where, interestingly, In1-ghrelin was expressed at higher levels than native-ghrelin. Thus, GOAT mRNA levels were significantly lower in cort-/- mice compared with controls while native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R transcript levels remained unaltered under normal metabolic conditions. Moreover, under obese condition, a significant increase in pancreatic expression of native-ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R was observed in obese cort+/+ but not in cort-/- mice. Interestingly, insulin expression and release was elevated in obese cort+/+, while these changes were not observed in obese cort-/- mice. Altogether, our results indicate that the ghrelin-system expression is clearly regulated in the pancreas of cort+/+ and cort -/- under normal and/or obesity conditions suggesting that this system may play relevant roles in the endocrine pancreas. Most importantly, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that endogenous CORT is essential

  10. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Regulates the Development of Pancreatic Endocrine Cells in Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Juan; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and Ang-(1-7) receptor Mas, have been shown to regulate organogenesis during embryonic development in various species. However, it is not known whether a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is present in the fetal pancreas. It is hypothesized that there is a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the embryonic pancreas in mice that is involved in regulating islet cell development. To address this issue, the endogenous expression profile of axis constituents in embryonic mouse pancreata was examined. Involvement of the ACE2 axis in the regulation of pancreatic development was also examined. The present experiments showed in an in vivo animal model that endogenous expression levels of ACE2 and the Mas receptor were upregulated in mouse pancreata in late embryogenesis, peaking on embryonic day E16.5, when it reached 3 folds compared to that seen at E12.5. Consistently, endogenous expression of Ang-(1-7) also peaked at E16.5. Treatment with the ACE2 inhibitor DX600 did not alter islet development. However, prenatal treatment with A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, reduced the β-cell to α-cell ratio in neonatal islets, impaired islet insulin secretory function, and impaired the pups' glucose tolerance. In ex vivo pancreas explant cultures, A779 again decreased the β-cell to α-cell ratio, apparently through its effects on β-cell proliferation (reduced proliferation shown with Ki67 staining), and also decreased Insulin and Ngn3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment of explant cultures with Ang-(1-7) increased mRNA levels of Insulin and pancreatic progenitor marker Ngn3, as well as Nox4, the ROS generation enzyme; these stimulatory effects were attenuated by co-treatment with A779, suggesting that Ang-(1-7), via Mas receptor signaling, may promote differentiation of pancreatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species. These data together suggest that a Mas

  11. Transcriptome analysis of pancreatic cells across distant species highlights novel important regulator genes.

    PubMed

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Lavergne, Arnaud; Bernard, Alice; Padamata, Keerthana; Bergemann, David; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle; Peers, Bernard

    2017-03-21

    Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the function of the different pancreatic cell types has been maintained during vertebrate evolution, the comparison of their transcriptomes across distant vertebrate species is a means to pinpoint genes under strong evolutionary constraints due to their crucial function, which have therefore preserved their selective expression in these pancreatic cell types. In this study, RNA-sequencing was performed on pancreatic alpha, beta, and delta endocrine cells as well as the acinar and ductal exocrine cells isolated from adult zebrafish transgenic lines. Comparison of these transcriptomes identified many novel markers, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components, specific for each cell type. By performing interspecies comparisons, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved enriched expression in endocrine and exocrine cells among human, mouse, and zebrafish. This list includes many genes known as crucial for pancreatic cell formation or function, but also pinpoints many factors whose pancreatic function is still unknown. A large set of endocrine-enriched genes can already be detected at early developmental stages as revealed by the transcriptomic profiling of embryonic endocrine cells, indicating a potential role in cell differentiation. The actual involvement of conserved endocrine genes in pancreatic cell differentiation was demonstrated in zebrafish for myt1b, whose invalidation leads to a reduction of alpha cells, and for cdx4, selectively expressed in endocrine delta cells and crucial for their specification. Intriguingly, comparison of the endocrine alpha and beta cell subtypes from human, mouse, and zebrafish reveals a much lower conservation of the transcriptomic signatures for these two endocrine cell subtypes compared to the signatures of pan

  12. Regulation of GLI underlies a role for BET bromodomains in pancreatic cancer growth and the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yinshi; Nahar, Sabikun; Nakagawa, Akifumi; Fernandez de Barrena, Maite G.; Mertz, Jennifer A.; Bryant, Barbara M.; Adams, Curtis E.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Von Alt, Kate N.; Chang, Kevin; Conery, Andrew R.; Hatton, Charlie; Sims, Robert J.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Wang, Xingpeng; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Liss, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The initiation, progression, and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) results from the interplay of genetic and epigenetic events. While the genetic alterations of PDAC have been well characterized, epigenetic pathways regulating PDAC remain, for the most part, elusive. The goal of this study was to identify novel epigenetic regulators contributing to the biology of PDAC. Experimental design In vivo pooled shRNA screens targeting 118 epigenetic proteins were performed in two orthotopic PDAC xenograft models. Candidate genes were characterized in 19 human PDAC cell lines, heterotopic xenograft tumor models, and a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model of PDAC. Gene expression, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to analyze the pathways by which candidate genes contribute to PDAC. Results In vivo shRNA screens identified BRD2 and BRD3, members of the BET family of chromatin adaptors, as key regulators of PDAC tumor growth. Pharmacological inhibition of BET bromodomains enhanced survival in a PDAC GEM model and inhibited growth of human-derived xenograft tumors. BET proteins contribute to PDAC cell growth through direct interaction with members of the GLI family of transcription factors and modulating their activity. Within cancer cells, BET bromodomain inhibition results in down-regulation of SHH, a key mediator of the tumor microenvironment and canonical activator of GLI. Consistent with this, inhibition of BET bromodomains decreases cancer associated fibroblast content of tumors in both GEM and xenograft tumor models. Conclusions Therapeutic inhibition of BET proteins offers a novel mechanism to target both the neoplastic and stromal components of PDAC. Translational Relevance Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extraordinarily chemoresistant and the abundant stromal content of these tumors contributes to the ineffective treatment of this disease. Current approaches in the treatment of PDAC are

  13. Dopamine synthesis and D3 receptor activation in pancreatic β-cells regulates insulin secretion and intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic islets are critical for glucose homeostasis via the regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. We propose a novel mechanism that regulates insulin secretion from β-cells within mouse pancreatic islets: a dopaminergic negative feedback acting on insulin secretion. We show that islets are a site of dopamine synthesis and accumulation outside the central nervous system. We show that both dopamine and its precursor l-dopa inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and this inhibition correlates with a reduction in frequency of the intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations. We further show that the effects of dopamine are abolished by a specific antagonist of the dopamine receptor D3. Because the dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors are expressed in the islets, we propose that cosecretion of dopamine with insulin activates receptors on the β-cell surface. D3 receptor activation results in changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] dynamics, which, in turn, lead to lowered insulin secretion. Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in β-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Dopamine Synthesis and D3 Receptor Activation in Pancreatic β-Cells Regulates Insulin Secretion and Intracellular [Ca2+] Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are critical for glucose homeostasis via the regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. We propose a novel mechanism that regulates insulin secretion from β-cells within mouse pancreatic islets: a dopaminergic negative feedback acting on insulin secretion. We show that islets are a site of dopamine synthesis and accumulation outside the central nervous system. We show that both dopamine and its precursor l-dopa inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and this inhibition correlates with a reduction in frequency of the intracellular [Ca2+] oscillations. We further show that the effects of dopamine are abolished by a specific antagonist of the dopamine receptor D3. Because the dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors are expressed in the islets, we propose that cosecretion of dopamine with insulin activates receptors on the β-cell surface. D3 receptor activation results in changes in intracellular [Ca2+] dynamics, which, in turn, lead to lowered insulin secretion. Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in β-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22918877

  15. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hai-Tao; Xue, Xing-Huan; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Ang; Qin, Zhao-Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity. METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation. CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:16718816

  16. Protein-bound Polysaccharide-K Inhibits Hedgehog Signaling Through Down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ Transcription Under Hypoxia, Suppressing the Malignant Phenotype in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akio; Onishi, Hideya; Imaizumi, Akira; Kawamoto, Makoto; Fujimura, Akiko; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Katano, Mitsuo

    2016-08-01

    Hedgehog signaling is activated in pancreatic cancer and could be a therapeutic target. We previously demonstrated that recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin-kappa-J region (RBPJ) and mastermind-like 3 (MAML3) contribute to the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Smoothened (SMO) transcription. We have also shown that protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) could be effective for refractory pancreatic cancer that down-regulates SMO transcription under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated whether the anticancer mechanism of PSK involves inhibiting RBPJ and MAML3 expression under hypoxia. PSK reduced SMO, MAML3 and RBPJ expression in pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxia. PSK also blocked RBPJ-induced invasiveness under hypoxia by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase expression. Lastly, we showed that PSK attenuated RBPJ-induced proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that PSK suppresses Hedgehog signaling through down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ transcription under hypoxia, inhibiting the induction of a malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer. Our results may lead to development of new treatments for refractory pancreatic cancer using PSK as a Hedgehog inhibitor.

