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Sample records for lle laur maarika

  1. LLE Review

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  2. LLE review

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1991, contains articles on the analysis of argon-filled target experiments, and a theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport in laser filamentation in plasmas. In the Advanced Technology section there is an article on mechanisms that affect thin-film conductivity, and a report on the gain characteristics of the 20-cm SSA prototype amplifier to be used in the OMEGA Upgrade. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: argon radiation from argon-filled, polymer-shell targets is used as a core-temperature diagnostic and density diagnostic of the surrounding region in a regime where the argon line radiation is strongly absorbed. A theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport on laser filamentation in plasmas is developed. The resulting model is compared with experimental observations and the implications for ICF are discussed. A study of thermal conductivity in thin films seeks to identify mechanisms that result in degradation of thin-film conductivity. Identifying these mechanisms can lead to changes in the thin-film manufacture that will improve their resistance to laser damage.

  3. LLE review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. K.

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October to December 1989, contains an article discussing saturation effects and power-balance considerations in the design of high-power lasers and an article describing numerical modeling of the effects of power imbalances on target behavior. The advanced technology section reports on the development of a liquid crystal laser-beam apodizer and an experiment to study the high-intensity ionization of noble gases. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. The highlights of this issue are: The problem of achieving power balance in high-efficiency, multibeam lasers has been studied in terms of gain-saturation effects and the nonlinear nature of harmonic frequency conversion. It is shown that power imbalance can be minimized by balancing the gains and losses in equivalent amplification stages in each beamline. The effects of target implosion behavior of various power-imbalance sources in the OMEGA laser system have been studied using the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code ORCHID. The simulations show good agreement with an experiment in which a deliberate power imbalance was applied to the target drive. Laser-beam apodizers with large clear apertures have been fabricated using cholesteric liquid crystals.

  4. LLE review

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1989, contains an article discussing saturation effects and power-balance considerations in the design of high-power lasers and an article describing numerical modeling of the effects of power imbalances on target behavior. The advanced technology section reports on the development of a liquid crystal laser-beam apodizer and an experiment to study the high-intensity ionization of noble gases. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. The highlights of this issue are: The problem of achieving power balance in high-efficiency, multibeam lasers has been studied in terms of gain-saturation effects and the nonlinear nature of harmonic frequency conversion. It is shown that power imbalance can be minimized by balancing the gains and losses in equivalent amplification stages in each beamline. The effects of target implosion behavior of various power-imbalance sources in the OMEGA laser system have been studied using the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code ORCHID. The simulations show good agreement with an experiment in which a deliberate power imbalance was applied to the target drive. Laser-beam apodizers with large clear apertures have been fabricated using cholesteric liquid crystals. A soft-edge profile has been achieved by filling a cell with two separate liquid crystals with different selective-reflection bands, and allowing them to partially mix at the interface. A study of the ionization of noble gases in the tunneling regime using high- intensity, 1-ps pulses from the tabletop terawatt laser (T{sup 3}) has been carried out. The measured ion production is well predicted by a Coulomb barrier suppression ionization theory.

  5. LLE Review 101 (October-December 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Shmayda, W. T.

    2005-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October to December 2004, highlights the significance of shaped adiabats to inertial confinement fusion. Theory suggests that inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules compressed by shaped adiabats will exhibit improved hydrodynamic stability.

  6. LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D-{sup 3}He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F

  7. LLE Review 102 (January-March 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Shmayda, W.T., ed.

    2005-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January–March 2005, features the new “Saturn” target design concept for use in polar direct drive on National Ignition Facility (NIF) while the facility is in its initial, indirect-drive configuration.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1984). Volume 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.

    1984-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on upgrade of the GDL system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984.

  9. LLE Review 120 (July-September 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, D.H., editor

    2001-02-19

    This issue has the following articles: (1) The Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop; (2) The Effect of Condensates and Inner Coatings on the Performance of Vacuum Hohlraum Targets; (3) Zirconia-Coated-Carbonyl-Iron-Particle-Based Magnetorheological Fluid for Polishing Optical Glasses and Ceramics; (4) All-Fiber Optical Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Faraday Rotation in Highly Terbium Doped Fiber; (5) Femtosecond Optical Pump-Probe Characterization of High-Pressure-Grown Al{sub 0.86}Ga{sub 0.14}N Single Crystals; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

  10. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) review

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1990, contains articles in two main sections: the OMEGA Upgrade and Advanced Technology Developments. The first article in Section 1 describes the changes in the overall system design of the 60-beam OMEGA Upgrade since the release of the OMEGA Upgrade Preliminary Design Document in October 1989. It is followed by an article that presents results of an investigation into stimulated rotational Raman scattering as it relates to the propagation of high-fluence ultraviolet laser beams in the OMEGA Upgrade. The third article is a report on the energy-transport measurements made on the multisegmented amplifier (MSA), built as a prototype amplifier for the original OMEGA Upgrade system configuration. The final article in Section 1 describes the design of the 20-cm-clear-aperture, single-segmented amplifier (SSA), which will be the final amplifier in the current OMEGA Upgrade system configuration. Section 2 presents the results to date of an intensive in-house effort at LLE to develop the various optical coatings required for the OMEGA Upgrade.

  11. LLE Review 117 (October-December 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Bittle, W., editor

    2009-05-28

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2008, features 'Demonstration of the Shock-Timing Technique for Ignition Targets at the National Ignition Facility' by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, S. X. Hu, J. A. Marozas, T. C. Sangster, D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE), D. Munro, P. M. Celliers, D. G. Hicks, G. W. Collins, H. F. Robey, O. L. Landen (LLNL), and R. E. Olson (SNL). In this article (p. 1) the authors report on a technique to measure the velocity and timing of shock waves in a capsule contained within hohlraum targets. This technique is critical for optimizing the drive profiles for high-performance inertial-confinement-fusion capsules, which are compressed by multiple precisely timed shock waves. The shock-timing technique was demonstrated on OMEGA using surrogate hohlraum targets heated to 180 eV and fitted with a re-entrant cone and quartz window to facilitate velocity measurements using velocity interferometry. Cryogenic experiments using targets filled with liquid deuterium further demonstrated the entire timing technique in a hohlraum environment. Direct-drive cryogenic targets with multiple spherical shocks were also used to validate this technique, including convergence effects at relevant pressures (velocities) and sizes. These results provide confidence that shock velocity and timing can be measured in NIF ignition targets, thereby optimizing these critical parameters.

  12. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) review

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1990, contains articles in two main sections, Progress in Laser Fusion and Advanced Technology Developments. The first article presents the theoretical interpretation of the glass-ablator cryogenic-implosion experiments recently conducted on OMEGA. It is followed by an article describing the analysis of neutron time-of-flight data taken during DT and DD experiments; and a discussion of the improvements to laser diagnostics that now provide for precise control of the OMEGA laser is given. This paper contains a report on the development of transparent conductive coatings for KDP crystals, and a discussion of the study of the transient-surface Debye-Waller effect in materials irradiated with an ultrafast laser.

  13. LLE Review 116 (July-September 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Marozas, J.A., editor

    2010-03-12

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Optimizing Electron-Positron Pair Production on kJ-Class High-Intensity Lasers for the Purpose of Pair-Plasma Creation; (2) Neutron Yield Study of Direct-Drive, Low-Adiabat Cryogenic D2 Implosions on OMEGA; (3) Al 1s-2p Absorption Spectroscopy of Shock-Wave Heating and Compression in Laser-Driven Planar Foil; (4) A Measurable Lawson Criterion and Hydro-Equivalent Curves for Inertial Confinement Fusion; (5) Pulsed-THz Characterization of Hg-Based, High-Temperature Superconductors; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) FY08 Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

  14. LLE 2008 annual report, October 2007 - September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-31

    The research program at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) focuses on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research supporting the goal of achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This program includes the full use of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Within the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), LLE is the lead laboratory for the validation of the performance of cryogenic target implosions, essential to all forms of ICF ignition. LLE has taken responsibility for a number of critical elements within the Integrated Experimental Teams (IET’s) supporting the demonstration of indirect-drive ignition on the NIF and is the lead laboratory for the validation of the polardrive approach to ignition on the NIF. LLE is also developing, testing, and building a number of diagnostics to be deployed on the NIF for the NIC.

  15. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1985). Volume 25

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.

    1985-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review comprises reports on the performance of the active-mirror-boosted glass development laser (GDL) single-beam system; the implementation of multichannel, soft x-ray diagnostic instrumentation; computer simulation of recent OMEGA laser implosion experiments; materials and ultrafast technology developments in the LLE advanced technology program; and the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1985.

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1986). Volume 26

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.

    1986-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains reports on OMEGA and GDL laser activities; characterization of laser-generated x-ray sources for nuclear level excitation; the physics of parametric instabilities driven by two pump beams in laser-produced plasmas; developments in advanced technology areas at LLE, specifically ultra-high-speed opto-electronic devices and methods and the modeling of thin-film features in physical vapor deposition; and the National Laser Users Facility activities for January- March 1986.

  17. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of the lung of the newt, Triturus alpestris Laur.

    PubMed

    Goniakowska-Witalińska, L

    1980-01-01

    The lungs of Triturus alpestris Laur. were investigated with the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Dimensions of the cell bodies of pneumocytes and ciliated cells, as well as the thickness of the air-blood barrier, were determined. The lungs of the newt form two simple sacs without septa. A ciliated epithelium containing goblet cells lines the pulmonary vein and partially the pulmonary artery. The remainder of the lung surface is covered internally by respiratory epithelium consisting of one type of cell and only occasionally showing the presence of single ciliated cells. All cells, ciliated, goblet and pneumocytes, contain in their cytoplasm lamellar bodies. Multivesicular bodies and numerous vesicles of variable electron density also occur in the cytoplasm of pneumocytes. Atypical mitochondria can be found in all cell types of the lung. Fixation with addition of tannic acid reveals the surface lining film. Tubular myelin figures were not observed.

  18. LLE Review 98 (January-March 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, V.N.

    2004-08-10

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2004, features ''Performance of 1-THz-Bandwidth, 2-D Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion and Polarization Smoothing of High-Power, Solid-State Laser Beams'', by S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V.A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel (p. 49). Laser-beam smoothing achieved with 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA laser system is reported. These beam-smoothing techniques are directly applicable to direct-drive ignition target designs for the 192-beam, 1.8-MJ, 351-nm National Ignition Facility. Equivalent-target-plane images for constant-intensity laser pulses of varying duration were used to determine the smoothing. The properties of the phase plates, frequency modulators, and birefringent wedges were simulated and found to be in good agreement with the measurements.

  19. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1989). Volume 39

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1989-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1989, includes the second part of a two-part series dealing with the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. One article provides a general overview of the current upgrade system configuration and another article describes the target system. Future issues of the LLE Review will cover other aspects of the OMEGA Upgrade as the detailed system design develops. In addition, the advanced technology section of this issue contains an article discussing the interaction of a picosecond optical pulse with high temperature superconductors. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  20. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1986). Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, B.

    1986-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1986, contains reports on GDL and OMEGA laser activities; analysis of neutron diagnostic methods of compressed laser targets; modeling of non-local heat flow in laser-heated plasmas; and development~ in advanced technology areas at LLE: protective polymeric coatings for nonlinear optical materials, time-resolved observation of electron-phonon relaxation in copper, and non-contact electro-optic sampling of high-speed electrical wave forms with a gallium-arsenide injection laser. Finally, the National Laser Users Facility activities for this period are summarized.

  1. LLE Review 114 (January-March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuegel, J.D.

    2008-07-30

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2008, features 'Cryogenic Targets: Current Status and Future Development', by D. R. Harding, D. H. Edgell, M. D. Wittman, L. M. Elasky, S. J. Verbridge, A. J. Weaver, L. D. Lund, W. Seka, W. T. Shmayda, R. T. Janezic, M. J. Shoup III, M. Moore, R. Junquist, and A. V. Okishev. In this article (p. 57), the authors report on the status of layering cryogenic DT and D{sub 2} targets at LLE for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This critical effort achieves the important milestone of routinely providing cryogenic DT targets that meet the 1.0-{micro}m (rms) OMEGA ice-quality-surface specification. The best D{sub 2}-ice layers produced so far (rms roughness of 1.1 {micro}m) are approaching the quality typically achieved in DT targets. Efforts to improve the consistency of this process are reported along with investigations supporting the National Ignition Campaign studying issues relevant to indirect-drive and direct-drive cryogenic targets. Additional highlights of recent research presented in this issue include the following: (1) an improved laser speckle smoothing scheme that augments the current NIF 1-D SSD system by using multiple-FM modulators (MultiFM 1-D SSD) (p. 73). With a judicious choice of modulator frequencies, MultiFM 1-D SSD smoothes resonances produced at the higher spatial frequencies and can attain similar or even faster smoothing rates compared to the baseline NIF 2-D SSD system. DRACO simulations have shown that MultiFM 1-D SSD beam smoothing is sufficient for the direct-drive-ignition targets and pulse shapes analyzed thus far, and may even allow reducing the bandwidth enough to eliminate the need for dual-tripler frequency conversion on the NIF. (2) describes a time-gated, monoenergetic proton radiography that provides unique measurements of implosion dynamics of spherical targets in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (p. 81). Radiographs obtained at different implosion times

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1988). Volume 37

    SciTech Connect

    McKenty, P. W.

    1988-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1988, contains several articles devoted to our work in the understanding, identification, and correction of illumination non-uniformities on the OMEGA laser system. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  3. LLE 2004 annual report, October 2003-September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) conducted during the year, operation of the National Laser Users’ Facility (NLUF), a status report of the new OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser project, and programs concerning the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  4. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1989). Volume 40

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.

    1989-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1989, is concerned primarily with uniformity studies. The first article is a report on a series of target experiments with improved irradiation uniformity in which major increases in neutron yields were produced. The first of two articles on theoretical developments presents a new interpretation of burn through experiments, continuing a study reported in LLE Review 35. The second theoretical article suggests a change in distributed phase-plate design that can improve beam uniformity over that achieved with random pattern plates. The fourth and fifth articles report that uniformity in the deposition of DT layers in micro balloons at very low temperatures has been achieved by a temperature-gradient technique, and that aberration free interferograms are now being obtained in the target chamber. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  5. LLE 2007 Annual Report, October 2006 - September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-31

    The laser-fusion research program at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is focused on the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Campaign-10 inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition and experimental support technology, operation of facilities (OMEGA), and the construction of OMEGA EP -- a high energy petawatt laser system. While LLE is the lead laboratory for research into the direct-drive approach to ICF ignition, it also takes a lead role in certain indirect-drive tasks within the National Ignition Campaign. During this past year progress in the laser-fusion research program was made in three principal areas: OMEGA direct drive and indirect-drive experiments and targets; development of diagnostics for experiments on OMEGA, OMEGA EP, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF); and theoretical analysis and design efforts aimed at improving direct-drive-ignition capsule designs and advanced ignition concepts such as fast ignition and shock ignition.

  6. LLE review. Volume 65. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Boehly, T.R.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1995, contains a description of the generation and characterization of continuous, deep-surface-relief phase plates that are more efficient and versatile than previous designs. The LLE program plan has scheduled a number of enhancements to OMEGA`s performance and uniformity, the first of which is the implementation of these new distributed phase plates. Other articles in this volume include the discussion of an x-ray diagnostic method to measure shell-fuel mixing, the theoretical analysis of ablation-front stability, a description of a major subsystem in the OMEGA control system software, a study of the population inversions in intensely pumped Nd:YLF, and a description of a new ultrafast laser system and its uses.

  7. LLE 2010 Annual Report October 2009 - September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 2010 (FY10) concluded the third year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year including work on the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). It also reports on LLE's progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the NIC and high-energy density (HED) campaigns, the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF), and for other external users; and programs focusing on the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1988). Volume 34

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    1988-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1988, contains articles on the spectra of scattered laser radiation from laser-produced plasmas and on the bounce coating of ablation layers on fusion targets. The advanced technology section has reports on a novel technique for characterizing surface breakdown on semiconductor devices and on a versatile alexandrite regenerative amplifier. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report October - December 2011. Volume 129

    SciTech Connect

    Shvydky, Alex

    2011-12-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering October–December 2011, features “Crossed-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions” by I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, D. H. Edgell, D. T. Michel, D. H. Froula, R. S. Craxton, R. Follett, J. H. Kelly, T. Z. Kosc, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and C. Stoeckl (LLE); V. N. Goncharov and A. V. Maximov (LLE and Department of Mechanical Engineering, U. of Rochester); L. Divol and P. Michel (LLNL); and R. L. McCrory and D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE and Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, U. of Rochester). In this article (p. 1), direct-drive–implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] have shown discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicates the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10% to 20%. The authors attribute this degradation in laser coupling to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)— which is electromagnetically seeded—low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  10. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1988). Volume 35

    SciTech Connect

    Kremens, R.

    1988-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1988, contains an in-depth article on recent cryogenic target experiments on the OMEGA laser system; two articles on laser-plasma interactions; and an advanced technology article discussing laser damage in polymeric materials. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  11. LLE 1997. Annual report, October 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 1997 (FY97) concluded the fifth year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and is the final report for the first five years of the cooperative agreement. In September 1997, the cooperative agreement was renewed for an additional five years. We summarize our research during FY97, the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in LLE programs. A general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results are found on pp. 161-167. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters after three years of operation. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires precise drive uniformity, the control of hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion of the fusion target, and accurate target fabrication and characterization. The article summarizes a wide variety of experiments relating to direct-drive laser fusion, from high-yield implosion experiments to planar and spherical Rayleigh-Taylor experiments, laser-imprinting experiments, and laser-plasma interaction experiments. A detailed analysis of the equation of motion for an electron in a plane wave is presented beginning on p. 24. A guiding center model is postulated and compared to numerical simulation of the actual particle motion. The formula is also verified analytically using the method of multiple scales. Work continues on this formalism to study the effects of the pondermotive force on laser-plasma interactions. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse is found on pp. 92-100. The trajectory of a charged particle, determined analytically for various pulse shapes, is then used to determine the dephasing time of an accelerated particle.

  12. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1989). Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    McKenty, P. W.

    1989-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1989, contains the first part of a two-part series of articles dealing with the OMEGA Upgrade. The two articles in this issue discuss the theoretical and laser design work performed to characterize the basic requirements for the upgrade. In addition, the advanced technology section contains articles discussing a new computer code developed to model x-ray refraction in line-focus geometry and experiments involving the use of time-resolved spectroscopy to diagnose high density in argon implosions. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1987). Volume 31

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.

    1987-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1987, contains a summary of the recent high-density campaign on the OMEGA laser system; a report on the absorption and radiation of energy from spherically irradiated targets; and a computer model describing the source of hot spots in the OMEGA laser. The section on advanced technology has reports on a method for accurately measuring the phase of a high power laser and the development of an extremely bright and compact laser. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  14. LLE review quarterly report, July--September 1991. Volume 48

    SciTech Connect

    Jaanimagi, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, contains articles describing the results of imploding-target burnthrough experiments using smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), and a practical nonlocal model for electron transport in laser plasmas. The section on advanced technology includes a report on explosion fraction measurements of water-cooled xenon flashlamps, results on perfluorinated copolymer coatings for high-power laser applications, and a time-resolved study of surface disordering of Pb(110). A brief report reviewing the projects from the high school summer student program is also included. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  15. LLE Review quarterly report, April--June 1993. Volume 55

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1993, contains articles on spectral features from argon-filled target implosions on OMEGA, and on the theory of an implicit difference scheme for the Fokker-Planck equation. The advanced technology section includes reports on a novel polymer liquid-crystal wave plate and a new scheme for phase conversion of the OMEGA Upgrade beams that results in greater, smoother energy deposition on fusion targets. Finally, reports on the as-designed configuration of the OMEGA newly configured glass development laser system are summarized.

  16. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1992. Volume 51

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1992, contains articles on laser-plasma interaction experiments in long-scale-length plasmas and on the theory of a new form of the stimulated Brillouin scattering instabilitity. The advanced technology section includes reports on the optical response of superconducting films, the development of high-reflectance transport mirrors for the OMEGA Upgrade, and a new high-brightness mono-mode laser oscillator. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  17. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1990). Volume 45

    SciTech Connect

    Epperlein, E. M.

    1990-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1990, contains descriptions of a new phase-conversion technique designed to improve irradiation uniformity, a report on the interpretation of highdensity implosion experiments of argon-filled targets, and an article on the use of absorption spectroscopy to diagnose compressed target layers. The section on advanced technology has a report on the application of KTP crystals as electro-optic amplitude modulators, and describes the use of chirped-pulse technology to measure X(3) by nearly degenerate four-wave mixing. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  18. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1986). Volume 28

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, B.

    1986-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1986, contains reports on GDL and OMEGA laser activities; generation of timing fiducials on x-ray streak cameras on OMEGA; new theoretical results on the thermodynamic properties of high-density plasmas; experimental results and analysis of target implosions on OMEGA; calculation of thermal self-focusing with multiple laser beams; and test results of multiple x-ray diffraction in crystals. Two reports describe developments in advanced technology: subpicosecond signal propagation on superconducting transmission lines, and progress in two dimensional image processing capabilities. Finally, the National Laser Users Facility activities for this period are summarized.

  19. LLE 2009 annual report, October 2008-September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    none, none

    2010-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 2009 (FY2009) concluded the second year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year. It also reports on LLE’s progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the National Laser Users’ Facility (NLUF), and other external users; and programs focusingon the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  20. LLE review quarterly report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jaanimagi, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, contains articles describing the results of imploding-target burnthrough experiments using smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), and a practical nonlocal model for electron transport in laser plasmas. The section on advanced technology includes a report on explosion fraction measurements of water-cooled xenon flashlamps, results on perfluorinated copolymer coatings for high-power laser applications, and a time-resolved study of surface disordering of Pb(110). A brief report reviewing the projects from the high school summer student program is also included. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1987). Volume 33

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.

    1987-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1987, contains descriptions of the implementation of distributed phase plates for improved irradiation uniformity and the implementation of a cryogenic target capability on the OMEGA facility. The section on advanced technology has reports on the design and optimization of recombination x-ray lasers and a near-infrared dichroic dye for use in both active and passive liquid-crystal devices. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1985). Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Skupsky, S.

    1985-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the first 24-beam UV experiments on the OMEGA laser system, the use of absorption spectroscopy to diagnose high-density compressions, the development of a new target fabrication technique to coat mechanically unsupported laser-fusion targets with a parylene layer, the use of liquid crystals as laser-beam apodizers, the investigation of the process of melting using a subpicosecond probe, the development of a new picosecond oscilloscope, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for June-September 1985.

  3. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1984). Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    Iwan, L.

    1984-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the activities in the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities, some design changes to be implemented on the OMEGA laser, techniques for estimating UV target-irradiation uniformity, progress in fabricating polymer-shell targets, refined estimates of thermal electron transport in IR-irradiated targets, a program to develop a surgical instrument to excise arterial blockages with a laser, a new damage criterion for optical coatings, and NI-UF activities for July-September 1984.

  4. LLE review. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994, Volume 58

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1994-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period Jan - Mar 1994, contains articles on backlighting diagnostics; the effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; using PIC code simulations for analysis of ultrashort laser pulses interacting with solid targets; creating a new instrument for characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and a description of a large-aperture ring amplifier for laser-fusion drivers. Three of these articles - backlighting diagnostics; characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and large-aperture ring amplifier - are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, now under construction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  5. LLE Review. Quarterly report, January--March 1992: Volume 50

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  6. LLE review. Quarterly report, April 1997--June 1997. Volume 71

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1997, includes an article discussing the results from recent experiments performed on OMEGA. These experiments used a new beam-smoothing device-distributed polarization rotators-in concert with existing techniques to improve the on-target uniformity of each beam. The result of this improved radiation uniformity was a substantive reduction in imprinting-the nonuniformity caused by the laser. A novel way to study the time dependence of this imprinting is also presented in this article.

  7. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1994). Volume 59

    SciTech Connect

    Knauer, James P.

    1994-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of April-June 1994, contains articles on surface characterization by atomic force microscopy; electron acceleration with intense laser field; spatial intensity variations induced by nonlinear beam propagation; backlighting of implosion targets exhibiting mix; and the use of cosmic rays to monitor large, multielement detectors. Four of these articles - surface characterization; nonlinear beam propagation; backlighting of mixed targets; and monitoring of the MEDUSA detector array - are related to the OMEGA Upgrade, which is currently under construction.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1996). Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Skeldon, Mark D.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1996, contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  9. LLE review. Quarterly report, Volume 69, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1996, includes a review of 2-D SSD as implemented on the OMEGA laser system. A summary of the detailed mathematical formalism is shown, and the predicted level of uniformity achievable on OMEGA is given. The first experimental results on uniformity using narrow-band 2-D SSD are compared to theoretical calculations. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found, which gives confidence that broadband 2-D SSD with polarization wedges should achieve an rms nonuniformity in the 1%-2% level necessary for cryogenic implosion experiments.

  10. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January--March 1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laser-irradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planck modeling of electron transport at LLE is reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from short-pulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K{alpha} source is described. The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system laser system in low- density, laser-atom interactions and the novel gas target used.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 2001). Volume 88

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterman, Thomas H.

    2001-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2001, features an article by C. Stoeckl, V. Yu. Glebov, J. D. Zuegel, and D. D. Meyerhofer (p. 171) that describes a simple, low-cost, wide dynamic-range, neutron bang time (NBT) detector. This instrument complements the capabilities of the streak camera-based neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD), which is also installed on the OMEGA laser. The new NBT measures the neutron bang time of D2- and DT-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion capsules at neutron yields between 107 and 1011 with an absolute timing accuracy of better than100 ps. This level of accuracy allows the modeling of the implosions to be effectively guided using hydrocode calculations. Other articles in this volume include: Functional Damage Thresholds of Hafnia/Silica Coating Designs for the NIF Laser; High-Gain Direct-Drive Target Designs for the national Ignition Facility; Ultrafast Optoelectronic Interface for Digital Superconducting Electronics; Optimizing the Fabrication of Polyimide Shells; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY01 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facility News.

  12. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July - September 2004). Volume 100

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Ansgar W.

    2004-09-01

    The key article in this volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2004, addresses "Shock Propagation in Deuterium-Tritium-Saturated Foam" by T. J. B. Collins (LLE) and A. Poludnenko, A. Cunningham, and A. Frank (UR, Department of Physics and Astronomy) (p. 227). Testing the assumption of homogeneous mixing in fibrous foams saturated with cryogenic deuterium and tritium, shock passage in wetted-foam mixtures was simulated by the adaptive-mesh, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code AstroBEAR. For foam fibers of diameter ~1/10 µm and relevant foam densities, the mixing length behind the shock is found to be of the order of microns. Transverse motion dampens out sufficiently that, at the mixing region's edge farthest from the shock, Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions are obeyed to within a few percent and shock speeds are also within a few percent of their homogeneous values. In addition, questions of feedthrough and feedout are addressed, showing that the stability of the shock front, once it leaves the wetted-foam layer, minimizes the effect of feedthrough. As a result, simulations of whole-foam-pellet implosions may model the wetted foam as a homogeneous mixture.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 2001). Volume 87

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterman, Thomas H.

    2001-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April–June 2001, features ''A Self-Calibrating, Multichannel Streak Camera for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications'' by Dr. W. R. Donaldson, R. Boni, R. L. Keck, and P. A. Jaanimagi. This article (p. 109) describes the 60-beam streak camera system used on OMEGA and focuses on the hardware and software calibration techniques that maximize its utility. The system can diagnose each of the beams on every target shot and can measure beam energies with 8% accuracy and timing at 7 ps rms. Beam-to-beam power variations of less than 5% can be detected. Other articles in this volume are: Evolution of Shell Nonuniformities Near Peak Compression of a Spherical Implosion; Multibeam Stimulated Brillouin Scattering from Hot Solid-Target Plasmas; Hot-Electron Effect in Superconductors and Is Applications for Radiation Sensors; and, Scaling Law for Marginal Ignition.

  14. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2000). Volume 85

    SciTech Connect

    Sources, John M.

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2000, begins with an article by R. Betti, M. Umansky, V. Lobatchev, V. N. Goncharov, and R. L. McCrory, who report on the development of a model for the deceleration phase of an imploding inertial fusion capsule (p. 1). The model shows that the ablative flow off the inner shell surface plays a critical role in reducing the growth rate and suppressing short-wavelength modes in the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Other articles in this volume are: The Effect of Shock Heating on the Stability of Laser-Driven Targets; Spherical Cavity Expansion in Material with Densification; Design and Performance of a Selectable-Rate Streak-Camera Deflection Ramp Generator; Unique High-Bandwidth, UV Fiber Deliver System for OMEGA Diagnostics Applications; Fabrication and Properties of an Ultrafast NbN Hot-Electron Single-Photon detector; and, Preliminary Design of NIF 2-D SSD.

  15. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1999). Volume 81

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, P. B.

    1999-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October–December 1999, includes a report on the stability of direct-drive NIF capsules. V. N. Goncharov, R. Betti, J. A. Delettrez, P. W. McKenty, S. Skupsky, and R. P. J. Town examine the conditions under which direct-drive NIF capsules ignite. Their numerical study uses two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with a model that includes the various mechanisms that can influence target performance. Inner-surface roughness of the DT ice of the direct-drive cryogenic capsules and laser nonuniformities have been identified as the principal seeds of the instabilities that can potentially quench ignition. The authors conclude that a target gain greater than 10 can be achieved for a realistic inner-surface ice roughness when beam smoothing with 2-D SSD and a bandwidth greater than 0.5 THz is used.

  16. LLE Review quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 53

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period October--December 1992. On 18 December, the OMEGA Laser Facility fired its last shot. It will be decommissioned during the next quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser Facility. This volume deals with two areas of interest for the OMEGA Upgrade, the development of advanced x-ray and neutron diagnostics and the development of long-pulse (>1-ns) laser sources. The first three articles discuss the development of time-dependent diagnostics. The development of an x-ray framing camera is described and measurements of the high-voltage pulse propagation in the camera are presented. Time-resolved and time-integrated neutron diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade are then discussed. Two schemes for the generation of >1-ns laser pulses are presented. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  17. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1998). Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Reuben

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April–June 1998, includes a report on a recent series of experiments, performed by A. Babushkin, M. Guardalben, R. Keck, and W. Seka, that demonstrate a new scheme for converting the infrared light of OMEGA to the third harmonic in the ultraviolet over a bandwidth that is significantly wider than has been previously attainable. This innovative scheme, employing a second tripling crystal in addition to the doubler-tripler pair currently in use, was proposed by D. Eimerl at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and adapted to the OMEGA system by S. Craxton and S. Oskoui, a recent participant in LLE’s Summer High-School Research Program. Wider bandwidths on OMEGA will allow the use of broadband beam smoothing with faster smoothing times than have been employed until now.

  18. LLE review: Quarterly report, July--September 1995. Volume 64

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1995, includes a description of the first target experiments performed on the upgraded OMEGA laser system. These experiments, carried out to active and test several diagnostics systems, have demonstrated successful functioning of the overall experimental system and have produced high neutron yields and high core temperatures. Other articles in this volume describe the diagnosis of core conditions using krypton line spectroscopy, a mix model for LILAC that can be applied to study the deceleration instability at the pusher-core interface, a simulated-annealing algorithm for improved phase-plate design, a simple method for characterizing the thickness and uniformity of transparent laser-fusion targets, and femtosecond pump-probe experiments on semiconducting YBCO.

  19. LLE review. Volume 61, Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of October--December 1994, contains articles on a diagnostic method employing krypton spectroscopy for measurement of temperature and shell-fuel mixing in high-temperature implosions; the first direct assessment of the ion-acoustic decay instability in a large-scale length, hot plasma; measurements of polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity walkaway in birefringent media using a frequency domain interferometer; an evaluation of the magnetic flux dynamics occurring in an optically triggered, thin-film superconducting switch; the effect of slurry fluid chemistry on particle size distribution during aqueous polishing of optical glass; and the influence of thermal and mechanical processing history in the preparation of well-ordered liquid crystal elastomer systems.

  20. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 62

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of January-March 1995, contains articles on the evaluation of the mechanism for laser damage in OMEGA UV multilayer coatings using a combination of conventional laser-damage characterization methods and atomic force microscopy; a dual-amplitude, fiber-coupled waveguide integrated-optic modulation device for generating temporally shaped optical pulses in OMEGA-, a proposal for modifying the indirect-drive irradiation geometry of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to provide the additional flexibility for performing direct-drive experiments; direct measurements of terminal-level lifetime in several different Nd:YLF laser media; an overview of the materials science issues, basic mechanisms, and potential device applications for light-emitting porous silicon; and a study of the time-dependent reflection and surface temperatures for laser-irradiated dental hard tissue at two CO{sub 2} laser wavelengths.

  1. LLE Review. Volume 68, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of July-September 1996, includes a description of an important experiment carried out on OMEGA by researchers from LANL, LLNL, and LLE to demonstrate the feasibility of using OMEGA for indirect drive. Additional topics include tetrahedral hohlraums, the speckle properties of phase- converted laser beams, design criteria for SSD phase modulators, and the design of slab amplifiers. Highlights of the research presented in this issue are (1) Results from the proof-of-principle indirect- drive experiments in which up to 40 OMEGA beams were used to irradiate cylindrical hohlraums. Nova results were reproduced, and new capabilities not available on other lasers were demonstrated. (2) A discussion of tetrahedral hohlraums (spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes) as a means of achieving better capsule irradiation uniformity. Tetrahedral hohlraums also allow the use of all 60 OMEGA beams and may provide an alternate route to ignition on the NIF. (3) An analysis of the residual target irradiation nonuniformity due to the fine laser speckle remaining on the beam after being phase converted by the DPP`s. A model shows how a uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere reduces the speckle contribution to the effective time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity. (4) A discussion of the theory, design, manufacture, testing, and implementation of the microwave SSD phase modulators used on OMEGA for two-dimensional SSD. The modulators are capable of operating in the gigahertz frequency range. (5) A discussion of the design and performance of a large-aperture, high-gain Nd:glass zig-zag slab amplifier for materials testing. The design incorporates improvements from previous work in addition to improvements obtained from careful design choices guided by analytic calculations.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2001). Volume 86

    SciTech Connect

    Sources, John M.

    2001-03-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering January-March 2001, includes a report on the characterization of direct-drive implosion core conditions using time-resolved Ar K-shell spectroscopy. This work was carried out by a team that included S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, P. A. Jaanimagi, B. Yaakobi, V. A. Smalyuk, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, and W. Seka of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester; D. A. Haynes, Jr. of the Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin; and C. F. Hooper, Jr. of the Department of Physics, University of Florida. The experiments involved the implosion of polymer shells filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas driven with up to 24-kJ, 1-ns square laser pulses smoothed with 1-THz, 2-D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS). The emissivity-averaged core electron temperature and density were inferred from the measured time-dependent Ar K-shell spectral line shapes. Electron densities in excess of 2.5 × 1024 cm-3 and electron temperatures ~2.5 keV were measured in these experiments. This represents the highest combination of electron temperature and density measured for these types of implosions in laser-driven inertial fusion experiments. Other articles in this volume are titled: Study of Direct-Drive, DT-Gas-Filled-Plastic-Capsule Implosions Using Nuclear Diagnostics on OMEGA; A Consistent Measurement-Based Picture of Core-Mix in Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA; High-Resolution Neutron Imaging of Laser-Imploded DT Targets; The Smoothing Performance of Ultrafast Pickets on the NIF; Tests of EXAFS on OMEGA: Feasibility for Shock Heating Measurements; and, Microhardness and Indention Fracture of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP).

  3. LLE review. Quarterly report, July 1997--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1997, begins with a general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters. Other highlights of the wide variety of research presented in this issue are: a promising method to directly observe the cold compressed shell of an imploding target. The shell is normally observed by backlighting. The proposal described here is to use a high-Z dopant that fluoresces under radiation from the hot core in the K{alpha} line. A study of the instabilities associated with near-forward stimulated Brillouin scattering. It includes a calculation of the saturation times and steady-state gain exponents. A successful program of pulse shaping for the OMEGA laser system. Examples of a variety of pulse shapes that can be programmed are presented. A description of the angular-scattering characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optical devices operating in transient and extended scattering modes. The possibility of applying these devices as modulators in practical IR imaging systems is evaluated. A faster method of shaping and finishing IR materials by the use of magnetorheological fluids. Detailed specifications and test results are included. An integrated circuit tester based on interferometric imaging. This technique holds promise of ultrafast noninvasive testing of the voltage states of sections of microchips. Continued success of the Laboratory`s High School Summer Research Program. The program, which started in 1989, has brought several dozen young people into intimate contact with modern science and technology. The volume concludes with a Laser Facility Report and the National Laser Users` Facility News.

  4. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1998). Volume 76

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Reuben

    1998-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1998, includes reports on two of the newest subsystems in the OMEGA laser facility. A. V. Okishev, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have developed a highly stable, diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser system. This new master oscillator produces either single-frequency Q-switched pulses or cw radiation for the OMEGA pulse-shaping system. The switch-over between these two regimes requires no laser realignment. The new master oscillator is completely computer controlled and has been operating continuously in OMEGA for six months without operator intervention. A. Babushkin, W. Bittle, S. A. Letzring, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have designed a negative-feedback–controlled regenerative amplifier that has been part of the OMEGA laser system for the past two years. The negative feedback makes the energy output of the regenerative amplifier stable and insensitive to the variations in pulse energy. This amplifier’s long-term output energy stability is the highest ever demonstrated for a millijoule-level laser system, either flashlamp pumped or diode pumped. Other articles in this volume are titled: Transcient Bandwidth Analysis of Photoconductive Microwave Switches Implemented in the OMEGA Pulse-Shaping System; Simulations of Near-Field Intensity Modulations in High-Intensity Laser Beams due to Self- and Cross-Phase Modulation Between Orthogonally Polarized Laser Beams Emerging from a Diamond-Turned KDP Wedge; X-Ray Radiographic System Used to Measure the Evolution of Broadband Imprint in Laser-Driven Planar Targets; Collisionless Damping of Localized Plasma Waves in Laser-Produces Plasmas and Application to Stimulated Raman Scattering in Filaments; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY98 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facilty News.