  17. Downregulation of GRP78 and XIAP is correlated with apoptosis during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats via regulation of caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Rong; Yan, Hui; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Our aim in the present study was to investigate the potential roles of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in the regulation of apoptosis during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (CAP). A rat CAP model was induced by injection of cerulein (50 µg/kg), and the severity of CAP was estimated by measuring serum amylase and lipase, pancreatic edema and histological changes. Pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expression of GRP78, XIAP and the apoptotic genes caspase-3, -7 and -9 were determined by real‑time quantitative PCR and western blotting. After induction with cerulein, increased serum amylase and lipase, pancreatic edema, inflammation and apoptosis were observed in CAP rats. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and XIAP were significantly downregulated in CAP rats, while the mRNA levels of caspase-3, -7 and -9, as well as the cell apoptotic index were markedly increased when compared with control rats (P<0.05). The expression of GRP78 and XIAP was negatively correlated with caspase expression in CAP (P<0.05). This study suggests that the downregulation of GRP78 and XIAP were correlated with apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells, and that this may occur through the regulation of caspase activation during CAP.

  18. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  19. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  20. AKT1, LKB1, and YAP1 revealed as MYC interactors with NanoLuc-based protein-fragment complementation assay. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The c-Myc (MYC) transcription factor is a major cancer driver and a well-validated therapeutic target. However, directly targeting MYC has been challenging. Thus, identifying proteins that interact with and regulate MYC may provide alternative strategies to inhibit its oncogenic activity. Here we report the development of a NanoLuc®-based protein-fragment complementation assay (NanoPCA) and mapping of the MYC protein interaction hub in live mammalian cells.

  1. Fibulin-3 negatively regulates ALDH1 via c-MET suppression and increases γ-radiation-induced sensitivity in some pancreatic cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Ha; Kim, Seo-Yoen; Kim, Jeong-Yul; Cho, Eun-Wie

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • FBLN-3 gene was poorly expressed in some pancreatic cancer lines. • FBLN-3 promoter region was highly methylated in some pancreatic cancer cell lines. • FBLN-3 inhibited c-MET activation and expression and reduced cellular level of ALDH1. • FBLN-3/c-Met/ALDH1 axis modulates stemness and EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. - Abstract: Fibulin-3 (FBLN-3) has been postulated to be either a tumor suppressor or promoter depending on the cell type, and hypermethylation of the FBLN-3 promoter is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. We report that the promoter region of the FBLN-3 was significantly methylated (>95%) in some pancreatic cancer cell lines and thus FBLN-3 was poorly expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines such as AsPC-1 and MiaPaCa-2. FBLN-3 overexpression significantly down-regulated the cellular level of c-MET and inhibited hepatocyte growth factor-induced c-MET activation, which were closely associated with γ-radiation resistance of cancer cells. Moreover, we also showed that c-MET suppression or inactivation decreased the cellular level of ALDH1 isozymes (ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3), which serve as cancer stem cell markers, and subsequently induced inhibition of cell growth in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, forced overexpression of FBLN-3 sensitized cells to cytotoxic agents such as γ-radiation and strongly inhibited the stemness and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) property of pancreatic cancer cells. On the other hand, if FBLN3 was suppressed in FBLN-3-expressing BxPC3 cells, the results were opposite. This study provides the first demonstration that the FBLN-3/c-MET/ALDH1 axis in pancreatic cancer cells partially modulates stemness and EMT as well as sensitization of cells to the detrimental effects of γ-radiation.

  2. DUSP28 links regulation of Mucin 5B and Mucin 16 to migration and survival of AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwhoi; Lee, Jungsul; Yun, Jeong-Hun; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2016-09-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer has not improved despite considerable and continuous effort. Dual-specificity phosphatase 28 (DUSP28) is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancers and exerts critical effects. However, knowledge of its function in pancreatic cancers is extremely limited. Here, we demonstrate the peculiar role of DUSP28 in pancreatic cancers. Analysis using the Gene Expression Omnibus public microarray database indicated higher DUSP28, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in pancreatic cancers compared with normal pancreas tissues. DUSP28 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlated positively with those of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between DUSP28 and mucins in normal pancreas tissues. Decreased DUSP28 expression resulted in down-regulation of MUC5B and MUC16 at both the mRNA and protein levels; furthermore, transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for MUC5B and MUC16 inhibited the migration and survival of AsPC-1 cells. In addition, transfection of siRNA for MUC5B and MUC16 resulted in a significant decrease in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2 compared with transfection with scrambled-siRNA. These results collectively indicate unique links between DUSP28 and MUC5B/MUC16 and their roles in pancreatic cancer; moreover, they strongly support a rationale for targeting DUSP28 to inhibit development of malignant pancreatic cancer.

  3. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) in lipid rafts mediates hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer by regulating IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haojun; Fang, Winston; Liu, Minda; Fu, Deliang

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a remarkable predilection for hepatic metastasis. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) can mediate growth factor-induced cancer cell chemotaxis and distant metastasis by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Coincidentally, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) derived from the liver and cancer cells itself has been recognized as a critical inducer of hepatic metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying IGF-1-dependent hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer, in which C1QBP may be involved, remains unknown. In the study, we demonstrated a significant association between C1QBP expression and hepatic metastasis in patients with pancreatic cancer. IGF-1 induced the translocation of C1QBP from cytoplasm to lipid rafts and further drove the formation of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6)/C1QBP complex in pancreatic cancer cells. C1QBP interacting with CD44v6 in lipid rafts promoted phosphorylation of IGF-1R and thus activated downstream PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways which mediated metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, adhesion and energy metabolism. Furthermore, C1QBP knockdown suppressed hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice. We therefore conclude that C1QBP in lipid rafts serves a key regulator of IGF-1/IGF-1R-induced hepatic metastasis from pancreatic cancer. Our findings about C1QBP in lipid rafts provide a novel strategy to block IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in pancreatic cancer and a reliable premise for more efficient combined modality therapies. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  5. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion.

  6. Lysine-5 Acetylation Negatively Regulates Lactate Dehydrogenase A and Is Decreased in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Zou, Shao-Wu; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Xin; Mo, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Yan-Hui; Dong, Bo; Xiong, Yue; Lei, Qun-Ying; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Tumor cells commonly have increased glucose uptake and lactate accumulation. Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells and is important for cell growth. Elevated transcription by c-Myc or HIF1α may contribute to increased LDH-A in some cancer types. Here, we show that LDH-A is acetylated at lysine 5 (K5) and that this acetylation inhibits LDH-A activity. Furthermore, the K5-acetylated LDH-A is recognized by the HSC70 chaperone and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Replacement of endogenous LDH-A with an acetylation mimetic mutant decreases cell proliferation and migration. Importantly, K5 acetylation of LDH-A is reduced in human pancreatic cancers. Our study reveals a mechanism of LDH-A upregulation in pancreatic cancers. PMID:23523103

  7. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K; Gartner, Stephanie R; Field, Catherine J; Chan, Catherine B; Willing, Benjamin P

    2017-02-02

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation.