  5. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2000). Volume 82

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, P. B.

    2000-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 2000, includes a report on OMEGA cryogenic target designs for the soon-to-be-commissioned OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System. R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, and S. Skupsky use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with a stability analysis model to study the performance of OMEGA cryogenic capsules. They show that these targets are energy-scaled from the NIF ignition designs and have similar 1-D behavior and stability properties. This similarity will facilitate the extrapolation of cryogenic target studies on OMEGA to ignition targets on the NIF. Other articles in this volume are: Imprint Reduction using an Intensity Spike in Omega Cryogenic Targets; Measurement of Preheat Due to Fast Electrons in Laser Implosions; Holographic Transmission Gratings for Spectral Dispersion; Laser Beam Smoothing Caused by the Small-Spatial-Scale B-Integral; Three-Dimensional Modeling of Capsule Implosions in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums; and, Nanoindentation Hardness of Particles Used in Magnetoheological finishing (MRF).

  6. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2001). Volume 89

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, William R.

    2001-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2001, features “Time-Integrated Light Images of OMEGA Implosions” by P. Morley and W. Seka (p. 1). E. Kowaluk initiated this project for aesthetic rather than scientific reasons when he began taking visible light photographs of imploding OMEGA targets. These beautiful images are used to communicate LLE’s mission to the general public. A closer examination of the images revealed a one-to-one correspondence between the bright spots in the image and each of the 60 laser beams. The intensity of the bright spots has been related to refraction and absorption in the plasma surrounding the imploding target. These photographs are now proving to be the basis of a new laser-plasma interaction diagnostic. Other articles in this volume are titled the following: Analytical Model of Nonlinear, Single-Mode, Classical Rayleigh-Taylor Instability at Arbitrary Atwood Numbers; A High-Pass Phase Plate Design for OMEGA and the NIF; Advanced Tritium Recovery System; Establishing Links Between Single Gold Nanoparticles Buried Inside SiO2 Thin Film and 351-nm Pulsed-Laser-Damage Morphology; Resistive Switching Dynamics in Current-Biased Y-Ba-Cu-O Microbridges Excited by Nanosecond Electrical Pulses; and, Properties of Amorphous Carbon Films.

  7. LLE review. Quarterly report, October--December 1991: Volume 49

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1991, contains articles on the analysis of argon-filled target experiments, and a theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport in laser filamentation in plasmas. In the Advanced Technology section there is an article on mechanisms that affect thin-film conductivity, and a report on the gain characteristics of the 20-cm SSA prototype amplifier to be used in the OMEGA Upgrade. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: argon radiation from argon-filled, polymer-shell targets is used as a core-temperature diagnostic and density diagnostic of the surrounding region in a regime where the argon line radiation is strongly absorbed. A theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport on laser filamentation in plasmas is developed. The resulting model is compared with experimental observations and the implications for ICF are discussed. A study of thermal conductivity in thin films seeks to identify mechanisms that result in degradation of thin-film conductivity. Identifying these mechanisms can lead to changes in the thin-film manufacture that will improve their resistance to laser damage.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1999). Volume 78

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Sean P.

    1999-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1999, features two articles concerning issues relevant to 2-D SSD laser-beam smoothing on OMEGA. In the first article J. D. Zuegel and J. A. Marozas present the design of an efficient, bulk phase modulator operating at approximately 10.5 GHz, which can produce substantial phase-modulated bandwidth with modest microwave drive power. This modulator is the cornerstone of the 1-THz UV bandwidth operation planned for OMEGA this year. In the second article J. A. Marozas and J. H. Kelly describe a recently developed code -- Waasese -- that simulates the collective behavior of the optical components in the SSD driver line. The measurable signatures predicted by the code greatly enhance the diagnostic capability of the SSD driver line. Other articles in this volume are titled: Hollow-Shell Implosion Studies on the 60-Beam, UC OMEGA Laser System; Simultaneous Measurements of Fuel Areal Density, Shell Areal Density, and Fuel Temperature in D3He-Filled Imploding Capsules; The Design of Optical Pulse Shapes with an Aperture-Coupled-Stripline Pulse-Shaping System; Measurement Technique for Characterization of Rapidly Time- and Frequency-Varying Electronic Devices; and, Damage to Fused-Silica, Spatial-Filter Lenses on the OMEGA Laser System.

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2002). Volume 90

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, William R.

    2002-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2002, features “First Results from Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA” by C. Stoeckl et al. (p. 49). This article describes initial results from direct-drive spherical cryogenic target implosions on the 60-beam OMEGA laser system. These experiments are part of the scientific base leading to direct-drive ignition implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results shown include neutron yield, secondary-neutron and proton yields, the time of peak neutron emission, and both time-integrated and time-resolved x-ray images of the imploding core. The experimental values are compared with 1-D numerical simulations. The target with an ice-layer nonuniformity of srms = 9 mm showed 30% of the 1-D predicted neutron yield. These initial results are encouraging for future cryogenic implosions on OMEGA and the NIF. Other articles in this issue are titled the following: Equation-of-State Measurements of Porous Materials on OMEGA: Numerical Modeling; Observations of Modulated Shock Waves in Solid Targets Driven by Spatially Modulated Laser Beams; Time-Dependent Electron Thermal Flux Inhibition in direct-Drive Laser Implosions; Precision Spectral Sculpting of Broadband FM Pulses Amplified in a Narrowband Medium; Electric-Field-Induced Motion of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes in a Moderately Conductive Fluid; and, Femtosecond Response of a Freestanding LT-GaAs Photoconductive Switch.

  10. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1993). Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1993-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January-March1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laserirradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planckmodeling of electron transport at LLEis reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from shortpulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K, source is described.The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system in low-density, laseratom interactions and the novel gas target used.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October - December 2007). Volume 113

    SciTech Connect

    Zuegel, Jonathan D.

    2007-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October–December 2007, features “High-Intensity Laser–Plasma Interactions in the Refluxing Limit,” by P. M. Nilson, W. Theobald, J. Myatt, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, O. V. Gotchev, J. D. Zuegel, R. Betti, D. D. Meyerhofer, and T. C. Sangster. In this article (p. 1), the authors report on target experiments using the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) Laser Facility to study isochoric heating of solid-density targets by fast electrons produced from intense, short-pulse laser irradiation. Electron refluxing occurs due to target-sheath field effects and contains most of the fast electrons within the target volume. This efficiently heats the solid-density plasma through collisions. X-ray spectroscopic measurements of absolute Kα (x-radiation) photon yields and variations of the Kβ/Kα b emission ratio both indicate that laser energy couples to fast electrons with a conversion efficiency of approximately 20%. Bulk electron temperatures of at least 200 eV are inferred for the smallest mass targets.

  12. LLE 1995 annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 1995 (FY95) concluded the third year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and reports on the successful completion of the OMEGA Upgrade. Previous annual reports describe the OMEGA Upgrade design. The preliminary design for the system was complete in October 1989 and the detailed design started in October 1990. The original 24-beam OMEGA system was decommissioned in December 1992 as construction for the OMEGA Upgrade began. We discuss the initial performance results (p. 99) of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. All acceptance tests were completed, and we demonstrated that all 60 beams can irradiate a target with more energy and better beam balance than was required by DOE`s acceptance criteria. We are most proud that all program milestones were met or exceeded, and that the system was completed on time and on budget.

  13. LLE Review quarterly report, July--September 1992. Volume 52

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1992, contains articles on methods of balancing the beam power on the OMEGA Upgrade and on the damping of ion-sound waves in laser-produced plasmas. The advanced technology section includes reports on optical nonlinearities in high-temperature superconductors, a method of increasing gas retention time for laser-fusion targets, and a study of stimulated Raman scattering of laser beams in air. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: An efficient method has been developed for balancing the power in the 60 beams of the OMEGA Upgrade. The method can achieve 2% power balance for both main and foot beams using only four system shots. A study of ion-sound-wave damping has substantially revised and expanded our knowledge of this effect. The damping of ion waves can have important consequences for laser-plasma interaction. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to study the properties of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors is discussed. A method for increasing the gas retention time of polymer-shell laser-fusion targets by overcoating them with a thin layer of aluminum is described. A code has been developed to study stimulated rotational Raman scattering in high-power laser beams propagating through air.

  14. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1991). Volume 48

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-09-01

    This report was prepared as an account of work conducted by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the University of Rochester, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other agencies. Neither the above-named sponsors, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, mark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof or any other sponsor. Results reported in the LLE Review should not be taken as necessarily final results as they represent active research. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of any of the above sponsoring entities.

  15. Late language emergence in 24 month twins: Heritable and increased risk for LLE in twins

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the etiology of Late Language Emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. Method A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modelling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and grammar phenotypes, controlling for familiality. Heritability was estimated with DeFries-Fulker regression, and variance components models, to determine effects of heritability, shared-environment, and non-shared environment. Results Twins had lower average language scores than norms for singleborn children, with lower average performance for MZ than DZ twins, and lower for boys than girls, although gender and zygosity did not interact. Gender did not predict LLE. Significant heritability was detected for vocabulary (.26) and grammar phenotypes (.52/.43 for males/females) in the full sample, and in the sample selected for LLE (.42 and .44). LLE and the appearance of Word Combinations were also significantly heritable (.22-.23). Conclusion The findings revealed an increased likelihood of LLE in twin toddlers compared to singleborn children that is modulated by zygosity and gender differences. Heritability estimates are consistent with previous research for vocabulary and add further suggestion of heritable differences in early grammar acquisition. PMID:24167238

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report July-September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2000, begins with an article by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, O. Gotchev, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, S. P. Regan, Y. Srebro, W. Seka, D. Shvarts, S. Skupsky, and V.A. Smalyuk, who describe measurements of the effect of beam smoothing and pulse shape on imprinting. (Imprinting is defined as the imposition of pressure perturbations on the target by spatial variations in the laser intensity.) A principal result is the observation of reduced levels of imprint with the higher beam smoothing afforded by 1-THz smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Additional highlights of research presented in this issue are: (1) P. W. McKenty, V. N. Goncharov, R. P. J. Town, S. Skupsky, R. Betti, and R. L. McCrory describe calculations of directly driven ignition capsule performance on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The authors detail how the various contributors to implosion disruption (laser imprint, power imbalance, and target roughness) affect target performance and final gain. The conclusions are obtained by examining the simulated target evolution with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics computer code ORCHID. (2) D. D. Meyerhofer, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. Keck, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, S. P. Regan, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, C. Sorce, C. Stoeckl, J. M. Soures, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel, J. Frenje, C. K. L1,R. D. Petrasso, F. Seguin, K. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, R. Lerche, T. W. Phillips, and T. C. Sangster describe the results of a series of direct-drive implosions of gas-fusion-fuel-filled plastic shells performed on the OMEGA laser system. The experiments include those performed with 1-THZ SSD and high-quality power balance. (3) V. Yu. Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel describe the technique of measuring secondary neutron yield (DT neutron yield from D

  17. LLE review, Volume 77. Quarterly report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S.P.

    1998-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1998, includes two articles addressing issues applicable to direct-drive ICF on the National Ignition Facility (NIF): laser-plasma interactions and laser-irradiation uniformity. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) P.B. Radha and S. Skupsky present a novel charged-particle diagnostic that performs simultaneous {rho}R measurements of the fuel, shell, and ablator regions of a compressed ICF target, consisting of an inner DT fuel region, a plastic (CH) shell, and an ablator (CD), by measuring the knock-on deuteron spectrum. (2) F. Dahmani, S. Burns, J. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, and A. Schmid report results from stress-inhibited laser-driven crack propagation and stress-delayed damage-initiation experiments in fused silica at 351 nm. Research is underway presently to determine the ramifications of these findings for large-aperture systems, such as OMEGA. (3) V. Goncharov presents an analytic theory of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which shows that the main stabilizing mechanism of the ablation-front perturbations is the dynamic overpressure of the blowoff plasma with respect to the target material. The perturbation evolution during the shock transit time is studied to determine the initial conditions for the Rayleigh-Taylor phase of the instability and to analyze the level of laser imprint on ICF direct-drive targets. (4) J.M. Larkin, W.R. Donaldson, T.H. Foster, and R.S. Knox examine the triplet state of rose bengal, a dye used in photodynamic therapy, that is produced by 1,064-nm excitation of T{sub 1}. (5) R. Adam, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, O. Harnack, and M. Darula report measurements of the picosecond photoresponse of a current-biased YBCO microbridge coupled to a bicrystal YBCO Josephson junction.

  18. LLE Review quarterly report July--September 1993. Volume 56

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1993, contains articles on self-focusing of broad-bandwidth laser light with angular dispersion, laser patterning of thin-film circuits, and construction of foam-shell fusion targets. Reports on the detailed designs of major subsystems of the OMEGA Upgrade and on the continuing activation of the upgraded Glass Development Laser system are summarized. Descriptions of research proposals for NLUF are also included in this issue. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: Previous investigations of self-focusing behavior of broad-bandwidth laser light without angular dispersion showed only slight differences when compared to laser light with angular dispersion. A new, numerical investigation of self-focusing with applied angular dispersion shows the development of transverse amplitude modulation, which can act to enhance or impede instantaneous self-focusing. Averaging over one period of phase modulation with imposed bandwidth shows consistent smoothing of the beam, nearly replicating the original spatial profile, including smoothing of induced perturbations due to laser-system imperfections. A continuous-wave argon-ion laser beam is focused onto a Y-Ba-Cu-O thin-film circuit. The laser beam selectively heats the epitaxy, which enriches oxygen in irradiated regions alongside depleted regions. Oxygen enrichment results in the formation of superconducting regions, while oxygen depletion results in semiconducting regions. This maskless operation yields applications in microbridges,coplanar transmisson lines, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive switches. One technique to form thick fusion fuel layers is to use a low-density polymer or aerosol foam matrix to hold the liquid DT. This issue summarizes the results of a collaborative experiment conducted at the Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE) to fabricate foam-shell targets with plastic-layer overcoats.

  19. [Neurousurpation--the expropriation and suppression of Dölle's neurobiological pioneer work].

    PubMed

    Bertram, Wulf

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of a hitherto unpublished dissertational thesis in the archive of a publishing house has lead to a lost publication by Ernst August Dölle. In this manuscript, the author reports on the stimulation of a cerebral libido area in the dog, long before Olds and Milner published their work on the discovery of the rewarding area. The reasons for the suppression of this early publication by Dölle are investigated and are ascribed to an effort to use his neurobiologic research for secret mental manipulation experiments of the CIA at the beginning of the Cold War.

  20. [Neurousurpation--the expropriation and suppression of Dölle's neurobiological pioneer work].

    PubMed

    Bertram, Wulf

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of a hitherto unpublished dissertational thesis in the archive of a publishing house has lead to a lost publication by Ernst August Dölle. In this manuscript, the author reports on the stimulation of a cerebral libido area in the dog, long before Olds and Milner published their work on the discovery of the rewarding area. The reasons for the suppression of this early publication by Dölle are investigated and are ascribed to an effort to use his neurobiologic research for secret mental manipulation experiments of the CIA at the beginning of the Cold War. PMID:21823065

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report January - March 2012. Volume 130

    SciTech Connect

    Shvydky, Alex

    2012-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January–March 2012, features “OMEGA Polar-Drive Target Designs,” by P. B. Radha, J. A. Marozas, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, T. J. B. Collins, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, and S. Skupsky. This article (p. 57) describes low-adiabat, cryogenic-deuterium–tritium, and warm-plastic-shell polar-drive (PD)–implosion designs for the OMEGA laser. The designs are at two different on-target laser intensities, each at a different in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR). The first design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance closer to ignition-relevant intensities (7 X 1014 W/cm2 at the quarter-critical surface), where nonlocal heat conduction and laser–plasma interactions can play an important role, but at lower values of IFAR (~22). The second design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance at a lower intensity (3 X 1014 W/cm2) but at higher IFAR (~32), where the shell instability can play an important role. The higher IFAR designs are accessible on the existing OMEGA Laser System only at lower intensities. Implosions at ignition-relevant intensities can be obtained only by reducing target radius, although only at smaller values of IFAR. Polar-drive geometry requires repointing the laser beams to improve shell symmetry. The higher-intensity designs optimize target performance by repointing beams to a lesser extent and compensate for the reduced equatorial drive by increasing beam energies for the repointed beams and using custom beam profiles that improve equatorial illumination at the expense of irradiation at higher latitudes. These designs will be studied when new phase plates for the OMEGA Laser System, corresponding to the smaller target radii and custom beam profiles, are obtained. Implosion results from the combined set of high-intensity and high-IFAR implosions should yield valuable

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 2005). Volume 103

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2005, features the following articles. ''High-Density and High ρR Fuel Assembly for Fast-Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion'' by R. Betti and C. Zhou. In this article (p. 117), the authors optimize implosion parameters for fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion and design fast-ignition targets relevant to direct-drive inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is shown that a 750-kJ laser can assemble fuel with VI = 1.7 X 107 cm/s, a = 0.7, t = 400 g/cc, tR = 3 g/cm2, and a hot-spot volume of less than 10% of the compressed core. If fully ignited, this fuel assembly can produce energy gains of 150. In the second article (p. 122), C. Stoeckl, T. R. Boehly, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, J. Miller, V. A. Smalyuk, W. Theobald, B. Yaakobi, and T. C. Sangster, along with J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, and F. H. Séguin (MIT), S. P. Hatchett (LLNL), and R. B. Stephens (GA) describe recent OMEGA experiments that have studied the fuel assembly of gas-filled, cone-in-shell, fast-ignition targets. Using both fusion products and backlit images, an areal density of ~60-70 mg/cm2 was inferred for the dense core assembly. The results are promising for successful integrated fast-ignition experiments on the OMEGA EP facility, scheduled to be completed in 2007. Other articles are titled ''Planar Cryogenic Target Hangling Capability for the OMEGA Laser-Fusion Facility''; "Fourier-Space, Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Measurements of 3-D Laser-Imprinted Modulations in Planar Targets''; ''Technologies for Mitigating Tritum Releases to the Environment''; ''All-Solid-State, Diode-Pumped, Multiharmonic Laser System for Timing Fiducial''; and ''EXAFS Measurement of Iron bcc-to-hcp Phase Transformation in Nanosecond-Laser Shocks''.

  3. [Integrated health service research of the epiphenomenon (IVF-E)--paradigm shift or Dölle's wine in new skins?].

    PubMed

    Herzog, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The meaning of epiphenomenalism for psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy is analyzed. It may be concluded that Ernst-August Dölle was one of the first researchers to describe and to use the Alpha and Omega of epiphenomenalism.

  4. LLE Review Quarterly Report. Volume 79, April-June 1999 [Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    This volume of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) Review, covering the period April-June 1999, features a theoretical analysis of direct-drive target performance on National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this article R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, R. W. Short, and S. Skupsky detail ignition target designs developed at LLE specifically to achieve successful direct-drive ignition on the NIF facility. A baseline ''all-DT'' target design is described along with a two shock compression analysis, which includes discussion of the parameters leading to variability in shock timing. The modeling and analysis presented flow down to specification requirements for the laser and target parameters to ignite this baseline target design with the NIF laser.

  5. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) review: Quarterly report, January-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1988, contains articles on the spectra of scattered laser radiation from laser-produced plasmas and on the bounce coating of ablation layers on fusion targets. The advanced technology section has reports on a novel technique for characterizing surface breakdown on semiconductor devices and on a versatile alexandrite regenerative amplifier. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users. Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. 49 refs., 30 figs.

  6. Children's Literature as Tools of and for Activism: Reflections of JoLLE's inaugural Activist Literacies Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by her attendance at the inaugural JoLLE Activist Literacies conference, the author ruminates on the ways in which children's literature and activitist literacies are inextricably wed and manifested in myriad ways. References to a sampling of children's literature spanning genres and grade levels, websites, and affiliated articles provide…

  7. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  8. Recent advances in salt-assisted LLE for analyzing biological samples.

    PubMed

    Valente, Inês Maria; Rodrigues, José António

    2015-01-01

    Salt-assisted LLE (SALLE) has been attracting growing interest in bioanalysis. The technique is particularly advantageous due to its simple and fast experimental execution using conventional laboratory equipment. Besides, SALLE uses water-miscible organic solvents making the extracts readily compatible with various analytical separation and detection techniques. This article presents a brief overview of the extraction technique and its role in bioanalysis. Some of the most relevant achievements on SALLE application to biological samples are discussed - namely the study of the main extraction parameters, the combination with other extraction techniques and the instrumental analysis of the extracts. Developments on automation, miniaturization and microextraction for SALLE procedures are also discussed as a perspective for future applications even more attractive for the analysis of biological samples.

  9. LLE Quarterly Report (July-September 1999)[Library for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-07

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1999, features a theoretical analysis of a process that generates mass perturbations of an imploding target driven by modulated laser illumination. The process, referred to as laser imprint, impacts the integrity of the shell during direct-drive implosions, potentially quenching target performance. In this article V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, S. Skupsky, and R. P. J. Town present a model of the generation of mass perturbations and analyze the mass perturbation growth due to nonuniform ablation pressure. Stabilizing mechanisms of thermal conduction smoothing and mass ablation are shown to suppress the acceleration perturbation, and mass ablation is also shown to impact velocity perturbations. The model predicts that a direct-drive cryogenic NIF target will remain intact during the implosion when l-Thz SSD beam smoothing is used.

  10. Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

    2010-01-25

    The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

  11. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) Review: Quarterly report, January--March 1997. Volume 70

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review includes an article on the status of the optics on the OMEGA laser system after the first 18 months of operation. A vigorous program to monitor the performance of the optics has been followed since the inception of the OMEGA laser. The article presents results from these observations and defines the various types of possible damage. Many of the optics have not damaged, such as the frequency-conversion crystals, polarizers, calorimeters, and liquid crystal optics. The most significant damage has been sustained by the fused-silica spatial filter lenses. There has been no evidence of any propagation of damage downstream of damage optics. Other highlights of research presented here are: The development of a single-beam, ponderomotive optical trap for energetic free electrons. A description of the new diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser. Simulations of heat transfer from localized absorbing defects to the host coating material in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} 351-nm high reflectors. An experimental study of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped target implosions on OMEGA. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database from articles in this volume.

  12. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HoLLE) via flotation combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of fenitrothion in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction via flotation assistance (HoLLE-FA) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was presented for the extraction and determination of fenitrothion in water samples. In this work, a rapid, simple and efficient HoLLE-FA method was developed based on applying low-density organic solvents without employing centrifugation. A special extraction cell was designed to facilitate the collection of low-density solvent extraction in the determination of fenitrothion in water samples. The water sample solution was added into an extraction cell that contained an appropriate mixture of extraction and homogeneous solvents. By using air flotation, the organic solvent was collected at the conical part of the designed cell. Under the optimum conditions, the method performance was studied in terms of the linear dynamic range (LDR from 1.0 up to 100 μg L⁻¹), linearity (r² > 0.998), and precision (repeatability < 8.0%). Also, limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 μg L⁻¹ was obtained for fenitrothion. The applicability of the HoLLE-FA method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of fenitrothion in three different water samples.

  13. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HoLLE) via flotation combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of fenitrothion in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction via flotation assistance (HoLLE-FA) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was presented for the extraction and determination of fenitrothion in water samples. In this work, a rapid, simple and efficient HoLLE-FA method was developed based on applying low-density organic solvents without employing centrifugation. A special extraction cell was designed to facilitate the collection of low-density solvent extraction in the determination of fenitrothion in water samples. The water sample solution was added into an extraction cell that contained an appropriate mixture of extraction and homogeneous solvents. By using air flotation, the organic solvent was collected at the conical part of the designed cell. Under the optimum conditions, the method performance was studied in terms of the linear dynamic range (LDR from 1.0 up to 100 μg L⁻¹), linearity (r² > 0.998), and precision (repeatability < 8.0%). Also, limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 μg L⁻¹ was obtained for fenitrothion. The applicability of the HoLLE-FA method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of fenitrothion in three different water samples. PMID:23934566

  14. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure.

  15. LLE Review 121 (September-December 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.S., editor

    2010-04-14

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Demonstration of the Highest Deuterium-Tritium Areal Density Using Triple-Picket Cryogenic Designs on OMEGA; (2) High-Precision Measurements of the Equation of State of Hydrocarbons at 1 to 10 Mbar Using Laser-Driven Shock Waves; (3) A Generalized Measurable Ignition Condition for Inertial Confinement Fusion (4) In-Situ Detection and Analysis of Laser-Induced Damage on a 1.5-m Multilayer-Dielectric Grating Compressor for High-Energy, Petawatt-Class Laser Systems; (5) Probing High-Areal-Density ({rho}R) Cryogenic-DT Implosions Using Down-Scattered Neutron Spectra Measured by the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer; (6) Strong-Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions; and (7) Neutron-Induced Nucleation Inside Bubble Chambers Using Freon 115 as the Active Medium.

  16. LLE Review 119 (April-June 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, D.H., editor

    2009-10-22

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Shock-Ignition Experiments on OMEGA at NIF-Relevant Intensities; (2) Laser-Driven Magnetic-Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (3) Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot, Dense Plasmas; (4) Characterization and Optimization of Yb-Doped Photonic-Crystal Fiber Rod Amplifiers Using Spatially Resolved Spectral Interferometry; (5) Optical Differentiation and Multimillijoule {approx}150-ps Pulse Generation in a Regenerative Amplifier with a Temperature-Tuned Intracavity Volume Bragg Grating; (6) Slow Crack Growth During Radiatiave Cooling of LHG8 and BK7 Plates; and (7) Finite Element Simulation of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photoconductor.

  17. Unfälle mit Pkw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Heinz

    Der Verkehrsunfall ereignete sich innerorts auf einer Kreuzung mit rechts vor links Regelung. Es galt dort die allgemeine Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung auf 50 km/h. Zur Unfallzeit war es hell und trocken. Die Fahrbahn hatte eine Schwarzdecke.

  18. LLE Review 118 (January-March 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Bittle, W., editor

    2009-08-03

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Applied Plasma Spectroscopy: Laser-Fusion Experiments; (2) Relativistic Electron-Beam Transport Studies Using High-Resolution, Coherent Transition Radiation Imaging; (3) Pressure-Driven, Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Interchange Instabilities in Laser-Produced, High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (4) Extended Model for Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flake Reorientation and Relaxation; (5) Modeling the Effects of Microencapsulation on the Electro-Optic Behavior of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes; (6) Capillarity and Dielectrophoresis of Liquid Deuterium; and (7) A Stable Mid-IR, GaSb-Based Diode Laser Source for Cryogenic Target Layering at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  19. Unfälle mit Kleintransportern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Auf einer außerörtlichen Bundesstraße geriet ein mit vier Personen besetzter Pkw Toyota Corolla aus letztlich nicht vollständig geklärten Gründen ins Schleudern. Nachdem sich das Fahrzeug beträchtlich entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn ausgedreht hatte, prallte ein entgegenkommender Kleintransporter VW T4 frontal an die rechte Flanke des Toyota. Der Transporter wurde gedreht, ausgehoben und durch einen Pkw Ford Escort unterfahren. Alle Fahrzeuge kamen in Kollisionsortnähe zum Endstand. Die vier Toyota-Insassen wurden getötet. Aus den anderen Fahrzeugen wurden sechs Personen überwiegend schwer verletzt. Unbeteiligte Zeugen waren nicht vorhanden.

  20. Carbon solids in oxygen-deficient explosives (LA-UR-13-21151)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peery, Travis

    2013-06-01

    The phase behavior of excess carbon in oxygen-deficient explosives has a significant effect on detonation properties and product equations of state. Mixtures of fuel oil in ammonium nitrate (ANFO) above a stoichiometric ratio demonstrate that even small amounts of graphite, on the order of 5% by mole fraction, can substantially alter the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) state properties, a central ingredient in modeling the products equation of state. Similar effects can be seen for Composition B, which borders the carbon phase boundary between graphite and diamond. Nano-diamond formation adds complexity to the product modeling because of surface adsorption effects. I will discuss these carbon phase issues in our equation of state modeling of detonation products, including our statistical mechanics description of carbon clustering and surface chemistry to properly treat solid carbon formation. This work is supported by the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, under the NNSA.

  1. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1996. Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Skeldon, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    This volume contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  2. LLE 2005 annual report, October 2004-September 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-01-01

    Progress in laser fusion this past year falls into five broad categories: (1) direct-drive results from OMEGA; (2) progress in the development of the cryogenic target system and experiments with cryogenic targets; (3) results for polar direct drive (the application of nonspherically disposed laser beams for direct-drive spherically symmetrically driven systems), which is of great interest for the National Ignition Facility (NIF); (4) fast ignition, which uses short-pulse (<100-ps), high-intensity (~1015-W) laser beams to ignite a compressed thermonuclear fusion capsule; and (5) high-energy-density physics results that use inertial fusion facilities to produce matter in extreme states that are central to understanding and modeling nuclear weapons phenomena important to the National Stockpile Stewardship Program.

  3. LLE Review, Volume 57. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1993-12-31

    During this quarter, the visible fruits of long design labors on the OMEGA Upgrade began to appear. The target mirror structure was put in place, along with the target chamber itself. The laser bay structures were also installed, and the bay is now being prepared to receive optomechanical, control, and laser assemblies. Further details are in the OMEGA Upgrade Status Report in this issue. Theory and analysis of previous experiments continued during this reporting period. Articles contained herein describe an improved theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a novel proposal for characterizing plasma-density profiles by using grid image refractometry; a much-improved treatment of the damping of ion sound waves in a mixture of light and heavy ions; and, finally, a new interpretation of measurements of 3/2-harmonic radiation emitted from the long-scale-length plasmas created in earlier OMEGA experiments.

  4. LLE review, volume 73. Quarterly report, October 1997--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This progress report contains discussion on the following topics: A high-bandwidth electrical-waveform generator based on aperture-coupled striplines for OMEGA pulse-shaping applications; sweep deflection circuit development using computer-aided circuit design for the OMEGA multichannel streak camera; D-{sup 3}He protons as a diagnostic for target {rho}R; growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion; three-dimensional analysis of the power transfer between crossed laser beams; characterization of freestanding polymer films for application in 351-nm, high-peak-power laser systems; subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses; bound-abrasive polishers for optical glass; and color gamut of cholesteric liquid crystal films and flakes by standard colorimetry.

  5. LLE Review: Quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 60

    SciTech Connect

    Knauer, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    This volume contains articles on efficient generation of second-harmonic radiation from short-pulse lasers; calculation of the stabilization cutoff wave numbers for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a high-frequency silicon optical modulator; the angular dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering; and femtosecond dynamics of ladder polymers. Three of these articles--second-harmonic generation, Rayleigh-Taylor cutoff wave numbers, and angular dependence of Brillouin scattering--are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, currently under construction. A summary of the status of the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility and the NLUF News for FY94 are included in this volume.

  6. LLE 1994 annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulses with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.

  7. Lasnex Predictions for Z Opacity Experiments Using Tampers of Increased Mass (LA-UR-14-24932)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Heidi; Sherrill, Manolo; Fontes, Chris; Bailey, Jim; Rochau, Greg; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2014-10-01

    2-D Lasnex radiation hydrodynamics simulations have been performed for opacity experiments carried out at Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility. The Z facility has a demonstrated capability for obtaining opacity measurements for iron in the 800-1800 eV x-ray range by showing agreement with PRISMSPECT, MUTA, and OPAL opacity models within experimental error bars. These experiments have been successfully repeated on the upgraded Z machine, ZR. More recently, efforts have focused on achieving opacity measurements for various materials with increased electron density and temperature. Increased mass CH and Be tampers have recently been used to attempt to increase the sample electron density and temperature to 8 × 1022 e-/cm3 and 193 eV. The time-dependent sample conditions and hydrodynamics will be discussed for CH and Be tampers. Instantaneous and time integrated simulated transmission spectra for both tampers will be presented. Measurement of the spatially and temporally resolved x-ray spectrum is in progress for the new ZR, and could help constrain the simulations.

  8. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects LANL Release No: LA-UR-02-0072

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Stallings, E.; Barbour, K.

    2002-02-26

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. The previously conducted demonstrations supported characterization and ''front end'' aspects of the Los Alamos Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) project. The first demonstration was shown to save the DVRS project approximately $200,000 per year and characterization technologies have been estimated to save DVRS a month of DVRS operation per year. In FY01 demonstrations for decontamination technologies, communication systems, and waste data collection systems have provided additional savings equivalent to another $200K per year of operation. The Los Alamos Large Scale demonstration and Deployment Project continues to provide substantial cost savings to the DVRS process in this second round of demonstrations. DVRS cost savings of $400K per year can now be counted, with additional efficiency savings of up to 30% on many tasks.

  9. The Cryogenic Pressure Loader: a testbed for cryogenic ICF ignition targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebey, P. S.; Hoffer, J. K.; Nasise Nobile, J. E., Jr.; Nolen, R. L.; Sheliak, J. D.

    2000-10-01

    The Cryogenic Pressure Loader (CPL) has been developed to be a flexible testbed for developing cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion ignition targets. Target designs for use at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and the National Ignition Facility call for spherical layers of solid DT held below 20 K. The cryogenic solid layers are about 100 microns thick and are held in 1-2 mm diameter plastic shells. The inner DT surfaces must be smooth on a micron scale, and outer surface requirements prohibit the use of fill tubes, so the shells will be diffusion filled with DT. The CPL cryostat, housed within a tritium glovebox, is designed to fill plastic shells without fill tubes to 1000 atm DT and form cryogenic layers. The CPL shares elements with the Cryogenic Target Handling System at UR/LLE to allow advance testing of tritium issues. The CPL is able to test the beta-layering and thermal properties of a range of target and mount designs. The cryostat has been tested, system integration is being completed during summer 2000 and project status will be reported. This work is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number W7405-ENG36. LA-UR-00-3113.

  10. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-07-01

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste Generator Instructions (WGIs) have been used occasionally in the past at large sites for treatment and packaging of TRU waste. The WGIs have resulted in highly efficient waste treatment, packaging and certification for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. For example, a single WGI at LANL, combined with an increase in gram loading, resulted in a mind boggling 6,400% increase in waste loading for {sup 238}Pu heat source waste. In fact, the WGI combined with a new Contact Handled (CH) TRU Waste Content (TRUCON) Code provided a massive increase in shippable wattage per Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) over the previously used and more restrictive TRUCON Code that have been used previously for the heat source waste. In fact, the use of the WGI process at LANL's TA-55 facility reduced non-compliant drums for WIPP certification and disposal from a 13% failure rate down to a 0.5% failure rate and is expected to further reduce the failure rate to zero drums per year. The inherent value of the WGI is that it can be implemented in a site's current procedure issuance process and it provides documented proof of what actions were taken for each waste stream packaged. The WGI protocol provides a key floor-level operational component to achieve goal alignment between actual site operations, the WIPP TRU waste packaging instructions, and DOE O 435.1. (authors)

  11. Plasma osmolality, urine composition and tissue water content of the toad Bufo viridis Laur. in nature and under controlled laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Katz, U; Pagi, D; Hayat, S; Degani, G

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of plasma and urine were studied in toads (Bufo viridis) which were collected from three locations in Israel, and compared with toads which were kept under constant laboratory conditions for nearly 2 years. Plasma osmolality was rather constant (over 310 mOsm kg-1 H2O) during the whole year in the active toads. Urea was the most variable osmolyte in the plasma, and accounted for the higher osmolality in southern population. Urine osmolality fluctuated in a circannual fashion both in freshly captured and in the toads under constant laboratory conditions. Water content of the tissues was constant throughout the year, independent of the plasma osmolality. It is concluded that high plasma urea concentration and the excretory system (kidneys and the urinary bladder) are important in sustaining constant plasma osmolality in active toads. Both mechanisms change annually and form the basis for the high terrestriality of this species. PMID:2879673

  12. Modeling High Altitude EMP using a Non-Equilibrium Electron Swarm Model to Monitor Conduction Electron Evolution (LA-UR-15-26151)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, E. N.; Morris, H. E.; Nelson, E.; Ji, W.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events in the atmosphere are important physical phenomena that occur through both man-made and natural processes, such as lightning, and can be disruptive to surrounding electrical systems. Due to the disruptive nature of EMP, it is important to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation with computational models. In EMP, low-energy conduction electrons are produced from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. These conduction electrons continue to interact with the surrounding air and alter the EMP waveform. Many EMP simulation codes use an equilibrium ohmic model for computing the conduction current. The equilibrium model works well when the equilibration time is short compared to the rise time or duration of the EMP. However, at high altitude, the conduction electron equilibration time can be comparable to or longer than the rise time or duration of the EMP. This matters, for example, when calculating the EMP propagating upward toward a satellite. In these scenarios, the equilibrium ionization rate becomes very large for even a modest electric field. The ohmic model produces an unphysically large number of conduction electrons that prematurely and abruptly short the EMP in the simulation code. An electron swarm model, which simulates the time evolution of conduction electrons, can be used to overcome the limitations exhibited by the equilibrium ohmic model. We have developed and validated an electron swarm model in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure previously in Pusateri et al. (2015). This swarm model has been integrated into CHAP-LA, a state-of-the-art EMP code developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which previously calculated conduction current using an ohmic model. We demonstrate the EMP damping behavior caused by the ohmic model at high altitudes and show improvements on high altitude EMP modeling obtained by employing the swarm model.

  13. Effectiveness of Program Visualization: A Case Study with the ViLLE Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Teemu; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Kaila, Erkki; Salakoski, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    Program visualization is one of the various methods developed over the years to aid novices with their difficulties in learning to program. It consists of different graphical--often animated--and textual objects, visualizing the execution of programs. The aim of program visualization is to enhance students' understanding of different areas of…

  14. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  15. Report on the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) and Leadership in Library Education (LLE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. School of Library Science.

    A report on the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) and its successor, the Leadership in Library Education Institute (LLEI), reviews 1974-75 new and continuing activities and provides an assessment of program-activity patterns for the last three years. Activities reported include site visits to training institutes; special meetings of…

  16. MBAR Shock Measurements in Copper-Doped Beryllium Driven by ˜50-EV Methane-Filled Halfraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, T. E.; Armstrong, W.; Sorce, C.

    2005-10-01

    Copper-doped beryllium is being examined as a candidate ablator for National Ignition Facility capsules. 850-micron diameter, 30-60 micron thick, beryllium-copper wedges and steps were mounted on 800-micron diameter radiation exit holes of 1.6-mm diameter, 1.2-mm long, gold-wall, methane-filled halfraums. The halfraums were driven by three beams at the OMEGA laser (UR-LLE) to a steady radiation temperature Trad of ˜50-eV for up to 3.7 ns. An additional 10 beams, starting at 3.5 ns and ending ˜5.7 ns, are used to ramp the holhraums' Trad to ˜150 eV. VISAR measurements recorded shocks of approximately 1 Mbar. Measurements by a streaked optical pyrometer indicated that preheat was present for 30-40 micron thick samples within 1-ns of the start of the drive. We will present our data and analysis in comparison to as-shot simulations. *Work performed under U.S. DOE contract W-7405-ENG-36. LA-UR-05-5558

  17. Evaluation of Measurements of 238Pu, 239Pu and 240Pu in Urine at the Microbecquerel Level Using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Alpha Spectrometry at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of a Two Year Comparison Test (LA-UR-06-8055)

    SciTech Connect

    Bores, Norman; Schultz, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    The Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) provides natural-matrix urine quality-assurance/quality-control (QA/QC) samples to radiobioassay analysis laboratories. In 2003, a single laboratory (Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL, Los Alamos NM USA) requested a change in the test-samples provided previously by the ISP. The change was requested to evaluate measurement performance for analyses conducted using thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Radionuclides included {sup 239}Pu at two activity levels (75-150 {micro}Bq {sm_bullet} sample{sup -1} and 1200-1600 {micro}Bq {sm_bullet} sample{sup -1}) and {sup 238}Pu (3700-7400 {micro}Bq {sm_bullet} sample{sup -1}). In addition, {sup 240}Pu was added to the samples so that the {sup 239+240}Pu specific activity was 3700-7400 {micro}Bq {sm_bullet} sample{sup -1}. In this paper, the results of testing during the period May, 2003 through September, 2005 are presented and discussed.

  18. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.; Lu, H.C.; Guo, W.C.; Meng, H.; Zhang, T.B.; Zhang, X.J.; Lu, D.R.; Golka, K.; Shen, J.H.

    2006-12-15

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.

  19. Computing Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaya, Maria del Mar; Ibarra, Isabel; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Serrano, Maria Dolores; Marcilla, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    An exercise to compute LLE data is presented to illustrate the problems that can arise when the isoactivity equilibrium condition is used in the LLE calculations. A much more efficient condition is obtained when isoactivity is combined with the common tangent line criterion, avoiding false solutions that correspond with very low values of the…

  20. Light Lithophile Elements in Natural and Experimental Phases in Martian Basalts: Implications for the Degassing of Water from Martian Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Treiman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Lentz et al. argued that zoning trends in light lithophile elements (LLE) in pyroxene in Shergotty and Zagami are evidence for the degassing of magmatic water. We tested this inference by obtaining: additional LLE analyses of Shergotty and Zagami pyroxene; analyses of Pasamonte pyroxene; and silicate and phosphate partition coefficients for B and Li for martian magma and mineral compositions.

  1. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  2. Narrative Skill and Syntactic Complexity in School-Age Children with and without Late Language Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as "late talkers" or as demonstrating "late language emergence" (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had…

  3. The Relations between the Mental Condition of the Care House Residents and Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    We measured the fingertip pulse waves of some of the elderly living in a care house (a welfare facility for the elderly) four times a day over two days to investigate their mental condition. We analyzed the chaotic information produced by the finger pulse waves using a nonlinear analysis method. The results of our research are as follows: 1) The Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE), which synchronizes to mental revitalization, rose when the care house residents felt happy. 2) After moderate movement (a stroll, etc.), the LLE was high. 3) The LLE did not rise when a regular action was carried out non-vigorously to kill time. 4) When residents made contact (a phone call or letter, etc.) with a family member, the LLE was high. 5) The LLE of long-term residents was high. 6) The majority of residents with high LLE moved into the care house in their early seventies. 7) The LLE of short-term residents was low and their sympathetic nerves were high. 8) There was no relativity between the LLE and present age of the care house residents. On this basis, the authors propose that fuller support of care house residents is crucial for the objective ascertainment of their mental condition.

  4. REDUCING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF DATA: LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING OF SLOAN GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderplas, Jake; Connolly, Andrew

    2009-11-15

    We introduce locally linear embedding (LLE) to the astronomical community as a new classification technique, using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra as an example data set. LLE is a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique that has been studied in the context of computer perception. We compare the performance of LLE to well-known spectral classification techniques, e.g., principal component analysis and line-ratio diagnostics. We find that LLE combines the strengths of both methods in a single, coherent technique, and leads to improved classification of emission-line spectra at a relatively small computational cost. We also present a data subsampling technique that preserves local information content, and proves effective for creating small, efficient training samples from large, high-dimensional data sets. Software used in this LLE-based classification is made available.

  5. EOS Interpolation and Thermodynamic Consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, J. Tinka

    2015-11-16

    As discussed in LA-UR-08-05451, the current interpolator used by Grizzly, OpenSesame, EOSPAC, and similar routines is the rational function interpolator from Kerley. While the rational function interpolator is well-suited for interpolation on sparse grids with logarithmic spacing and it preserves monotonicity in 1-d, it has some known problems.

  6. EVALUATION OF OPTICALLY ACQUIRED ZOOPLANKTON SIZE-SPECTRUM DATA AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONDITION IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optical zooplankton counter (OPC) potentially provides as assessment tool for zooplankton condition in ecosystems that is rapid, economical, and spatially extensive. We collected zooplankton data with an optical zooplankton counter in 20 near-shore regions of four of the Laure...

  7. Advancing the Fundamental Understanding of Fission: 2014 LDRD 20120077DR Review

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.; Tovesson, Fredrik K.; Sierk, Arnold John

    2014-02-06

    The following slides were presented as part of the LDRD 20120077DR Progress Appraisal Review held Tuesday, February 4, 2014. This is part of an ongoing project assessment the previous of which was documented in LA-UR-13-21182. This presentation documents the progress made against the goals agreed to as part of the 2013 review.

  8. Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2012-07-11

    The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

  9. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Timothy James; Kubicek, Deborah Ann; Stroud, Phillip David; Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia; Mathis, Mark

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  10. GPS and Relative Sea-level Constraints on Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, T. S.; Simon, K.; Henton, J. A.; Craymer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, new GIA models have been developed for the Innuitian Ice Sheet and for the north-central portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (Simon, 2014; Simon et al., 2015). This new combined model, herein called Innu-Laur15, was developed from the ICE-5G model and load adjustments were made to improve the fit to relative sea-level observations and to GPS-constrained vertical crustal motion in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and around Hudson Bay. Here, the predictions of Innu-Laur15 are compared to observations and other GIA models over an extended region comprising much of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. GIA predictions are made using compressible Maxwell Earth models with gravitationally self-consistent ocean loading, changing coastlines, and ocean-water inundation where marine ice retreats or floats. For this study, GPS time series are the NA12 solution (Blewitt et al., 2013) downloaded from http://geodesy.unr.edu/NGLStationPages/GlobalStationList and fit with a linear trend, annual and semi-annual terms, and offsets as indicated by station logs and by inspection of the time series. For example, a comparison of GPS observations of vertical crustal motion from the NA12 solution at 360 sites gives root-mean-square (RMS) residuals of 3.2 mm/yr (null hypothesis), 1.8 mm/yr (Innu-Laur15), and 2.9 mm/yr (ICE-5G) for the VM5a Earth model. Preliminary comparisons with other Earth models give similar patterns where Innu-Laur15 provides a better fit than ICE-5G. Further adjustments to the Innu-Laur15 ice sheet history could improve the fit to GPS rates in other regions of North America.

  11. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Frøyland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure.

  12. Optimization of enrichment processes of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Liu, Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The method of enriching PCP(pentachlorophenol) from aquatic environment by solid phase extraction(SPE) was studied. Several factors affecting the recoveries of PCP, including sample pH, eluting solvent, eluting volume and flow rate of water sample, were optimized by orthogonal array design(OAD). The optimized results were sample pH 4; eluting solvent, 100% methanol; eluting solvent volume, 2 ml and flow rate of water sample, 4 ml/min. A comparison is made between SPE and liquid-liquid extraction(LLE) method. The recoveries of PCP were in the range of 87.6%-133.6% and 79%-120.3% for SPE and LLE, respectively. Important advantages of the SPE compared with the LLE include the short extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvents. SPE can replace LLE for isolating and concentrating PCP from water samples.

  13. Frontalkollisionsschutzsysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winner, Hermann

    Unfälle im Längsverkehr zählen zur größten Gruppe der Unfallarten und zur zweitgrößten der Unfälle mit Getöteten und Schwerverletzten. Daher besitzen Systeme zum Schutz gegen diese Unfallart ein sehr hohes Potenzial (s. Kap. 3). Auf welche Weise Gegenmaßnahmen abgeleitet werden, zeigt Bild 33-1.

  14. Excitation mechanism in a hollow cathode He-Kr ion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hazama, J.; Arai, T.; Goto, M.; Iijima, T.

    1995-12-31

    Pulsed laser operation in the afterglow of a positive column He-Kr discharge on the 469.4 nm (6s{sup 4}P{sub 5/2} {yields} 5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}) transition of Kr(II) was observed for the first time by Dana and Laure`s. It appears that the upper level of Kr(II) laser line is populated by the second kind collisions between He 2{sup 3}S metastable atoms and ground state Kr ions. CW oscillations on Kr(II) transitions have been obtained in a hollow cathode discharge. In this work, we have estimated the excitation mechanism for the upper state of 469.4 nm laser line from the measurements of the decay of endlight intensity in the hollow cathode He-Kr discharge.

  15. The foods of fur animals of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Uhler, F.M.

    1952-01-01

    Approximately 300 digestive tracts of fur animals obtained mostly during the winter trapping season and 560 scats from animals live-trapped on the Patuxent Research Refuge near Laure!, Maryland, were analyzed. The resulting data are summarized and a brief description of the area and important habitat types is given. The animals studied include the raccoon, red fox, gray fox, mink, New York weasel, skunk, opossum, and house cat.

  16. A novel brominated cuparene-derived sesquiterpene ether from the red alga Laurencia sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Sun, Wen-Shuang; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Wu, Jun

    2010-10-01

    A novel brominated cuparene-derived sesquiterpene ether, 8,10-dibromo-3,7-epoxy-laur-13-ol (1), was isolated from Laurencia sp. collected in South China Sea. Besides this, two known sesquiterpenes, (9β)-aristol-1(10)-en-9-ol (2) and aristolone (3), were also yielded, and aristolone (3) was obtained from Laurencia for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  17. 1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    2002-10-09

    oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that included parents, teachers, and members of LIX. Each

  18. Thiolene and SIFEL-based Microfluidic Platforms for Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sachit; Desai, Amit V.; Lewis, Robert W.; Ranganathan, David R.; Li, Hairong; Zeng, Dexing; Reichert, David E.; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several advantages for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes over conventional methods, for example with respect to lower consumption of solvents and enhanced extraction efficiencies due to the inherent shorter diffusional distances. Here, we report the development of polymer-based parallel-flow microfluidic platforms for LLE. To date, parallel-flow microfluidic platforms have predominantly been made out of silicon or glass due to their compatibility with most organic solvents used for LLE. Fabrication of silicon and glass-based LLE platforms typically requires extensive use of photolithography, plasma or laser-based etching, high temperature (anodic) bonding, and/or wet etching with KOH or HF solutions. In contrast, polymeric microfluidic platforms can be fabricated using less involved processes, typically photolithography in combination with replica molding, hot embossing, and/or bonding at much lower temperatures. Here we report the fabrication and testing of microfluidic LLE platforms comprised of thiolene or a perfluoropolyether-based material, SIFEL, where the choice of materials was mainly guided by the need for solvent compatibility and fabrication amenability. Suitable designs for polymer-based LLE platforms that maximize extraction efficiencies within the constraints of the fabrication methods and feasible operational conditions were obtained using analytical modeling. To optimize the performance of the polymer-based LLE platforms, we systematically studied the effect of surface functionalization and of microstructures on the stability of the liquid-liquid interface and on the ability to separate the phases. As demonstrative examples, we report (i) a thiolene-based platform to determine the lipophilicity of caffeine, and (ii) a SIFEL-based platform to extract radioactive copper from an acidic aqueous solution. PMID:25246730

  19. Thiolene and SIFEL-based Microfluidic Platforms for Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sachit; Desai, Amit V; Lewis, Robert W; Ranganathan, David R; Li, Hairong; Zeng, Dexing; Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J A

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several advantages for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes over conventional methods, for example with respect to lower consumption of solvents and enhanced extraction efficiencies due to the inherent shorter diffusional distances. Here, we report the development of polymer-based parallel-flow microfluidic platforms for LLE. To date, parallel-flow microfluidic platforms have predominantly been made out of silicon or glass due to their compatibility with most organic solvents used for LLE. Fabrication of silicon and glass-based LLE platforms typically requires extensive use of photolithography, plasma or laser-based etching, high temperature (anodic) bonding, and/or wet etching with KOH or HF solutions. In contrast, polymeric microfluidic platforms can be fabricated using less involved processes, typically photolithography in combination with replica molding, hot embossing, and/or bonding at much lower temperatures. Here we report the fabrication and testing of microfluidic LLE platforms comprised of thiolene or a perfluoropolyether-based material, SIFEL, where the choice of materials was mainly guided by the need for solvent compatibility and fabrication amenability. Suitable designs for polymer-based LLE platforms that maximize extraction efficiencies within the constraints of the fabrication methods and feasible operational conditions were obtained using analytical modeling. To optimize the performance of the polymer-based LLE platforms, we systematically studied the effect of surface functionalization and of microstructures on the stability of the liquid-liquid interface and on the ability to separate the phases. As demonstrative examples, we report (i) a thiolene-based platform to determine the lipophilicity of caffeine, and (ii) a SIFEL-based platform to extract radioactive copper from an acidic aqueous solution. PMID:25246730

  20. Thiolene and SIFEL-based Microfluidic Platforms for Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sachit; Desai, Amit V; Lewis, Robert W; Ranganathan, David R; Li, Hairong; Zeng, Dexing; Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J A

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several advantages for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes over conventional methods, for example with respect to lower consumption of solvents and enhanced extraction efficiencies due to the inherent shorter diffusional distances. Here, we report the development of polymer-based parallel-flow microfluidic platforms for LLE. To date, parallel-flow microfluidic platforms have predominantly been made out of silicon or glass due to their compatibility with most organic solvents used for LLE. Fabrication of silicon and glass-based LLE platforms typically requires extensive use of photolithography, plasma or laser-based etching, high temperature (anodic) bonding, and/or wet etching with KOH or HF solutions. In contrast, polymeric microfluidic platforms can be fabricated using less involved processes, typically photolithography in combination with replica molding, hot embossing, and/or bonding at much lower temperatures. Here we report the fabrication and testing of microfluidic LLE platforms comprised of thiolene or a perfluoropolyether-based material, SIFEL, where the choice of materials was mainly guided by the need for solvent compatibility and fabrication amenability. Suitable designs for polymer-based LLE platforms that maximize extraction efficiencies within the constraints of the fabrication methods and feasible operational conditions were obtained using analytical modeling. To optimize the performance of the polymer-based LLE platforms, we systematically studied the effect of surface functionalization and of microstructures on the stability of the liquid-liquid interface and on the ability to separate the phases. As demonstrative examples, we report (i) a thiolene-based platform to determine the lipophilicity of caffeine, and (ii) a SIFEL-based platform to extract radioactive copper from an acidic aqueous solution.

  1. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  2. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-10-01

    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis. PMID:27605738

  3. A Study of Care Work in Welfare Facilities for the Elderly, Using Non Linear Analysis of Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    The fingertip pulse waves of a number of staff working in a daycare center for the elderly and a special nursing home for the elderly were measured several times throughout the day for a period of one or two days, and the chaotic information gained was analyzed using a non linear analysis method. As a result, a relation between the staff's length of career and the change of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) of the fingertip pulse waves that synchronized with the mental revitalization degrees and the tension of the sympathetic nerve was evident. The LLE of the staff with short careers dramatically changed and also took a long time to settle down again. In addition, staff LLE changed greatly after sessions of bathing assistance and watching residents with dementia. LLE measurements showed drops in some staff after a period of rest, but this was not the case for other staff. It can be concluded that the LLE is related to the length of the staff member's career and what is actually done during working hours and rest periods. A high level of sympathetic nerve was seen in almost all of the care workers. On this basis, the authors propose that improvements are needed in the content of the care work.

  4. Process feasibility investigation of freezing free litho-litho-etch process for below 32nm hp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Takeshita, Masaru; Yokoya, Jiro; Yoshii, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hirokuni; Takasu, Ryoichi; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2010-04-01

    Double patterning with 193nm immersion lithography becomes to most promising candidate for 32nm half pitch node and possibly below 32nm half pitch. Several double patterning methods have been suggested such as LELE (Litho-Etch -Litho-Etch), LLE (Litho-Litho-Etch) and Spacer defined process, however, LLE process is pointed out as low cost double patterning technique because of its simplicity. But LLE process needs new method to maintain 1st lithography pattern and additional freezing processes have been suggested In SPIE Advanced Lithography 2009, freezing free "Posi/Posi" process was introduced as candidate for LLE process. This is LLE process that uses two different positive tone photoresists without freezing process. The resist for 2nd lithography contains a specific solvent to prevent the mixing of two resists and there is an activation energy gap between 1st and 2nd resists to maintain 1st lithography pattern. The double patterning can be successfully processed by these specific resists without freezing process. In this study, the performance of this freezing free "Posi/Posi" process is investigated for pitch splitting pattern using 1.35 NA exposure tool. The imaging results including CD control capability, and etching results are collected for 32nm half pitch and below. Additionally the two-dimensional pattern imaging is also obtained for 76nm minimum pitch.

  5. Letter: Meyerhofer

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A J

    2011-01-06

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  6. Liquid-liquid equilibrium calculations from a modified perturbed hard sphere equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Min-Lon Yu; Muoi Tang; Yan-Ping Chen

    1996-12-31

    A modified perturbed hard sphere (MPHS) equation of state (EOS) was developed for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) calculations in this work. This MPHS EOS includes a repulsive contribution of the Carnahan-Starling EOS. The attractive part of the MPHS EOS was derived from the generalized van der Waals partition function with a modified coordination number model. The MPHS EOS yielded good results on the vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations on both pure fluids and their mixtures. It also gave satisfactory results on LLE calculations. The MPHS EOS shows smaller average errors as well as less scattering of the binary interactions parameters in LLE calculations than those from other EOS models. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Quantification of penoxsulam in soil and rice samples by matrix solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction followed by HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kaur, Khushwinder; Bhullar, M S

    2014-11-01

    The paper exploits the development of novel, simple and sensitive methodology involving matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the comparison of MSPD with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the evaluation of residual penoxsulam in soil and rice samples. Extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detector at 230 nm. Both methods were optimized, considering different parameters, and under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 85-104 % for MSPD and 78.8-90.7 % for LLE. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) were ≤10 for MSPD and ≤15 for LLE. Linearity for penoxsulam was in the range of 0.01-20 μg mL(-1) with limits of detection and limits of quantification of 0.01 and 0.03 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  8. The Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual Omega users and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback to LLE management from the users about ways to improve the facility and future experimental campaigns.

  9. Locally linear embedding: dimension reduction of massive protostellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. L.; Lumsden, S. L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of the application of locally linear embedding (LLE) to reduce the dimensionality of dereddened and continuum subtracted near-infrared spectra using a combination of models and real spectra of massive protostars selected from the Red MSX Source survey data base. A brief comparison is also made with two other dimension reduction techniques; principal component analysis (PCA) and Isomap using the same set of spectra as well as a more advanced form of LLE, Hessian locally linear embedding. We find that whilst LLE certainly has its limitations, it significantly outperforms both PCA and Isomap in classification of spectra based on the presence/absence of emission lines and provides a valuable tool for classification and analysis of large spectral data sets.

  10. The Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual OMEGA users, and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback from the users to LLE management about ways to improve and keep the facility and future experimental campaigns at the cutting edge.

  11. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Rodrigues, F; Perestrelo, R; Marques, J C; Câmara, J S

    2007-11-15

    An analytical procedure based on manual dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and the conventional extraction method by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were compared for their effectiveness in the extraction and quantification of volatile compounds from commercial whiskey samples. Seven extraction solvents covering a wide range of polarities and two SPME fibres coatings, has been evaluated. The highest amounts extracted, were achieved using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by LLE method (LLE(CH2Cl2)) and using a CAR/PDMS fibre (SPME(CAR/PDMS)) in HS-SPME. Each method was used to determine the responses of 25 analytes from whiskeys and calibration standards, in order to provide sensitivity comparisons between the two methods. Calibration curves were established in a synthetic whiskey and linear correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.9929 for LLE(CH2Cl2) and 0.9935 for SPME(CAR/PDMS), for all target compounds. Recoveries greater than 80% were achieved. For most compounds, precision (expressed by relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) are very good, with R.S.D. values lower than 14.78% for HS-SPME method and than 19.42% for LLE method. The detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 19.03 microg L(-1) for SPME procedure and from 0.50 to 12.48 microg L(-1) for LLE. A tentative study to estimate the contribution of a specific compound to the aroma of a whiskey, on the basis of their odour activity values (OAV) was made. Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds.

  12. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Rodrigues, F; Perestrelo, R; Marques, J C; Câmara, J S

    2007-11-15

    An analytical procedure based on manual dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and the conventional extraction method by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were compared for their effectiveness in the extraction and quantification of volatile compounds from commercial whiskey samples. Seven extraction solvents covering a wide range of polarities and two SPME fibres coatings, has been evaluated. The highest amounts extracted, were achieved using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by LLE method (LLE(CH2Cl2)) and using a CAR/PDMS fibre (SPME(CAR/PDMS)) in HS-SPME. Each method was used to determine the responses of 25 analytes from whiskeys and calibration standards, in order to provide sensitivity comparisons between the two methods. Calibration curves were established in a synthetic whiskey and linear correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.9929 for LLE(CH2Cl2) and 0.9935 for SPME(CAR/PDMS), for all target compounds. Recoveries greater than 80% were achieved. For most compounds, precision (expressed by relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) are very good, with R.S.D. values lower than 14.78% for HS-SPME method and than 19.42% for LLE method. The detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 19.03 microg L(-1) for SPME procedure and from 0.50 to 12.48 microg L(-1) for LLE. A tentative study to estimate the contribution of a specific compound to the aroma of a whiskey, on the basis of their odour activity values (OAV) was made. Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds. PMID:18371616

  13. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  14. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  15. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

    2007-12-01

    In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

  16. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  17. Phase Equilibria of Ternary and Quaternary Systems Containing Diethyl Carbonate with Water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Wen, Caiyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zeng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study liquid phase equilibrium compositions were measured at 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure for (water + propan-1-ol + diethyl carbonate (DEC) + benzene or cyclohexane or heptane) quaternary systems and (water + DEC + propan-1-ol or benzene or cyclohexane) ternary systems. Good correlation of the experimental LLE data was seen for the measured systems by both modified and extended UNIQUAC models. The solubility of DEC in aqueous and organic phases is shown by equilibrium distribution coefficients calculated from the LLE data.

  18. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Handlon, Anthony L; Schaller, Lee T; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Poole, Chuck; Ulrich, John C; Wilson, Joseph W; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip

    2016-01-14

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%).

  19. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria measurement for epoxidized soybean oil + acetic acid + water.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qing; Li, Yi; Feng, Yun-Xia; Linghu, Rong-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data were measured for ternary system epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) + acetic acid + water at 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The consistency of the measured LLE data was tested, using Othmer-Tobias correlation and root-mean-square deviation (sigma) in mass fraction of water in the lower phase and average value of the absolute difference (AAD) between experimental mass fraction of epoxidized soybean oil in the upper phase and that calculated using Othmer-Tobias correlation.

  20. Advanced liquid and solid extraction procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Kučera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Lučaníková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level based on use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and extraction chromatography (EXC) have been developed. Two different LLE procedures were used depending on the way of sample decomposition using either 2-butanone or tetraphenylarsonium chloride in CHCl3. EXC employed new solid extractant materials prepared by incorporation of the liquid trioctyl-methyl-ammonium chloride into an inert polyacrylonitrile matrix. The RNAA procedures presented have been compared and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials.

  1. A glacial isostatic adjustment model for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet based on relative sea level and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5G model by holding the timing history constant and iteratively adjusting the thickness history, in four regions of northern Canada. In the final model, the last glacial maximum (LGM) thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet west of Hudson Bay was ˜3.4-3.6 km. Conversely, east of Hudson Bay, peak ice thicknesses reached ˜4 km. The ice model thicknesses inferred for these two regions represent, respectively, a ˜30 per cent decrease and an average ˜20-25 per cent increase to the load thickness relative to the ICE-5G reconstruction, which is generally consistent with other recent studies that have focussed on Laurentide Ice Sheet history. The final model also features peak ice thicknesses of 1.2-1.3 km in the Baffin Island region, a modest reduction relative to ICE-5G and unchanged thicknesses for a region in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago west of Baffin Island. Vertical land motion predictions of the final model fit observed crustal uplift rates well, after an adjustment is made for the elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass changes of regional ice cover. The new Laur16 model provides more than a factor of two improvement of the fit to the RSL data (χ2 measure of misfit) and a factor of nine improvement to the fit of the GPS data (mean squared error measure of fit), compared to the ICE-5G starting model. Laur16 also fits the regional RSL data better by a factor of two and gives a slightly better fit to GPS uplift rates than the recent ICE-6G model. The volume history of the Laur16 reconstruction corresponds to an up to 8 m reduction in global sea level equivalent compared to ICE-5G at LGM.

  2. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  3. Late Language Emergence in 24-Month-Old Twins: Heritable and Increased Risk for Late Language Emergence in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. Method: A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and…

  4. Plethysmogram and EEG: Effects of Music and Voice Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Sato, Sadaka; Kojima, Junji; Lin, Juan; Reika, Sato

    2011-06-01

    We studied a relation of chaotic dynamics of finger plethysmogram to complexity of high cerebral center in both theoretical and experimental approaches. We proposed a mathematical model to describe emergence of chaos in finger tip pulse wave, which gave a theoretical prediction indicating increased chaoticity in higher cerebral center leading to an increase of chaos dynamics in plethysmograms. We designed an experiment to observe scalp-EEG and finger plethysmogram using two mental tasks to validate the relationship. We found that scalp-EEG showed an increase of the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) during speaking certain voices. Topographical scalp map of LLE showed enhanced arise around occipital and right cerebral area. Whereas there was decreasing tendency during listening music, where LLE scalp map revealed a drop around center cerebral area. The same tendency was found for LLE obtained from finger plethysmograms as ones of EEG under either speaking or listening tasks. The experiment gave results that agreed well with the theoretical relation derived from our proposed model.

  5. Comparison of extraction methods for the identification and quantification of polyphenols in virgin olive oil by ultra-HPLC-QToF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Crescenzi, Carlo; Foglia, Patrizia; Nescatelli, Riccardo; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    In this work, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), of polyphenols from a VOO sample were optimised by a Plackett-Burman experimental design; then the two extraction techniques capabilities were compared. By using HPLC-DAD, the extraction ability of SPE with the diol phase and LLE were similar. The two methods were further evaluated with ultra HPLC-ESI QToF in negative ion mode by recoveries of standards and matched comparison of the peak area of 40 identified and 27 unidentified compounds. Conclusions indicate that LLE gives better recoveries for highly polar, non-polar, and some polyphenols suspected to contain a nitrogen atom, while for the others the two methods seem to be equally suitable. The presence of nitrogen-containing polyphenols was confirmed in positive ionisation mode in LLE extract, whereas in the SPE extract they were not present. One of them was tentatively identified as a compound containing tyrosine and methyl-decarboxymetyl-eleanoic acid moieties.

  6. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches. PMID:26153771

  7. Simultaneous Promotion of Indigenisation and Internationalisation: New Language-in-Education Policy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Chiao

    2006-01-01

    The indigenisation and internationalisation of Taiwan emerged as issues of national concern as a result of the democratisation of politics in the late 1980s which profoundly changed the sociopolitical and economic climate. One manifestation of these changes was "new" language-in-education policies. These were the Local-Language-in-Education (LLE)…

  8. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  9. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer,D.D.

    2004-12-17

    Recent progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at LLE using the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA laser system and cryogenic target capability to perform ignition-scaled implosions will be reported. In addition, a new high-energy (2.6-kJ) petawatt capability is currently under construction.

  10. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  11. Control of vascular tone by purines and pyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In this Commentary, the roles of uridine adenosine tetraphosphate as an endothelium-derived contracting or relaxing factor described in the paper by Tölle et al. are considered and put into the wider context of the mechanisms of control of vascular tone by purinergic signalling via receptors located on both smooth muscle and endothelial cells. PMID:20880393

  12. Sparsity divergence index based on locally linear embedding for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Chunhui

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has high spectral and spatial resolutions, which are essential for anomaly detection (AD). Many anomaly detectors assume that the spectrum signature of HSI pixels can be modeled with a Gaussian distribution, which is actually not accurate and often leads to many false alarms. Therefore, a sparsity model without any distribution hypothesis is usually employed. Dimensionality reduction (DR) as a preprocessing step for HSI is important. Principal component analysis as a conventional DR method is a linear projection and cannot exploit the nonlinear properties in hyperspectral data, whereas locally linear embedding (LLE) as a local, nonlinear manifold learning algorithm works well for DR of HSI. A modified algorithm of sparsity divergence index based on locally linear embedding (SDI-LLE) is thus proposed. First, kernel collaborative representation detection is adopted to calculate the sparse dictionary matrix of local reconstruction weights in LLE. Then, SDI is obtained both in the spectral and spatial domains, where spatial SDI is computed after DR by LLE. Finally, joint SDI, combining spectral SDI and spatial SDI, is computed, and the optimal SDI is performed for AD. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performance, when compared with its counterparts.

  13. Factors Mititating against the Establishment, Development, Management and Utilization of Instructional Television (ITV) in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofowora, Olaniyi Alaba

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the problems facing the establishment, development, management and utilization of instructional television (ITV) in higher institutions in Nigeria. The paper also discusses chronicle of activities and achievements made at Obafemi Awolowo University, lle-lfe in the effort at revamping the television system. Obafemi Awolowo…

  14. Comparison of Electron Imaging Modes for Dimensional Measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Villarrubia, John S; Muto, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Dimensional measurements from secondary electron (SE) images were compared with those from backscattered electron (BSE) and low-loss electron (LLE) images. With the commonly used 50% threshold criterion, the lines consistently appeared larger in the SE images. As the images were acquired simultaneously by an instrument with the capability to operate detectors for both signals at the same time, the differences cannot be explained by the assumption that contamination or drift between images affected the SE, BSE, or LLE images differently. Simulations with JMONSEL, an electron microscope simulator, indicate that the nanometer-scale differences observed on this sample can be explained by the different convolution effects of a beam with finite size on signals with different symmetry (the SE signal's characteristic peak versus the BSE or LLE signal's characteristic step). This effect is too small to explain the >100 nm discrepancies that were observed in earlier work on different samples. Additional modeling indicates that those discrepancies can be explained by the much larger sidewall angles of the earlier samples, coupled with the different response of SE versus BSE/LLE profiles to such wall angles. PMID:27452278

  15. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-07-06

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches.

  16. Final Report: Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments, November 1, 1997 - October 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Cohen, D.H.; Ping Wang, G.A.; Moses, R.R.; Peterson, P.A.; Jaanimagi; Landen, O.L.; Olson, R.E.; Murphy, T.J.; Magelssen, G.R.; Delamater, N.D.

    1999-06-01

    This is a combined experimental and theoretical analysis of tracer layers as spectral diagnostics for radiation burn-through of ablator materials. German-doped plastic is attached as a witness plate to a laser driven hohlraum. Backlit absorption spectroscopy is used as a diagnostic. Target shots were performed on the OMEGSA laser at UR/LLE.

  17. Evaluation of extraction methods for quantification of aqueous fullerenes in urine

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F. G.; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the human and environmental health effects of fullerenes (e.g., C60) due to their increasing application in research, medicine, and industry. Toxicological and pharmacokinetic research requires standard methods for extraction and detection of fullerenes from biological matrices such as urine. The present study validates the use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods in conjunction with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) for the quantitative determination of C60 in human and synthetic urine as compared with ultrapure water. Glacial acetic acid, which is necessary to prevent emulsions during LLE, inhibited C60 detection by LC–MS, but this could be mitigated with evaporation. Aqueous C60 aggregates (nC60) were spiked at 180 µg/L into the components of a synthetic urine recipe to determine their individual impacts on extraction and detection. Urea, creatinine, and a complex protein (i.e., gelatin) were found to impair SPE, leading to a low recovery rate of 43±4% for C60 spiked into human urine. In contrast, C60 was consistently recovered from synthetic matrices using LLE, and recovery in human urine was 80±6%. These results suggest that LLE combined with LC–MS is suitable for studying the clearance of fullerenes from the body. LLE is a robust technique that holds promise for extracting C60 from other complex biological matrices (e.g., blood, sweat, amniotic fluid) in toxicological studies, enabling a better understanding of the behavior of fullerenes in human and animal systems and facilitating a more comprehensive risk evaluation of fullerenes. PMID:21153587

  18. Miniscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupled with Full Evaporation Dynamic Headspace Extraction for the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 4000-to-14 000-fold Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Liew, Christina Shu Min; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-20

    A new sample preparation approach of combining a miniscale version of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), termed miniscale-LLE (msLLE), with automated full evaporation dynamic headspace extraction (FEDHS) was developed. Its applicability was demonstrated in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) from aqueous samples. In the first step, msLLE was conducted with 1.75 mL of n-hexane, and all of the extract was vaporized through a Tenax TA sorbent tube via a nitrogen gas flow, in the FEDHS step. Due to the stronger π-π interaction between the Tenax TA polymer and PAHs, only the latter, and not n-hexane, was adsorbed by the sorbent. This selectivity by the Tenax TA polymer allowed an effective concentration of PAHs while eliminating n-hexane by the FEDHS process. After that, thermal desorption was applied to the PAHs to channel them into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) system for analysis. Experimental parameters affecting msLLE (solvent volume and mixing duration) and FEDHS (temperature and duration) were optimized. The obtained results achieved low limits of detection (1.85-3.63 ng/L) with good linearity (r(2) > 0.9989) and high enrichment factors ranging from 4200 to 14 100. The optimized settings were applied to the analysis of canal water sampled from an industrial area and tap water, and this methodology was compared to stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). This innovative combined extraction-concentration approach proved to be fast, effective, and efficient in determining low concentrations of PAHs in aqueous samples.

  19. Miniscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupled with Full Evaporation Dynamic Headspace Extraction for the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 4000-to-14 000-fold Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Liew, Christina Shu Min; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-20

    A new sample preparation approach of combining a miniscale version of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), termed miniscale-LLE (msLLE), with automated full evaporation dynamic headspace extraction (FEDHS) was developed. Its applicability was demonstrated in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) from aqueous samples. In the first step, msLLE was conducted with 1.75 mL of n-hexane, and all of the extract was vaporized through a Tenax TA sorbent tube via a nitrogen gas flow, in the FEDHS step. Due to the stronger π-π interaction between the Tenax TA polymer and PAHs, only the latter, and not n-hexane, was adsorbed by the sorbent. This selectivity by the Tenax TA polymer allowed an effective concentration of PAHs while eliminating n-hexane by the FEDHS process. After that, thermal desorption was applied to the PAHs to channel them into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) system for analysis. Experimental parameters affecting msLLE (solvent volume and mixing duration) and FEDHS (temperature and duration) were optimized. The obtained results achieved low limits of detection (1.85-3.63 ng/L) with good linearity (r(2) > 0.9989) and high enrichment factors ranging from 4200 to 14 100. The optimized settings were applied to the analysis of canal water sampled from an industrial area and tap water, and this methodology was compared to stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). This innovative combined extraction-concentration approach proved to be fast, effective, and efficient in determining low concentrations of PAHs in aqueous samples. PMID:27535573

  20. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  1. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  2. Facial expression recognition using local binary patterns and discriminant kernel locally linear embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Shiqing

    2012-12-01

    Given the nonlinear manifold structure of facial images, a new kernel-based supervised manifold learning algorithm based on locally linear embedding (LLE), called discriminant kernel locally linear embedding (DKLLE), is proposed for facial expression recognition. The proposed DKLLE aims to nonlinearly extract the discriminant information by maximizing the interclass scatter while minimizing the intraclass scatter in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. DKLLE is compared with LLE, supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and kernel linear discriminant analysis (KLDA). Experimental results on two benchmarking facial expression databases, i.e., the JAFFE database and the Cohn-Kanade database, demonstrate the effectiveness and promising performance of DKLLE.

  3. Charged-particle measurements of ρR symmetry at shock-bang time in NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A.; Séguin, F.; Li, C.; Frenje, J.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R.; Friedrich, S.; Amendt, P.; Bionta, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Glenn, S.; Heeter, R.; Hicks, D.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O.; London, R.; MacKinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Weber, W.; Delettrez, J.