  8. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  9. Interaction of Nck1 and PERK phosphorylated at Y⁵⁶¹ negatively modulates PERK activity and PERK regulation of pancreatic β-cell proinsulin content.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Lama; Latreille, Mathieu; Larose, Louise

    2014-03-01

    PERK, the PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase, is an ER transmembrane serine/threonine protein kinase activated during ER stress. In this study, we provide evidence that the Src-homology domain-containing adaptor Nck1 negatively regulates PERK. We show that Nck directly binds to phosphorylated Y(561) in the PERK juxtamembrane domain through its SH2 domain. We demonstrate that mutation of Y(561) to a nonphosphorylatable residue (Y561F) promotes PERK activity, suggesting that PERK phosphorylation at Y(561) (pY(561)PERK) negatively regulates PERK. In agreement, we show that pY(561)PERK delays PERK activation and signaling during ER stress. Compatible with a role for PERK in pancreatic β-cells, we provide strong evidence that Nck1 contributes to PERK regulation of pancreatic β-cell proteostasis. In fact, we demonstrated that down-regulation of Nck1 in mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells results in faster dephosphorylation of pY(561)PERK, which correlates with enhanced PERK activation, increased insulin biosynthesis, and PERK-dependent increase in proinsulin content. Furthermore, we report that pancreatic islets in whole-body Nck1-knockout mice contain more insulin than control littermates. Together our data strongly suggest that Nck1 negatively regulates PERK by interacting with PERK and protecting PERK from being dephosphorylated at its inhibitory site pY(561) and in this way affects pancreatic β-cell proinsulin biogenesis.

  10. Raldh3 expression in diabetic islets reciprocally regulates secretion of insulin and glucagon from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Sachiko; Shinagawa, Akira

    2010-10-08

    We have previously reported that obesity-induced diabetes developed in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BDF1 mice. This is caused by insufficient insulin response to an excess glucose load. In this study, we have shown that the enhanced expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (Raldh3) causes functional disorders of pancreatic islets in diabetic mouse models. In the pancreatic islets of HFD-induced diabetic BDF1 mice and spontaneously diabetic C57BL/KsJ(db/db) mice, gene expression analysis with oligonucleotide microarray revealed a significant increase in Raldh3 expression. Exposure to a culture medium containing a higher glucose concentration (25 mM) significantly increased Raldh3 expression in murine MIN6 and alphaTC1 clone 9 cells, which derived from the α and β-cells of pancreatic islets, respectively. Overexpression of Raldh3 reduced the insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, and surprisingly, increased the glucagon secretion in alphaTC1 clone 9 cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of Raldh3 expression with siRNA decreased the glucagon secretion in alphaTC1 clone 9 cells. Raldh3 catalyzes the conversion of 13-cis retinal to 13-cis retinoic acid and we revealed that 13-cis retinoic acid significantly reduces cell viability in MIN6 and alphaTC1 clone 9 cells, but not in cells of H4IIEC3, 3T3-L1, and COS-1 cell lines. These findings suggest that an increasing expression of Raldh3 deregulates the balanced mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion in the pancreatic islets and may induce β-cell dysfunction leading to the development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of a combination of S-1 and gemcitabine on cell cycle regulation in pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yoshihito; Takeuchi, Osamu; Takizawa, Asako; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Asanuma, Fumiki; Suzuki, Yukio; Atsuda, Koichiro; Yamada, Yoshinori

    2012-06-01

    In a previous study, we showed that a combination of an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent (S-1) and gemcitabine (GEM) had synergistic effects on cell growth and cell cycle arrest in the pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. Therefore, we conducted further mechanistic studies using the pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and SUIT-2. The combined effect of S-1 and GEM in SUIT-2 cells was evaluated using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effects of S-1, GEM and S-1 plus GEM on cell cycle regulation were assessed using flow cytometry. We also examined the expression of several cell cycle regulatory proteins in both MIA PaCa-2 and SUIT-2 cells by western blotting. Classical isobolographic analysis of the MTT assay results showed that the combination of S-1 and GEM had a synergistic effect in SUIT-2 cells, and flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle showed that the combination of S-1 plus GEM induced S-phase arrest to a greater degree than did either S-1 or GEM alone. Also, the combination of S-1 and GEM resulted in the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and upregulation of cyclin A, p21 and p27 expression levels. Treatment of MIA PaCa-2 and SUIT-2 cells with a combination of both drugs also led to the increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1. Combined treatment with S-1 and GEM resulted in more prolonged S-phase arrest than with either treatment alone. This difference is shown to be potentially due to the higher levels of phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 1 in pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with the two agents.

  12. DOSAGE-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF PANCREATIC CANCER GROWTH AND ANGIOGENESIS BY HEDGEHOG SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Esha; Zhang, Yaqing; Holtz, Alexander M.; Kane, Kevin T.; Song, Jane Y.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pancreatic cancer, a hypovascular and highly desmoplastic cancer, is characterized by tumor expression of Hedgehog (HH) ligands which signal to fibroblasts in the surrounding stroma that in turn promote tumor survival and growth. However, the mechanisms and consequences of stromal HH pathway activation are not well understood. Here we show that the HH co-receptors GAS1, BOC, and CDON are expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts. Deletion of two co-receptors (Gas1 and Boc) in fibroblasts reduces HH-responsiveness. Strikingly, these fibroblasts promote greater tumor growth in vivo that correlates with increased tumor-associated vascularity. In contrast, deletion of all three co-receptors (Gas1, Boc and Cdon) results in the near complete abrogation of HH signaling and a corresponding failure to promote tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Collectively, these data identify a novel role for HH-dosage in pancreatic cancer promotion and may explain the clinical failure of HH pathway blockade as a therapeutic approach in pancreatic cancer. PMID:25310976

  13. Autophagy regulates pancreatic beta cell death in response to Pdx1 deficiency and nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kei; Hanson, Piia T; Tran, Hung; Ford, Eric L; Han, Zhiqiang; Johnson, James D; Schmidt, Robert E; Green, Karen G; Wice, Burton M; Polonsky, Kenneth S

    2009-10-02

    There are three types of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The possibility that activation of the macroautophagy (autophagy) pathway may increase beta cell death is addressed in this study. Increased autophagy was present in pancreatic islets from Pdx1(+/-) mice with reduced insulin secretion and beta cell mass. Pdx1 expression was reduced in mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells by delivering small hairpin RNAs using a lentiviral vector. The MIN6 cells died after 7 days of Pdx1 deficiency, and autophagy was evident prior to the onset of cell death. Inhibition of autophagy prolonged cell survival and delayed cell death. Nutrient deprivation increased autophagy in MIN6 cells and mouse and human islets after starvation. Autophagy inhibition partly prevented amino acid starvation-induced MIN6 cell death. The in vivo effects of reduced autophagy were studied by crossing Pdx1(+/-) mice to Becn1(+/-) mice. After 1 week on a high fat diet, 4-week-old Pdx1(+/-) Becn1(+/-) mice showed normal glucose tolerance, preserved beta cell function, and increased beta cell mass compared with Pdx1(+/-) mice. This protective effect of reduced autophagy had worn off after 7 weeks on a high fat diet. Increased autophagy contributes to pancreatic beta cell death in Pdx1 deficiency and following nutrient deprivation. The role of autophagy should be considered in studies of pancreatic beta cell death and diabetes and as a target for novel therapeutic intervention.