    2012-10-01

    V. GLEBOV, P. RADHA, T. SANGSTER, LLE, R. OLSON, R. LEEPER, SNL, J. KLINE, G. KYRALA, D. WILSON, LANL, J. KILKENNY, A. NIKROO, GA. -- The Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers were developed for OMEGA and transferred to the NIF as National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostics. In tuning campaign implosions containing D and ^3He gas, the WRFs are used to measure the spectrum of protons from D-^3He reactions. From the measured energy downshift of the D^3He protons, the total ρR is inferred through the plasma stopping power. Data from WRFs fielded simultaneously on the pole and equator indicate low-mode polar ρR asymmetries at shock flash. Significant swings in ρR P2/P0 are also observed over the ignition campaign data set, attributed to low-mode x-ray drive inhomogeneity. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  4. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibria for polymer solutions and blends, including copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Hino, T.; Lambert, S.M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simplified perturbed hard-sphere-chain (PHSC) theory is applied to interpret, correlate, and (in part) predict liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for polymer solutions and blends, including copolymers. The PHSC equation of state uses a hard-sphere-chain reference system plus a van der Waals attractive perturbation. Three pure-component parameters are obtained from readily available thermodynamic properties. Mixture parameters are obtained using pure-component parameters, conventional combining rules, and one or two binary constants. Theoretical and experimental coexistence curves and miscibility maps show good agreement for selected blends containing polymers and copolymers. For LLE of dilute or semi-dilute solvent/polymer solutions, it is necessary to decrease the pure-component polymer chain length, probably because the mean-field approximation is not suitable for such solutions.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR SPECTRA WITH LOCAL LINEAR EMBEDDING

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew; Vanderplas, Jake; Schneider, Jeff; Xiong Liang

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the use of dimensionality reduction techniques for the classification of stellar spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using local linear embedding (LLE), a technique that preserves the local (and possibly nonlinear) structure within high-dimensional data sets, we show that the majority of stellar spectra can be represented as a one-dimensional sequence within a three-dimensional space. The position along this sequence is highly correlated with spectral temperature. Deviations from this 'stellar locus' are indicative of spectra with strong emission lines (including misclassified galaxies) or broad absorption lines (e.g., carbon stars). Based on this analysis, we propose a hierarchical classification scheme using LLE that progressively identifies and classifies stellar spectra in a manner that requires no feature extraction and that can reproduce the classic MK classifications to an accuracy of one type.

  7. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  8. Evaluating source separation of plastic waste using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Jun; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2008-11-01

    Using conjoint analysis, we estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of households for source separation of plastic waste and the improvement of related environmental impacts, the residents' loss of life expectancy (LLE), the landfill capacity, and the CO2 emissions. Unreliable respondents were identified and removed from the sample based on their answers to follow-up questions. It was found that the utility associated with reducing LLE and with the landfill capacity were both well expressed by logarithmic functions, but that residents were indifferent to the level of CO2 emissions even though they approved of CO2 reduction. In addition, residents derived utility from the act of separating plastic waste, irrespective of its environmental impacts; that is, they were willing to practice the separation of plastic waste at home in anticipation of its "invisible effects", such as the improvement of citizens' attitudes toward solid waste issues.

  9. Effect of temperature on acid-base equilibria in separation techniques. A review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Tascon, Marcos; Castells, Cecilia B

    2015-08-19

    Studies on the theoretical principles of acid-base equilibria are reviewed and the influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria within the context of separation techniques, in water and also in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures, is discussed. In order to define the relationships between the retention in liquid chromatography or the migration velocity in capillary electrophoresis and temperature, the main properties of acid-base equilibria have to be taken into account for both, the analytes and the conjugate pairs chosen to control the solution pH. The focus of this review is based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with emphasis on the use of temperature as a useful variable to modify selectivity on a predictable basis. Simplified models were evaluated to achieve practical optimizations involving pH and temperature (in LLE and CE) as well as solvent composition in reversed-phase LC.

  10. Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Lund, L.D.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Marshall, F.J.; Morse, S.F.B.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thorp, K.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2010-04-16

    This paper reviews the status of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). LLE's goal is to demonstrate direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2014. Baseline "all-DT" NIF direct-drive ignition target designs have been developed that have a predicted gain of 45 (1-D) at a NIF drive energy of ~1.6 MJ. Significantly higher gains are calculated for targets that include a DT-wicked foam ablator. This paper also reviews the results of both warm fuel and initial cryogenic-fuel spherical target implosion experiments carried out on the OMEGA UV laser. The results of these experiments and design calculations increase confidence that the NIF direct-drive ICF ignition goal will be achieved.

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell quality on chromosome 9 in an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Yang, D; Sasaki, O; Furukawa, T; Nirasawa, K

    2009-10-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells are major causes of significant economic losses to the egg production industry. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 9 influencing the quality of eggshells were identified by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation conducted over 14 generations. Chromosome-wide highly significant (P < 0.01) QTL associated with egg weight (EW), short length of egg (SLE), long length of egg (LLE) and eggshell weight were mapped to the distal region of chromosome 9. Among the QTL affecting EW, SLE and LLE, ovocalyxin-32 was identified as a potential candidate gene influencing eggshell traits. Marker-assisted selection based on these QTL could be used to develop strategies for reducing the breakage and cracking of eggs in commercial layer houses. PMID:19780721

  12. Trace analysis of trichlorobenzenes in fish by microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Gyula; Huybrechts, Tom; Van Langenhove, Herman; Dewulf, Jo; Nollet, Hendrik

    2003-04-18

    An analytical method consisting of extraction, clean-up, and analysis by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed for the determination of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs) in fish samples. Two extraction methods, saponification and liquid-liquid extraction (S-LLE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were evaluated. In both cases, n-pentane was used as the extraction solvent. For S-LLE, the recoveries ranged from 66.6+/-9.1% for 1-bromo-4-chlorobenzene (4-BCB) to 93.5+/-4.9% for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB). The recoveries were significantly lower, between 31.0+/-3.9% for 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB) and 52.3+/-3.0% for 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB), in the absence of fish. Proteins and glycerides of the fish tissue seemed to compete with TCBs for the base, and hence decreased their decomposition rate. In the case of MAE, the recoveries were highly dependent on the pressure applied during extraction. At 5 bar, much higher recoveries were obtained, from 66.7+/-15.6% for 4-BCB to 79.9+/-13.6% for 1,2,4-TCB, than at 1 bar. Sulfur formation was, however, observed at 5 bar, and interfered with the GC-ECD analysis of TCBs. Sulfur was adequately removed by copper powder treatment, which was shown not to affect the recovery of analytes. The recoveries of target analytes by S-LLE and MAE did not differ statistically (t-test, alpha = 0.01). Both methods were appropriate for the detection of TCBs at concentration levels typically observed in marine biota, i.e. approximately 1 ng/g. S-LLE was, however, more time consuming, and required larger volumes of high-purity organic solvents than MAE.

  13. Structural Optimization of Ghrelin Receptor Inverse Agonists to Improve Lipophilicity and Avoid Mechanism-Based CYP3A4 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bitoku; Funami, Hideaki; Shibata, Makoto; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Koyama, Makoto; Kanki, Satomi; Muto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Structural optimization of 2-aminonicotinamide derivatives as ghrelin receptor inverse agonists is reported. So as to avoid mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP3A4, 1,3-benzodioxol ring of the lead compound was modified. Improvement of the main activity and lipophilicity was achieved simultaneously, leading to compound 18a, which showed high lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) and low MBI activity. PMID:26423040

  14. [Example of an emergency intervention].

    PubMed

    Jégu, Guénaëlle

    2012-02-01

    A hospital healthcare manager, Guénaëlle Jegu also works within the Val-de-Marne and Paris medical-psychological emergency units. Through her account, presented here, of the care provided to people repatriated from Haiti after the earthquake of January 2010, she describes the key stages of an intervention. The availability of caregivers and the close collaboration of the teams are necessary in order to provide high quality care to the victims.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  16. Einführung in die Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnenburg, W.

    Contents: 1. Forschungbereich Astronomie. 2. Astronomische Beobachtungstechnik. 3. Bewegungen am Sternenhimmel. 4. Dynamik im Planetensystem. 5. Aufbau des Planetensystems. 6. Die Sonne. 7. Meßbare Eigenschaften der Sterne. 8. Aufbau von Sternen. 9. Veränderliche Sterne und Sonderfälle. 10. Der interstellare Raum. 11. Ko-Evolution von Sternen und Materie. 12. Astronomische Entfernungsbestimmung. 13. Milchstraßensystem. 14. Extragalaktische Systeme. 15. Das Weltall. 16. Grenzfragen.

  17. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident.

  18. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  19. Headspace single-drop microextration for the detection of organotin compounds.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Vanessa; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Yang, Lu; Maxwell, Paulette; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán

    2004-06-17

    The performance of single-drop microextraction (SDME), coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, was assessed for the determination of tributyltin compounds in water and solid samples. Experimental parameters impacting the performance of SDME, such as microextraction solvent and sampling and stirring time, were investigated. Analytical results obtained by SDME were compared with those generated by conventional solid phase microextraction (SPME) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the determination of TBT in PACS-2 sediment certified reference material (CRM). PMID:18969468

  20. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  1. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  2. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  3. Hyperspectral target detection using graph theory models and manifold geometry via an adaptive implementation of locally linear embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.

    2014-06-01

    Hyperspectral images comprise, by design, high dimensional image data. However, research has shown that for a d-dimensional hyperspectral image, it is typical for the data to inherently occupy an m-dimensional space, with m << d. In the remote sensing community, this has led to a recent increase in the use of non-linear manifold learning, which aims to characterize the embedded lower-dimensional, non-linear manifold upon which the hyperspectral data inherently lie. Classic hyperspectral data models include statistical, linear subspace, and linear mixture models, but these can place restrictive assumptions on the distribution of the data. With graph theory and manifold learning based models, the only assumption is that the data reside on an underlying manifold. In previous publications, we have shown that manifold coordinate approximation using locally linear embedding (LLE) is a viable pre-processing step for target detection with the Adaptive Cosine/Coherence Estimator (ACE) algorithm. Here, we improve upon that methodology using a more rigorous, data-driven implementation of LLE that incorporates the injection of a cloud" of target pixels and the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) detector. The LLE algorithm, which holds that the data is locally linear, is typically governed by a user defined parameter k, indicating the number of nearest neighbors to use in the initial graph model. We use an adaptive approach to building the graph that is governed by the data itself and does not rely upon user input. This implementation of LLE can yield greater separation between the target pixels and the background pixels in the manifold space. We present an analysis of target detection performance in the manifold coordinates using scene-derived target spectra and laboratory-measured target spectra across two different data sets.

  4. University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    In FY86 the Laboratory has produced a list of accomplishments in which it takes pride. LLE has met every laser-fusion program milestone to date in a program of research for direct-drive ultraviolet laser fusion originally formulated in 1981. LLE scientists authored or co-authored 135 scientific papers during 1985 to 1986. The collaborative experiments with NRL, LANL, and LLNL have led to a number of important ICF results. The cryogenic target system developed by KMS Fusion for LLE will be used in future high-density experiments on OMEGA to demonstrate the compression of thermonuclear fuel to 100 to 200 times that of solid (20 to 40 g/cm) in a test of the direct-drive concept, as noted in the National Academy of Sciences' report. The excellence of the advanced technology efforts at LLE is illustrated by the establishment of the Ultrafast Science Center by the Department of Defense through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Research in the Center will concentrate on bridging the gap between high-speed electronics and ultrafast optics by providing education, research, and development in areas critical to future communications and high-speed computer systems. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics continues its pioneering work on the interaction of intense radiation with matter. This includes inertial-fusion and advanced optical and optical electronics research; training people in the technology and applications of high-power, short-pulse lasers; and interacting with the scientific community, business, industry, and government to promote the growth of laser technology.

  5. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriev, Aleksey D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. Methods A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Results Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. Conclusions The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation. PMID:26807793

  6. Determination of fluoride in toothpaste using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Wejnerowska, Grazyna; Karczmarek, Anna; Gaca, Jerzy

    2007-05-25

    A new method for determination of fluoride in toothpaste employing the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) has been proposed. It is a development of the method for determination of fluoride using trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatization reagent to form trimethylfluorosilane (TMFS), with the liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) step replaced by HS-SPME. To introduce the latter, it was necessary to determine the conditions of the reaction and to optimize the two stages of the SPME procedure: extraction and desorption. The parameters of the SPME analysis using carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber were defined and compared with the corresponding ones for the LLE method, used as a reference. Also, these two methods were compared with respect to their linearity, precision, and accuracy. Results from toothpaste analyses using these two methods were highly correlated, indicating the potential to use the SPME extraction as an inexpensive and solventfree alternative to the LLE method.

  7. Automated GC-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol and Cannabidiol in Hair.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon

    2016-09-01

    The determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair is a major routine task in forensic laboratories worldwide. A comprehensively automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method has been developed. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC-MS analysis. Method validation guidelines of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry were fulfilled. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ng/mg for THC, 0.06 ng/mg for CBN and 0.03 ng/mg for CBD. This is below the required LOQ for THC (0.02 ng/mg) in medical psychological assessments in Germany. Also it is far below the required LOQ of the Society of Hair Testing of 0.1 ng/mg for THC. Four-round robin tests were passed successfully and several post- and ante-mortem samples were analyzed. To date the method is routinely employed at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication on a comprehensively automated classical LLE workflow in the field of hair analysis. PMID:27344041

  8. Molecular Recognition of the Catalytic Zinc(II) Ion in MMP-13: Structure-Based Evolution of an Allosteric Inhibitor to Dual Binding Mode Inhibitors with Improved Lipophilic Ligand Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc dependent endopeptidases which play a crucial role in a multitude of severe diseases such as cancer and osteoarthritis. We employed MMP-13 as the target enzyme for the structure-based design and synthesis of inhibitors able to recognize the catalytic zinc ion in addition to an allosteric binding site in order to increase the affinity of the ligand. Guided by molecular modeling, we optimized an initial allosteric inhibitor by addition of linker fragments and weak zinc binders for recognition of the catalytic center. Furthermore we improved the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) of the initial inhibitor by adding appropriate zinc binding fragments to lower the clogP values of the inhibitors, while maintaining their potency. All synthesized inhibitors showed elevated affinity compared to the initial hit, also most of the novel inhibitors displayed better LLE. Derivatives with carboxylic acids as the zinc binding fragments turned out to be the most potent inhibitors (compound 3 (ZHAWOC5077): IC50 = 134 nM) whereas acyl sulfonamides showed the best lipophilic ligand efficiencies (compound 18 (ZHAWOC5135): LLE = 2.91). PMID:26938528

  9. Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Megan; Nilsson, Dan-E; Garm, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) are visually orientating animals which possess a total of 24 eyes of 4 morphological types; 2 pigment cup eyes (pit eye and slit eye) and 2 lens eyes [upper lens-eye (ule) and lower lens-eye (lle)]. In this study, we use electroretinograms (ERGs) to explore temporal properties of the two lens eyes. We find that the ERG of both lens eyes are complex and using sinusoidal flicker stimuli we find that both lens eyes have slow temporal resolution. The average flicker fusion frequency (FFF) was found to be approximately 10 Hz for the ule and 8 Hz for the lle. Differences in the FFF and response patterns between the two lens eyes suggest that the ule and lle filter information differently in the temporal domain and thus are tuned to perform different visual tasks. The data collected in this study support the idea that the visual system of box jellyfish is a collection of special purpose eyes. PMID:20131056

  10. [Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future. PMID:23256382

  11. Detection of sulfonamide drug in urine using liquid-liquid extraction and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markina, Natalia E.; Shalabay, Victoria V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Markin, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we have applied liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) as a sample preparation technique for detection of sulfadimethoxine (one of sulfonamide drugs) in urine using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS substrate based on silver nanoparticles has been prepared by citrate reduction of silver nitrate. Obtained calibration curve (SERS intensity vs. sulfadimethoxine concentration) has been used for detection of sulfadimethoxine in human urine samples artificially contaminated by sulfadimethoxine. Three different solvents (ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, chloroform) have been used for LLE performance tests. Chloroform being found as the most effective one based on calculation of recoveries after SERS measurements. Thus we would like to propose fast (less than 20 minutes), simple and sensitive (detection limit up to 1 μg/ml) test for detecting sulfa drugs in urine using a combination of SERS with LLE with sample volume as low as 100 μL. Such test can be applied for evaluation of the degree of drug extraction from human body and half-life of such drug applied in the course of therapeutic treatments of certain diseases.

  12. Sustainable efficient way for opioid peptide LVV-h7 preparation from enzymatic proteolysis in a microfluidic-based reaction-extraction process with solvent recycling.

    PubMed

    Elagli, Adil; Belhacene, Kalim; Dhulster, Pascal; Froidevaux, Renato

    2016-05-01

    LVV-h7 (LVVYPWTQFR) is a bioactive peptide that can be obtained from blood as waste of food industry, more precisely from hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin. This opioid peptide belongs to the hemorphins family and have strong physiological effects that bring its use in pharmaceutics and various therapeutic treatments attractive, in particular for substituting its costly chemically synthetized analogous. Hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin generates a huge variety of peptides among whose LVV-h7 can be purified by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Herein, selective preparation of this peptide is proposed by a microfluidic-based continuous reaction-separation process. Hemoglobin hydrolysis in microreactor was firstly coupled to LVV-h7 LLE in octan-1-ol and then coupled to LVV-h7 back LLE in acidic water. This continuous process allowed to prepare pure LVV-h7, as confirmed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The microfluidic circuit also allowed octan-1-ol recycling in a closed loop, making this method more sustainable than similar biphasic batch process.

  13. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the laboratory for laser energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Loucks, S. J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K. A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Keck, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Maximov, A. V.; McKenty, P. W.; Morse, S. F. B.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2006-06-01

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The demonstration of high areal densities in hydrodynamically scaled cryogenic DT or D{2} implosions with neutron yields that are a significant fraction of the “clean” 1-D predictions will validate the ignition-equivalent direct-drive target performance on the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). This paper highlights some of the recent experimental and theoretical progress toward this validation. The NIF will initially be configured for x-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the “polar-direct-drive” (PDD) approach that repoints beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-D simulations have shown ignition. LLE is currently constructing the multibeam, 2.6-kJ/beam, petawatt laser system OMEGA EP. Integrated fast-ignition experiments, combining the OMEGA EP and OMEGA laser systems, will begin in FY08.

  14. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the laboratory for laser energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Loucks, S. J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K. A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Keck, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Maximov, A. V.; McKenty, P. W.; Morse, S. F. B.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2007-08-01

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The demonstration of high areal densities in hydrodynamically scaled cryogenic DT or D2 implosions with neutron yields that are a significant fraction of the “clean” 1-D predictions will validate the ignition-equivalent direct-drive target performance on the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). This paper highlights the recent experimental and theoretical progress leading toward achieving this validation in the next few years. The NIF will initially be configured for X-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the “polar-direct-drive” (PDD) approach that repoints beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-D simulations have shown ignition. A unique “Saturn-like” plastic ring around the equator refracts the laser light incident near the equator toward the target, improving the drive uniformity. LLE is currently constructing the multibeam, 2.6-kJ/beam, petawatt laser system OMEGA EP. Integrated fast-ignition experiments, combining the OMEGA EP and OMEGA Laser Systems, will begin in FY08.

  15. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions. PMID:27027570

  16. A simultaneous extraction method for organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    de Perre, Chloé; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of 2 organophosphate, 8 pyrethroid, and 5 neonicotinoid insecticides from the same water sample. A salted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was optimized with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step that separated the organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids from the neonicotinoids. Factors that were optimized included volume of solvent and amount of salt used in the LLE, homogenization time for the LLE, and type and volume of eluting solvent used for the SPE. The OPs and pyrethroids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the neonicotinoids were quantified using liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results showed that the optimized method was accurate, precise, reproducible, and robust; recoveries in river water spiked with 100 ng L(-1) of each of the insecticides were all between 86 and 114 % with RSDs between 2 and 8 %. The method was also sensitive with method detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 27.2 ng L(-1) depending on compounds and matrices. The optimized method was thus appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of 15 widely applied insecticides from three different classes and was shown to provide valuable information on their environmental fate from field-collected aqueous samples.

  17. Automated GC-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol and Cannabidiol in Hair.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon

    2016-09-01

    The determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair is a major routine task in forensic laboratories worldwide. A comprehensively automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method has been developed. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC-MS analysis. Method validation guidelines of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry were fulfilled. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ng/mg for THC, 0.06 ng/mg for CBN and 0.03 ng/mg for CBD. This is below the required LOQ for THC (0.02 ng/mg) in medical psychological assessments in Germany. Also it is far below the required LOQ of the Society of Hair Testing of 0.1 ng/mg for THC. Four-round robin tests were passed successfully and several post- and ante-mortem samples were analyzed. To date the method is routinely employed at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication on a comprehensively automated classical LLE workflow in the field of hair analysis.

  18. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, David D.

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student's parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  19. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student`s parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization? and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  20. Explorations of Stopping Power and Secondary Nuclear Production in OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, J. R.; Kurebayshi, S.; Schwartz, B. E.; Deciantis, J.; Burke, S.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Soures, J. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Hoffmann, N.; Wilson, D.

    2002-11-01

    Direct-drive spherical implosions of thin-shell glass capsules filled with D^3He and D2 have been conducted on OMEGA to explore charged-particle stopping relevant to fusion ignition experiments as well as theoretical and experimental tests of secondary nuclear production. For D^3He-filled capsules, and for a variety of different implosion conditions, up to five different lines are used to make inferences about the stopping power. The collection of these lines in different implosions enable refined tests of stopping power to be made. In addition, to test the theoretical foundations of secondary nuclear production, D2 glass capsules were imploded to sufficiently high temperature so that the secondary neutron and proton production should result in similar predictions for the fuel ρR. The line shapes and yields of the primary and secondary nuclear products were used to characterize plasma condition. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser Users' Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant number DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement number DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  1. Stopping Power and Secondary Nuclear Production in OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayshi, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Schwartz, B. E.; Deciantis, J.; Burke, S.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. N.; Soures, J. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D.

    2002-11-01

    Direct-drive spherical implosions of thin-shell glass capsules filled with D^3He and D2 have been conducted on OMEGA to explore issues of charged-particle stopping relevant to fusion ignition experiments and provide theoretical and experimental tests of secondary nuclear production. For D^3He-filled capsules and for a variety of implosion conditions, up to five different primary lines are used. The absolute energy calibrations, the detailed line shapes of the fusion reaction products, the downshifts of the fusion products, and the determination of whether any acceleration occurred due to charging of the capsule are all relevant to the stopping power analysis. For the asymptotic tests of the foundations of secondary nuclear production, the absolute yields of both secondary protons and neutrons need to be carefully quantified, as must be the plasma conditions. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser Users' Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant number DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement number DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  2. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li-Ping Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  3. Characteristic Extraction of Mental Disease Patients by Nonlinear Analysis of Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuyu; Wang, Wenbiao; Suzuki, Takashi; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured the pulse waves of 196 mentally ill patients and 113 healthy students. Using heartbeat changes, we calculated the values of their sympathetic nerves, parasympathetic nerves, and autonomic nerve balance. In addition, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) by non-linear analysis of plethysmograms. Values were analyzed by group. The results revealed a significant relationship between LLE and the autonomic nerve balance. The sympathetic nerve values in the patient group were significantly higher than those in the student group, whereas the LLE values were significantly lower. Furthermore, we illustrated the dynamic change in the results for single participants over several testing times. The measurement of pulse waves is easy and economical and does not put a strain on the subject. Additionally, these values can provide information that is more accurate than medical examination obtained from an interview. Our study contributed to the existing methodology in this field, and future data collection and measurement will be carried out. We hope that our study will be useful for neurologists and psychotherapists in their detection and treatment of mental illness.

  4. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  5. Lane Departure Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayko, Jens

    Jährlich kommt es weltweit im Straßenverkehr zu rund 1,2 Millionen tödlichen Unfällen. Allein in Europa ereignen sich 1,3 Millionen Unfälle, hierbei werden mehr als 40 000 Menschen getötet. Die Kosten dieser Verkehrsunfälle werden mit 160 Milliarden Euro beziffert. Dies entspricht rund 2 % des Bruttosozialprodukts der Europäischen Union. Mehr als ein Drittel aller tödlichen Unfälle wird durch einen Spurwechsel oder ein unbeabsichtigtes Verlassen des Fahrstreifens ausgelöst. Daraus lässt sich ableiten, dass durch ein SpurhalteAssistenzsystem, insbesondere einer Warnung vor ungewolltem Verlassen des Fahrstreifens, eine Reihe von Unfällen verhindert oder zumindest in ihrer Schwere gemindert werden könnten. SpurhalteAssistenzsysteme, wie sie in diesem Kapitel beschrieben werden, sind Fahrerassistenzsysteme, welche die Fahrzeugposition relativ zur Fahrstreifenmitte bestimmen und den Fahrer, sollte er unbeabsichtigt den Fahrstreifen verlassen, warnen oder das Fahrzeug durch einen automatischen Lenkeingriff wieder in den Fahrstreifen zurückbewegen können.

  6. Analytical Treatment of the Metabolic Effects of Isocaloric Stimulant on Heart Rate Variability as Measured by Electrocardiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffe, Lauren Rachelle

    Heart Rate variability (HRV) is measured during a period that includes ingestion and digestion of 900 kilogram calories of carbohydrate and fat beverages on two separate occasions. Autoregressive (AR) analysis, Poincare Plot Analysis (PPA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), and the Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) highlights variations in the linear and non-linear indices with respect to time. DFA indices indicated that all individuals were healthy (α≈1). In addition, an overall increase of α over the 3-hour observation time shows increased sympathetic intonation. Body Mass Index (BMI) influences on HRV were found. Over short time scales, DFA's α 1 index suggests the potentiality for future patho-physiological risk in those with high BMI>25. Over longer time scales, α2 has no significant differentiation among different BMI groups. The application of k-means cluster analysis revealed a connection to BMI when α and α 1 /α2 parameters were used. We believe that the LLE indicates an increased stability during digestion of the hypercaloric beverages. Groups with BMI>25 have smaller LLE, on average, than BMI≤ 25. This does substantiate the AR, Poincare, and DFA analyses of groups with higher BMI having less sympathetic increase when compared to lower BMI groups due to caloric metabolism.

  7. Search for reaction-in-flight neutrons using thulium activation at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Gary; Rundberg, Robert; Tonchev, Anton; Fowler, Malcolm; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Archuleta, Tom; Bionta, Richard; Boswell, Mitzi; Gostic, Julie; Griego, Jeff; Knittel, Kenn; Klein, Andi; Moody, Ken; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Wilde, Carl; Yeamans, Charles

    2013-10-01

    We report on measurements of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons at the National Ignition Facility. RIF neutrons are produced in cryogenically layered implision by up-scattered deuterium, or tritium ions that undergo subsequent fusion reactions. The rate of RIF neutron production is proportional to the fuel areal density (| | R) and ion-stopping length in the dense fuel assembly. Thus, RIF neutrons provide information on charge particle stopping in a strongly coupled plasma, where perturbative modeling breaks down. To measure RIF neutrons, a set of thulium activation foils was placed 50 cm from layered cryogenic implosions at the NIF. The reaction 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm has a neutron kinetic energy threshold of 14.96 MeV. We will present results from initial experiments performed during the spring of 2013. Prepared by LANL under Contract DE-AC-52-06-NA25396, TSPA, LA-UR-13-22085.

  8. LANL Experience Rolling Zr-Clad LEU-10Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    SciTech Connect

    Hammon, Duncan L.; Clarke, Kester D.; Alexander, David J.; Kennedy, Patrick K.; Edwards, Randall L.; Duffield, Andrew N.; Dombrowski, David E.

    2015-05-29

    The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield. This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.

  9. [Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1995-05-01

    In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ``Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,`` LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set.

  10. High-Resolution Correlated Fission Product Measurements of 235U (nth , f) with SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Spider Team

    2015-10-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) has obtained high-resolution, moderate-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). These data will be some of the first of their kind available to nuclear data evaluations. An overview of the SPIDER detector, analytical method, and preliminary results for 235U (nth , f) will be presented. LA-UR-15-20130 This work benefited from the use of the LANSCE accelerator facility and was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Measurement of Fresh Fuel Rods to Demonstrate Compliance with Criticality Safety Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Miko, David K.; Desimone, David J.

    2015-11-03

    In order to operate TA-66 as a radiological facility with the quantity of nuclear material required to fulfil its mission, a criticality safety evaluation was required. This evaluation defined the control parameters for operations at the facility. The resulting evaluation for TA-66 placed limits on the amount of SNM, as well as other materials such as beryllium. In addition, there is a limit on the number of uranium fuel rods allowed subject to enrichment, outer diameter, and overall length restrictions. The enrichments for the rods to be shipped to TA-66 were documented in LA-UR-13-23581, but the outer diameter and length were not documented. This report provides this information.

  12. Detonation Performance Testing of LX-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Samuel; Aslam, Tariq; Jackson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    CL-20 was developed at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at China Lake, CA in the mid 80's. Being less sensitive than PETN, but considerably more powerful than HMX, it is the highest energy and density compound known among organic chemicals. LX-19 was developed at LLNL in the early 90's. It is a high-energy plastic bonded explosive, composed of 95.8 wt% CL-20 and 4.2 wt% Estane binder, and is similar to LX-14 (composed of HMX and Estane), but with greater sensitivity characteristics with use of the more energetic CL-20 explosive. We report detonation performance results for unconfined cylindrical rate sticks of LX-19. The experimental diameter effects are shown, along with detonation front shapes, and reaction zone profiles for different test diameters. This data is critical for calibration to Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). LA-UR-15-20672.

  13. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016.

  14. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics: charting the path to thermonuclear ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Loucks, S. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Craxton, R. S.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K. A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Keck, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Maximov, A. V.; McKenty, P. W.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2005-10-01

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress continues to be made at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), charting the path to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition. Direct drive offers the potential for higher-gain implosions than x-ray drive and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion energy power plant. LLE's direct-drive ICF ignition target designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are based on hot-spot ignition. A cryogenic target with a spherical DT-ice layer, within or without a foam matrix, enclosed by a thin plastic shell, will be directly irradiated with ~1.5 MJ of laser energy. Cryogenic and plastic/foam (surrogate-cryogenic) targets that are hydrodynamically scaled from these ignition target designs are imploded on the 60-beam, 30 kJ, UV OMEGA laser system to validate the key target physics issues, including energy coupling, hydrodynamic instabilities and implosion symmetry. Prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF are extremely favourable, even while it is in its x-ray-drive irradiation configuration, with the development of the polar-direct-drive concept. A high-energy petawatt capability is being constructed at LLE next to the existing 60-beam OMEGA compression facility. This OMEGA EP (extended performance) laser will add two short-pulse, 2.6 kJ beams to the OMEGA laser system to backlight direct-drive ICF implosions and study fast-ignition physics with focused intensities up to 6 × 1020 W cm-2.

  15. Critical development by design of a rugged HPLC-MS/MS method for direct determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Nakov, Natalija; Petkovska, Rumenka; Ugrinova, Liljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Svinarov, Dobrin

    2015-06-15

    Development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for direct determination of R- and S-ibuprofen (Ibu) in human plasma without a need of derivatization or other complexities such as postcolumn infusion of solvents or reagents was performed. Critical steps were investigated during method development using experimental design to achieve a reliable and rugged assay. The LC-MS/MS separation of R-Ibu and S-Ibu was obtained on Lux Cellulose chiral column utilizing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in mixture of methanol and water (90:10%, v/v) as a mobile phase. Two types of extraction procedure for Ibu and Ketoprofen (internal standard, IS) were optimized using Full factorial 3(2) design (LLE) and D-Optimal Experimental Design (SPE). Excellent recovery values, 80% (mean) and 95% (mean) for LLE and SPE respectively, were obtained using 50μL plasma. The matrix effect was assessed for both of the extraction procedures, including hyperlipidaemic and haemolyzed plasma. The extensive investigation of matrix effect showed that LLE yields cleaner extracts than the SPE. The result of the investigation of in vitro interconversion of R-Ibu and S-Ibu showed that it does not occur under the influence of pH, temperature, and in the overall analytical procedure. The validation data, adhered to EMA guideline for validation of bioanalytical methods, showed that the proposed method provides accurate and reproducible results in range of 0.1-50mg/L with a lower limit of detection of 0.02mg/L. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through determination of R-Ibu and S-Ibu in human plasma after oral administration of 400mg rac-Ibu.

  16. Preventive medication use among persons with limited life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, André R; Fisher, Judith; Johnston, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Persons with limited life expectancy (LLE) – less than 1 year – are significant consumers of health care, are at increased risk of polypharmacy and adverse drug events, and have dynamic health statuses. Therefore, medication use among this population must be appropriate and regularly evaluated. The objective of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge and clinical practice presented in the literature regarding preventive medication use among persons with LLE. We searched Medline, Embase, and CINAHL using Medical Subject Headings. Broad searches were first conducted using the terms ‘terminal care or therapy’ or ‘advanced disease’ and ‘polypharmacy’ or ‘inappropriate medication’ or ‘preventive medicine’, followed by more specific searches using the terms ‘statins’ or ‘anti-hypertensives’ or ‘bisphosphonates’ or ‘laxatives’ and ‘terminal care’. Frameworks to assess appropriate versus inappropriate medications for persons with LLE, and the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use among this population, are presented. A considerable proportion of individuals with a known terminal condition continue to take chronic disease preventive medications until death despite questionable benefit. The addition of palliative preventive medications is advised. There is an indication that as death approaches the shift from a curative to palliative goal of care translates into a shift in medication use. This literature review is a first step towards improving medication use and decreasing polypharmacy in persons at the end of life. There is a need to develop consensus criteria to assess appropriate versus inappropriate medication use, specifically for individuals at the end of life. PMID:21731193

  17. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. PMID:27390294

  18. Lithium isotopes and light lithophile element abundances in shergottites: Evidence for both magmatic degassing and subsolidus diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Arya; McSween, Harry Y.; Hervig, Richard L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    Degassed magmatic water was potentially the major source of surficial water on Mars. We measured Li, B, and Be abundances and Li isotope profiles in pyroxenes, olivines, and maskelynite from four compositionally different shergottites—Shergotty, QUE 94201, LAR 06319, and Tissint—using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All three light lithophile elements (LLE) are incompatible: Li and B are soluble in H2O-rich fluids, whereas Be is insoluble. In the analyzed shergottites, Li concentration decreases and Be concentration increases from cores to rims in pyroxenes. However, B concentrations do not vary consistently with Li and Be abundances, except in QUE 94201 pyroxenes. Additionally, abundances of these three elements in olivines show a normal igneous-fractionation trend consistent with the crystallization of olivine before magma ascent and degassing. We expect that kinetic effects would lead to fractionation of 6Li in the vapor phase compared to 7Li during degassing. The Li isotope profiles, with increasing δ7Li from cores to rims, as well as Li and B profiles indicate possible degassing of hydrous fluids only for the depleted shergottite QUE 94201, as also supported by degassing models. Conversely, Shergotty, LAR 06319, and Tissint appear to have been affected by postcrystallization diffusion, based on their LLE and Li isotope profiles, accompanied by diffusion models. This process may represent an overlay on a degassing pattern. The LLE profiles and isotope profiles in QUE 94201 support the hypothesis that degassing of some basaltic shergottite magmas provided water to the Martian surface, although evidence may be obscured by subsolidus diffusion processes.

  19. Effectiveness of pressurized liquid extraction and solvent extraction for the simultaneous quantification of 14 pesticide residues in green tea using GC.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soon-Kil; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Jeong, Yang-Mo; Shin, Ho-Chul; Chang, Byung-Joon; Lee, Chitto; Shim, Jae-Han

    2008-06-01

    A simultaneous multiresidue method to determine 14 different pesticides, namely: flufenoxuron, fenitrothion, chlorfluazuron, chlorpyrifos, hexythiazox, methidathion, chlorfenapyr, tebuconazole, EPN, bifenthrin, cyhalothrin, spirodiclofen, difenoconazole, and azoxystrobin in green tea using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is described and compared with that of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). For PLE, the extraction conditions were not optimized. Rather they were selected based upon previous successful investigations published by our laboratory. Analysis was performed by GC with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and the pesticide identity of the positive samples was confirmed by GC-MS in a selected ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves showed an excellent linearity for concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 36.049 ppm, with r(2) >0.995. Green tea spiked at each of the two fortification levels, yielded average recoveries in the range of 87-112% and 71-109% for PLE and LLE, respectively. Precision values, expressed as RSDs, were below 6% at various spiking levels. With respect to the existing procedures, both methods gave LOQs that were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Both methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of real samples, and bifenthrin was the only pesticide residue quantified in incurred green tea samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.093 ppm (LLE) to 0.1 ppm (PLE). These concentration levels were relatively low compared to KFDA-MRL (0.3 ppm). According to the validation data and performance characteristics, both methods are appropriate for multiresidue analysis of pesticide residues in green tea. PLE methodology showed superiority in recoveries of some pesticides, acceptable accuracy and precision while minimizing environmental concerns, time, and labor, and can be applied in routine analytical laboratories. PMID:18481329

  20. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Kessler, T. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Padalino, S. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-11-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive-ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray-drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 107 cm s-1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium-tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ˜0.3 g cm-2, ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s.