  14. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  15. TM4SF1 Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer via Regulating the Expression of DDR1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-chun; Zhang, Yi; He, Si-jia; Li, Ming-ming; Cai, Xiao-lei; Wang, Hui; Xu, Lei-ming; Cao, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1(TM4SF1), a four-transmembrane L6 family member, is highly expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and promotes cancer cells metastasis. However, the TM4SF1-associated signaling network in metastasis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that TM4SF1 affected the formation and function of invadopodia. Silencing of TM4SF1 reduced the expression of DDR1 significantly in PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Through double fluorescence immuno-staining and Co-immunoprecipitation, we also found that TM4SF1 colocalized with DDR1 and had an interaction with DDR1. In addition, upregulating the expression of DDR1 rescued the inhibitory effects of cell migration and invasion, the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and the formation and function of invadopodia when TM4SF1 silenced. In pancreatic cancer tissues, qRT-PCR and scatter plots analysis further determined that TM4SF1 had a correlation with DDR1. Collectively, our study provides a novel regulatory pathway involving TM4SF1, DDR1, MMP2 and MMP9, which promotes the formation and function of invadopodia to support cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer. PMID:28368050

  16. Lipocalin-2 Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Regulating Inflammation in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Chou, Sobeyda; Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Badi, Niharika; Chavez-Tomar, Myrriah; Lesinski, Gregory B; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Farren, Matthew R; Mace, Thomas A; Schmidt, Carl; Liu, Yan; Deng, Defeng; Hwang, Rosa F; Zhou, Liran; Moore, Todd T; Chatterjee, Deyali; Wang, Huamin; Leng, Xiaohong; Arlinghaus, Ralph B; Logsdon, Craig D; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida

    2017-03-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) promotes malignant development in many cancer types. LCN2 is upregulated in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in obese individuals, but whether it contributes to PDAC development is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Lcn2 depletion on diet-induced obesity, inflammation and PDAC development. Mice with acinar cell-specific expression of KrasG12D were crossed with Lcn2-depleted animals and fed isocaloric diets with varying amounts of fat content. Pancreas were collected and analyzed for inflammation, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC. We also used a syngeneic orthotopic PDAC mouse model to study tumor growth in the presence or absence of Lcn2 expression. In addition, to understand the mechanistic role of how LCN2 could be mediating PDAC, we studied LCN2 and its specific receptor solute carrier family 22 member 17 (SLC22A17) in human pancreatic cancer stellate cells (PSC), key mediators of the PDAC stroma. Depletion of Lcn2 diminished extracellular matrix deposition, immune cell infiltration, PanIN formation and tumor growth. Notably, it also increased survival in both obesity-driven and syngeneic orthotopic PDAC mouse models. LCN2 modulated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PSC of the PDAC tumor microenvironment, while downregulation of LCN2-specific receptor SLC22A17 blocked these effects. Our results reveal how LCN2 acts in the tumor microenvironment links obesity, inflammation and PDAC development.

  17. TM4SF1 Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer via Regulating the Expression of DDR1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Chun; Zhang, Yi; He, Si-Jia; Li, Ming-Ming; Cai, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Hui; Xu, Lei-Ming; Cao, Jia

    2017-04-03

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1(TM4SF1), a four-transmembrane L6 family member, is highly expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and promotes cancer cells metastasis. However, the TM4SF1-associated signaling network in metastasis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that TM4SF1 affected the formation and function of invadopodia. Silencing of TM4SF1 reduced the expression of DDR1 significantly in PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Through double fluorescence immuno-staining and Co-immunoprecipitation, we also found that TM4SF1 colocalized with DDR1 and had an interaction with DDR1. In addition, upregulating the expression of DDR1 rescued the inhibitory effects of cell migration and invasion, the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and the formation and function of invadopodia when TM4SF1 silenced. In pancreatic cancer tissues, qRT-PCR and scatter plots analysis further determined that TM4SF1 had a correlation with DDR1. Collectively, our study provides a novel regulatory pathway involving TM4SF1, DDR1, MMP2 and MMP9, which promotes the formation and function of invadopodia to support cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer.

  18. Effects of octane derivatives on activity of the volume-regulated anion channel in rat pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Best, Len; Brown, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) have a dual action on pancreatic β-cells, consisting of an initial enhancement and subsequent suppression of glucose-induced electrical activity and insulin release. These stimulatory and inhibitory effects have been attributed, at least in part, to the activation and inhibition, respectively, of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) by FFAs. Both effects were independent of their metabolism. We have now investigated the effects of related aliphatic compounds in order to further define the determinants of FFA interaction with VRAC. β-Cell VRAC and electrical activity were measured by conventional whole-cell and perforated patch recording, respectively. Cell volume was measured using a video-imaging technique. In common with octanoic acid, addition of methyl octanoate or n-octanol resulted in a rapid, pronounced and reversible inhibition of VRAC activity. Addition of n-octane had no significant effect on VRAC activity. n-Octanol had a biphasic effect on β-cell membrane potential, namely a small transient depolarization followed by a marked hyperpolarization. n-Octanol was also found to prevent regulatory volume decrease in cells exposed to a hypotonic medium, consistent with VRAC inhibition. It is suggested that methyl octanoate and n-octanol can mimic the effects of FFAs on the pancreatic β-cell via modulation of VRAC activity. The structural requirements for this effect appear to be a medium or long chain aliphatic compound containing at least one oxygen atom.

  19. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  20. Glucose Regulates Cyclin D2 Expression in Quiescent and Replicating Pancreatic β-Cells Through Glycolysis and Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Salpeter, Seth J.; Klochendler, Agnes; Weinberg-Corem, Noa; Porat, Shay; Granot, Zvi; Shapiro, A. M. James; Magnuson, Mark A.; Eden, Amir; Grimsby, Joseph; Glaser, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular triggers of pancreatic β-cell proliferation may facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for diabetes. Genetic studies have demonstrated an important role for cyclin D2 in β-cell proliferation and mass homeostasis, but its specific function in β-cell division and mechanism of regulation remain unclear. Here, we report that cyclin D2 is present at high levels in the nucleus of quiescent β-cells in vivo. The major regulator of cyclin D2 expression is glucose, acting via glycolysis and calcium channels in the β-cell to control cyclin D2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, cyclin D2 mRNA is down-regulated during S-G2-M phases of each β-cell division, via a mechanism that is also affected by glucose metabolism. Thus, glucose metabolism maintains high levels of nuclear cyclin D2 in quiescent β-cells and modulates the down-regulation of cyclin D2 in replicating β-cells. These data challenge the standard model for regulation of cyclin D2 during the cell division cycle and suggest cyclin D2 as a molecular link between glucose levels and β-cell replication. PMID:21521747

  1. Characterization of Zinc Influx Transporters (ZIPs) in Pancreatic β Cells: ROLES IN REGULATING CYTOSOLIC ZINC HOMEOSTASIS AND INSULIN SECRETION.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Ho, Louisa; Zhu, Dan; Prentice, Kacey J; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Zhang, Ming; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Hardy, Alexandre B; Taylor, Kathryn M; Gaisano, Herbert; Dai, Feihan F; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-07-24

    Zinc plays an essential role in the regulation of pancreatic β cell function, affecting important processes including insulin biosynthesis, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and cell viability. Mutations in the zinc efflux transport protein ZnT8 have been linked with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, further supporting an important role for zinc in glucose homeostasis. However, very little is known about how cytosolic zinc is controlled by zinc influx transporters (ZIPs). In this study, we examined the β cell and islet ZIP transcriptome and show consistent high expression of ZIP6 (Slc39a6) and ZIP7 (Slc39a7) genes across human and mouse islets and MIN6 β cells. Modulation of ZIP6 and ZIP7 expression significantly altered cytosolic zinc influx in pancreatic β cells, indicating an important role for ZIP6 and ZIP7 in regulating cellular zinc homeostasis. Functionally, this dysregulated cytosolic zinc homeostasis led to impaired insulin secretion. In parallel studies, we identified both ZIP6 and ZIP7 as potential interacting proteins with GLP-1R by a membrane yeast two-hybrid assay. Knock-down of ZIP6 but not ZIP7 in MIN6 β cells impaired the protective effects of GLP-1 on fatty acid-induced cell apoptosis, possibly via reduced activation of the p-ERK pathway. Therefore, our data suggest that ZIP6 and ZIP7 function as two important zinc influx transporters to regulate cytosolic zinc concentrations and insulin secretion in β cells. In particular, ZIP6 is also capable of directly interacting with GLP-1R to facilitate the protective effect of GLP-1 on β cell survival.

  2. ECM Composition and Rheology Regulate Growth, Motility, and Response to Photodynamic Therapy in 3D Models of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Gwendolyn M; Jones, Dustin P; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by prominent stromal involvement, which plays complex roles in regulating tumor growth and therapeutic response. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich stroma associated with this disease has been implicated as a barrier to drug penetration, although stromal depletion strategies have had mixed clinical success. It remains less clear how interactions with ECM, acting as a biophysical regulator of phenotype, not only a barrier to drug perfusion, regulate susceptibilities and resistance to specific therapies. In this context, an integrative approach is used to evaluate invasive behavior and motility in rheologically characterized ECM as determinants of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) responses. We show that in 3D cultures with ECM conditions that promote invasive progression, response to PDT is markedly enhanced in the most motile ECM-infiltrating populations, whereas the same cells exhibit chemoresistance. Conversely, drug-resistant sublines with enhanced invasive potential were generated to compare differential treatment response in identical ECM conditions, monitored by particle tracking microrheology measurements of matrix remodeling. In both scenarios, ECM-infiltrating cell populations exhibit increased sensitivity to PDT, whether invasion is consequent to selection of chemoresistance, or whether chemoresistance is correlated with acquisition of invasive behavior. However, while ECM-invading, chemoresistant cells exhibit mesenchymal phenotype, induction of EMT in monolayers without ECM was not sufficient to enhance PDT sensitivity, yet does impart chemoresistance as expected. In addition to containing platform development with broader applicability to inform microenvironment-dependent therapeutics, these results reveal the efficacy of PDT for targeting the most aggressive, chemoresistant, invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with dismal outcomes for this disease.

  3. [Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through down-regulation of miR-27a expression].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia; Fang, Binbin; Zeng, Fanpeng; Pang, Haijie; Ma, Cong; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the eff ect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) on the growth of pancreatic cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. The pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells were cultured in vitro. The effects of GSPE on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were analyzed by MTT, Annexin V-FITC/PI and Transwell migration assay, respectively. The expression of miR-27a and FOXO1 in AsPC-1 cells was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The miR-27a inhibitors were applied to verify the role of miR-27a in mediation of GSPE effects. GSPE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was significant when the dosage of GSPE was more than 50 μg/mL (P<0.05 vs control). GSPE also could induce apoptosis and inhibit cell migration. MiR-27a expression was notably down-regulated when the dosage of GSPE was 75 μg/mL (P<0.01 vs control). Compared with the control group, cell proliferation inhibition was significantly increased in the miR-27a inhibitor group, the GSPE group and the miR-27a inhibitor plus GSPE group (P<0.01), while cell migration was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the GSPE or the miR-27a inhibitor group, the growth and migration inhibitory effects in the miR-27a inhibitor plus GSPE group were more obviously (P<0.01). Both GSPE and miR-27a inhibitor alone could up-regulate FOXO1 expression. But these effects were more apparent when they are applied in combination. GSPE inhibites AsPC-1 cells' growth and migration partly through down-regulation of miR-27a expression.

  4. Mechanism and regulation of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) uptake by mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets: physiological and molecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is essential for the normal metabolic activities of pancreatic β-cells and provides protection against oxidative stress. Very little is known about the mechanism of RF uptake by these cells and how the process is regulated. We addressed these issues using mouse-derived pancreatic β-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Our results showed 3H-RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells is Na+ independent, cis inhibited by RF-related compounds, trans stimulated by unlabeled RF, and saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km of 0.17 ± 0.02 μM). The latter findings suggest involvement of a carrier-mediated process. Similarly, RF uptake by primary mouse and human pancreatic islets was via carrier-mediated process. RF transporters 1, 2, and 3 (RFVT-1, -3, and -2) were all expressed in mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets, with RFVT-1 being the predominant transporter expressed in the mouse and RFVT-3 in the human. Specific knockdown of RFVT-1 with gene-specific small interfering RNA leads to a significant inhibition in RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells. RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells was also found to be adaptively upregulated in RF deficiency via a transcriptional mechanism(s). Also, the process appears to be under the regulation of a Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathway. Results of these studies demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of a carrier-mediated process for RF uptake by mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets. Furthermore, the process appears to be regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors. PMID:22917629

  5. Mechanism and regulation of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) uptake by mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets: physiological and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Said, Hamid M

    2012-11-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is essential for the normal metabolic activities of pancreatic β-cells and provides protection against oxidative stress. Very little is known about the mechanism of RF uptake by these cells and how the process is regulated. We addressed these issues using mouse-derived pancreatic β-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Our results showed (3)H-RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells is Na(+) independent, cis inhibited by RF-related compounds, trans stimulated by unlabeled RF, and saturable as a function of concentration (apparent K(m) of 0.17 ± 0.02 μM). The latter findings suggest involvement of a carrier-mediated process. Similarly, RF uptake by primary mouse and human pancreatic islets was via carrier-mediated process. RF transporters 1, 2, and 3 (RFVT-1, -3, and -2) were all expressed in mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets, with RFVT-1 being the predominant transporter expressed in the mouse and RFVT-3 in the human. Specific knockdown of RFVT-1 with gene-specific small interfering RNA leads to a significant inhibition in RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells. RF uptake by β-TC-6 cells was also found to be adaptively upregulated in RF deficiency via a transcriptional mechanism(s). Also, the process appears to be under the regulation of a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathway. Results of these studies demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of a carrier-mediated process for RF uptake by mouse and human pancreatic β-cells/islets. Furthermore, the process appears to be regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors.

  6. The Role of Gut–brain Axis in Regulating Glucose Metabolism After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Asrani, Varsha M; Murphy, Rinki; Cutfield, Richard; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes has become an epidemic in developed and developing countries alike, with an increased demand for new efficacious treatments. A large body of pre-clinical evidence suggests that the gut–brain axis may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for defective glucose homeostasis. This clinical study aimed to investigate a comprehensive panel of glucoregulatory peptides, released by both the gut and brain, in individuals after acute pancreatitis. Methods: Fasting levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glicentin, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and secretin were studied. Modified Poisson and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. Pre-determined concentration ranges were used to categorize each peptide into quartiles. Results: A total of 83 individuals were included, of who 30 (36%) developed abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after acute pancreatitis. In individuals with AGM, the highest quartile of oxyntomodulin differed most significantly from the lowest quartile with a prevalence ratio (PR; 95% confidence interval) of 0.50 (0.21, 1.20; P=0.005); of glicentin with a PR of 0.26 (0.13, 0.54; P<0.001); and of VIP with a PR of 0.34 (0.13, 0.89; P=0.043). Peptide YY, GLP-1, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, and secretin were not significantly associated with AGM. Conclusions: Fasting circulating oxyntomodulin, glicentin, and VIP levels are significantly decreased in patients with defective glucose homeostasis after acute pancreatitis. Oxyntomodulin appears to be a promising therapeutic target for future clinical studies on diabetes associated with diseases of the exocrine pancreas. PMID:28055028

  7. PIWI-interacting RNAs as novel regulators of pancreatic beta cell function.

    PubMed

    Henaoui, Imène Sarah; Jacovetti, Cécile; Guerra Mollet, Inês; Guay, Claudiane; Sobel, Jonathan; Eliasson, Lena; Regazzi, Romano