  1. Cost–utility of adjuvant zoledronic acid in patients with breast cancer and low estrogen levels

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, N.W.D.; Skedgel, C.; Rayson, D.; Younis, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjuvant zoledronic acid (za) appears to improve disease-free survival (dfs) in women with early-stage breast cancer and low levels of estrogen (lle) because of induced or natural menopause. Characterizing the cost–utility (cu) of this therapy could help to determine its role in clinical practice. Methods Using the perspective of the Canadian health care system, we examined the cu of adjuvant endocrine therapy with or without za in women with early-stage endocrine-sensitive breast cancer and lle. A Markov model was used to compute the cumulative costs in Canadian dollars and the quality-adjusted life-years (qalys) gained from each adjuvant strategy, discounted at a rate of 5% annually. The model incorporated the dfs and fracture benefits of adjuvant za. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine key model parameters. Results Compared with a no-za strategy, adjuvant za in the induced and natural menopause groups was associated with, respectively, $7,825 and $7,789 in incremental costs and 0.46 and 0.34 in qaly gains for cu ratios of $17,007 and $23,093 per qaly gained. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were most sensitive to changes in the za dfs benefit. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested a 100% probability of adjuvant za being a cost-effective strategy at a threshold of $100,000 per qaly gained. Conclusions Based on available data, adjuvant za appears to be a cost-effective strategy in women with endocrine-sensitive breast cancer and lle, having cu ratios well below accepted thresholds. PMID:26300674

  2. Effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia on ventilatory variability and the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Straus, Christian; Thibault, Sylvain; Wysocki, Marc; Baconnier, Pierre; Similowski, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    In humans, lung ventilation exhibits breath-to-breath variability and dynamics that are nonlinear, complex, sensitive to initial conditions, unpredictable in the long-term, and chaotic. Hypercapnia, as produced by the inhalation of a CO(2)-enriched gas mixture, stimulates ventilation. Hypocapnia, as produced by mechanical hyperventilation, depresses ventilation in animals and in humans during sleep, but it does not induce apnea in awake humans. This emphasizes the suprapontine influences on ventilatory control. How cortical and subcortical commands interfere thus depend on the prevailing CO(2) levels. However, CO(2) also influences the variability and complexity of ventilation. This study was designed to describe how this occurs and to test the hypothesis that CO(2) chemoreceptors are important determinants of ventilatory dynamics. Spontaneous ventilatory flow was recorded in eight healthy subjects. Breath-by-breath variability was studied through the coefficient of variation of several ventilatory variables. Chaos was assessed with the noise titration method (noise limit) and characterized with numerical indexes [largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), sensitivity to initial conditions; Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (KSE), unpredictability; and correlation dimension (CD), irregularity]. In all subjects, under all conditions, a positive noise limit confirmed chaos. Hypercapnia reduced breathing variability, increased LLE (P = 0.0338 vs. normocapnia; P = 0.0018 vs. hypocapnia), increased KSE, and slightly reduced CD. Hypocapnia increased variability, decreased LLE and KSE, and reduced CD. These results suggest that chemoreceptors exert a strong influence on ventilatory variability and complexity. However, complexity persists in the quasi-absence of automatic drive. Ventilatory variability and complexity could be determined by the interaction between the respiratory central pattern generator and suprapontine structures. PMID:17218438

  3. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  4. Risk assessment of mortality for all-cause, ischemic heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer due to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hu, Suh-Woan; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Jeng-Lin; Tang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Guan-Jie; Ku, Kai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent understanding of PM2.5 health-related problems from fossil-fueled power plants emission inventories collected in Taiwan, we have determined the loss of life expectancy (LLE) and the lifetime (75-year) risks for PM2.5 health-related mortalities as attributed to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant; the Taichung Power Plant (TCP), with an installed nominal electrical capacity of 5780 MW in 2013. Five plausible scenarios (combinations of emission controls, fuel switch, and relocation) and two risk factors were considered. It is estimated that the lifetime (75-y) risk for all-cause mortality was 0.3%-0.6% for males and 0.2%-0.4% for females, and LLE at 84 days in 1997 for the 23 million residents of Taiwan. The risk has been reduced to one-fourth at 0.05%-0.10% for males and 0.03%-0.06% for females, and LLE at 15 days in 2007, which was mainly attributed to the installation of desulfurization and de-NOx equipment. Moreover, additional improvements can be expected if we can relocate the power plant to a downwind site on Taiwan, and convert the fuel source from coal to natural gas. The risk can be significantly reduced further to one-fiftieth at 0.001%-0.002% for males and 0.001% for females, and LLE at 0.3 days. Nonetheless, it is still an order higher than the commonly accepted elevated-cancer risk at 0.0001% (10-6), indicating that the PM2.5 health-related risk for operating such a world-class power plant is not negligible. In addition, this study finds that a better-chosen site (involving moving the plant to the leeward side of Taiwan) can reduce the risk significantly as opposed to solely transitioning the fuel source to natural gas. Note that the fuel cost of using natural gas (0.11 USD/kWh in 2013) in Taiwan is about twice the price of using coal fuel (0.05 USD/kWh in 2013).

  5. Broad spectrum drug screening using electron-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GCMS).

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of drugs and internal standard (promazine) is performed by mixing urine at basic pH with 1-chlorobutane. There are no hydrolysis or derivatization steps. After centrifugation the organic (upper) layer is transferred to another tube and evaporated. The dried extract is reconstituted with ethyl acetate and 1 microL is injected onto the GCMS. Drugs are volatilized in the GC inlet and separated on a capillary column. In the EI source drugs become positively charged and fragment. Mass analysis of ionized fragments occurs with a single quadrupole. The resulting full scan mass spectra are automatically searched against three libraries. PMID:20077071

  6. Identification of a novel conformationally constrained glucagon receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther C Y; Tu, Meihua; Stevens, Benjamin D; Bian, Jianwei; Aspnes, Gary; Perreault, Christian; Sammons, Matthew F; Wright, Stephen W; Litchfield, John; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Sharma, Raman; Didiuk, Mary T; Ebner, David C; Filipski, Kevin J; Brown, Janice; Atkinson, Karen; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel

    2014-02-01

    Identification of orally active, small molecule antagonists of the glucagon receptor represents a novel treatment paradigm for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present work discloses novel glucagon receptor antagonists, identified via conformational constraint of current existing literature antagonists. Optimization of lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE or LipE) culminated in enantiomers (+)-trans-26 and (-)-trans-27 which exhibit good physicochemical and in vitro drug metabolism profiles. In vivo, significant pharmacokinetic differences were noted with the two enantiomers, which were primarily driven through differences in clearance rates. Enantioselective oxidation by cytochrome P450 was ruled out as a causative factor for pharmacokinetic differences.

  7. Non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature and manifold learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Jin; Zang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, medical image research and application has become a research hotspot. This paper offers a solution to non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature (OF) and manifold learning. The structural features of medical images are extracted by combining ordinal features with local linear embedding (LLE) to improve the precision and speed of the registration algorithm. A physical model based on manifold learning and optimization search is constructed according to the complicated characteristics of non-rigid registration. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed registration scheme.

  8. Determination of antioxidant migration levels from low-density polyethylene films into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Dopico-García, M S; López-Vilariño, J M; González-Rodríguez, M V

    2003-11-01

    An analytical method for the determination of specific migration levels of phenolic antioxidants from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) into food simulant has been developed. The screening and response surface experimental designs to optimize the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of these antioxidants have been tested and the analyses have been carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet diode-array detector. The procedure developed has been applied to specific migration tests in different commercial LDPE films. The considered antioxidants have not been found upper the legislation limits although Ethanox 330 and Irgafos 168 have been found at trace level.

  9. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical fluid extraction. Technical progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Objective is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F- T) slurry bubble column reactor into a wax and a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle/regeneration. The automated apparatus was evaluated using a toluene-petroleum pitch system. The Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) equation will be used to fit the VLE and LLE data for F-T wax-solvent systems; this equation was successful in predicting both phase compositions and average molecular weight distributions.

  10. Kernel maximum likelihood scaled locally linear embedding for night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Yue, Jiang; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a robust method to analyze night vision data. A new kernel manifold algorithm is designed to match an ideal distribution with a complex one in natural data. First, an outlier-probability based on similarity metric is derived by solving the maximum likelihood in kernel space, which is corresponding with classification property for considering the statistical information on manifold. Then a robust nonlinear mapping is completed by scaling the embedding process of kernel LLE with the outlier-probability. In the simulations of artificial manifolds, real low-light-level (LLL) and infrared image sets, the proposed method show remarkable performances in dimension reduction and classification.

  11. Scientific Report (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Bedros Afeyan

    2004-05-11

    OAK-B135 An overview of our work as well as two recent publications are contained in this scientific report. The work reported here revolves around the discovery of new coherent nonlinear kinetic waves in laser produced plasmas, we call KEEN waves (kinetic, electrostatic electron nonlinear waves), and optical mixing experiments on the Imega laser system at LLE with blue-green light for the exploration of ways to suppress parametric instabilities in long scale length, long pulsewidth laser-plasmas such as those which will be found on NIF or LMJ.

  12. Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Berger, R L; Doeppner, T; Meezan, N B; Ralph, J; Ross, J S; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2009-11-12

    A series of laser plasma interaction experiments at OMEGA (LLE, Rochester) using gas-filled hohlraums shed light on the behavior of stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering at various plasma conditions encountered in indirect drive ignition designs. We present detailed experimental results that quantify the density, temperature, and intensity thresholds for both of these instabilities. In addition to controlling plasma parameters, the National Ignition Campaign relies on optical beam smoothing techniques to mitigate backscatter. We show that polarization smoothing is effective at controlling backscatter. These results provide an experimental basis for forthcoming experiments on National Ignition Facility.

  13. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    , reduced models for the inversion, non-linear inverse scattering, image reconstruction and restoration, applications (bio-medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation etc). NCMIP 2012 was a one-day workshop. Each of the submitted papers was reviewed by 2 to 4 reviewers. Among the accepted papers, there are 8 oral presentations and 5 posters. Three international speakers were invited for a long talk. This second edition attracted 60 registered attendees in May 2012. NCMIP 2012 was supported by Institut Farman (ENS Cachan) and endorsed by the following French research networks (GDR ISIS, GDR Ondes, GDR MOA, GDR MSPC). The program committee acknowledges the following laboratories CMLA, LMT, LSV, LURPA, SATIE, as well as DIGITEO Network. Laure Blanc-Féraud and Pierre-Yves Joubert Workshop Co-chairs Laure Blanc-Féraud, I3S laboratory, CNRS, France Pierre-Yves Joubert, IEF laboratory, Paris-Sud University, CNRS, France Technical Program Committee Alexandre Baussard, ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, France Marc Bonnet, ENSTA, ParisTech, France Jerôme Darbon, CMLA, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Oliver Dorn, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK Mário Figueiredo, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal Laurent Fribourg, LSV, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Marc Lambert, L2S Laboratory, CNRS, SupElec, Paris-Sud University, France Anthony Quinn, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland Christian Rey, LMT, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Joachim Weickert, Saarland University, Germany Local Chair Alejandro Mottini, Morpheme group I3S-INRIA Sophie Abriet, SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Béatrice Bacquet, SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Reviewers Gilles Aubert, J-A Dieudonné Laboratory, CNRS and University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France Alexandre Baussard, ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, France Laure Blanc-Féraud, I3S laboratory, CNRS, France Marc Bonnet, ENSTA, ParisTech, France Jerôme Darbon, CMLA, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Oliver Dorn, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK G

  14. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  15. β-lactam antibiotics residues analysis in bovine milk by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jank, L; Hoff, R B; Tarouco, P C; Barreto, F; Pizzolato, T M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the development and validation of a simple method for the detection and quantification of six β-lactam antibiotics residues (ceftiofur, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in bovine milk using a fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LLE consisted of the addition of acetonitrile to the sample, followed by addition of sodium chloride, centrifugation and direct injection of an aliquot into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was performed in a C(18) column, using acetonitrile and water, both with 0.1% of formic acid, as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Limits of detection ranged from 0.4 (penicillin G and penicillin V) to 10.0 ng ml(-1) (ceftiofur), and linearity was achieved. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported.

  16. Ranking the risks of 12 major environmental pollutants that occur in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Masashi; Oka, Tosihiro; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    The risks posed by 12 major environmental pollutants in Japan were evaluated and ranked on the same scale. These were arsenic, benzene, cadmium, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, DDTs, dioxins, formaldehyde, methylmercury, radon, toluene, and xylenes. Approximately half of these substances are carcinogenic while the other half are non-carcinogenic. We applied a risk estimation framework that can evaluate both cancer and non-cancer risks on the same scale. The framework consists of two parts: the calculation of the probability of adverse health effects, and the evaluation of the severity of the effects. In order to calculate the probability of adverse health effects, individual variabilities in exposure level, metabolizing rate, and sensitivity were taken into account. Loss of life expectancy (LLE; days) was used as a measure of severity of the adverse health effects and of the resulting risk level. The risk level of the substances in terms of LLE ranged from approximately 0.01 to 10 days. The risks from radon and formaldehyde were found to be the highest, while those from DDT and chlordane were the lowest. Our findings also suggested that the risk levels posed by non-carcinogenic substances were comparable to those posed by carcinogenic substances.

  17. Improved measurements of partition coefficients for polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay

    2011-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely used brominated flame retardants with strong hydrophobicity. Due to their strong affinity for organic matter, accurate measurement of adsorption coefficients for PBDEs using conventional batch methods can be confounded by biases caused by their sorption to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this study, sorption isotherms were constructed for BDE-47 and BDE-99 in sediments by using different methods to measure the aqueous phase concentration Cw. Upon centrifugation, Cw measured by automated solid-phase microextraction (Cw-SPME) was consistently smaller than by liquid-liquid extraction (Cw-LLE), suggesting substantial association of PBDEs with DOC. Significant underestimations (1.2-106-fold) of sediment-water partition coefficient Kd occurred when Cw was measured by LLE. The log KDOC values derived from the SPME measurements ranged from 5.10 to 8.02 for eight congeners from BDE-28 to BDE-183, suggesting a strong tendency for PBDEs to complex with DOC. This study showed that PBDE congeners have larger sorption coefficients than would be measured by the conventional method. The high affinity to DOC also means a potential for DOC-facilitated transport, thus enhancing the environmental mobility of PBDEs. PMID:21210679

  18. Diagnosing in-flight ρR implosion asymmetry at low and intermediate mode numbers with charged particles at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Bionta, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Friedrich, S.; Glenn, S.; Heeter, R.; Hicks, D.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O.; London, R.; MacKinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Weber, S.

    2013-10-01

    J. DELETTREZ, V. GLEBOV, P. RADHA, T. SANGSTER, LLE, R. OLSON, SNL, J. KLINE, G. KYRALA, R. LEEPER, D. WILSON, LANL, J. KILKENNY, A. NIKROO, GA - The Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers were developed for OMEGA and transferred to the NIF as National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostics. In tuning-campaign implosions containing D and 3He gas, the WRFs are used to measure the spectrum of protons from D-3He reactions. From the measured energy downshift of these protons, the total ρR is inferred through the plasma stopping power. Data from WRFs fielded simultaneously on the pole and equator indicate low-mode polar ρR asymmetries at shock burn. Significant swings in ρR P2/P0 are also observed in the ignition campaign data set, attributed to low-mode x-ray drive inhomogeneity. The data set also allows studies of intermediate mode symmetry. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  19. Cryogenic DT and D2 targets for inertial confinement fusiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Elasky, L. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Janezic, R.; Keck, R. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Loucks, S. J.; Lund, L. D.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shmayda, W. T.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Moody, J. D.; Atherton, J. A.; MacGowan, B. D.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bernat, T. P.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2007-05-01

    Ignition target designs for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [W. J. Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)] are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-fuel layer of deuterium and tritium. The need for solid-fuel layers was recognized more than 30 years ago and considerable effort has resulted in the production of cryogenic targets that meet most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIF. At the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the inner-ice surface of cryogenic DT capsules formed using β-layering meets the surface-smoothness requirement for ignition (<1-μm rms in all modes). Prototype x-ray-drive cryogenic targets being produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are nearing the tolerances required for ignition on the NIF. At LLE, these cryogenic DT (and D2) capsules are being imploded on the direct-drive 60-beam, 30-kJ UV OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The designs of these cryogenic targets for OMEGA are energy scaled from the baseline direct-drive-ignition design for the NIF. Significant progress with the formation and characterization of cryogenic targets for both direct and x-ray drive will be described. Results from recent cryogenic implosions will also be presented.

  20. A fast, sensitive, and high throughput method for the determination of cefuroxime lysine in dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longshan; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiaohui; Xiao, Feng; He, Bosai; Wang, Jie; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-01-30

    In order to investigate the preclinical pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine, a fast, sensitive and high throughput UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of cefuroxime in dog plasma. Cefuroxime and IS phenacetin were extracted from plasma samples by PPT or LLE procedure, and then separated on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C(18) column with an isocratic elution of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in 10mM ammonium acetate (40:60, v/v). MRM using the fragmentation transitions of m/z 442 → 364 and 180 → 110 in positive ESI mode was performed to quantify cefuroxime and IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2-400 μg/ml for PPT and 0.01-5 μg/ml for LLE. The LLOQ was 0.01 μg/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions in all samples were no more than 8.1%, while the accuracy was within ± 6.2% of nominal values. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine in beagle dogs.

  1. Determination of umckalin in commercial tincture and phytopreparations containing Pelargonium sidoides by HPLC: comparison of sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; de Oliveira, B H

    2010-06-15

    Roots of Pelargonium sidoides D.C. are used for the production of phytomedicines. Current quality control of phytopreparations containing P. sidoides extracts has been made in terms of total phenolics content. In this work we describe the development and validation of an HPLC method for the analysis of P. sidoides tincture and commercial syrup phytopreparations using umckalin (7-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin) as chemical marker. Two sample preparation procedures, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were also developed and compared. The samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC and the two methods were then validated and compared. The repeatability of the two procedures showed coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.2% for SPE procedure, and 1.3% for LLE. Recovery for both methods was higher than 95.2%. The linearity showed correlation coefficients better than 0.999 for both methods. The detection and quantification limit were 0.0098 and 0.0298microgmL(-1), respectively. The validated procedure was then used for the analysis of tincture and five batches of two commercial phytopreparations containing P. sidoides tincture.

  2. Miniaturized salting-out liquid-liquid extraction of sulfonamides from different matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Jiang, Ming; Li, Gao; Xu, Li; Xie, Minjie

    2010-10-29

    Salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) uses water-miscible organic solvents as the extractants. The principle of it is based on the phase separation of water-miscible organic solvents from the aqueous solutions in the presence of high concentration of salts. As an effort to miniaturization, in the present study, a 1-mL syringe was employed as the phase separation device for salting-out LLE. Once the phase separation occurred, the upper layer could be narrowed into the needle tip by pushing the plunger; thus, the collection of the upper layer solvent was convenient. By miniaturization, the consumption of organic solvent was decreased as low as possible. Four sulfonamides were used as model analytes. The optimal salting-out parameters were as follows. 150 μL of acetonitrile was added to the 500 μL of sample solution containing 300 mg mL(-1) sodium chloride at a pH of 6.5. This procedure afforded a convenient, fast and cost-saving operation with good cleanup ability for the model analytes. It showed promising applications for different matrices. Herein, food (honey), environmental water (river water) and biological fluid (human urine) were investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained. An additional bonus of this sample preparation method is that, owing to its water-miscible nature, the extraction solvent is compatible with various analytical systems, like gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

  3. Optimisation of olive oil phenol extraction conditions using a high-power probe ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Jerman Klen, T; Mozetič Vodopivec, B

    2012-10-15

    A new method of ultrasound probe assisted liquid-liquid extraction (US-LLE) combined with a freeze-based fat precipitation clean-up and HPLC-DAD-FLD-MS detection is described for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenol analysis. Three extraction variables (solvent type; 100%, 80%, 50% methanol, sonication time; 5, 10, 20 min, extraction steps; 1-5) and two clean-up methods (n-hexane washing vs. low temperature fat precipitation) were studied and optimised with aim to maximise extracts' phenol recoveries. A three-step extraction of 10 min with pure methanol (5 mL) resulted in the highest phenol content of freeze-based defatted extracts (667 μg GAE g(-1)) from 10 g of EVOO, providing much higher efficiency (up to 68%) and repeatability (up to 51%) vs. its non-sonicated counterpart (LLE-agitation) and n-hexane washing. In addition, the overall method provided high linearity (r(2)≥0.97), precision (RSD: 0.4-9.3%) and sensitivity with LODs/LOQs ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 μg g(-1) and 0.10-0.51 μg g(-1) of EVOO, respectively. PMID:23442714

  4. The Dortmund Data Bank: A computerized system for retrieval, correlation, and prediction of thermodynamic properties of mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, U.; Rarey-Nies, J.; Gmehling, J.

    1989-05-01

    The Dortmund Data Bank (DDB) was started in 1973 with the intention to employ the vast store of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data from the literature for the development of models for the prediction of VLE. From the beginning, the structure of the DDB has been organized in such a way that it was possible to take advantage of the full potential of electronic computers. With the experience gained in fitting and processing VLE data, we extended the DDB system to other types of mixture properties, i.e., liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), gas solubilities (GLE), activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ∞, heats of mixing ( h E), and excess heat capacities. Besides the files for mixture properties, the DDB contains pure-component data and program packages for various applications. New experimental data are checked for consistency before they are stored. For data retrieval user-specified search masks can be used. The data files are available via an online data service and through the Dechema Chemistry Data Series. For the purpose of data correlation and model testing, parameter fitting is performed with an optimization routine (Nelder-Mead). In the past years the DDB system has been successfully employed for the development of prediction methods for VLE, LLE, GLE, γ∞, and h E (UNIFAC, mod. UNIFAC, etc.).

  5. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  6. Optimisation of olive oil phenol extraction conditions using a high-power probe ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Jerman Klen, T; Mozetič Vodopivec, B

    2012-10-15

    A new method of ultrasound probe assisted liquid-liquid extraction (US-LLE) combined with a freeze-based fat precipitation clean-up and HPLC-DAD-FLD-MS detection is described for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenol analysis. Three extraction variables (solvent type; 100%, 80%, 50% methanol, sonication time; 5, 10, 20 min, extraction steps; 1-5) and two clean-up methods (n-hexane washing vs. low temperature fat precipitation) were studied and optimised with aim to maximise extracts' phenol recoveries. A three-step extraction of 10 min with pure methanol (5 mL) resulted in the highest phenol content of freeze-based defatted extracts (667 μg GAE g(-1)) from 10 g of EVOO, providing much higher efficiency (up to 68%) and repeatability (up to 51%) vs. its non-sonicated counterpart (LLE-agitation) and n-hexane washing. In addition, the overall method provided high linearity (r(2)≥0.97), precision (RSD: 0.4-9.3%) and sensitivity with LODs/LOQs ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 μg g(-1) and 0.10-0.51 μg g(-1) of EVOO, respectively.

  7. [Low temperature freezing followed by dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of 104 pesticide residues in vegetable oils using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wenrui; Xiang, Dapeng

    2015-03-01

    A method using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by clean-up steps of centrifugation, freezing and dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been devel- oped for the determination of trace levels of 104 pesticides in vegetable oils. LLE has been optimized to extract these pesticide residues from oils to obtain the highest recoveries of pesticides and the lowest co-extract fat residue in the final extract. In addition, the centrifugation and freezing steps as well as D-SPE with primary secondary amine (PSA), graphite carbon black (GCB) and C18 were used as the clean-up steps to minimize the co-extract fat. The recoveries obtained ranged from 55% to 121% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0. 47% to 19. 2% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg. This method, combining with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 1 µg/kg for 80% of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the most compounds were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Chinese legislations for oils. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of the selected pesticides in oils.

  8. The multiple-pulse driver line on the OMEGA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Dorrer, C.; Waxer, L. J.; Donaldson, W. R.

    2015-02-01

    The multiple-pulse driver line (MPD) provides on-shot co-propagation of two separate pulse shapes in all 60 OMEGA beams at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The two co-propagating pulse shapes would typically be (1) a series of 100-ps "picket" pulses followed by (2) a longer square or shaped "drive" pulse. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), which increases the laser bandwidth, can be applied to either one of the two pulse shapes. Therefore, MPD allows for dynamic bandwidth reduction, where the bandwidth is applied only to the picket portion of a pulse shape. Since the use of SSD decreases the efficiency of frequency conversion from the IR to the UV, dynamic bandwidth reduction provides an increase in the drive-pulse energy. The design of the MPD required careful consideration of beam combination as well as the minimum pulse separation for two pulses generated by two separate sources. A new combined-pulse-shape diagnostic needed to be designed and installed after the last grating used for SSD. This new driver-line flexibility is built into the OMEGA front end as one component of the initiative to mitigate cross-beam energy transfer on target and to demonstrate hydro-equivalent ignition on the OMEGA laser at LLE.

  9. Searching for R-parity violation at run-II of the tevatron.

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Banerjee, S.; Berger, E. L.; Chertok, M.; Diaz, M. A.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O. J. P.; Harris, B. W.; Hewett, J.; Magro, M. B.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Navarro, L.; Parua, N.; Porod, W.; Restrepo, D. A.; Richardson, P.; Rizzo, T.; Seymour, M. H.; Sullivan, Z.; Valle, J. W. F.; de Campos, F.

    1999-06-22

    The authors present an outlook for possible discovery of supersymmetry with broken R-parity at Run II of the Tevatron. They first present a review of the literature and an update of the experimental bounds. In turn they then discuss the following processes: (1) resonant slepton production followed by R{sub P} decay, (a) via LQD{sup c} and (b) via LLE{sup c}; (2) how to distinguish resonant slepton production from Z{prime} or W{prime} production; (3) resonant slepton production followed by the decay to neutralino LSP, which decays via LQD{sup c}; (4) resonant stop production followed by the decay to a chargino, which cascades to the neutralino LSP; (5) gluino pair production followed by the cascade decay to charm squarks which decay directly via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (6) squark pair production followed by the cascade decay to the neutralino LSP which decays via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (7) MSSM pair production followed by the cascade decay to the LSP which decays (a) via LLE{sup c}, (b) via LQD{sup c}, and (c) via U{sup c}D{sup c}D{sup c}, respectively; and (8) top quark and top squark decays in spontaneous R{sub P}.

  10. OMEGA: A NEW COLD X-RAY SIMULATION FACILITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF OPTICAL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J H; Newlander, C D; Fournier, K B; Beutler, D E; Coverdale, C A; May, M J; Tobin, M; Davis, J F; Shiekh, D

    2007-04-27

    We report on recent progress for the development of a new cold X-ray optical test capability using the Omega Facility located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. These tests were done on the 30 kJ OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. We conducted a six-shot series called OMEGA II on 14 July 2006 in one eight-hour day (supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency). The initial testing was performed using simple protected gold optical coatings on fused silica substrates. PUFFTFT analyses were completed and the specimen's thermal lateral stress and transverse stress conditions were calculated and interpreted. No major anomalies were detected. Comparison of the pre- and posttest reflective measurements coupled with the TFCALC analyses proved invaluable in guiding the analyses and interpreting the observed damage. The Omega facility is a high quality facility for performing evaluation of optical coatings and coupons and provides experience for the development of future National Ignition Facility (NIF) testing.

  11. Evaluation of Limb Load Asymmetry Using Two New Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil NS; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H.; Htwe, Ohnmar; Jagannathan, K.; Hamdan, Nor M Y; Rajalakshmi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of limb loading is important in orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation. In current practice, mathematical models such as Symmetry index (SI), Symmetry ratio (SR), and Symmetry angle (SA) are used to quantify limb loading asymmetry. Literatures have identified certain limitations with the above mathematical models. Hence this study presents two new mathematical models Modified symmetry index (MSI) and Limb loading error (LLE) that would address these limitations. Furthermore, the current mathematical models were compared against the new model with the goal of achieving a better model. This study uses hypothetical data to simulate an algorithmic preliminary computational measure to perform with all numerical possibilities of even and uneven limb loading that can occur in human legs. Descriptive statistics are used to interpret the limb loading patterns: symmetry, asymmetry and maximum asymmetry. The five mathematical models were similar in analyzing symmetry between limbs. However, for asymmetry and maximum asymmetry data, the SA and SR values do not give any meaningful interpretation, and SI gives an inflated value. The MSI and LLE are direct, easy to interpret and identify the loading patterns with the side of asymmetry. The new models are notable as they quantify the amount and side of asymmetry under different loading patterns. PMID:25716372

  12. Mid-Holocene paleoceanographic conditions in the Limfjord region from gastropod (Littorina littorea) oxygen and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, J.; Schmitz, B.

    2003-04-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope intrashell transects of common intertidal gastropods Littorina littorea have been used to reconstruct environmental conditions in the Limfjord region during the mid-Holocene (late Atlantic time). The subfossil specimens studied are from the excavated Stone Age Kitchenmidden in Ertebølle, northern Denmark, dated between 5970±95 to 5070±90 B.P. In addition recent specimens were studied from different coastal localities within the Limfjord, along a salinity gradient from the west to east. These modern shells were used as control samples, in order to construct an oceanographic model for the Limfjord, in which the seasonal isotopic range from the Littorina subfossils could be interpreted. The coastal marine climate in the Ertebølle region during the mid-Holocene indicates summer-SST close to 22^oC and 4-5 ppm reduced salinity compared to fully marine conditions. The mid-Holocene central Limfjord can be described as a coastal area, which experienced similar salinity conditions (c. 30.5 PSU) that prevail in the western part (Odden area) today. In terms of summer-SST as compared with a 10-year average (1989-1998) for the Limfjord region, temperatures were 2-3^oC above recent climatic settings. These results point towards a mid-Holocene Limfjord in contact with the North Sea/Skagerrak with possibly more pronounced water exchange with the North Sea than today.

  13. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Hypersaline Solutions Using Low-Volume, Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2015-08-18

    Complex, hypersaline brines-including those coproduced with oil and gas, rejected from desalination technologies, or used as working fluids for geothermal electricity generation-could contain critical materials such as the rare earth elements (REE) in valuable concentrations. Accurate quantitation of these analytes in complex, aqueous matrices is necessary for evaluation and implementation of systems aimed at recovering those critical materials. However, most analytical methods for measuring trace metals have not been validated for highly saline and/or chemically complex brines. Here we modified and optimized previously published liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate as the extractant in a heptane diluent, and studied its efficacy for REE recovery as a function of three primary variables: background salinity (as NaCl), concentration of a competing species (here Fe), and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Results showed that the modified LLE was robust to a range of salinity, Fe, and DOC concentrations studied as well as constant, elevated Ba concentrations. With proper characterization of the natural samples of interest, this method could be deployed for accurate analysis of REE in small volumes of hyper-saline and chemically complex brines.

  14. The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lubricating oil over time--a comparison of supercritical fluid and liquid-liquid extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wong, P K; Wang, J

    2001-01-01

    Optimal extraction conditions including extraction temperature, fluid density of carbon dioxide and concentration of modifier for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to extract of 16 2-6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spiked into used lubricating oil collected from a gasoline-driven automobile were determined. A comparison of extraction efficiency 2-6-ring PAHs spiked into the used lubricating oil extracted by SFE and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods was made. Results indicated that recoveries of PAHs extracted by SFE from the used lubricating oil were higher than those by LLE. PAH profiles of lubricating oil samples collected at various driving distances from an old and a new gasoline-driven automobiles were determined by combining SFE, gel permeation chromatography clean up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed that the concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oils collected from both automobiles increased rapidly after oil change. Two- and three-ring PAHs dominated the PAH profiles of oil samples collected from both automobiles. High concentrations of the more toxic 4-6-ring PAHs, were found in the oil samples collected from both automobiles even at a short driving distance after oil change. The concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oil collected from two automobiles driven for a longer distance after oil change were very similar.

  15. Decaying asymmetric dark matter relaxes the AMS-Fermi tension

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Lei; Kang, Zhaofeng E-mail: zhaofengkang@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The first result of AMS-02 confirms the positron fraction excess observed by PAMELA, but the spectrum is somewhat softer than that of PAMELA. In the dark matter (DM) interpretation it brings a tension between AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT, which reported an excess of the electron plus positron flux. In this work we point out that the asymmetric cosmic ray from asymmetric dark matter (ADM) decay relaxes the tension. It is found that in the case of two-body decay a bosonic ADM around 2.4 TeV and decaying into μ{sup −}τ{sup +} can significantly improve the fits. Based on the R−parity-violating supersymmetry with operators LLE{sup c}, we propose a minimal model to realize that ADM. The model introduces only a pair of singlets (X, X-bar ) with a tiny coupling LH{sub u}X, which makes the ADM share the lepton asymmetry and decay into μ{sup −}τ{sup +} along the operator LLE{sup c}.

  16. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Hypersaline Solutions Using Low-Volume, Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2015-08-18

    Complex, hypersaline brines-including those coproduced with oil and gas, rejected from desalination technologies, or used as working fluids for geothermal electricity generation-could contain critical materials such as the rare earth elements (REE) in valuable concentrations. Accurate quantitation of these analytes in complex, aqueous matrices is necessary for evaluation and implementation of systems aimed at recovering those critical materials. However, most analytical methods for measuring trace metals have not been validated for highly saline and/or chemically complex brines. Here we modified and optimized previously published liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate as the extractant in a heptane diluent, and studied its efficacy for REE recovery as a function of three primary variables: background salinity (as NaCl), concentration of a competing species (here Fe), and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Results showed that the modified LLE was robust to a range of salinity, Fe, and DOC concentrations studied as well as constant, elevated Ba concentrations. With proper characterization of the natural samples of interest, this method could be deployed for accurate analysis of REE in small volumes of hyper-saline and chemically complex brines. PMID:25920439

  17. Characterization of Mono-Energetic, Charged-Particle Radiography for HEDP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Casey, D.; Frenje, J.; Rygg, J.; Petrasso, R.; Gotchev, O.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J.; Smalyuk, V.

    2008-11-01

    Charged-particle radiography, which utilizes mono-energetic protons and alphas, has been used to image various High-Energy-Density Physics (HEDP) phenomena of interest, including capsule implosions, laser-plasma interactions, and Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth. An imploded D^3He- filled glass capsule -- the backlighter -- provides mono-energetic 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons and 3.6-MeV alphas for radiographing these various phenomena. This technique provides simultaneously information about areal density and electromagnetic fields in the imaged systems. For successful study of these phenomena, the backlighter yield and size need to be optimized for the imaging geometry and detector used. Understanding the experimental parameters that affect it is therefore essential. Empirical studies of backlighter performance under a variety of conditions are presented. GEANT4 is used as well to investigate the limits and capabilities of this technique. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE, LLNL, LLE and the Fusion Science Center at Univ. Rochester. *Currently at LLNL.

  18. Effects of inspiratory loading on the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Samara, Ziyad; Raux, Mathieu; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Gharbi, Alexandre; Gottfried, Stewart B; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits complexity and chaos. The aim of this study was to determine whether suprapontine interferences with the automatic breathing control could contribute to ventilatory chaos. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous study performed in awake volunteers exhibiting cortical pre-motor potentials during inspiratory loading. In eight subjects, flow was recorded at rest, while breathing against inspiratory threshold loads (median 21.5 cm H(2)O) and resistive loads (50 cm H(2)Ol(-1)s(-1)) loads, and while inhaling 7% CO(2)-93% O(2). Chaos was identified through noise titration (noise limit, NL) and the sensitivity to initial conditions was assessed through the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). Breath-by-breath variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation of several ventilatory variables. Chaos was consistently present in ventilatory flow recordings, but mechanical loading did not alter NL, LLE, or variability. In contrast, CO(2) altered chaos and reduced variability. In conclusion, inspiratory loading - and any resultant respiratory-related cortical activity - were not associated with changes in ventilatory chaos in this study, arguing against suprapontine contributions to ventilatory complexity. PMID:19013545

  19. Recycling of indium from CIGS photovoltaic cells: potential of combining acid-resistant nanofiltration with liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Niewersch, Claudia; Lenz, Markus; Kül, Zöhre Zohra; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Schäffer, Andreas; Wintgens, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called "urban mining" considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than their primary ores. Indium is of foremost interest being widely used, expensive, scarce and prone to supply risk. This study first investigated the capability of different nanofiltration membranes of extracting indium from copper-indium-gallium- selenide photovoltaic cell (CIGS) leachates under low pH conditions and low transmembrane pressure differences (<3 bar). Retentates were then subjected to a further selective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Even at very acidic pH indium was retained to >98% by nanofiltration, separating it from parts of the Ag, Sb, Se, and Zn present. LLE using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extracted 97% of the indium from the retentates, separating it from all other elements except for Mo, Al, and Sn. Overall, 95% (2.4 g m(-2) CIGS) of the indium could be extracted to the D2EHPA phase. Simultaneously, by nanofiltration the consumption of D2EHPA was reduced by >60% due to the metal concentration in the reduced retentate volume. These results show clearly the potential for efficient scarce metal recovery from secondary resources. Furthermore, since nanofiltration was applicable at very low pH (≥ 0.6), it may be applied in hydrometallurgy typically using acidic conditions.

  20. Isomolar semigrand ensemble molecular dynamics: development and application to liquid-liquid equilibria.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Timothy I; Maginn, Edward J

    2005-02-01

    An extended system molecular dynamics method for the isomolar semigrand ensemble (fixed number of particles, pressure, temperature, and fugacity fraction) is developed and applied to the calculation of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for two Lennard-Jones mixtures. The method utilizes an extended system variable to dynamically control the fugacity fraction xi of the mixture by gradually transforming the identity of particles in the system. Two approaches are used to compute coexistence points. The first approach uses multiple-histogram reweighting techniques to determine the coexistence xi and compositions of each phase at temperatures near the upper critical solution temperature. The second approach, useful for cases in which there is no critical solution temperature, is based on principles of small system thermodynamics. In this case a coexistence point is found by running N-P-T-xi simulations at a common temperature and pressure and varying the fugacity fraction to map out the difference in chemical potential between the two species A and B (mu(A)-mu(B)) as a function of composition. Once this curve is known the equal-distance/equal-area criterion is used to determine the coexistence point. Both approaches give results that are comparable to those of previous Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. By formulating this approach in a molecular dynamics framework, it should be easier to compute the LLE of complex molecules whose intramolecular degrees of freedom are often difficult to properly sample with MC techniques.

  1. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the quantitative analysis of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in plasma by means of LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Annika I; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-02-01

    Oxylipins are potent lipid mediators. For the evaluation of their biological roles, several LC-MS based methods have been developed. While these methods are similar, the described sample preparation procedures for the extraction of oxylipins differ considerably. In order to deduce the most appropriate method for the analysis of non-esterified oxylipins in human plasma, we evaluated the performance of seven established sample preparation procedures. Six commonly used solid phase extraction (SPE) and one liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) protocol were compared based on the recovery of 13 added internal standards, extraction efficacy of oxylipins from plasma and reduction of ion-suppressing matrix. Dramatic differences in the performance in all three parameters were found. LLE with ethyl acetate was overall not a sufficient sample preparation strategy. The protocols using Oasis- and StrataX-material insufficiently removed interfering matrix compounds. Extraction efficacy of oxylipins on anion-exchanging BondElut cartridges was low, while removal of matrix was nearly perfect. None of the protocols led to a high extraction efficacy of analytes while removing all interfering matrix components. However, SPE on a C18-material with removal of matrix by water and n-hexane prior elution with methyl formate showed the best performance for the analysis of a broad spectrum of oxylipins in plasma.