    2017-07-16

    P-element induced Wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that interact with PIWI proteins and guide them to silence transposable elements. They are abundantly expressed in germline cells and play key roles in spermatogenesis. There is mounting evidence that piRNAs are also present in somatic cells, where they may accomplish additional regulatory tasks. The aim of this study was to identify the piRNAs expressed in pancreatic islets and to determine whether they are involved in the control of beta cell activities. piRNA profiling of rat pancreatic islets was performed by microarray analysis. The functions of piRNAs were investigated by silencing the two main Piwi genes or by modulating the level of selected piRNAs in islet cells. We detected about 18,000 piRNAs in rat pancreatic islets, many of which were differentially expressed throughout islet postnatal development. Moreover, we identified changes in the level of several piRNAs in the islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, a well-established animal model of type 2 diabetes. Silencing of Piwil2 or Piwil4 genes in adult rat islets caused a reduction in the level of several piRNAs and resulted in defective insulin secretion and increased resistance of the cells to cytokine-induced cell death. Furthermore, overexpression in the islets of control animals of two piRNAs that are upregulated in diabetic rats led to a selective defect in glucose-induced insulin release. Our results provide evidence for a role of PIWI proteins and their associated piRNAs in the control of beta cell functions, and suggest a possible involvement in the development of type 2 diabetes. Data have been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus repository under the accession number GSE93792. Data can be accessed via the following link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?token=ojklueugdzehpkv&acc=GSE93792.

  8. Genome-wide identification of palmitate-regulated immediate early genes and target genes in pancreatic beta-cells reveals a central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Seungwoo; Lee, Se-Hee; Lee, You Ri; Shin, Jiyon; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-06-01

    Free fatty acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We conducted gene expression microarray analysis to comprehensively investigate the transcription machinery of palmitate-regulated genes in pancreatic β-cells in vitro. In particular, mouse pancreatic βTC3 cells were treated with palmitate in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX), which blocks protein synthesis and thereby allows us to distinguish immediate early genes (IEGs) from their target genes. The microarray experiments identified 34 palmitate-regulated IEGs and 74 palmitate-regulated target genes. In silico promoter analysis revealed that transcription factor binding sites for NF-κB were over-represented, regulating approximately one-third of the palmitate-regulated target genes. In cells treated with CHX, nfkb1 showed an up-regulation by palmitate, suggesting that NF-κB could be an IEG. Functional enrichment analysis of 27 palmitate-regulated genes with NF-κB binding sites showed an over-representation of genes involved in immune response, inflammatory response, defense response, taxis, regulation of cell proliferation, and regulation of cell death pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that palmitate stimulates NF-κB activity both in the presence and absence of CHX. In conclusion, by identifying IEGs and target genes, the present study depicted a comprehensive view of transcription machinery underlying palmitate-induced inflammation and cell proliferation/death in pancreatic β-cells and our data demonstrated the central role of NF-κB.

  9. Homotypic cell cannibalism, a cell-death process regulated by the nuclear protein 1, opposes to metastasis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Carla E; Sandí, María José; Hamidi, Tewfik; Calvo, Ezequiel L; Turrini, Olivier; Bartholin, Laurent; Loncle, Céline; Secq, Véronique; Garcia, Stéphane; Lomberk, Gwen; Kroemer, Guido; Urrutia, Raul; Iovanna, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely deadly disease for which all treatments available have failed to improve life expectancy significantly. This may be explained by the high metastatic potential of PDAC cells, which results from their dedifferentiation towards a mesenchymal phenotype. Some PDAC present cell-in-cell structures whose origin and significance are currently unknown. We show here that cell-in-cells form after homotypic cell cannibalism (HoCC). We found PDAC patients whose tumours display HoCC develop less metastasis than those without. In vitro, HoCC was promoted by inactivation of the nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1), and was enhanced by treatment with transforming growth factor β. HoCC ends with death of PDAC cells, consistent with a metastasis suppressor role for this phenomenon. Hence, our data indicates a protective role for HoCC in PDAC and identifies Nupr1 as a molecular regulator of this process. PMID:22821859

  10. Homotypic cell cannibalism, a cell-death process regulated by the nuclear protein 1, opposes to metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Cano, Carla E; Sandí, María José; Hamidi, Tewfik; Calvo, Ezequiel L; Turrini, Olivier; Bartholin, Laurent; Loncle, Céline; Secq, Véronique; Garcia, Stéphane; Lomberk, Gwen; Kroemer, Guido; Urrutia, Raul; Iovanna, Juan L

    2012-09-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely deadly disease for which all treatments available have failed to improve life expectancy significantly. This may be explained by the high metastatic potential of PDAC cells, which results from their dedifferentiation towards a mesenchymal phenotype. Some PDAC present cell-in-cell structures whose origin and significance are currently unknown. We show here that cell-in-cells form after homotypic cell cannibalism (HoCC). We found PDAC patients whose tumours display HoCC develop less metastasis than those without. In vitro, HoCC was promoted by inactivation of the nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1), and was enhanced by treatment with transforming growth factor β. HoCC ends with death of PDAC cells, consistent with a metastasis suppressor role for this phenomenon. Hence, our data indicates a protective role for HoCC in PDAC and identifies Nupr1 as a molecular regulator of this process. Copyright © 2012 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

  11. Pancreatic pseudocyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Acute pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic abscess Shock Review Date 10/27/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  12. Pancreatic Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggering pancreatitis, you may need to have your gallbladder removed. If your pancreatitis is due to alcohol ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatic-cysts/basics/definition/CON-20024331 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  14. Hypoglycemia Reduces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Production by Pancreatic Beta Cells as a Regulator of Beta Cell Mass*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Guo, Ping; Chen, Zean; El-Gohary, Yousef; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.

    2013-01-01

    VEGF-A expression in beta cells is critical for pancreatic development, formation of islet-specific vasculature, and Insulin secretion. However, two key questions remain. First, is VEGF-A release from beta cells coupled to VEGF-A production in beta cells? Second, how is the VEGF-A response by beta cells affected by metabolic signals? Here, we show that VEGF-A secretion, but not gene transcription, in either cultured islets or purified pancreatic beta cells, was significantly reduced early on during low glucose conditions. In vivo, a sustained hypoglycemia in mice was induced with Insulin pellets, resulting in a significant reduction in beta cell mass. This loss of beta cell mass could be significantly rescued with continuous delivery of exogenous VEGF-A, which had no effect on beta cell mass in normoglycemic mice. In addition, an increase in apoptotic endothelial cells during hypoglycemia preceded an increase in apoptotic beta cells. Both endothelial and beta cell apoptosis were prevented by exogenous VEGF-A, suggesting a possible causative relationship between reduced VEGF-A and the loss of islet vasculature and beta cells. Furthermore, in none of these experimental groups did beta cell proliferation and islet vessel density change, suggesting a tightly regulated balance between these two cellular compartments. The average islet size decreased in hypoglycemia, which was also prevented by exogenous VEGF-A. Taken together, our data suggest that VEGF-A release in beta cells is independent of VEGF-A synthesis. Beta cell mass can be regulated through modulated release of VEGF-A from beta cells based on physiological need. PMID:23378532

  15. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Pancreatic Cancer About Pancreatic Cancer What’s New in Pancreatic Cancer Research? Research into the causes , ... KRAS oncogene, which affects regulation of cell growth. New diagnostic tests are often able to recognize this ...

  16. Regulation mechanisms of the hedgehog pathway in pancreatic cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Honselmann, Kim Christin; Pross, Moritz; Jung, Carlo Maria Felix; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Deichmann, Steffen; Keck, Tobias; Bausch, Dirk

    2015-01-31

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer. Its 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. This poor prognosis is mostly due to the cancer's early invasion and metastasis formation, leading to an initial diagnosis at an advanced incurable stage in the majority of patients. The only potentially curative treatment is radical surgical resection. The effect of current chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy is limited. Novel therapeutic strategies are therefore much needed. One of the hallmarks of PDAC is its abundant desmoplastic (stromal) reaction. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is critical for embryologic development of the pancreas. Aberrant Hh signaling promotes pancreatic carcinogenesis, the maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and stromal growth. The canonical Hh-pathway in the tumor stroma has been targeted widely but has not yet lead to hopeful clinical results. Targeting both the tumor and its surrounding stroma through Hh pathway inhibition by also targeting non-canonical pathways as apparent in the tumor cell may therefore be a novel treatment strategy for PDAC.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  18. Discovery of novel glucose-regulated proteins in isolated human pancreatic islets using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Fontes, Ghislaine; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Anderson, David J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Poitout, Vincent; Metz, Thomas O.

    2012-07-06

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically throughout the world, and the disease has become a major public health issue. The most common form of the disease, type 2 diabetes, is due in part to insufficient insulin production from the pancreatic beta-cell. Since glucose is the most potent and physiologically important regulators of beta-cell function under physiological conditions, understanding the insulin secretory defect underlying type 2 diabetes requires a better understanding of glucose regulation of beta-cell function. To this aim, a bottom-up LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach was used to profile pooled islets from multiple donors under basal (5 mM) or high (15 mM) glucose conditions. Our analysis discovered 256 differentially abundant proteins ({approx}p < 0.05) after 24 h of high glucose exposure from more than 4500 identified in total. Several novel glucose-regulated proteins were elevated under high glucose conditions, including regulators of mRNA splicing (Pleiotropic regulator 1), processing (Retinoblastoma binding protein 6), and function (Nuclear RNA export factor 1), in addition to Neuron navigator 1 and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Proteins whose abundances markedly decreased during incubation at 15 mM glucose included Bax inhibitor 1 and Synaptotagmin-17. Many proteins found to be differentially abundant after high glucose stimulation were uncharacterized or hypothetical. These findings expand our knowledge of glucose regulation of the human islet proteome and suggest many hitherto unknown responses to glucose that require additional studies to explore novel functional roles.

  19. IRF5 regulates lung macrophages M2 polarization during severe acute pancreatitis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; He, Song-Bing; Qu, Jian-Guo; Dang, Sheng-Chun; Chen, Ji-Xiang; Gong, Ai-Hua; Xie, Rong; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in reversing polarization of lung macrophages during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in vitro. METHODS A mouse SAP model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of 20 μg/kg body weight caerulein. Pathological changes in the lung were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Lung macrophages were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The quantity and purity of lung macrophages were detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). They were treated with IL-4/IRF5 specific siRNA (IRF5 siRNA) to reverse their polarization and were evaluated by detecting markers expression of M1/M2 using RT-PCR. RESULTS SAP associated acute lung injury (ALI) was induced successfully by ip injections of caerulein, which was confirmed by histopathology. Lung macrophages expressed high levels of IRF5 as M1 phenotype during the early acute pancreatitis stages. Reduction of IRF5 expression by IRF5 siRNA reversed the action of macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype in vitro. The expressions of M1 markers, including IRF5 (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.013 ± 0.01 vs 0.054 ± 0.047, P < 0.01), TNF-α (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.0003 ± 0.0002 vs 0.019 ± 0.018, P < 0.001), iNOS (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.0003 ± 0.0002 vs 0.026 ± 0.018, P < 0.001) and IL-12 (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.000005 ± 0.00004 vs 0.024 ± 0.016, P < 0.001), were decreased. In contrast, the expressions of M2 markers, including IL-10 (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.060 ± 0.055 vs 0.0230 ± 0.018, P < 0.01) and Arg-1 (S + IRF5 siRNA vs S + PBS, 0.910 ± 0.788 vs 0.0036 ± 0.0025, P < 0.001), were increased. IRF5 siRNA could reverse the lung macrophage polarization more effectively than IL-4. CONCLUSION Treatment with IRF5 siRNA can reverse the pancreatitis-induced activation of lung macrophages from M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype in SAP associated with ALI. PMID:27895424

  20. Serotonin regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Kim, Hail; Yoshida, Masashi; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Kyota; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Okamura, Tadashi; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Fujitani, Yoshio; Akagawa, Kimio; Kakei, Masafumi; Watada, Hirotaka; German, Michael S; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2013-11-26

    In preparation for the metabolic demands of pregnancy, β cells in the maternal pancreatic islets increase both in number and in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) per cell. Mechanisms have been proposed for the increased β cell mass, but not for the increased GSIS. Because serotonin production increases dramatically during pregnancy, we tested whether flux through the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3) affects GSIS during pregnancy. Pregnant Htr3a(-/-) mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance despite normally increased β cell mass, and their islets lacked the increase in GSIS seen in islets from pregnant wild-type mice. Electrophysiological studies showed that activation of Htr3 decreased the resting membrane potential in β cells, which increased Ca(2+) uptake and insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. Thus, our data indicate that serotonin, acting in a paracrine/autocrine manner through Htr3, lowers the β cell threshold for glucose and plays an essential role in the increased GSIS of pregnancy.

  1. Iron Regulation of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Functions and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Backe, Marie Balslev; Moen, Ingrid Wahl; Ellervik, Christina; Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-07-17

    Dietary advice is the cornerstone in first-line treatment of metabolic diseases. Nutritional interventions directed at these clinical conditions mainly aim to (a) improve insulin resistance by reducing energy-dense macronutrient intake to obtain weight loss and (b) reduce fluctuations in insulin secretion through avoidance of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates. However, even in the majority of motivated patients selected for clinical trials, massive efforts using this approach have failed to achieve lasting efficacy. Less attention has been given to the role of micronutrients in metabolic diseases. Here, we review the evidence that highlights (a) the importance of iron in pancreatic beta-cell function and dysfunction in diabetes and (b) the integrative pathophysiological effects of tissue iron levels in the interactions among the beta cell, gut microbiome, hypothalamus, innate and adaptive immune systems, and insulin-sensitive tissues. We propose that clinical trials are warranted to clarify the impact of dietary or pharmacological iron reduction on the development of metabolic disorders.

  2. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, Matthew J; DiMagno, Eugene P

    2012-09-01

    We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2011. Smoking increases the risk of nongallstone acute pancreatitis and the progression of acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90 000 United States Pharmacopeia units of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared with endoscopic treatment in patients advanced chronic pancreatitis with a dilated main duct ± pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with chronic pancreatitis but approximately 30% of patients have significant side effects. Patients with nongallstone-related acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis of any cause should cease smoking. Results of this year's investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Dynamin-mediated Nephrin Phosphorylation Regulates Glucose-stimulated Insulin Release in Pancreatic Beta Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jongmin; Leibiger, Ingo; Moede, Tilo; Walter, Britta; Faul, Christian; Maiguel, Dony; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Guzman, Johanna; Berggren, Per-Olof; Mundel, Peter; Ricordi, Camillo; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Fornoni, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a role for Nephrin in glucose stimulated insulin release (GSIR). We now hypothesize that Nephrin phosphorylation is required for GSIR and that Dynamin influences Nephrin phosphorylation and function. MIN6-C3 Nephrin-deficient pancreatic beta cells and human islets were transfected with WT-Nephrin or with a mutant Nephrin in which the tyrosine residues responsible for SH2 domain binding were substituted with phenylalanine (3YF-Nephrin). GSIR and live images of Nephrin and vesicle trafficking were studied. Immunoprecipitation experiments and overexpression of WT-Dynamin or dominant negative Dynamin mutant (K44A-Dynamin) in WT-Nephrin, 3YF-Nephrin, or Nephrin siRNA-transfected cells were utilized to study Nephrin-Dynamin interaction. In contrast to WT-Nephrin or to single tyrosine mutants, 3YF-Nephrin did not positively affect GSIR and led to impaired cell-cell contacts and vesicle trafficking. K44A-Dynamin prevented the effect of Nephrin on GSIR in the absence of protein-protein interaction between Nephrin and Dynamin. Nephrin gene silencing abolished the positive effects of WT-Dynamin on GSIR. The effects of protamine sulfate and vanadate on Nephrin phosphorylation and GSIR were studied in MIN6 cells and human islets. WT-Nephrin phosphorylation after glucose occurred at Tyr-1176/1193 and resulted in improved GSIR. On the contrary, protamine sulfate-induced phosphorylation at Tyr-1176/1193/1217 was associated with Nephrin degradation and impaired GSIR. Vanadate, which prevented Nephrin dephosphorylation after glucose stimulation, improved GSIR in human islets and MIN6 cells. In conclusion, Dynamin-dependent Nephrin phosphorylation occurs in response to glucose and is necessary for Nephrin-mediated augmentation of GSIR. Pharmacological modulation of Nephrin phosphorylation may thus facilitate pancreatic beta cell function. PMID:22718751