  2. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance. PMID:27079089

  3. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction as an alternative to the official method for the analysis of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Sophie; Kelly, Mary T; Fenet, Hélène; Larroque, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The objective this study was to compare the official EU liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of compounds migrating from cross-linked polyethylene into water. A medium polarity polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) 65 microm fibre proved most efficient for the SPME extraction of nine test compounds and the optimum extraction conditions were an immersion time of 30 min with heating to 60 degrees C. The repeatability of the SPME method was variable: RSD values ranged from approximately 4-18% depending on the individual compound, though correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 in the concentration range 0.5-1000 microg/l. It would also seem that there is some competition amongst different compounds for sites on the fibre and this is a potential drawback of SPME when applied to unknown samples. However, when applied to water samples in contact with polyethylene, SPME proved to be immensely more sensitive and to have a greater extraction range than LLE. These factors coupled with the rapidity and ease of use of SPME mean that it could be developed for use as an alternative to the existing official method or as an alert system in the routine analysis of materials used to transport domestic water.

  4. The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lubricating oil over time--a comparison of supercritical fluid and liquid-liquid extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wong, P K; Wang, J

    2001-01-01

    Optimal extraction conditions including extraction temperature, fluid density of carbon dioxide and concentration of modifier for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to extract of 16 2-6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spiked into used lubricating oil collected from a gasoline-driven automobile were determined. A comparison of extraction efficiency 2-6-ring PAHs spiked into the used lubricating oil extracted by SFE and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods was made. Results indicated that recoveries of PAHs extracted by SFE from the used lubricating oil were higher than those by LLE. PAH profiles of lubricating oil samples collected at various driving distances from an old and a new gasoline-driven automobiles were determined by combining SFE, gel permeation chromatography clean up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed that the concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oils collected from both automobiles increased rapidly after oil change. Two- and three-ring PAHs dominated the PAH profiles of oil samples collected from both automobiles. High concentrations of the more toxic 4-6-ring PAHs, were found in the oil samples collected from both automobiles even at a short driving distance after oil change. The concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oil collected from two automobiles driven for a longer distance after oil change were very similar. PMID:11291447

  5. Determination of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD in whole blood by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Strand, Dag Helge

    2013-04-01

    A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of buprenorphine, fentanyl and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether. UPLC-MS-MS analysis was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (pH 10.2) and methanol. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each of the analytes and the deuterium labeled internal standards. Limit of detection values of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD were 0.28, 0.044 and 0.0097 ng/mL and limit of quantification values were 0.94, 0.14 and 0.036 ng/mL, respectively. Most phospholipids were removed during LLE. No or only minor matrix effects were observed. The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health since September 2011 for qualitative and quantitative detections of buprenorphine, fentanyl and/or LSD in more than 400 whole blood samples with two replicates per sample.

  6. Multiview Locally Linear Embedding for Effective Medical Image Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hualei; Tao, Dacheng; Ma, Dianfu

    2013-01-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval continues to gain attention for its potential to assist radiological image interpretation and decision making. Many approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of medical image retrieval system, among which visual features such as SIFT, LBP, and intensity histogram play a critical role. Typically, these features are concatenated into a long vector to represent medical images, and thus traditional dimension reduction techniques such as locally linear embedding (LLE), principal component analysis (PCA), or laplacian eigenmaps (LE) can be employed to reduce the “curse of dimensionality”. Though these approaches show promising performance for medical image retrieval, the feature-concatenating method ignores the fact that different features have distinct physical meanings. In this paper, we propose a new method called multiview locally linear embedding (MLLE) for medical image retrieval. Following the patch alignment framework, MLLE preserves the geometric structure of the local patch in each feature space according to the LLE criterion. To explore complementary properties among a range of features, MLLE assigns different weights to local patches from different feature spaces. Finally, MLLE employs global coordinate alignment and alternating optimization techniques to learn a smooth low-dimensional embedding from different features. To justify the effectiveness of MLLE for medical image retrieval, we compare it with conventional spectral embedding methods. We conduct experiments on a subset of the IRMA medical image data set. Evaluation results show that MLLE outperforms state-of-the-art dimension reduction methods. PMID:24349277

  7. Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, R.

    1997-09-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, irradiation uniformity is improved by passing laser beams through distributed phase plates (DPPs), which produce focused intensity profiles with well-controlled, reproducible envelopes modulated by fine random speckle. [C. B. Burckhardt, Appl. Opt. 9, 695 (1970); Y. Kato and K. Mima, Appl. Phys. B 29, 186 (1982); Y. Kato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057 (1984); Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE Review 33, NTIS Document No. DOE/DP/40200-65, 1987 (unpublished), p. 1; Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE Review 63, NTIS Document No. DOE/SF/19460-91, 1995 (unpublished), p. 1.] A uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere acts to reduce the contribution of the speckle to the time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity by causing the intensity distribution to move relative to the absorption layer of the plasma. This occurs most directly as the absorption layer in the plasma moves with the ablation-driven flow, but it is shown that the effect of the accumulating ablated plasma on the phase of the laser light also makes a quantitatively significant contribution. Analytical results are obtained using the paraxial approximation applied to the beam propagation, and a simple statistical model is assumed for the properties of DPPs. The reduction in the time-averaged spatial spectrum of the speckle due to these effects is shown to be quantitatively significant within time intervals characteristic of atmospheric hydrodynamics under typical ICF irradiation intensities.

  8. Comparison of extraction methods and detection systems in the gas chromatographic analysis of volatile carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, E E; Ferreira, M C; Sequeda, L G; Martínez, J R; Wong, J W

    1997-08-29

    High-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron-capture detection (ECD), nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD), flame ionization detection (FID) or with mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (MS-SIM) was used in the analysis of volatile carbonyl compounds. Eighteen carbonyl compounds that are typically produced during lipid peroxidation were derivatized quantitatively with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH) at room temperature, to afford their corresponding water-insoluble hydrazones. These derivatives were extracted into non-polar phases by means of either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) (hexane) or solid-phase extraction (SPE) on 3 ml C18 octadecyl-bonded phase cartridges. Detection limits of 10(-14) and 10(-12) mol/ml per aldehyde were achieved with the ECD and MS-SIM systems, respectively. The effects of extraction conditions on sensitivity and recovery were determined by performing parallel HRGC-ECD and HRGC-MS-SIM analyses of pentafluorophenylhydrazones of the eighteen compounds under study. Recoveries of 51.4-78.9 +/- 1.2-4.5 and 80.9-98.3 +/- 1.0-3.5% were obtained with LLE and SPE, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of the volatile carbonyl compounds in various heated vegetable oils (corn, palm or sunflower) and to the analysis of volatile aldehydes in human urine. PMID:9335127

  9. Newly developed positive tone resists for Posi/Posi double patterning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Takeshita, Masaru; Maemori, Satoshi; Uchida, Ryusuke; Takasu, Ryoichi; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    Double patterning with 193nm immersion lithography is generally recognized as a candidate for 32nm hp node and possibly beyond with recent progress. LLE (Litho-Litho-Etch) could be good candidate for double patterning method because of its simplicity but the good solution hasn't been proposed yet. In last year, freezing free Posi/Nega process was introduced as candidate for LLE process. But that had an issue that the resolution of negative tone resist was little bit poor for 1L/3S pattern compared with positive tone. Thus it's better to choose positive tone as 2nd resist for this reason. And then Posi/Posi process without any freezing material has been investigated and successfully established to image double patterning. Posi/Posi process without any freezing material has successfully achieved to image below 32nm hp. Furthermore contact hole imaging was succeeded by using cross-line method and image reverse method. We present the productivity study of freezing free Posi/Posi process on Cross-lined contact hole, critical resolution for pitch splitting and reverse imaging for contact hole.

  10. Assessing the lipophilicity of fragments and early hits.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Paul N; Murray, Christopher W

    2011-07-01

    A key challenge in many drug discovery programs is to accurately assess the potential value of screening hits. This is particularly true in fragment-based drug design (FBDD), where the hits often bind relatively weakly, but are correspondingly small. Ligand efficiency (LE) considers both the potency and the size of the molecule, and enables us to estimate whether or not an initial hit is likely to be optimisable to a potent, druglike lead. While size is a key property that needs to be controlled in a small molecule drug, there are a number of additional properties that should also be considered. Lipophilicity is amongst the most important of these additional properties, and here we present a new efficiency index (LLE(AT)) that combines lipophilicity, size and potency. The index is intuitively defined, and has been designed to have the same target value and dynamic range as LE, making it easily interpretable by medicinal chemists. Monitoring both LE and LLE(AT) should help both in the selection of more promising fragment hits, and controlling molecular weight and lipophilicity during optimisation. PMID:21614595

  11. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Rampal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), referred to as tie points (TP) and lowest-level elevation (LLE) methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003-2008) in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a) the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods), (b) the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c) the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a) and (b), contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6-7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm) over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm) over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the

  12. Oxidation and Hydration of U 3 O 8 Materials Following Controlled Exposure to Temperature and Humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Tamasi, Alison L.; Boland, Kevin S.; Czerwinski, Kenneth; Ellis, Jason K.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Martin, Richard L.; Pugmire, Alison L.; Reilly, Dallas; Scott, Brian L.; Sutton, Andrew D.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Walensky, Justin R.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.

    2015-03-18

    Chemical signatures correlated with uranium oxide processing are of interest to forensic science for inferring sample provenance. Identification of temporal changes in chemical structures of process uranium materials as a function of controlled temperatures and relative humidities may provide additional information regarding sample history. In our study, a high-purity α-U3O8 sample and three other uranium oxide samples synthesized from reaction routes used in nuclear conversion processes were stored under controlled conditions over 2–3.5 years, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterize chemical speciation. We measured signatures from the α-U3O8 sample indicated that the material oxidized and hydrated after storage under high humidity conditions over time. Impurities, such as uranyl fluoride or schoepites, were initially detectable in the other uranium oxide samples. After storage under controlled conditions, the analyses of the samples revealed oxidation over time, although the signature of the uranyl fluoride impurity diminished. The presence of schoepite phases in older uranium oxide material is likely indicative of storage under high humidity and should be taken into account for assessing sample history. Finally, the absence of a signature from a chemical impurity, such as uranyl fluoride hydrate, in an older material may not preclude its presence at the initial time of production. LA-UR-15-21495.

  13. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  14. Los Alamos flux comperssion systems, ASI focus area I program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, James H; Heger, Sharif

    2010-12-14

    This document is a final summary of an original plan submitted as LA-UR 10-06693. There are minor revisions, some new items have been completed, and there is a statement of some funding shortfalls. Program plan focuses on using Ranchero Technology for the ASI 43 cm Ranchero generators are being fabricated to provide a small scale load and diagnostics test capability at Los Alamos - LLNL loads and Los Alamos multi-shell loads. 43 cm Ranchero tests continue as long as they are useful. 1 or 1.4 m Ranchero tests follow in the out years - Multi-shell loads have identified needs for full length generators and one 1.4 m generator is on hand. Both LLNL and Los Alamos loads will require larger current capability, and Ranchero will be scaled up in diameter when full scale current is defined. Increased scale tests expected in FY-12. The bulk of the Los Alamos Effort will be directed toward two thrusts: (1) Perform tests for LLNL load development and (2) explore multi-shell loads. ASC program assesses development against ASI results then provides new designs.

  15. Tamping effects and confinement time in NIF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Merrill, F.; Cerjan, C.; Batha, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Tamper is expected to play an important role in inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It is expected to increase the confinement time of thermonuclear burning (TN) in the hot spot. In this work, we study the dependence of the capsule performance with respect to the density ratio of the pusher to the hot fuel at the cold-hot interface numerically through LASNEX simulations in one-dimension. Our study shows that the dependence of the capsule performance (neutron yield) with respect to the square root of the density ratio is not linear: the sharper the interface, the higher the tamping effect and neutron yields. Our analysis indicates that the tamping factor in both NIC and NIF experiments has not been appreciable and the tamping factor on yield is less than 1.1. Thus, the tamping factor has not yet played a significant role in the current NIF ignition design. Furthermore, the confinement time in NIF experiments will be discussed. (LA-UR-15-25596).

  16. Oxidation and Hydration of U 3 O 8 Materials Following Controlled Exposure to Temperature and Humidity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tamasi, Alison L.; Boland, Kevin S.; Czerwinski, Kenneth; Ellis, Jason K.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Martin, Richard L.; Pugmire, Alison L.; Reilly, Dallas; Scott, Brian L.; Sutton, Andrew D.; et al

    2015-03-18

    Chemical signatures correlated with uranium oxide processing are of interest to forensic science for inferring sample provenance. Identification of temporal changes in chemical structures of process uranium materials as a function of controlled temperatures and relative humidities may provide additional information regarding sample history. In our study, a high-purity α-U3O8 sample and three other uranium oxide samples synthesized from reaction routes used in nuclear conversion processes were stored under controlled conditions over 2–3.5 years, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterize chemical speciation. We measured signatures from the α-U3O8 sample indicated that the materialmore » oxidized and hydrated after storage under high humidity conditions over time. Impurities, such as uranyl fluoride or schoepites, were initially detectable in the other uranium oxide samples. After storage under controlled conditions, the analyses of the samples revealed oxidation over time, although the signature of the uranyl fluoride impurity diminished. The presence of schoepite phases in older uranium oxide material is likely indicative of storage under high humidity and should be taken into account for assessing sample history. Finally, the absence of a signature from a chemical impurity, such as uranyl fluoride hydrate, in an older material may not preclude its presence at the initial time of production. LA-UR-15-21495.« less

  17. Kinetic-Impact Asteroid Defense: Dependence on Porosity and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J. M.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we study the deflection of hazardous near-earth asteroids using a kinetic impactor. The momentum delivered to the asteroid can be greater than the momentum of the impactor because of the reaction force produced by ablation from the impact crater. We use an adaptive-mesh hydrocode to study the momentum-enhancement factor, or beta, varying the assumptions regarding the equation of state, strength, and porosity of the target. Spall from the back side of the asteroid, which partly counters the favorable effect of ablation, is also included in the calculations. The efficiency is shown to be most strongly dependent on the asteroid's porosity, which unfortunately is the most difficult quantity to obtain via remote observations. This study is applied both to the proposed deflection of the 150-meter diameter moon of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos by the AIDA/DART mission, and to the potential deflection of the 492-meter diameter asteroid 101955 Bennu, which has some possible Earth impacts late in the 22nd century, and is the target of the planned OSIRIS-Rex mission. Figures of merit from both these studies include the bulk momentum imparted to the asteroid and the degree to which the asteroid is disrupted. (LA-UR-15-26214)

  18. Alpha Heating and TN Burn in NIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Merrill, Frank; Cerjan, Charlie; Batha, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable TN burn requires alpha-particle energy deposition in the hot fuel. Recently, we developed an analytic model to estimate the neutron yield generated by the alpha-particle energy deposited in the hot spot, in terms of the measured total neutron yield, the adiabat of the cold fuel and the peak implosion kinetic energy of the pusher. Our alpha heating model has been applied to a number of inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our model predictions are consistent with the post-shot calibrated code simulations and experimental data. We have also studied the uncertainty and sensitivities of alpha heating on various physics parameters, such as the adiabat of cold fuel, total neutron yield and peak implosion velocity. Our analysis demonstrates that the alpha particle heating was appreciable in only high-foot experiments. Based on our work, we will discuss paths and parameters to reach ignition at NIF (LA-UR-15-25507). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  19. SESAME 96171, a three-phase equation of state for CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D.

    2014-07-08

    This report describes an earlier version of an equation of state (EOS) for cerium (IV) oxide, CeO2. This work has been superseded by a newer version that is described in LA-UR-14-24689. Everything from this report needed to understand the new version is included in the new report. I have constructed SESAME 96171, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes two solid phases and the liquid. Unlike its immediate predecessor, this EOS is valid over a larger range in pressure due to including the extra phase. I have described the process of constructing and testing the EOS, emphasizing its continuity with the previous EOS and the modifications needed for the new frame-work. The comparison with data is good, but is still limited by the same issues with nuclear models that were present in the previous work. The remaining significant issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental porous Hugoniot data, which may require using more sophisticated model to represent porosity, as discussed in the previous report.

  20. Time-Temperature Superposition Applied to PBX Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Deluca, Racci

    2011-06-01

    The use of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) in weapon applications requires a certain level of structural/mechanical integrity. Uniaxial tension and compression experiments characterize the mechanical response of materials over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, providing the basis for predictive modeling in more complex geometries. After years of data collection on a wide variety of PBX formulations, we have applied time-temperature superposition principles to a mechanical properties database which includes PBX 9501, PBX 9502, PBXN-110, PBXN-9, and HPP (propellant). The results of quasi-static tension and compression, SHPB compression, and cantilever DMA are compared. Time-temperature relationships of maximum stress and corresponding strain values are analyzed in addition to the more conventional analysis of modulus. Our analysis shows adherence to the principles of time-temperature superposition and correlations of mechanical response to the binder glass transition and specimen density. Direct ties relate time-temperature analysis to the underlying basis of existing PBX mechanical models (ViscoSCRAM). Results suggest that, within limits, mechanical response can be predicted at conditions not explicitly measured. LA-UR 11-01096.

  1. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  2. Novel Circuits for Energizing Manganin Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing of novel MOSFET pulsed constant current supplies for low impedance Manganin stress gauges. The design emphasis has been on high accuracy, low noise, simple, low cost, disposable supplies that can be used to energize multiple gauges in explosive or shock experiments. Manganin gauges used to measure stresses in detonating explosive experiments have typical resistances of 50 m Ω and are energized with pulsed currents of 50 A. Conventional pulsed current supplies for these gauges are high voltage devices with outputs as high as 500 V. Common problems with the use of high voltage supplies at explosive firing sites are: erroneous signals caused by ground loops; overdrive of oscilloscopes on gauge failure; gauge signal crosstalk; cost; and errors due to finite and changing source impedances. To correct these issues a novel MOSFET circuit was designed and will be described. It is an 18-V circuit, powered by 9-V alkaline batteries, and features an optically isolated trigger, and single-point grounding. These circuits have been successfully tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and selected explosive tests will be described together with their results. LA-UR-15-20613.

  3. Why have we stopped research on liquid centrifugal separation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.

    1996-05-28

    Using high-temperature high-speed liquid centrifuges for lanthanides and actinides separation was originally proposed as a physical separation method in the Los Alamos ADTT/ATW concept [C. Bowman, LA-UR-92-1065 (1992)]. The authors investigated centrifugal separation in a concerted effort of experiments, theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. They discovered that owing to the ionic-composition-dependence of the sedimentation coefficients for the fission products and actinides, separation by grouping of molecular densities would not work in general in the molten salt environment. Alternatively the lanthanides and actinides could be transferred to a liquid metal carrier (e.g. bismuth) via reductive extraction and then separated by liquid centrifuges, but the material and technical challenges are severe. Meanwhile the authors have established that the reductive extraction procedure itself can be used for desired separations. Unlike conventional aqueous-based reprocessing technologies, reductive extraction separation uses only reagent (Li) that reconstitutes carrier salts (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) and a processing medium (Bi) that can be continuously recycled and reused, with a nearly-pure fission products waste stream. The processing units are compact and reliable, and can be built at relatively low cost while maintaining high throughput. Therefore the research effort on developing liquid centrifuges for separations in ADTT/ATW was terminated in late 1995. This paper will discuss the various aspects involved in reaching this decision.

  4. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  5. The impact of boundary conditions and fluid velocity on damping for a fluid conveying pipe in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjolsing, Eric; Todd, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The hydrocarbon industry has expressed interest in developing vibration based energy harvesting systems that can be deployed downhole and supplement or replace existing power sources. The energy output of such harvesters is highly dependent on the level of damping in the supporting structure which, in this case, would drive the systems vibrational input. A first step towards optimizing an energy harvester configuration is then to understand how key variables influence system damping. To this end an investigation was undertaken to identify how changing system boundary conditions effect damping in a fluid conveying pipe confined by a viscous fluid (i.e. a producing hydrocarbon well). The key variables investigated included the rotational boundary springs, the velocity of the conveyed fluid, and the viscosity of the annulus fluid. The system was modeled using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and included a hydrodynamic forcing function to capture the effects of the viscous annulus fluid. The natural frequencies of the system were solved in the frequency domain with the system damping subsequently calculated. Lower damping ratios were observed: in stiffer systems, for lower conveyed fluid velocities, and for lower annulus fluid viscosities. A numeric example is provided to illustrate the interaction between the three variables of interest. These results are of direct interest to researchers and engineers developing vibrational energy harvesting systems for downhole deployment. Approved for publication, LAUR-16-21227.

  6. Non-Invasive Timing of Gas Gun Projectiles with Light Detection and Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Peter; Wu, Ming; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) diagnostic to track the position of a projectile inside of the gas gun barrel in real-time. This capability permits the generation of precisely timed trigger pulses useful for pre-triggering high-latency diagnostics such as a flash lamp-pumped laser. An initial feasibility test was performed using a 72 mm bore single-stage gas gun routinely used for dynamic research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 655-nm pulsed (~100 ps) diode laser operating at a pulse repetition rate of ~100 kHz was used to interrogate the position of the moving projectile in real-time. The position of the projectile in the gun barrel was tracked over a distance of ~3 meters prior to impact. The position record showed that the projectile moved at a constant velocity (483 m/s) prior to impacting the target. This velocity was in good agreement with independent measurements of the projectile velocity by photon Doppler velocimetry, and timing of the passage of the projectile through optical marker beams positioned at the muzzle of the gun. The LIDAR return can be processed in real-time to generate pre-trigger pulses at preset separations between the projectile and target. Work funded by LANL Laboratory Directed Research Project 2011012DR. LA-UR-13-21121, approved for public release.

  7. Improved Modeling of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra for Nuclear Data Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudecker, Denise; Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Kahler, Albert C.; White, Morgan C.

    2015-10-01

    The prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) of major actinides such as 239Pu and 235U are quantities of interest for nuclear physics application areas including reactor physics and national security. Nuclear data evaluations provide recommended data for those application areas based on nuclear theory and experiments. Here, we present improvements made to the effective models predicting the PFNS up to incident neutron energies of 30 MeV and their impact on evaluations. These models describe relevant physics processes better than those used for the current US nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. In addition, the use of higher-fidelity models such as Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculations will be discussed in the context of future PFNS evaluations. (LA-UR-15-24763) This work was carried out under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration and Office of Science, and performed by Los Alamos National Security LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Smith, Steven E; Rowe, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  9. Using xRage to Model Heat Flow for Experiments to Measure Opacities in HED Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, L.; Vandervort, R.; Keiter, P.; Drake, R. P.; Mussack, K.; Orban, C.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a NIF proposal to measure opacities of C, N and O at temperatures and densities relevant to the base of the solar convection zone. Our proposed experiments would provide the first opacity measurements for these elements within this HED regime. A critical feature of our experimental platform is a super-sonic radiation front propagating within the targets. Under these conditions, density remains constant across the radiation front for a couple nanoseconds, enabling a window during which the opacities of the hot and cold target may be measured simultaneously. Afterwards, hydrodynamic effects create temperature and density gradients, which would obfuscate analysis of opacity data. We are using xRage to simulate heat flow within our targets in order to estimate the time scale over which temperature and density gradients evolve. These simulations will better inform our target design and diagnostic requirements. If successful, our experiments could yield the data necessary to validate existing opacity models or provide physical insights to inform the development of new opacity models. Accurate opacity models are essential to the understanding of radiation transport within HED systems, with applications ranging from astrophysics to ICF. U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant #DE-NA0001840. Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-UR-15-25490.

  10. TOPS Opacities: Opacities of mixtures (calculated by TOPS« using LEDCOP« elemental opacities) and LEDCOP« Astrophysical Opacities mixed by TOPS«) from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The LANL T-4 Group develops methods for and perform calculations of atomic structure, scattering cross sections, opacities, exotic atoms, and quantum and nonlinear optics, including effects of high energy density environments and interaction with external electromagnetic fields. The Opacity databases allow User chosen mixtures and/or elements and provide precalculated astrophysical mixtures.

    The Astrophysical Opacity data base contains opacity information for all elements from hydrogen to zinc, over a temperature range from 0.5 eV to 100 keV and a density range from 10-10 to 10+9 gm/cc. Every element has approximately 1500 (T-h) points, where T is the temperature and h is the electron degeneracy parameter, which characterizes the electron pressure of the plasma at the ion-plasma boundary. [Copied from LANL T-4 Opacity Web Page, Norman H. Magee, Jr. (T-4) and Robert E. H. Clark (X-CI), a Theoretical Self-Assessment Special Feature, May,1999. See LA-UR-99-336] (Specialized Interface)

  11. M-Theory with Framed Corners and Tertiary Index Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham

    2014-03-01

    The study of the partition function in M-theory involves the use of index theory on a twelve-dimensional bounding manifold. In eleven dimensions, viewed as a boundary, this is given by secondary index invariants such as the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer eta-invariant, the Chern-Simons invariant, or the Adams e-invariant. If the eleven-dimensional manifold itself has a boundary, the resulting ten-dimensional manifold can be viewed as a codimension two corner. The partition function in this context has been studied by the author in relation to index theory for manifolds with corners, essentially on the product of two intervals. In this paper, we focus on the case of framed manifolds (which are automatically Spin) and provide a formulation of the refined partition function using a tertiary index invariant, namely the f-invariant introduced by Laures within elliptic cohomology. We describe the context globally, connecting the various spaces and theories around M-theory, and providing a physical realization and interpretation of some ingredients appearing in the constructions due to Bunke-Naumann and Bodecker. The formulation leads to a natural interpretation of anomalies using corners and uncovers some resulting constraints in the heterotic corner. The analysis for type IIA leads to a physical identification of various components of eta-forms appearing in the formula for the phase of the partition function.

  12. Mass Yields and Average Total Kinetic Energy Release in Fission for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dana

    2015-10-01

    Mass yield distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) in neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets were measured with a gridded ionization chamber. Despite decades of fission research, our understanding of how fragment mass yields and TKE depend on incident neutron energy is limited, especially at higher energies (above 5-10 MeV). Improved accuracy in these quantities is important for nuclear technology as it enhances our simulation capabilities and increases the confidence in diagnostic tools. The data can also guide and validate theoretical fission models where the correlation between the fragment mass and TKE is of particular value for constraining models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam with energies from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on target nuclei 235U, 238U, and 239Pu will be presented with a focus on exploring data trends as a function of neutron energy from thermal through 30 MeV. Results indicate clear evidence of structure due to multi-chance fission in the TKE . LA-UR-15-24761.

  13. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Brett; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for actinides have long been of great interest for nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements were performed using fission chambers which provided limited information about the detected fission events. For the case of 239Pu(n,f), sensitivity studies have shown a need for more precise measurements. Recently the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure fission cross sections to better than 1% uncertainty by providing 3D tracking of fission fragments. The fissionTPC collected data to calculate the 239Pu(n,f) cross section at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during the 2014 run cycle. Preliminary analysis has been focused on studying particle identification and target and beam non-uniformities to reduce the uncertainty on the cross section. Additionally, the collaboration is investigating other systematic errors that could not be well studied with a traditional fission chamber. LA-UR-15-24906.

  14. Spectroscopic and photochemical properties of the lichen compound lobaric acid.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, María Eliana; Bascuñan, Luis; Quilhot, Wanda; Fernández, Ernesto; Rubio, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Lichens synthesize and accumulate photoprotective compounds against possible damage induced by UV radiation in the photobiont. A biological model has been recently formulated that allows the use of lichens to evaluate changes at different UV radiation levels. The thermodynamics, photophysical and photochemical properties of lobaric acid were studied in acetonitrile, ethanol and Brij 35(3%) micelles at different pH values. Also the sun protector factor (SPF) was determined by in vitro methods. Lobaric acid was extracted from Stereoculon alpinum Laur. and characterized by means of standard procedures. Solutions were irradiated in oxygen and under nitrogen conditions with a UV medium pressure lamp. Lobaric acid absorbs at 287, 303 nm, and no fluorescence emission was observed. The maximum value of the molar extinction coefficient (5479.6 M(-1) cm(-1)) was obtained in Brij 35 at pH 12. Solubility is pH dependant and is highest in Brij 35 at pH 12 (4.45 x 10(-4) M). Photoconsumption quantum yields ranged between 10(-4) and 10(-5) in aerobic and anaerobic experimental conditions. Lobaric acid SPF was very low (0.5) compared with homosalate (4.0), (reference solar filter). Two pKa values, 5.05 (carboxylic acid group deprotonation) and 9.75 (phenolic OH deprotonation), were determined.

  15. A diffusive radiation hydrodynamics code, xRage, is implemented to compare radiation flow with experimental data from the Omega laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandervort, Robert; Elgin, Laura; Farag, Ebraheem; Mussack, Katie; Baumgaertel, Jessica Ann; Keiter, Paul; Klein, Sallee; Orban, Christopher; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    A sound speed discrepancy between solar models and data collected using helioseismology exists. The sound speed discrepancy is the most pronounced at the base of the convective zone (CZ) for otherwise consistent solar models. One potential solution is that the opacity models for important elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are incomplete. At these high energy-density conditions few relevant opacity measurements exist to compare to the models. Only relatively recently have user facilities been able to reach the temperatures and densities that resemble the convective zone base. It is our long term goal to determine the opacities of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen at the relevant conditions. Preliminary testing has occurred at the Omega Laser Facility in Rochester, New York. Presented are the results of the shots taken on April 22, 2015. A half hohlraum was used to drive a supersonic radiation front through a dominantly carbon, CRF, foam. These results are compared to diffusive xRage simulations. (LA-UR-15-25495)

  16. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-02-12

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  17. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-12-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  19. Ligand efficiency-based support vector regression models for predicting bioactivities of ligands to drug target proteins.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nobuyoshi

    2014-10-27

    The concept of ligand efficiency (LE) indices is widely accepted throughout the drug design community and is frequently used in a retrospective manner in the process of drug development. For example, LE indices are used to investigate LE optimization processes of already-approved drugs and to re-evaluate hit compounds obtained from structure-based virtual screening methods and/or high-throughput experimental assays. However, LE indices could also be applied in a prospective manner to explore drug candidates. Here, we describe the construction of machine learning-based regression models in which LE indices are adopted as an end point and show that LE-based regression models can outperform regression models based on pIC50 values. In addition to pIC50 values traditionally used in machine learning studies based on chemogenomics data, three representative LE indices (ligand lipophilicity efficiency (LLE), binding efficiency index (BEI), and surface efficiency index (SEI)) were adopted, then used to create four types of training data. We constructed regression models by applying a support vector regression (SVR) method to the training data. In cross-validation tests of the SVR models, the LE-based SVR models showed higher correlations between the observed and predicted values than the pIC50-based models. Application tests to new data displayed that, generally, the predictive performance of SVR models follows the order SEI > BEI > LLE > pIC50. Close examination of the distributions of the activity values (pIC50, LLE, BEI, and SEI) in the training and validation data implied that the performance order of the SVR models may be ascribed to the much higher diversity of the LE-based training and validation data. In the application tests, the LE-based SVR models can offer better predictive performance of compound-protein pairs with a wider range of ligand potencies than the pIC50-based models. This finding strongly suggests that LE-based SVR models are better than pIC50-based

  20. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  1. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. [Lamiaceae] leaf aqueous extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. (Lamiaceae) in mice and rats, to scientifically appraise some of the plant's ethnomedical uses, and its safety and efficacy. The leaf powder of the plant was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The antinociceptive effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the leaf extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used, respectively, as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. L. leonurus leaf aqueous extract (LLE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) antinociceptive effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. LLE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of LLE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different flavonoids, diterpenoids, polyphenolics, and other chemical constituents of the plant may be involved in the observed antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of L. leonurus possesses antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the herb in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic, and other inflammatory

  2. Forming Smooth Cryogenic Target Layers for OMEGA Direct-Drive ICF Implosions and Prospects for Direct-Drive Targets for the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. R.

    2005-10-01

    More than 100 cryogenic D2 target ice layers have been formed for direct-drive ICF implosion experiments at LLE. While all of these layers are smooth to several microns rms, some of them have achieved the 1-μm rms nonuniformity required for high-yield implosions. The largest effect on the quality of a cryogenic target layer is the thermal uniformity of the target's surroundings. Temperature nonuniformities at the ice that exceed 100 μK are observable in the layers. Control of the thermal environment determines the uniformity of the ice layer thickness and the time it takes to form the layer. Detailed evidence for this sensitivity and the importance of the thermal environment to the ice quality are presented. The initial direct-drive target design for the NIF is significantly different from the current OMEGA design with the addition of a fill tube and a refracting ``Saturn'' ring around the target equator (allows direct drive with the NIF x-ray drive beam configuration). Progress at making these targets and a strategy for creating a thermal environment capable of forming high-quality ice layers in these targets will be presented. LLE is modifying its cryogenic systems to perform DT implosions. Transitioning from pure D2 to mixtures of D2, DT, and T2 adds complexity that may affect the ice layer quality. The disparate freezing temperatures of the isotopes may result in partial fractionation with the standard slow-cool protocol used to form a smooth layer. The ability to enhance the layering process using infrared heating may be affected by the inhomogeneity of the isotope concentrations in the ice. These effects are reported for a mixture of H2, HD, and D2 that is used as a proxy for D2, DT, and T2 mixtures. The status of DT cryogenic operations will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-92SF19460. Contributors: M. J. Bonino, T. Duffy, D. H. Edgell, L. M

  3. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U. S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of four selected mosquito insecticides and a synergist in water using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chrom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed for the determination of four mosquito insecticides (malathion, metho-prene, phenothrin, and resmethrin) and one synergist (piperonyl butoxide) in water. The analytical method uses liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated in reagent water, urban surface water, and ground water. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 50 nanograms per liter ranged from 68 to 171 percent, with standard deviations in concentrations of 27 nanograms per liter or less. The method detection limit for all compounds was 5.9 nanograms per liter or less for 247-milliliter samples. This method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of these mosquito insecticides and one synergist in water.

  4. Low-dimensional representations of hyperspectral data for use in CRF-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Cahill, Nathan D.; Monteiro, Sildomar T.; Saber, Eli; Messinger, David W.

    2015-10-01

    Probabilistic graphical models have strong potential for use in hyperspectral image classification. One important class of probabilisitic graphical models is the Conditional Random Field (CRF), which has distinct advantages over traditional Markov Random Fields (MRF), including: no independence assumption is made over the observation, and local and pairwise potential features can be defined with flexibility. Conventional methods for hyperspectral image classification utilize all spectral bands and assign the corresponding raw intensity values into the feature functions in CRFs. These methods, however, require significant computational efforts and yield an ambiguous summary from the data. To mitigate these problems, we propose a novel processing method for hyperspectral image classification by incorporating a lower dimensional representation into the CRFs. In this paper, we use representations based on three types of graph-based dimensionality reduction algorithms: Laplacian Eigemaps (LE), Spatial-Spectral Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SSSE), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE), and we investigate the impact of choice of representation on the subsequent CRF-based classifications.

  5. Impact of new water systems on healthcare-associated colonization or infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Annick; Quantin, Catherine; Vanhems, Philippe; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Bertrand, Xavier; Astruc, Karine; Chavanet, Pascal; Aho-Glélé, Ludwig S

    2016-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Untersucht werden sollte der Einfluss eines neuen weniger mit P. aeruginosa kontaminierten Wassersystems auf die Inzidenz nosokomialer Kolonisation oder Infektion mit P. aeruginosa in Pflegeeinheiten, die zwischen 2005 und 2014 in ein anderes Gebäude verlagert wurden. Methode: Mit dem Modell der generalisierten Schätzgleichungen (Generalized Estimated Equations) wurde die Inzidenz nosokomialer Fällen von P. aeruginosa zwischen den beiden Gebäuden verglichen. Ergebnisse: 29 Einheiten mit 2.759 in diesen Einheiten nachgewiesenen Fällen wurden während des Studienzeitraums verlagert. Zwischen dem neuem und dem alten Gebäude war keine Differenz nachweisbar.Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse unterstützen nicht die Hypothese einer positiven Assoziation zwischen der Trinkwasserkontamination und der Inzidenz nosokomialer P. aeruginosa-Fälle. Allerdings bedarf diese Aussage der Überprüfung des Zusammenhangs zwischen kontaminierten Wasserproben und Patientendaten.

  6. Purification and characterization of coacervate-forming cuticular proteins from Papilio xuthus pupae.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Yumi; Nakagawa, Taro; Taoka, Azuma; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    The Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupa expresses novel soluble proteins that undergo reversible temperature-dependent coacervate-formation. We purified two coacervate-forming proteins, PX-1 and PX-4, from the wings of pharate adults. PX-1 and PX-4 form coacervates upon warming. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that these proteins assemble ordered bead-like ultrastructures. We cloned and sequenced PX-1 and PX-4 cDNAs. The PX-1 and PX-4 amino acid sequences contain many hydrophobic residues and show homologies to insect cuticular proteins. Moreover, when recombinant PX-1 and PX-4 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins exhibited temperature-dependent coacervation. Furthermore, analyses of truncated mutants of PX-1 suggest that both the Val/Pro-rich region and Gly/lle-rich regions of PX-1 are involved in such coacervation.

  7. Protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis using inverse substrates: the synthesis of Pro-Xaa-bonds by trypsin.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, V; Schellenberger, U; Jakubke, H D; Zapevalova, N P; Mitin, Y V

    1991-07-01

    Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline p-guanidinophenyl ester is an "inverse substrate" for trypsin; i.e., the cationic center is included in the leaving group instead of being in the acyl moiety. This substrate can be used in trypsin-catalyzed acyl-transfer reactions leading to the synthesis of Pro-Xaa peptide bonds. The reaction proceeds about 20 times slower than reaction with similar alanine-containing substrates, but the ratio between synthesis and hydrolysis is more favorable. The investigation of a series of nucleophiles led to information about the specificity of the process. Nucleophiles differing only in the P(1)'-position show an increasing acyl transfer efficiency in the order Phe < Gly < Ley < Ser < Ala < lle. C terminal elongation of the nucleophiles is of minor influence on their efficiency. The formation of an H bond between the acyl-enzyme and the nucleophile seems to play an important role in the aminolysis of the acyl-enzyme. PMID:18600766

  8. Characterization and categorization of higher-dimensional presentation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluff, Elizabeth; Burton, Robert P.; Barrett, William A.

    1990-09-01

    Existing, documented techniques for the presentation of higher dimensionaL information are characterized. Techniques include: Symbolic Star PLots, Chernoff Faces, Gtyphs, Boxes, Profile PLots, SymboLic Scatter PLots, KLeiner-Hartigan Tree SymboLs, GeneraLized Draftsman DispLays, Andrew's PLots, ParaLLeL Axes Graphics, and Cartesian Hyperspace Graphics. Each technique is evaLuated based on accuracy, simpLicity, clarity, appearance, well-designed structure, information leveL, dimansonaL capacity, flexibility, interpretability, visual impact, mastery time, and computational tractability. Strengths, weaknesses and applicabilities of each technique are determined. Techniques are categorized as symbolic and non-symbolic. Characteristics of each category are identified.

  9. Application of hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in identification of oil spill sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Xiong, Yongqiang; Fang, Jidun; Wang, Lifang; Liang, Qianyong

    2009-08-21

    In this study, hollow fiber based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), coupled with GC, GC-MS and GC-IRMS detections, was employed to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in spilled oils. According to the results, the HF-LPME method collected more low-molecular weight components, such as C(7)-C(11)n-alkanes, naphthalene, and phenanthrene, than those collected in conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The results also showed that this method had no remarkable effect on the distributions of high-molecular weight compounds such as >C(18)n-alkanes, C(1)-C(3) phenanthrene, and hopanes. Also, the carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes in the two preparation processes were identical. Accordingly, HF-LPME, as a simple, fast, and inexpensive sample preparation technique, could become a promising method for the identification of oil spill sources.

  10. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  11. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M.; Haan, S.; Hatchett, S.; Khater, H.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J.; Kilkenny, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T.; Meyerhofer, D.; Magoon, J.; Fletcher, K.; Leeper, R.

    2010-11-01

    Proper assembly of capsule mass, as manifested through evolution of fuel areal density (ρR), is fundamentally important for achieving hot-spot ignition planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental information about ρR and ρR asymmetries, Ti and yield is therefore essential for understanding how this assembly occurs. To obtain this information, a neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic-Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been implemented on the NIF. Its primary objective is to measure the absolute neutron spectrum in the range 5 to 30 MeV, from which ρR, Ti and yield can be directly inferred for both low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and high-yield DT implosions. In this talk, the results from the first measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum produced in exploding pusher and THD implosions will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  12. A Review of Feature Extraction Software for Microarray Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ching Siang; Ting, Wai Soon; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Chan, Weng Howe; Deris, Safaai; Ali Shah, Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method. PMID:25250315

  13. Proteasome inhibitor model of Parkinson's disease in mice is confounded by neurotoxicity of the ethanol vehicle.

    PubMed

    Landau, Anne M; Kouassi, Edouard; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosmarie; Desbarats, Julie

    2007-02-15

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Recently, a rat model of PD was developed using a synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI), (Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al). We attempted to transfer this model to mouse studies, where genetics can be more readily investigated due to the availability of genetically modified mice. We treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice with six intraperitoneal injections of 6 mg/kg PSI in 50 mul of 70% ethanol over a 2-week-period. We found significant decreases in nigrostriatal dopamine in PSI-treated mice compared with saline-treated mice. However, we observed similar decreases in the ethanol-treated vehicle control group. Administration of ethanol alone led to significant long-term alterations in dopamine levels. Ethanol significantly eclipses the effects of PSI in the dopamine system, and therefore is a confounding vehicle for this model. PMID:17230468

  14. Vector Diffusion Maps and the Connection Laplacian

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.; Wu, H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce vector diffusion maps (VDM), a new mathematical framework for organizing and analyzing massive high-dimensional data sets, images, and shapes. VDM is a mathematical and algorithmic generalization of diffusion maps and other nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, such as LLE, ISOMAP, and Laplacian eigenmaps. While existing methods are either directly or indirectly related to the heat kernel for functions over the data, VDM is based on the heat kernel for vector fields. VDM provides tools for organizing complex data sets, embedding them in a low-dimensional space, and interpolating and regressing vector fields over the data. In particular, it equips the data with a metric, which we refer to as the vector diffusion distance. In the manifold learning setup, where the data set is distributed on a low-dimensional manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, we prove the relation between VDM and the connection Laplacian operator for vector fields over the manifold. PMID:24415793

  15. Diagnosing Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions Using the D^3He Spectrum Line Width at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Rygg, R.; Hicks, D.; Friedrich, S.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Bionta, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Nikroo, A.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, C.; McKenty, P.; Betti, R.; Olson, R.; Wilson, D.

    2010-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectrum due to the D+^3He -> p (14.7 MeV) + ^4He (3.6 MeV) reactions produced in implosions containing D and ^3He gas. The line width of the measured spectrum is due to the thermal Doppler broadening, instrumental broadening, and several capsule effects such as a finite source size and implosion asymmetries. Models for these broadening sources are presented. Using these models we calculate an ion temperature in OMEGA and NIF exploding pusher shots. This Doppler-derived temperature is compared to independent measurements. Alternatively we use this model to constrain the amplitude of high-mode ρR asymmetries in NIF indirect-drive CH shell implosions. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, LLNL, LLE, FSC, and NLUF. A.Zylstra is supported by the DoE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship.

  16. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  17. Phase equilibria in strong polar fluids using a perturbed hard-sphere-chain equation of state combined with three different association models

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.; Lambert, S.M.; Song, Y.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    Goal of this work is the extension of a Perturbed-Hard-Sphere-Chain equation of state (PHSC EOS) to systems containing strong polar components. Three different types of association models (ten Brinke/Karasz, SAFI, modified Veytsman) were used to calculate the contribution of specific interactions like hydrogen bonding to thermodynamic quantities. Pure component parameters obtained from regression of temperature dependent density and vapor pressure data allow the prediction of VLE and LLE data. The results of simple fluids and polymer solutions were compared with experimental data. The SAFT and the modified Veytsman extension give similar results for pure fluids and mixtures with components of similar segment size. Differences increase with increasing difference of segment size.

  18. EEG signal analysis: a survey.

    PubMed

    Subha, D Puthankattil; Joseph, Paul K; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-04-01

    The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in nature. Hence, important features can be extracted for the diagnosis of different diseases using advanced signal processing techniques. In this paper the effect of different events on the EEG signal, and different signal processing methods used to extract the hidden information from the signal are discussed in detail. Linear, Frequency domain, time - frequency and non-linear techniques like correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Hurst exponent (H), different entropies, fractal dimension(FD), Higher Order Spectra (HOS), phase space plots and recurrence plots are discussed in detail using a typical normal EEG signal.

  19. Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS): a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    This tutorial provides an overview on a new technique for sample preparation, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). Not only the automation process by MEPS is the advantage but also the much smaller volumes of the samples, solvents and dead volumes in the system. Other significant advantages such as the speed and the simplicity of the sample preparation process are provided. In this tutorial the main concepts of MEPS will be elucidated. Different practical aspects in MEPS are addressed. The factors affecting MEPS performance will be discussed. The application of MEPS in clinical and pre-clinical studies for quantification of drugs and metabolites in blood, plasma and urine will be provided. A comparison between MEPS and other extraction techniques such as SPE, LLE, SPME and SBSE will be discussed.

  20. Ion temperature measurements in shock-driven implosions on OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Waugh, C.; Rinderknecht, H.; Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J.; McKenty, P.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Pape, S.; Bionta, R.; MacKinnon, A.; Landen, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Nikroo, A.

    2011-10-01

    Y. KIM, H. HERMANN, LANL Shock-driven ``exploding pusher'' implosions are commonly used at the OMEGA and the NIF facilities as test platforms for calibrating and validating diagnostics. We present extensive data on temperatures in exploding pushers obtained through methods: measurement of Doppler broadening of fusion products (from both DD and D3He reactions), and measurement of temperature sensitive yield ratios of DD and D3He yields. Since burn-averaged nuclear observables depend on density and temperature gradients and the time evolution after the spherical shock collapse, it is not evident a priori that these methods measure the same Ti. We compare experimental results to both radiation hydrodynamics simulations and an analytic Guderley shock model. This work was supported in part by LLE, the NLUF, the FSC, the US DOE, LLNL, and GA.

  1. Studies of shock convergence in ICF implosions using nuclear burn history measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, J. R.; Delettrez, J. A.

    2005-10-01

    Ignition of ICF capsules on the NIF will be critically dependent on the quality of hot-spot heating due to converging shock waves. On OMEGA, the convergence of strong spherical shocks heats the inner gas sufficiently to induce nuclear fusion. Measurements of the time history of this nuclear burn show that the burn induced by shock convergence occurs several hundred picoseconds before the deceleration-phase compression burn. The nuclear burn history measurements of two distinct nuclear reactions will be compared to a Guderley self-similar imploding shock analysis, as well as to 1-D hydrodynamic simulations. This work was supported in part by LLE, LLNL, the U.S. DoE, the Univ. of Rochester, and the N.Y.State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  2. Sprache macht Kultur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Karl

    Es gibt eine Fülle von Eigenschaften und Fähigkeiten, an denen man das Besondere des Menschen gegenüber den anderen Lebewesen festmachen wollte, z. B.: aufrechter Gang, Haarlosigkeit, Werkzeuggebrauch, Werkzeugherstellung, Bewusstsein, Werfen, Sprechen, Lachen, Weinen, Lügen. Doch bei all diesen Eigenschaften konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass es sie in Ansätzen bereits im Tierreich gibt. Es bleiben noch ein paar Eigenheiten übrig, wie Religion oder Willensfreiheit, aber diese Merkmale können wiederum dem Menschen bestritten und zur bloßen Illusion erklärt werden. Bleibt dann als letzte Differenz die Fähigkeit übrig, solche Illusionen zu haben …

  3. AMS-02 positrons from decaying Wino in the pure gravity mediation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Shirai, Satoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-07-01

    The AMS-02 collaboration has recently reported an excess of the cosmic-ray positron fraction, which turned out to be consistent with previous results reported by the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT collaborations. A decaying dark matter with the mass around 1 TeV can be responsible for the excess of the positron fraction when it is interpreted as a dark matter signal. Interestingly, the pure gravity mediation model provides such a dark matter, namely an almost pure neutral wino dark matter, when a tiny R-parity violation through LLE c interactions is introduced. We show that the decaying wino dark matter well reproduces the energy spectrum of the fraction with being consistent with constraints from cosmic-ray anti-proton and gamma-ray observations.

  4. Ein Universum nach Maß. Bedingungen unserer Existenz.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribbin, J.; Rees, M.

    This book is a German translation, by A. Ehlers, of the English original "Cosmic coincidences. Dark matter, mankind, and anthropic cosmology", published in 1989 (see 52.003.043). Contents: I. Zufälle im Weltall. 1. Wie außergewöhnlich ist unsere Welt? 2. Himmelskunde. 3. Zwei Arten dunkler Materie. II. Der Stoff aus dem die Welt besteht. 4. Der Teilchenzoo. 5. Halomaterie. 6. Der Stoff, aus dem die Kerne sind. 7. Kosmische Strings. 8. Die Schwerkraft als Fernrohr. 9. Der Lyman-Wald: Entstehung und Entwickluing von Galaxien. III. Ein Universum nach Maß? 10. Dem Menschen auf den Leib geschneidert? 11. Ein Weltall von der Stange?

  5. Exploration of kinetic and multiple-ion-fluids effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled ICF implosions using multiple nuclear reaction histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sio, Hong; Rinderknecht, Hans; Rosenberg, Michael; Zylstra, Alex; Séguin, Fredrick; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Li, Chikang; Petrasso, Richard; Hoffman, Nelson; Kagan, Krigory; Molvig, Kim; Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Wilks, Scott; Stoeckl, Christian; Glebov, Vladimir; Betti, Riccardo; Sangster, Thomas; Katz, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    To explore kinetic and multi-ion-fluid effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled shock-driven implosions, multiple nuclear reaction histories were measured using the upgraded Particle Temporal Diagnostic (PTD) on OMEGA. For D3He gas-filled implosions, the relative timing of the DD and D3He reaction histories were measured with 20 ps precision. For T3He gas-filled implosions (with 1-2% deuterium), the relative timing of the DT and D3He reaction histories were measured with 10 ps precision. The observed differences between the reaction histories on these two OMEGA experiments are contrasted to 1-D single-ion hydro simulations for different gas-fill pressure and gas mixture. This work is supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, LLE, and NNSA SSGF.

  6. Gemeinsame Aspekte und Probleme in Physik und Geologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watznauer, A.

    Die griechische Naturphilosophie, vor allem Aristoteles, verstand unter Physik die Naturwissenschaft in toto. Die Aufspaltung dieser universellen Naturphilosophie in Fachdisziplinen betrifft sowohl den Gegenstand als auch, daraus abgeleitet, die Methodik der Darstellung. Die Physik, deren Gegenstand seit Galilei die reinen Fälle sind, ist ahistorisch. Die Geologie, die komplexe Systeme untersucht, ist dagegen eine historische Wissenschaft.Translated AbstractCommon Aspects and Problems in Physics and GeologyThe greek philosophers and above all Aristotle thougt in the physics about nature in toto. The splitting of this philosophy of nature into different sciences concerns both their topics and their methods. Since Galilei physics is concerned with pure cases, being an ahistorical science. On the contrary geology examines complex systems, being of historical character.

  7. When Darwin meets Lorenz: Evolving new chaotic attractors through genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for automatically finding new chaotic attractors through a computational intelligence technique known as multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP). We apply this technique to the case of the Lorenz attractor and evolve several new chaotic attractors based on the basic Lorenz template. The MGGP algorithm automatically finds new nonlinear expressions for the different state variables starting from the original Lorenz system. The Lyapunov exponents of each of the attractors are calculated numerically based on the time series of the state variables using time delay embedding techniques. The MGGP algorithm tries to search the functional space of the attractors by aiming to maximise the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the evolved attractors. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed methodology, we report over one hundred new chaotic attractor structures along with their parameters, which are evolved from just the Lorenz system alone.

  8. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  9. First Tests of a Bubble Chamber for Neutron Detection on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilea, M. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Lonobile, D. J.; Lerche, R. A.; Disdier, L.

    2008-11-01

    A high-spatial detector was developed and tested at LLE to provide additional line-of-sight options for neutron imaging at ICF facilities. The detector is based on a high-pressure, freon-115 bubble chamber with an expansion mechanism controlled by a linear motor. A CCD camera is used to photograph the neutron-induced bubbles in parallel, monochromatic light, while a Schlieren disk is used to enhance the contrast of the image. Imaging when bubble diameters are about 100 μm in diameter potentially offers a several-fold increase in spatial resolution relative to the conventional pixilated scintillator arrays. Test neutron images have been acquired on OMEGA. Flat-field and edge images have been obtained to estimate the resolution of the instrument. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  10. Discovery of AZD3147: a potent, selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kurt G; Morris, Jeff; Ruston, Linette; Pass, Sarah L; Greenwood, Ryan; Williams, Emma J; Demeritt, Julie; Culshaw, Janet D; Gill, Kristy; Pass, Martin; Finlay, M Raymond V; Good, Catherine J; Roberts, Craig A; Currie, Gordon S; Blades, Kevin; Eden, Jonathan M; Pearson, Stuart E

    2015-03-12

    High throughput screening followed by a lead generation campaign uncovered a novel series of urea containing morpholinopyrimidine compounds which act as potent and selective dual inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2. We describe the continued compound optimization campaign for this series, in particular focused on identifying compounds with improved cellular potency, improved aqueous solubility, and good stability in human hepatocyte incubations. Knowledge from empirical SAR investigations was combined with an understanding of the molecular interactions in the crystal lattice to improve both cellular potency and solubility, and the composite parameters of LLE and pIC50-pSolubility were used to assess compound quality and progress. Predictive models were employed to efficiently mine the attractive chemical space identified resulting in the discovery of 42 (AZD3147), an extremely potent and selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for development as a potential clinical candidate.

  11. An Improved Total Variation Minimization Method Using Prior Images and Split-Bregman Method in CT Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing Computed Tomography (CT) images from sparse-views projection data and Total Variation- (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is very popular. However, it does not directly incorporate prior images into the reconstruction. To improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed an improved TV minimization method using prior images and Split-Bregman method in CT reconstruction, which uses prior images to obtain valuable previous information and promote the subsequent imaging process. The images obtained asynchronously were registered via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). To validate the method, two studies were performed. Numerical simulation using an abdomen phantom has been used to demonstrate that the proposed method enables accurate reconstruction of image objects under sparse projection data. A real dataset was used to further validate the method. PMID:27689076

  12. An Improved Total Variation Minimization Method Using Prior Images and Split-Bregman Method in CT Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing Computed Tomography (CT) images from sparse-views projection data and Total Variation- (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is very popular. However, it does not directly incorporate prior images into the reconstruction. To improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed an improved TV minimization method using prior images and Split-Bregman method in CT reconstruction, which uses prior images to obtain valuable previous information and promote the subsequent imaging process. The images obtained asynchronously were registered via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). To validate the method, two studies were performed. Numerical simulation using an abdomen phantom has been used to demonstrate that the proposed method enables accurate reconstruction of image objects under sparse projection data. A real dataset was used to further validate the method.

  13. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar.

  14. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrument beherrscht. Schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker und an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle von wissenschafltichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material und ein Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar und Annotationen von Fachleuten in jedem der drei Bände.

  15. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrument beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker und an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material und ein Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar im ersten Band, und Annotationen von Fachleuten in jedem der drei Bände.

  16. Deterministic single soliton generation and compression in microring resonators avoiding the chaotic region.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2015-04-20

    A path within the parameter space of detuning and pump power is demonstrated in order to obtain a single cavity soliton (CS) with certainty in SiN microring resonators in the anomalous dispersion regime. Once the single CS state is reached, it is possible to continue a path to compress it, broadening the corresponding single free spectral range (FSR) Kerr frequency comb. The first step to achieve this goal is to identify the stable regions in the parameter space via numerical simulations of the Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE). Later, using this identification, we define a path from the stable modulation instability (SMI) region to the stable cavity solitons (SCS) region avoiding the chaotic and unstable regions. PMID:25968998

  17. Development of a new plasma diagnostic of the critical surface and studies of the ion acoustic decay instability using collective Thomson scattering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Seka, W.; Drake, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.l. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {Delta}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Development of a new plasma diagnostic of the critical surface and studies of the ion acoustic decay instability using collective Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S. ); Seka, W. . Lab. of Laser Energetics); Drake, R.P. )

    1992-01-01

    We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.l. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {Delta}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Keck, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J.a.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; McKenty, P.W.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-06-28

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The NIF will initially be configured for x-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the “polar-direct-drive” (PDD) approach that repoints beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-D simulations have shown ignition. A unique “Saturn-like” plastic ring around the equator refracts the laser light incident near the equator toward the target, improving the drive uniformity.

  20. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Infolge der neuesten Fortschritte innerhalb der Wissenschaftsgeschichte gilt der bis dato gängige Blick auf den inhärenten Konflikt zwischen Wissenschaft und dem Okkulten als hinfällig. Diese Neuerungen innerhalb der Wissenschaft wurden jedoch von der Öffentlichkeit nicht wahrgenommen. Insbesondere die Rekonstruktion der Genese der modernen Psychologie und ihren Verbindungen zu parapsychologischen Forschungen zeigen, dass sich letztere nicht einfach als Ausdruck von metaphysischer Voreingenommenheit verstehen lassen. Um nun einen Ausgleich zu schaffen, werde ich Fälle eines ,‘Willens zum Unglauben‘ diskutieren und davon ausgehend den Vorschlag machen, dass allgemeine psychologische Erklärungen nur dann hilfreich für ein Geschichtsverständnis sind, wenn wir sie in einer symmetrischen Art und Weise anwenden.

  1. The NIF Ignition Program: Progress And Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B A

    2006-06-12

    The first experimental campaign for ignition, beginning in 2010 after NIF construction and commissioning are completed, will include experiments to measure and optimize key laser and target conditions necessary for ignition. These ''tuning campaigns'' will precede the first ignition shots. Ignition requires acceptable target performance in several key areas: Energetics, Symmetry, Shock timing, and Capsule Hydrodynamics. Detailed planning and simulations for ''tuning campaigns'' in each of these areas is currently underway, as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) Program. Tuning and diagnostic methods are being developed and tested on present facilities, including the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Energetics (LLE), the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Trident laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  2. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  3. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  4. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  5. Polymerization of the E and Z Isomers of Bis-(Triethoxysilyl)-2-Butene

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.P. Dorhout, K.; Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.; Shea, K.J.

    1999-05-11

    We have synthesized the Z and E isomers of 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)-2- butene and polymerized them under acid and base catalyzed sol-gel conditions. As expected the E system formed crosslinked, insoluble gels. The Z isomer, by nature of its geometry, formed high molecular weight, soluble polymeric products under acidic conditions. We were able to prepare and isolate both the cyclic disilsesquioxane monomer, and its dimer. Comparison of their spectral characterization with that of the soluble polymers suggests that the cyclics are present within the polymers. lle synthesis of a dimer likely present at some early stage of the polymerization suggests that we may be able to control the reaction and form rigid polymers with controllable tacticity. In addition, most of the gels were found to be non-porous indicating that the gels were, in fact, more compliant than ethenylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes leading to collapse of pores during drying.

  6. Analysis of the VP2 protein gene of canine parvovirus strains from affected dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2013-04-01

    To clarify the evolution of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) that has recently been epidemic in Japan, VP2 gene sequences at positions 3556-4166 were analyzed in 107 CPV-2 strains obtained from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs from 2009 to 2011. CPV-2b (95 strains) was more frequently detected than CPV-2a (nine strains), while CPV-2c was not detected. Remaining three strains were identified as the original type CPV-2, which should be derived from vaccines. These findings are similar to the previous results involving Japanese strains, suggesting there has been no great change in the recent CPV-2 epidemic in Japan. This epidemic is the same as that in Taiwan. Furthermore, a 324-lle mutant, which has been reported in Korean and Chinese strains, was detected in 66.7% of CPV-2a strains.

  7. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V.; Kidd, M.; Rundberg, B.; Tybo, J.

    2013-04-01

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of 195Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  8. Shielding design for the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at OMEGA and the NIF using TART2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Haan, S.; Wilson, D. C.; Leeper, R.

    2005-10-01

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) is currently being developed, at both OMEGA and the NIF, for measurements of down-scattered neutrons from which ρR of cryogenic DT implosions can be inferred. As is the case for complementary methods to measure ρR,ootnotetextC. K. Li et al, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4902 (2001) minimizing the effect of the background is critical for successful implementation. The established minimum S/B of 20, folded with CR-39 neutron response, determines the tolerable neutron fluence. The transport code TART2002 was used to calculate the neutron fluence at the MRS detector and provided input for design of the shielding for the MRS. This poster will present the current status of this project. This work was supported in part by LLE, LLNL, the U.S. DoE, the Univ. of Rochester, and the N.Y. State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  9. Design of a Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for measuring DD or DT burn histories at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bradley, D. K.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Isumi, N.; Macphee, A.; Zayas, C.; Spears, B. K.; Hermann, H.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The DD or DT burn history in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions provides essential information about implosion performance and helps to constrain numerical modeling. The capability of measuring this burn history is thus important for the NIF in its pursuit of ignition. Currently, the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is the only system capable of measuring the burn history for DT implosions with yields greater than ~ 1e14. To complement GRH, a new NIF Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD) is being designed for measuring the DD or DT burn history with yields greater than ~ 1e10. A traditional scintillator-based design and a pulse-dilation-based design are being considered. Using MCNPX simulations, both designs have been optimized, validated and contrasted for various types of implosions at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  10. Measuring spatial distributions of nuclear burn in ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF using proton emission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Fredrick; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rosenberg, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; McKenty, P.; Craxton, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Le Pape, S.; Smalyuk, V.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Hoffman, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Fusion reactions in ICF implosions of D3He-filled capsules produce 14.7-MeV D3He protons and 3-MeV DD protons. Spatial distributions of the D3He and DD reactions are studied with a penumbral imaging camera that utilizes a CR-39-based imaging detector to detect the protons. Up to three orthogonal cameras have been used simultaneously at OMEGA to study the 3-D structure of asymmetric implosions, and two orthogonal cameras have now been used to study an exploding-pusher implosion at the NIF. Recent data from OMEGA and from the NIF will be shown. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  11. Design, synthesis and biological activity of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives as novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Xia, Wenting; Zhou, Xianhao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a novel antidiabetic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes based on particular mechanism in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We have previously identified a series of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives. Herein, we describe the further chemical modification of this series directed by ligand efficiency and ligand lipophilicity efficiency. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the promising candidate 16, an excellent FFA1 agonist with robust agonistic activity (43.6 nM), desired LE and LLE values. Moreover, compound 16 revealed a great potential for improving the hyperglycemia levels in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice without the risk of hypoglycemia even at the high dose of 40 mg/kg. PMID:26482570

  12. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel phenoxyacetamide-based free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Qiu, Qianqian; Qiang, Hao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-10-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) has attracted extensive attention as a novel antidiabetic target in the last decade. Several FFA1 agonists reported in the literature have been suffered from relatively high molecular weight and lipophilicity. We have previously reported the FFA1 agonist 1. Based on the common amide structural characteristic of SAR1 and NIH screened compound, we here describe the continued structure-activity exploration to decrease the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the compound 1 series by converting various amide linkers. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the preferable lead compound 18, a compound with considerable agonistic activity, high LE and LLE values, lower lipophilicity than previously reported agonists, and appreciable efficacy on glucose tolerance in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:26420383

  13. Determination and correlation of phase behavior and physical properties for benign synthetic process of diphenylcarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So-Jin; Jeong, Inyong

    2013-10-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) over other types of plastic has unbeatable strength combined with light weight, temperature resistance, impact resistance, etc. The polycarbonate material is usually produced by the reaction of bisphenol A and toxic phosgene. Therefore, new non-phosgene polycarbonate production process, which started with diphenyl carbonate (DPC) without phosgene was developed. However, process design data for optimum design and operation of this benign process are still insufficient. In this work, to provide a green process design data for optimum separation of DPC, MPC, DMC, methanol and anisole that occurs in the synthetic process of DPC, phase behavior: VLE, LLE, SLE and physical properties for binary and ternary systems were determined and correlated with activity coefficient models and Redlich-Kister polynomials.

  14. Studies on Five Senses Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Sadaka; Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    This study proposed a therapy from complementary and alternative medicine to treat mental disorder by through interactions of five senses between therapist and patient. In this method sounding a certain six voices play an important role in healing and recovery. First, we studied effects of speaking using scalp- EEG measurement. Chaos analysis of EEG showed a largely enhanced largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) during the speaking. In addition, EEG power spectrum showed an increase over most frequencies. Second, we performed case studies on mental disorder using the therapy. Running power spectrum of EEG of patients indicated decreasing power at end of treatment, implying five senses therapy induced relaxed and lowered energy in central neural system. The results agreed with patient's reports that there were considerable decline in anxiety and improvements in mood.

  15. Design of the OMEGA Laser Target Chamber Tritium Removal System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Arthur; Reichert, Heidi; Janezic, Roger T.; Harding, David R.; Lund, Lance D.; Shmayda, Walter T.

    2003-06-15

    Preparations are currently underway at the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) to conduct direct drive laser implosion campaigns with inertial confinement fusion targets containing deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic ice layers. The OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System will fill plastic targets with high-pressure DT (150 MPa) at 300 to 500 K, cool them down to cryogenic temperature (<25 K), form the DT ice layer, and transport the targets to the OMEGA laser target chamber. Targets will then be shot with the 60-beam 30-kJ OMEGA laser. A tritium removal system has been designed to remove tritium from effluents associated with operation of the target chamber and its associated diagnostic antechambers, vacuum pumping systems, and target insertion systems. The design of the target chamber tritium removal system (TCTRS) is based on catalytic oxidation of DT and tritiated methane to tritiated water (DTO), followed by immobilization of DTO on molecular sieves. The design of the TCTRS presented a challenge due to the low tritium release limits dictated by the tritium license at UR/LLE. Aspen Plus, a commercial software package intended for the simulation and design of chemical processing systems operating at steady state, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS. A second commercial software package, Aspen ADSIM, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS molecular sieve beds, which operate at unsteady state. In this paper, we describe the design of the TCTRS and the benefits that were realized by use of the Aspen Plus and Aspen ADSIM software packages.

  16. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  17. Studies of Magnetic Reconnection in Colliding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Novel images of magnetic fields and measurements of electron and ion temperatures have been obtained in the magnetic reconnection region of high- β, laser-produced plasmas. Experiments using laser-irradiated foils produce expanding, hemispherical plasma plumes carrying MG Biermann-battery magnetic fields, which can be driven to interact and reconnect. Thomson-scattering measurements of electron and ion temperatures in the interaction region of two colliding, magnetized plasmas show no thermal enhancement due to reconnection, as expected for β ~ 8 plasmas. Two different proton radiography techniques used to image the magnetic field structures show deformation, pileup, and annihilation of magnetic flux. High-resolution images reveal unambiguously reconnection-induced jets emerging from the interaction region and show instabilities in the expanding plasma plumes and supersonic, hydrodynamic jets due to the plasma collision. Quantitative magnetic flux data show that reconnection in experiments with asymmetry in the scale size, density, temperature, and plasma flow across the reconnection region occurs less efficiently than in similar, symmetric experiments. This result is attributed to disruption of the Hall mechanism mediating collisionless reconnection. The collision of plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields has also been probed, illustrating the deformation of magnetic field structures in high-energy-density plasmas in the absence of reconnection. These experiments are particularly relevant to high- β reconnection environments, such as the magnetopause. This work was performed in collaboration with C. Li, F. Séguin, A. Zylstra, H. Rinderknecht, H. Sio, J. Frenje, and R. Petrasso (MIT), I. Igumenshchev, V. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, and D. Froula (LLE), J. Ross and R. Town (LLNL), W. Fox (UNH), and A. Nikroo (GA), and was supported in part by the NLUF, FSC/UR, U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  18. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  19. Comparison of extraction procedures for assessment of matrix effect for selective and reliable determination of atazanavir in human plasma by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manish; Trivedi, Vikas; Upadhyay, Vivek; Shah, Gaurang; Baxi, Girin A; Goswami, Sailendra; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2012-02-15

    A comparative study with three conventional extraction techniques namely protein precipitation (PP), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) has been demonstrated to assess the magnitude of matrix interference by post-column analyte infusion and post extraction analyte spiking for the determination of atazanavir from human plasma. Severe ion suppression observed in PP and to a lesser extent in LLE was circumvented by SPE on LiChrosep Sequence extraction cartridge. Based on these observations a selective, rugged and high throughput SPE-LC-MS/MS method has been developed for reliable determination of atazanavir in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 (50mm×4.6mm, 5μm) analytical column using 5mM ammonium formate in water:methanol (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic conditions. The method was validated over a wide dynamic concentration range of 10-6000ng/mL. The mean relative recovery and absolute matrix effect across quality controls were 84.9 and 93.2%, respectively. The precision value for relative matrix effect between eight different lots of plasma, expressed as %CV of the slopes of the calibration lines was 2.41. The stability of atazanavir under different storage conditions varied from -8.4 to 5.4%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 300mg atazanavir capsule formulation in 24 healthy Indian males under fasting condition. PMID:22265353

  20. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  1. Time series analyses of breathing patterns of lung cancer patients using nonlinear dynamical system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewatia, D. K.; Tolakanahalli, R. P.; Paliwal, B. R.; Tomé, W. A.

    2011-04-01

    The underlying requirements for successful implementation of any efficient tumour motion management strategy are regularity and reproducibility of a patient's breathing pattern. The physiological act of breathing is controlled by multiple nonlinear feedback and feed-forward couplings. It would therefore be appropriate to analyse the breathing pattern of lung cancer patients in the light of nonlinear dynamical system theory. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the one-dimensional respiratory time series of lung cancer patients based on nonlinear dynamics and delay coordinate state space embedding. It is very important to select a suitable pair of embedding dimension 'm' and time delay 'τ' when performing a state space reconstruction. Appropriate time delay and embedding dimension were obtained using well-established methods, namely mutual information and the false nearest neighbour method, respectively. Establishing stationarity and determinism in a given scalar time series is a prerequisite to demonstrating that the nonlinear dynamical system that gave rise to the scalar time series exhibits a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, i.e. is chaotic. Hence, once an appropriate state space embedding of the dynamical system has been reconstructed, we show that the time series of the nonlinear dynamical systems under study are both stationary and deterministic in nature. Once both criteria are established, we proceed to calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), which is an invariant quantity under time delay embedding. The LLE for all 16 patients is positive, which along with stationarity and determinism establishes the fact that the time series of a lung cancer patient's breathing pattern is not random or irregular, but rather it is deterministic in nature albeit chaotic. These results indicate that chaotic characteristics exist in the respiratory waveform and techniques based on state space dynamics should be employed for tumour motion management.

  2. Exploration of the Kinked Jet in the Crab Nebula with Scaled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chikang

    2015-11-01

    X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also frequently observed for jets in other pulsar-wind nebulae and in other astrophysical objects. Numerical simulations suggest that it may be a consequence of current-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, yet that is just a hypothesis without verification in controlled experiments. To that end, we recently conducted scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced this phenomenon. In these experiments, a supersonic plasma jet was generated in the collision of two laser-produced plasma plumes, and this jet was radiographed from the side using 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons. It was observed that if self-generated toroidal magnetic fields around the jet were strong enough, they triggered plasma instabilities that caused substantial deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinked jet structure seen in the Crab Nebula. We have modeled these laboratory experiments with comprehensive two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed jet in the Crab Nebula. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  3. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Kristi Christensen; Veronica Rutledge; Troy Garn

    2011-09-01

    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  4. Integrated Fast-Ignition Core-Heating Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.

    2010-11-01

    Integrated fast-ignition core-heating experiments are carried out at the Omega Laser Facility. Plastic (CD) shell targets with a re-entrant gold cone are compressed with a ˜20-kJ, UV low-adiabat laser pulse. A 1-kJ, 10-ps pulse from OMEGA EP generates fast electrons in the hollow cone that are transported into the compressed core. The experiments demonstrate a significant enhancement of the neutron yield. The neutron-yield enhancement caused by the high-intensity pulse is 1.5 x 10^7, which is more than 150% of the implosion yield. For the first time, measurements of the breakout time of the compression-induced shock wave through the cone were performed for the same targets as used in the integrated experiments. The shock breakout was measured to be ˜100 ps after peak neutron production. The experiments demonstrate that the cone tip is intact at the time when the short-pulse laser interacts with the cone. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302, DE-FC02-04ER54789, and DE-FG02-05ER54839. [4pt] In collaboration with A. A. Solodov, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti (LLE/FSC); C. Stoeckl, T.R. Boehly, R.S. Craxton, J.A. Delettrez, V.Yu. Glebov, J.P. Knauer, F.J. Marshall, K.L. Marshall, D.D. Meyerhofer,^ P.M. Nilson, T.C. Sangster, W. Seka (LLE); F.N. Beg (UCSD), H. Habara (ILE), P.K. Patel (LLNL), R.B. Stephens (GA); J.A. Frenje, N. Sinenian (PSFC/MIT).