  4. Transcription Factor Glis3, a Novel Critical Player in the Regulation of Pancreatic β-Cell Development and Insulin Gene Expression ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Soon; Kim, Yong-Sik; ZeRuth, Gary; Beak, Ju Youn; Gerrish, Kevin; Kilic, Gamze; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Jensen, Jan; Foley, Julie; Jetten, Anton M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report that the Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) is induced during the secondary transition of pancreatic development, a stage of cell lineage specification and extensive patterning, and that Glis3zf/zf mutant mice develop neonatal diabetes, evidenced by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. The Glis3zf/zf mutant mouse pancreas shows a dramatic loss of β and δ cells, contrasting a smaller relative loss of α, PP, and ɛ cells. In addition, Glis3zf/zf mutant mice develop ductal cysts, while no significant changes were observed in acini. Gene expression profiling and immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that the expression of pancreatic hormones and several transcription factors important in endocrine cell development, including Ngn3, MafA, and Pdx1, were significantly decreased in the developing pancreata of Glis3zf/zf mutant mice. The population of pancreatic progenitors appears not to be greatly affected in Glis3zf/zf mutant mice; however, the number of neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)-positive endocrine cell progenitors is significantly reduced. Our study indicates that Glis3 plays a key role in cell lineage specification, particularly in the development of mature pancreatic β cells. In addition, we provide evidence that Glis3 regulates insulin gene expression through two Glis-binding sites in its proximal promoter, indicating that Glis3 also regulates β-cell function. PMID:19805515

  5. Agonist activation of arachidonate-regulated Ca2+-selective (ARC) channels in murine parotid and pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Mignen, Olivier; Thompson, Jill L; Yule, David I; Shuttleworth, Trevor J

    2005-05-01

    ARC channels (arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)-selective channels) are a novel type of highly Ca(2+)-selective channel that are specifically activated by low concentrations of agonist-induced arachidonic acid. This activation occurs in the absence of any depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores (i.e. they are 'non-capacitative'). Previous studies in HEK293 cells have shown that these channels provide the predominant pathway for the entry of Ca(2+) seen at low agonist concentrations where oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals are typically produced. In contrast, activation of the more widely studied store-operated Ca(2+) channels (e.g. CRAC channels) is only seen at higher agonist concentrations where sustained 'plateau-type'[Ca(2+)](i) responses are observed. We have now demonstrated the presence of ARC channels in both parotid and pancreatic acinar cells and shown that, again, they are specifically activated by the low concentrations of appropriate agonists (carbachol in the parotid, and both carbachol and cholecystokinin in the pancreas) that are associated with oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells. Uncoupling the receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) with isotetrandrine reduces the activation of the ARC channels by carbachol and, correspondingly, markedly inhibits the [Ca(2+)](i) signals induced by low carbachol concentrations, whilst those signals seen at high agonist concentrations are essentially unaffected. Interestingly, in the pancreatic acinar cells, activation by cholecystokinin induces a current through the ARC channels that is only approximately 60% of that seen with carbachol. This is consistent with previous reports indicating that carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells are much more dependent on Ca(2+) entry than are the cholecystokinin-induced responses.

  6. Pancreatic Transdifferentiation and Glucose-Regulated Production of Human Insulin in the H4IIE Rat Liver Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhai; Tao, Chang; Swan, Margaret Anne; Joachim, Nichole; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; Nassif, Najah T.; O’Brien, Bronwyn A.; Simpson, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limitations of current treatment regimes, gene therapy is a promising strategy being explored to correct blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the current study, we used a retroviral vector to deliver either the human insulin gene alone, the rat NeuroD1 gene alone, or the human insulin gene and rat NeuroD1 genes together, to the rat liver cell line, H4IIE, to determine if storage of insulin and pancreatic transdifferentiation occurred. Stable clones were selected and expanded into cell lines: H4IIEins (insulin gene alone), H4IIE/ND (NeuroD1 gene alone), and H4IIEins/ND (insulin and NeuroD1 genes). The H4IIEins cells did not store insulin; however, H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells stored 65.5 ± 5.6 and 1475.4 ± 171.8 pmol/insulin/5 × 106 cells, respectively. Additionally, several β cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones were expressed in both H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells. Electron microscopy revealed insulin storage vesicles in the H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cell lines. Regulated secretion of insulin to glucose (0–20 mmol/L) was seen in the H4IIEins/ND cell line. The H4IIEins/ND cells were transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, resulting in normalization of blood glucose. This data shows that the expression of NeuroD1 and insulin in liver cells may be a useful strategy for inducing islet neogenesis and reversing diabetes. PMID:27070593

  7. Pancreatic Transdifferentiation and Glucose-Regulated Production of Human Insulin in the H4IIE Rat Liver Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Ren, Binhai; Tao, Chang; Swan, Margaret Anne; Joachim, Nichole; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; Nassif, Najah T; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2016-04-08

    Due to the limitations of current treatment regimes, gene therapy is a promising strategy being explored to correct blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the current study, we used a retroviral vector to deliver either the human insulin gene alone, the rat NeuroD1 gene alone, or the human insulin gene and rat NeuroD1 genes together, to the rat liver cell line, H4IIE, to determine if storage of insulin and pancreatic transdifferentiation occurred. Stable clones were selected and expanded into cell lines: H4IIEins (insulin gene alone), H4IIE/ND (NeuroD1 gene alone), and H4IIEins/ND (insulin and NeuroD1 genes). The H4IIEins cells did not store insulin; however, H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells stored 65.5 ± 5.6 and 1475.4 ± 171.8 pmol/insulin/5 × 10⁶ cells, respectively. Additionally, several β cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones were expressed in both H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells. Electron microscopy revealed insulin storage vesicles in the H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cell lines. Regulated secretion of insulin to glucose (0-20 mmol/L) was seen in the H4IIEins/ND cell line. The H4IIEins/ND cells were transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, resulting in normalization of blood glucose. This data shows that the expression of NeuroD1 and insulin in liver cells may be a useful strategy for inducing islet neogenesis and reversing diabetes.

  8. STAT5-glucocorticoid receptor interaction and MTF-1 regulate the expression of ZnT2 (Slc30a2) in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Lichten, Louis A.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Liuzzi, Juan P.; Wang, Fudi; Cousins, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in endogenous zinc loss by regulating excretion into the intestinal tract and hence influences the dietary zinc requirement. The present experiments show that the zinc transporter ZnT2 (Slc30a2) is localized to the zymogen granules and that dietary zinc restriction in mice decreased the zinc concentration of zymogen granules and ZnT2 expression. Excess zinc given orally increased ZnT2 expression and was associated with increased pancreatic zinc accumulation. Rat AR42J acinar cells when induced into a secretory phenotype, using the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (DEX), exhibited increased ZnT2 expression and labile zinc as measured with a fluorophore. DEX administrated to mice also induced ZnT2 expression that accompanied a reduction of the pancreatic zinc content. ZnT2 promoter analyses identified elements required for responsiveness to zinc and DEX. Zinc regulation was traced to a MRE located downstream from the ZnT2 transcription start site. Responsiveness to DEX is produced by two upstream STAT5 binding sites that require the g