  5. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades, ion stopping in weakly- to strongly-coupled High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas has been subject to extensive analytical and numerical studies, but only a limited set of experimental data exists to check the validity of these theories. Most of these experiments also did not probe the detailed characteristics of the Bragg peak (peak ion stopping) where the ion velocity is similar to the average thermal electron velocity. To the best of our knowledge, only one exploratory attempt to do this was conducted by Hicks et al., who were able to describe qualitatively the behavior of the Bragg peak for one plasma condition. The work described in this presentation makes significant advances over previous experimental efforts by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping, ranging from low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping for different HED plasma conditions. This was achieved by measuring the energy loss of DD-tritons, D3He-alphas, DD-protons and D3He-protons, with distinctly different velocities, and the results indicate that the stopping power varies strongly with Te and ne. This effort represents the first experimental test of state-of-art plasma-stopping-power theories around the Bragg peak, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HED plasmas, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs with varying hot spot areal density at the National Ignition Facility. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  6. Analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls in waters and wastewaters using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Senar

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed for viable and rapid determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples with vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At first, the most suitable extraction solvent and extraction solvent volume were determined. Later, the parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as vortex extraction time, rotational speed of the vortex, and ionic strength of the sample were optimized by using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The optimized extraction conditions for 5 mL water sample were as follows: extractant solvent 200 μL of chloroform; vortex extraction time of 2 min at 3000 rpm; centrifugation 5 min at 4000 rpm, and no ionic strength. Under the optimum condition, limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.36 to 0.73 ng/L. Mean recoveries of PCBs from fortified water samples are 96% for three different fortification levels and RSDs of the recoveries are below 5%. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in real water and wastewater samples such as tap, well, surface, bottled waters, and municipal, treated municipal, and industrial wastewaters. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of real water samples and the results show that efficiency of proposed method is comparable to the LLE. However, the proposed method offers several advantages, i.e. reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compounds, less solvent consumption, and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal. It is also viable, rapid, and easy to use for the analyses of PCBs in water samples by using GC-MS. PMID:21280211

  7. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  8. Study of 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide as a new ligand for preconcentration of lanthanides from aqueous media by liquid-liquid extraction prior to ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Evelina K; Angelov, Plamen A; Stefanova, Violeta M

    2016-11-01

    In the present work the potential of a new ligand 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide (representing the class of enaminones) for selective preconcentration of lanthanides (La, Ce, Eu, Gd and Er) from aqueous medium is examined. Liquid-liquid extraction parameters, such as pH of the water phase, type and volume of organic solvent, quantity of ligand and reaction time are optimized on model solutions. Recovery of lanthanides by re-extraction with nitric acid makes the LLE procedure compatible with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Spectral and non-spectral interferences are studied. Two isotopes per element are measured (with exception of La) for dynamic evaluation of the potential risk of spectral interference in variable real samples. The selectivity of complex formation reaction towards concomitant alkali and alkali-earth elements eliminates the interferences from sample matrix. Subjecting the standards to the optimized extraction procedure in combination with Re as internal standard is recommended as calibration strategy. The accuracy of developed method is approved by analysis of CRM Bush branches and leaves (NCS DC 73348) and recovery of spiked water and plant samples. The method's limits of detection for both studied objects are in the ranges from 0.2 ((158)Gd) to 3.7 ((139)La) ngl(-1) and 0.02 ((158)Gd) to 0.37((139)La) ngg(-1) for waters and plants respectively. The studied compound is an effective new ligand for preconcentration/separation of lanthanides from aqueous medium by LLE and subsequent determination by ICP-MS. PMID:27591629

  9. Automated High-Throughput Permethylation for Glycosylation Analysis of Biologics Using MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Shubhakar, Archana; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Reiding, Karli R; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I R; Fernandes, Daryl L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring glycoprotein therapeutics for changes in glycosylation throughout the drug's life cycle is vital, as glycans significantly modulate the stability, biological activity, serum half-life, safety, and immunogenicity. Biopharma companies are increasingly adopting Quality by Design (QbD) frameworks for measuring, optimizing, and controlling drug glycosylation. Permethylation of glycans prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a valuable tool for glycan characterization and for screening of large numbers of samples in QbD drug realization. However, the existing protocols for manual permethylation and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) steps are labor intensive and are thus not practical for high-throughput (HT) studies. Here we present a glycan permethylation protocol, based on 96-well microplates, that has been developed into a kit suitable for HT work. The workflow is largely automated using a liquid handling robot and includes N-glycan release, enrichment of N-glycans, permethylation, and LLE. The kit has been validated according to industry analytical performance guidelines and applied to characterize biopharmaceutical samples, including IgG4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). The HT permethylation enabled glycan characterization and relative quantitation with minimal side reactions: the MALDI-TOF-MS profiles obtained were in good agreement with hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) data. Automated permethylation and extraction of 96 glycan samples was achieved in less than 5 h and automated data acquisition on MALDI-TOF-MS took on average less than 1 min per sample. This automated and HT glycan preparation and permethylation showed to be convenient, fast, and reliable and can be applied for drug glycan profiling and clinical glycan biomarker studies. PMID:27479043

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  13. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  14. Microextraction techniques coupled to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of organic micropollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Ma Esther Torres; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be

  15. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  16. A novel dual-valve sequential injection manifold (DV-SIA) for automated liquid-liquid extraction. Application for the determination of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Skrlíková, Jana; Andruch, Vasil; Sklenárová, Hana; Chocholous, Petr; Solich, Petr; Balogh, Ioseph S

    2010-05-01

    A novel dual-valve sequential injection system (DV-SIA) for online liquid-liquid extraction which resolves the main problems of LLE utilization in SIA has been designed. The main idea behind this new design was to construct an SIA system by connecting two independent units, one for aqueous-organic mixture flow and the second specifically for organic phase flow. As a result, the DV-SIA manifold consists of an Extraction unit and a Detection unit. Processing a mixture of aqueous-organic phase in the Extraction unit and a separated organic phase in the Detection unit solves the problems associated with the change of phases having different affinities to the walls of the Teflon tubing used in the SI-system. The developed manifold is a simple, user-friendly and universal system built entirely from commercially available components. The system can be used for a variety of samples and organic solvents and is simple enough to be easily handled by operators less familiar with flow systems. The efficiency of the DV-SIA system is demonstrated by the extraction of picric acid in the form of an ion associate with 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenylamino)-vinyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium reagent, with subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The suggested DV-SIA concept can be expected to stimulate new experiments in analytical laboratories and can be applied to the elaboration of procedures for the determination of other compounds extractable by organic solvents. It could thus form a basis for the design of simple, single-purpose commercial instruments used in LLE procedures.

  17. Detection and quantification of ionophore antibiotics in runoff, soil and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peizhe; Barmaz, Delphine; Cabrera, Miguel L; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2013-10-18

    Ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are widely used as coccidiostats in poultry and other livestock industries to promote growth and prevent infections. Because most of the ingested IPAs are excreted in poultry litter, which is primarily applied as grassland fertilizer, a significant amount of IPAs can be released into the litter-soil-water environment. A robust analytical method has been developed to quantify IPAs (monensin (MON), salinomycin (SAL) and narasin (NAR)) in complex environmental compartments including surface runoff, soil and poultry litter, with success to minimize matrix interference. The method for water samples involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) post-clean up steps. The method for solid samples involves bi-solvent LLE. IPAs were detected by HPLC-MS, with optimized parameters to achieve the highest sensitivity. Nigericin (NIG), an IPA not used in livestock industry, is successfully applied and validated as a surrogate standard. The method recoveries were at 92-95% and 81-85% in runoff samples from unfertilized and litter-fertilized fields, respectively. For solids, the method recoveries were at 93-99% in soils, and 79-83% in poultry litter samples. SAL was detected at up to 22mg/kg and MON and NAR at up to 4mg/kg in broiler litter from different farms. Up to 183μg/kg of MON was detected in litter-fertilized soils. All three IPAs were detected in the rainfall runoff from litter-fertilized lands at concentrations up to 9μg/L.

  18. Association between ovocalyxin-32 gene haplotypes and eggshell quality traits in an F2 intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Sasaki, O; Nirasawa, K; Furukawa, T

    2010-10-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells contribute significantly to economic losses in the egg production industry. We previously identified ovocalyxin-32 as a potential gene influencing eggshell traits, by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation (DEF) conducted over 14 generations. We determined the nucleotide sequences of six ovocalyxin-32 exons in the parent individuals and analysed the association between ovocalyxin-32 and eggshell traits in the F2 individuals. We identified three haplotypes (W, M and S) of ovocalyxin-32 in the parent individuals. A mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed to distinguish six diplotype individuals (WW, MM, SS, WM, MS and WS) inthe F2 population. The egg weight (EW) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and WS-diplotypes. Short length of the egg (SLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and MS-diplotypes. Long length of the egg (LLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WM and WS-diplotypes. DEF of WW-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that ofSS-, WM, MS and WM-diplotypes. Haplotypic effect analyses showed significant differences between the W-haplotype and the S-haplotypes in the EW, SLE, LLE and DEF. The DEF of M-haplotype was significantly lower than that of W- and S-haplotypes. These results suggest that S- and M-haplotypes are critical for high quality of eggshells in the F2 population. In conclusion, ovocalyxin-32 is a useful marker of eggshell traits and can be used to develop strategies for improving eggshell traits in commercial layer houses. PMID:20331600

  19. A rapid and sensitive method to determine tacrolimus in rat whole blood using liquid-liquid extraction with mild temperature ultrasonication and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Seo; Cho, Ha Ra; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation, but its extremely low aqueous solubility causes poor intestinal absorption. There have been efforts to develop an alternative TAC formulation with an improved dissolution rate and oral bioavailability (BA), and the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical method for its in vivo pharmacokinetic study is an essential prerequisite. Thus, here, we develop a novel method to determine TAC in rat whole blood based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with mild temperature ultrasonication. For rapid and efficient separation of TAC from other hydrophobic compounds, a C8 column was chosen with isocratic mobile phase elution. With the help of the high specificity and the high sensitivity of multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode, the present method showed good performance including specificity, linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.996 within 1-200 ng/mL), sensitivity (the lower limit of quantitation at 1 ng/mL), intra- and inter-day accuracy (88.7-104.5 %) and precision (≤10.3 %), and recovery (94.7-102.6 %). Also, the stability of TAC and ascomycin, the internal standard, in rat whole blood was confirmed before and after the sample preparation. The validated method was satisfactorily applied to a pharmacokinetic study to determine TAC in rat whole blood following oral administration of the marketed product (Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma). In the present study, LLE with mild temperature ultrasonication was successfully expanded to the determination of a drug from whole blood or plasma for the first time. Therefore, the present method can contribute to the rapid in vivo evaluation of novel TAC formulations, and will be able to contribute to the development of TAC formulations with a higher dissolution rate and a higher BA.

  20. In Situ-produced vs. Meteoric 10Be in Hillslope Soils: One Isotope, Two Tracers, Different Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungers, M. C.; Bierman, P. R.; Matmon, A.; Cox, R.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    In situ-produced and meteoric 10Be are both powerful tools for tracing the production and transport of hillslope sediment. In situ-produced 10Be is used to infer sediment production rates as well as investigate sediment sources and transport. Meteoric 10Be may also be useful for inferring sediment production and transport rates in some landscapes, especially those that lack the target minerals for in situ-produced 10Be. Few studies have investigated the insights gained by a comparing in situ-produced and meteoric 10Be inventories. We present a series of paired 10Be inventories from different climatic and tectonic regimes to illustrate both the value and the potential pitfalls of coupling these geomorphic tracers. The mean in situ and meteoric 10Be near surface (within a meter) inventories for our field areas are as follows: Great Smoky Mountains, NC, USA: 3.6 x 107 atoms cm-2 and 3.3 x 1010 atoms cm-2; Laurely Fork, PA, USA: 2.6 x 106 atoms cm-2 and 3.0 x 109 atoms cm-2; Oregon Coast Range, OR, USA: no in situ data and 3.87 x 1010 atoms cm-2; North Island, New Zealand: no in situ data and 1.8 x 109 atoms cm-2; and Amparafaravola, Madagascar: 1.86 x 107 atoms cm-2 and 8.0 x 109 atoms cm-2. The associated inferred soil residence times, respectively, are: Great Smoky Mountains, NC, USA: 40.9 ky and 25.6 ky; Laurely Fork, PA, USA: 2.9 ky and 2.3 ky; Oregon Coast Range, OR, USA: n/a and 30ky; North Island, New Zealand: n/a and 1.5 ky; and Amparafaravola, Madagascar: 21 ky and 6.2 ky. Soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be assume a global average delivery rate of 1.3 x 106 atoms cm-2 yr-1. These soil residence times are minimum values that assume that all in situ and meteoric 10Be is accounted for. Discrepancies between inferred soil residence times most likely highlight some error in assumptions regarding meteoric 10Be retention in the soil mantles that we sampled. For example, if meteoric 10Be is not retained at the near surface where we collected our samples

  1. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition, reduced models for the inversion, non-linear inverse scattering, image reconstruction and restoration, and applications (bio-medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation...). NCMIP 2013 was a one-day workshop held in May 2013 which attracted around 60 attendees. Each of the submitted papers has been reviewed by three reviewers. Among the accepted papers, there are seven oral presentations, five posters and one invited poster (On a deconvolution challenge presented by C Vonesch from EPFL, Switzerland). In addition, three international speakers were invited to present a longer talk. The workshop was supported by Institut Farman (ENS Cachan, CNRS) and endorsed by the following French research networks (GDR ISIS, GDR Ondes, GDR MOA, GDR MSPC). The program committee acknowledges the following research laboratories CMLA, LMT, LSV, LURPA, SATIE. Laure Blanc-Féraud and Pierre-Yves Joubert Workshop co-chair Laure Blanc-Féraud, I3S laboratory and INRIA Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France Pierre-Yves Joubert, IEF, Paris-Sud University, CNRS, France Technical program committee Gilles Aubert, J-A Dieudonné Laboratory, CNRS and University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France Nabil Anwer, LURPA, ENS Cachan, France Alexandre Baussard, ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, France Marc Bonnet, ENSTA, ParisTech, France Antonin Chambolle, CMAP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, France Oliver Dorn, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK Cécile Durieu, SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Gérard Favier, I3S Laboratory, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France Mário Figueiredo, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal Laurent Fribourg, LSV, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Marc Lambert, L2S Laboratory, CNRS, SupElec, Paris-Sud University, France Dominique Lesselier, L2S Laboratory, CNRS, SupElec, Paris-Sud University, France Matteo

  2. A case study to quantify prediction bounds caused by model-form uncertainty of a portal frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, Kendra L.; Hall, Thomas M.; Gonzales, Lindsey M.; Hemez, François M.; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    release, LA-UR-13-27561).

  3. Design and characterization of a movable emittance meter for low-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Catani, Luciano; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cianchi, Alessandro; Tazzari, Sergio; Boscolo, Manuela; Castellano, Michele; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Fusco, Valeria; Filippetto, Daniele; Palumbo, Luigi; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Vicario, Carlo; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2006-09-15

    In order to characterize and optimize the beam emittance compensation scheme [L. Serafini and J. B. Rosenzweig, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7565 (1997)] of the Sorgente Pulsata Autoamplificata di Radiazione Coerente project [D. Alesini et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 345 (2003)] high brightness preinjector a system to accurately measure the beam rms emittance evolution downstream of the rf gun has been developed. Since in a space charge dominated beam the quadrupole-scan method is not applicable, a movable emittance measurement device has been built based on the pepper-pot technique. The device consists of a double system of horizontal and vertical slit arrays and a downstream screen, all installed on a longitudinally movable support equipped with bellows and spanning the {approx_equal}1.2 m long drift space between gun and first accelerating section. The system allows the measuring of the beam rms emittance all along the spanned region so as to accurately reconstruct its evolution along the beam trajectory. More than a simple improvement over more conventional beam emittance measurement tools this device defines a new strategy for characterizing high performance photoinjectors as it allows a detailed analysis of the beam behavior over a section of the accelerator where crucial beam shaping takes place. Numerical simulations of the measurement, mainly based on PARMELA [J. Billen, PARMELA Report No. LA-UR 96-1835, 1996 (unpublished)], have been used to estimate the achievable accuracy and to optimize the experimental setup. Wake field effects induced by the beam propagation through the bellows have also been investigated with HOMDYN [M. Ferrario et al., LCLS Report No. SLAC-PUB 84000, 1999 (unpublished)]. A series of laboratory tests to evaluate its performance has been carried out at LNF in Frascati. The system was then moved to DESY Zeuthen and installed on the Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ, for further testing with beam. Design criteria and tests

  4. Code System for Calculating Alpha, N; Spontaneous Fission; and Delayed Neutron Sources and Spectra.

    2002-07-18

    Version: 04 SOURCES4C is a code system that determines neutron production rates and spectra from (alpha,n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to radionuclide decay. In this release the three-region problem was modified to correct several bugs, and new documentation was added to the package. Details are available in the included LA-UR-02-1617 (2002) report. The code is capable of calculating (alpha,n) source rates and spectra in four types of problems: homogeneous media (i.e.,more » an intimate mixture of alpha-emitting source material and low-Z target material), two-region interface problems (i.e., a slab of alpha-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material), three-region interface problems (i.e., a thin slab of low-Z target material sandwiched between alpha-emitting source material and low-Z target material), and (alpha,n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of alpha-particles incident on a slab of target material. The process of creating a SOURCES input file (tape1) is streamlined with the Los Alamos SOURCES Tape1 Creator and Library Link (LASTCALL) Version 1. Intended to supplement the SOURCES manual, LASTCALL is a simple graphical user interface designed to minimize common errors made during input. The optional application, LASTCALL, consists of a single dialog window launched from an executable (lastcall.exe) on Windows-based personal computers.« less

  5. Measuring Flash X-Ray Spectra with a Compton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Hunter, James; King, Nick; Merrill, Frank; Sedillo, Robert; Urbaitis, Algis; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. LA-UR-14-23602.

  6. Ranchero Armature Test LA-19.4-CT-3: PBX-9501 Explosive with no smoothing layer. Firing point 88, 9/16/13

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B.; Goforth, James H.; Rae, Philip John; Dickson, Peter; Briggs, Matthew E.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Hare, Steven John; Herrera, Dennis Harold; Watt, Robert Gregory; Rousculp, Christopher L.

    2014-11-13

    LA-19.4-CT-3 (CT-3) was the third camera test in a series beginning in 1/11, which diagnose the performance of 6 mm thick, 6061 T-0 Al Ranchero armatures. [The test LA-43-CT-2 (CT-2) is described in LA-UR-14-21983.] The goal of CT-3 was to verify that PBX-9501, with 18 mm point spacing and no smoothing layer, could be used for Ranchero generator armatures in place of PBXN-110, which had been used in all previous Ranchero applications. CT-1 and CT-2 both had 43 cm long slapper detonator systems imbedded in the cast PBXN-110 explosive, but manufacturing a charge for a similar 9501 test was not cost effective. Instead, a single cylinder of 9501, 19.368 cm long and 15.494 cm (6.100”)in diameter, had a groove machined to accommodate a row of 11 SE-1 detonators with 18 mm point spacing along the mid-plane of the cylinder. The expansion of the armature looks like a slapper assembly along almost ½ of the circumference, and provides adequate proof of concept. Removing the smoother from PBXN-110-driven armatures increased the armature velocity from 3.1 mm/μs to 3.3 mm/μs, as seen in CT-2, and the velocity measured on CT-3 increased to 3.8 mm/μs. In addition, the camera records show that the surface of the armature is smooth enough, and free from ruptures for an expansion of greater that 2X. The advantage of using 9501 is that it precludes concerns about blow-outs seen when bubbles are left in the cast material, and gives extra velocity. The disadvantage is that the machined explosives are more expensive.

  7. The effects of laser absorption and mix on direct-drive capsule experiments at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, E. S.; Benage, J. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wilson, D. C.; Wysocki, F. J.; Seka, W.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Frenje, J. A.

    2009-11-01

    The yield of an ICF capsule can be affected by the inclusion of high-Z material in the fuel, either as a diagnostic or from hydrodynamic mixing. A series of experiments have been fielded at the OMEGA laser to better understand these effects. The targets are glass shells filled with a mixture of D2 and ^3He, and with controlled amounts of a dopant, Ar, Kr, and/or Xe. These targets are then directly driven with a 1.0 ns (0.6 ns) square laser pulse having a total energy of 23 kJ (13.8 kJ), and the data compared with yield and burn-temperature predictions from 1-d radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. However, our calculated yields are typically a factor of two greater than the measured yield, while the calculated burn-weighted temperatures are lower. Estimates for the amount of absorbed laser energy indicate that only 65% to 70% is absorbed. However, our calculations absorb 85% of the energy. The ratio of D^3He-protons to DT-neutrons also indicates that mixing of shell material has occurred. We will discuss the results of recent 1-d calculations where the incident energy and flux limiter have been varied to match the absorption data. We will also discuss the use of a mix-model to match the charged particle data. Supported by US DOE and LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-09-04488

  8. Toward Hydrocode Models of an Impact-Generated Martian Greenhouse: Model Validation and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Wohletz, K. H.; Coker, R. F.; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D. G.; Gittings, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large impacts have been suggested by Carr (1996) and Segura et al. (2002) as a possible trigger of warm and wet climate episodes early in Martian history. Our goal is to model impacts into stratigraphically complicated media, and specifically targets containing water ice in various morphologies, in order to determine a lower bound on the energy and size scales of impact events that could trigger such a climate shift, and thus establish an upper bound on the frequency of such events. To do this, we use various analytical and numerical modeling techniques, including the RAGE hydrocode. RAGE (Baltrusaitis et al. 1996) is an Eulerian hydrocode that runs in up to three dimensions and incorporates a variety of detailed equations of state including the temperature-based SESAME tables maintained by LANL. In order to test the accuracy of RAGE predictions before applying this hydrocode to the problem of interest, we compare code results against analytical models (verification) and laboratory experiments (validation) that are related to the problem of interest. We compare RAGE against various laboratory experiments (Kato et al. 2001, Nakazawa et al. 2002, Koschny et al. 2001), and analytical crater scaling models (Housen et al. 1983, Holsapple and Schmidt 1982, Holsapple 1993, and Melosh 1989). From there, we begin to examine the potential effects of impacts on water ice in the Martian subsurface, first by examining the evolution of the temperature and pressure profiles of an impact into a geologically simple, ice-free target, and then exploring the effects of increased ice content and ice layer morphology. This effort is supported by LANL/IGPP (CSP, RFC, KHW, MLG) and by NASA PG&G (EA). LA-UR-06-6233

  9. Gauging the feasibility of a downhole energy harvesting system through a proof-of-concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjolsing, Eric; Todd, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbon well operators deploy downhole reservoir monitoring equipment in order to optimize the rate at which hydrocarbons are extracted. Alternative power sources are sought that could be deployed in these harsh environments to replace or supplement standard power sources currently in use. To this end, a three phase proof-of-concept study was performed to gauge the feasibility of such a device. In the first phase a parametric study was performed to understand how high uncertainty variables affect the natural frequency of a producing hydrocarbon well. In a follow up study, the relationship between boundary conditions and system damping was investigated. In the second phase a structural housing was designed to satisfy American Petroleum Institute load cases. Using finite element models and standard tube/casing geometries, design pressures were iterated until a permissible housing design was achieved. This preliminary design provided estimates of the radial width and volume in which energy harvesting and storage elements may be situated. In the last phase a software program was developed to estimate the energy that might be harvested from user specified harvester configurations. The program is dependent on user input production tube accelerations; this permits well operators to use well-specific vibrational data as inputs to generate well-specific energy output estimates. Results indicate that a downhole energy harvesting tool is structurally feasible under reasonable operating conditions but no conclusions can be made as to the sufficiency of generated power as no in-situ acceleration time histories are available. Future work is discussed. Approved for publication, LA-UR-16-21193.

  10. Dietary patterns and gastric cancer in a Portuguese urban population.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joana; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lopes, Carla; Barros, Henrique

    2010-07-15

    Dietary patterns analysis is a powerful technique to study the relations between diet and cancer. We aimed to quantify the association between dietary patterns and gastric cancer, by location and histological type, according to Helicobacter pylori infection status. We analyzed 591 incident cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 1,463 community controls. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal components and cluster analyses were used to define dietary patterns. Anti-H. pylori IgG was assessed by ELISA. Age-, gender-, education- and total energy intake-adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed. Three dietary patterns were identified, with the following main characteristics: (I) high consumption of fruits and dairy products, and low consumption of alcoholic beverages; (II) low consumption of fruit, salads, vegetables, dairy products, fish and meat; (III) high consumptions of most food groups and low vegetable soup intake. Compared to pattern I, the risk of gastric cancer was higher for pattern II (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.31-2.14) but not for pattern III (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.57-1.14), with no effect modification by H. pylori infection. The association was similar for cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer, but for tumors of the diffuse Laurén histological type, the association was weaker for pattern II vs. I (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.83-2.08) and a protective effect was observed for pattern III vs. I (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87). Our results confirm the protective effect of high fruit and vegetables intake, and show a differential association according to histological type. No effect modification by H. pylori infection was observed. PMID:19876925

  11. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    , reduced models for the inversion, non-linear inverse scattering, image reconstruction and restoration, applications (bio-medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation etc). NCMIP 2012 was a one-day workshop. Each of the submitted papers was reviewed by 2 to 4 reviewers. Among the accepted papers, there are 8 oral presentations and 5 posters. Three international speakers were invited for a long talk. This second edition attracted 60 registered attendees in May 2012. NCMIP 2012 was supported by Institut Farman (ENS Cachan) and endorsed by the following French research networks (GDR ISIS, GDR Ondes, GDR MOA, GDR MSPC). The program committee acknowledges the following laboratories CMLA, LMT, LSV, LURPA, SATIE, as well as DIGITEO Network. Laure Blanc-Féraud and Pierre-Yves Joubert Workshop Co-chairs Laure Blanc-Féraud, I3S laboratory, CNRS, France Pierre-Yves Joubert, IEF laboratory, Paris-Sud University, CNRS, France Technical Program Committee Alexandre Baussard, ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, France Marc Bonnet, ENSTA, ParisTech, France Jerôme Darbon, CMLA, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Oliver Dorn, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK Mário Figueiredo, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal Laurent Fribourg, LSV, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Marc Lambert, L2S Laboratory, CNRS, SupElec, Paris-Sud University, France Anthony Quinn, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland Christian Rey, LMT, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Joachim Weickert, Saarland University, Germany Local Chair Alejandro Mottini, Morpheme group I3S-INRIA Sophie Abriet, SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Béatrice Bacquet, SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Reviewers Gilles Aubert, J-A Dieudonné Laboratory, CNRS and University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France Alexandre Baussard, ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, France Laure Blanc-Féraud, I3S laboratory, CNRS, France Marc Bonnet, ENSTA, ParisTech, France Jerôme Darbon, CMLA, ENS Cachan, CNRS, France Oliver Dorn, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK G

  12. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle: Process Analysis and Design Using Comprehensive Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2010-01-10

    Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 °C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 °C, in contrast to the models and

  13. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public

  14. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public

  15. Efficacy of head space solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of the trace extracellular hydrocarbons of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuejie; Zhang, Zhongyi; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Bai, Fali

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocarbons are widespread in cyanobacteria, and the biochemical synthetic pathways were recently identified. Intracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria have been detected by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, whether fatty alka(e)nes can be released to cyanobacterial culture media remains to be clarified. This work develops a sensitive method for analyzing the trace level of extracellular hydrocarbons in cyanobacterial culture media by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS. Headspace (HS) extraction mode using polydimethylsiloxane fiber to extract for 30min at 50°C was employed as the optimal extraction conditions. Five cyanobacterial fatty alka(e)nes analogs including pentadecene (C15:1), pentadecane (C15:0), heptadecene (C17:1), heptadecane (C17:0), nonadecane (C19:0) were analyzed, and the data obtained from HS-SPME-GC/MS method were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. Limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), linear dynamic range, precisions (RSD) and recovery for the analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria by HS-SPME-GC/MS were evaluated. The LODs limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 10 to 21 ng L-1. The correlation coefficients (r) of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9873 to 0.9977 with a linearity from 0.1 to 50 μg L-1. The RSD values were ranging from 7.8 to 14.0% and from 4.0 to 8.8% at 1.0 μg L-1 and 10.0 μg L-1 standard solutions, respectively. Comparative analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes in the culture media of model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 demonstrated that sensitivity of HS-SPME-GC/MS method was significantly higher than LLE method. Finally, we found that heptadecane can be released into the culture media of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at the later growth period. PMID:27428454

  16. Double-salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) HPLC method for estimation of temozolomide from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jain, Darshana; Athawale, Rajani; Bajaj, Amrita; Shrikhande, Shruti

    2014-11-01

    The role of temozolomide (TMZ) in treatment of high grade gliomas, melanomas and other malignancies is being defined by the current clinical developmental trials. Temozolomide belongs to the group of alkylating agents and is prescribed to patients suffering from most aggressive forms of brain tumors. The estimation techniques for temozolomide from the extracted plasma or biological samples includes high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MKEC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). These methods suffer from disadvantages like low resolution, low sensitivity, low recovery or cost involvement. An analytical method possessing capacity to estimate low quantities of TMZ in plasma samples with high extraction efficiency (%) and high resolution with cost effectiveness needs to be developed. Cost effective, robust and low plasma component interfering HPLC method using salting out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) technique was developed and validated for estimation of drug from plasma samples. The extraction efficiency (%) with conventional LLE technique with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile was found to be 5.99±2.45, 45.39±4.56, 46.04±1.14 and 46.23±3.67 respectively. Extraction efficiency (%) improved with SALLE where sodium chloride was used as an electrolyte and was found to be 6.80±5.56, 52.01±3.13, 62.69±2.11 and 69.20±1.18 with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile as organic solvent. Upon utilization of two salts for extraction (double salting liquid-liquid extraction) the extraction efficiency (%) was further improved and was twice of LLE. It was found that double salting liquid-liquid extraction technique yielded extraction efficiency (%) of 11.71±5.66, 55.62±3.44, 77.28±2.89 and 87.75±0.89. Hence a method based on double SALLE was developed for quantification of TMZ demonstrating linearity in the range of

  17. Expeditious method to determine uranium in the process control samples of chemical plant separating (233)U from thoria irradiated in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Kedari, C S; Kharwandikar, B K; Banerjee, K

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quantity of (232)U (half life 68.9 years) along with fissile isotope (233)U. The decay series of (232)U is initiated with (228)Th (half life 1.9 year) and it is followed by several short lived α emitting progenies, (224)Ra, (220)Rn, (216)Po, (212)Bi and (212)Po. Even at the smallest contamination of (228)Th in the sample, a very high pulse rate of α emission is obtained, which is to be counted for the radiometric determination of [U]. A commercially available anionic type of extractant Alamine®336 is used to obtain the selective extraction of U from other alpha active elements and fission products present in the sample. Experimental conditions of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are optimized for obtaining maximum decontamination and recovery of U in the organic phase. The effect of some interfering ionic impurities in the sample on the process of separation is investigated. Depending on the level of the concentration of U in the samples, spectrophotometry or radiometry methods are adopted for its determination after separation by LLE. Under optimized experimental conditions, i.e. 5.5M HCl in the aqueous phase and 0.27M Alamin®336 in the organic phase, the recovery of U is about 100%, the decontamination factor with respect to Th is >2000 and the extraction of fission products like (90)Sr, (144)Ce and (134,137)Cs is negligible. The detection limit for [U] using α radiometry is 10mg/L, even in presence of >100g/L of Th in the sample. Accuracy and precision for the determination of U is also assessed. Reproducibility of results is within 5%. This method shows very good agreement with the results obtained by mass spectrometry.

  18. High-Intensity Laser-to-Hot-Electron Conversion Efficiency from 1 to 2100 J Using the OMEGA EP Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    Intense laser--matter interactions generate high-current electron beams. The laser-electron conversion efficiency is an important parameter for fast ignition and for developing intense x-ray sources for flash-radiography and x-ray-scattering experiments. These applications may require kilojoules of laser energy focused to greater than 10^18 W/cm^2 with pulse durations of tens of picoseconds. Previous experiments have measured the conversion efficiency with picosecond and subpicosecond laser pulses with energies up to ˜500 J. The research extends conversion-efficiency measurements to 1- to 10-ps laser pulses with energies up to 2100 J using the OMEGA EP Laser System and shows that the conversion efficiency is constant (20±10%) over the entire range The conversion efficiency is measured for interactions with finite-mass, thin-foil targets. A collimated electron jet exits the target rear surface and initiates rapid target charging, causing the majority of laser-accelerated electrons to recirculate (reflux) within the target. The total fast-electron energy is inferred from K-photon spectroscopy. Time-resolved x-ray emission data suggest that electrons are accelerated into the target over the entire laser-pulse duration with approximately constant conversion. This work provides significant insight into high-intensity laser--target interactions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302 and DE-FC02-04ER54789. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Betti, A. A. Solodov (LLE/FSC), R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, C. Dorrer, L. Gao, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, B. E. Kruschwitz, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel (LLE), A. J. MacKinnon, P. K. Patel (LLNL), K. U. Akli (General Atomics), L. Willingale, K. M. Krushelnick (U. of Michigan).

  19. The use of Facebook in medical education--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Verbreitung sozialer Medien beeinflusst und verändert die Kommunikationskultur sowie die Lern- und Lehrmöglichkeiten in der medizinischen Ausbildung. Das beliebteste soziale Netzwerk ist Facebook. Seine Eigenschaften bieten ein großes Potenzial für die medizinische Ausbildung, bringen aber auch einige neue Herausforderungen mit sich.Ziele: Dieser systematische Literaturüberblick zielt darauf ab, herauszufinden, wie Facebook bisher in der medizinischen Ausbildung integriert, eingesetzt und beforscht wurde. Nach einer systematischen Durchsicht der aktuellen Literatur, werden Forschungslücken identifiziert, Verbindungen zu vorherigen Arbeiten gezogen, die bisherigen Ergebnisse systematisch analysiert und Konsequenzen diskutiert.Methode: Die Autoren durchsuchten sechs online-basierte Literatur-Datenbanken. Sie definierten Einschlusskriterien und überprüften unabhängig voneinander die Suchergebnisse. Die wichtigsten Informationen der Artikel wurden methodisch abstrahiert und kodiert und in den Kategorien Studiendesign, Phase der Studienteilnehmer in der medizinischen Ausbildung und Studieninhalt dargestellt und diskutiert.Ergebnisse: 16 Artikel erfüllten alle Einschlusskriterien. 45-96% der Mediziner und Medizinstudierenden haben ein Facebook-Profil. Die meisten Studien konzentrierten sich auf Facebook und digitale Professionalität. Unprofessionelles Verhalten und Verstöße gegen den Datenschutz traten in 0,02% bis 16% der Fälle auf. In Hinblick auf den Einsatz als Lehr- und Lernumgebung wird Facebook von Medizinstudierenden gut akzeptiert. Es wird verwendet, um sich für Prüfungen vorzubereiten, Online-Materialien zu teilen, klinische Fälle zu diskutieren, Treffen zu organisieren und Informationen über Famulaturen auszutauschen. Einige Unterrichtsmaterialien für den professionellen Umgang mit Facebook wurden positiv beurteilt. Es scheint allerdings keine Beweise dafür zu geben, dass Medizinstudierende von Facebook als Lernumgebung

  20. Efficacy of head space solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of the trace extracellular hydrocarbons of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuejie; Zhang, Zhongyi; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Bai, Fali

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocarbons are widespread in cyanobacteria, and the biochemical synthetic pathways were recently identified. Intracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria have been detected by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, whether fatty alka(e)nes can be released to cyanobacterial culture media remains to be clarified. This work develops a sensitive method for analyzing the trace level of extracellular hydrocarbons in cyanobacterial culture media by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS. Headspace (HS) extraction mode using polydimethylsiloxane fiber to extract for 30min at 50°C was employed as the optimal extraction conditions. Five cyanobacterial fatty alka(e)nes analogs including pentadecene (C15:1), pentadecane (C15:0), heptadecene (C17:1), heptadecane (C17:0), nonadecane (C19:0) were analyzed, and the data obtained from HS-SPME-GC/MS method were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. Limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), linear dynamic range, precisions (RSD) and recovery for the analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria by HS-SPME-GC/MS were evaluated. The LODs limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 10 to 21 ng L-1. The correlation coefficients (r) of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9873 to 0.9977 with a linearity from 0.1 to 50 μg L-1. The RSD values were ranging from 7.8 to 14.0% and from 4.0 to 8.8% at 1.0 μg L-1 and 10.0 μg L-1 standard solutions, respectively. Comparative analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes in the culture media of model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 demonstrated that sensitivity of HS-SPME-GC/MS method was significantly higher than LLE method. Finally, we found that heptadecane can be released into the culture media of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at the later growth period.

  1. A manifold learning approach to target detection in high-resolution hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.

    Imagery collected from airborne platforms and satellites provide an important medium for remotely analyzing the content in a scene. In particular, the ability to detect a specific material within a scene is of high importance to both civilian and defense applications. This may include identifying "targets" such as vehicles, buildings, or boats. Sensors that process hyperspectral images provide the high-dimensional spectral information necessary to perform such analyses. However, for a d-dimensional hyperspectral image, it is typical for the data to inherently occupy an m-dimensional space, with m << d. In the remote sensing community, this has led to a recent increase in the use of manifold learning, which aims to characterize the embedded lower-dimensional, non-linear manifold upon which the hyperspectral data inherently lie. Classic hyperspectral data models include statistical, linear subspace, and linear mixture models, but these can place restrictive assumptions on the distribution of the data; this is particularly true when implementing traditional target detection approaches, and the limitations of these models are well-documented. With manifold learning based approaches, the only assumption is that the data reside on an underlying manifold that can be discretely modeled by a graph. The research presented here focuses on the use of graph theory and manifold learning in hyperspectral imagery. Early work explored various graph-building techniques with application to the background model of the Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithm, which is a graph theory based approach to anomaly detection. This led towards a focus on target detection, and in the development of a specific graph-based model of the data and subsequent dimensionality reduction using manifold learning. An adaptive graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into

  2. A study of the early warning signals of abrupt change in the Pacific decadal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Hou, Wei; Yan, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Sen; Wang, Kuo

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the phenomenon of a critical slowing down has demonstrated its major potential in discovering whether a complex dynamic system tends to abruptly change at critical points. This research on the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index has been made on the basis of the critical slowing down principle in order to analyze its early warning signal of abrupt change. The chaotic characteristics of the PDO index sequence at different times are determined by using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). The relationship between the regional sea surface temperature (SST) background field and the early warning signal of the PDO abrupt change is further studied through calculating the variance of the SST in the PDO region and the spatial distribution of the autocorrelation coefficient, thereby providing the experimental foundation for the extensive application of the method of the critical slowing down phenomenon. Our results show that the phenomenon of critical slowing down, such as the increase of the variance and autocorrelation coefficient, will continue for six years before the abrupt change of the PDO index. This phenomenon of the critical slowing down can be regarded as one of the early warning signals of an abrupt change. Through calculating the LLE of the PDO index during different times, it is also found that the strongest chaotic characteristics of the system occurred between 1971 and 1975 in the early stages of an abrupt change (1976), and the system was at the stage of a critical slowing down, which proves the reliability of the early warning signal of abrupt change discovered in 1970 from the mechanism. In addition, the variance of the SST, along with the spatial distribution of the autocorrelation coefficient in the corresponding PDO region, also demonstrates the corresponding relationship between the change of the background field of the SST and the change of the PDO. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos

  3. Expeditious method to determine uranium in the process control samples of chemical plant separating (233)U from thoria irradiated in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Kedari, C S; Kharwandikar, B K; Banerjee, K

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quantity of (232)U (half life 68.9 years) along with fissile isotope (233)U. The decay series of (232)U is initiated with (228)Th (half life 1.9 year) and it is followed by several short lived α emitting progenies, (224)Ra, (220)Rn, (216)Po, (212)Bi and (212)Po. Even at the smallest contamination of (228)Th in the sample, a very high pulse rate of α emission is obtained, which is to be counted for the radiometric determination of [U]. A commercially available anionic type of extractant Alamine®336 is used to obtain the selective extraction of U from other alpha active elements and fission products present in the sample. Experimental conditions of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are optimized for obtaining maximum decontamination and recovery of U in the organic phase. The effect of some interfering ionic impurities in the sample on the process of separation is investigated. Depending on the level of the concentration of U in the samples, spectrophotometry or radiometry methods are adopted for its determination after separation by LLE. Under optimized experimental conditions, i.e. 5.5M HCl in the aqueous phase and 0.27M Alamin®336 in the organic phase, the recovery of U is about 100%, the decontamination factor with respect to Th is >2000 and the extraction of fission products like (90)Sr, (144)Ce and (134,137)Cs is negligible. The detection limit for [U] using α radiometry is 10mg/L, even in presence of >100g/L of Th in the sample. Accuracy and precision for the determination of U is also assessed. Reproducibility of results is within 5%. This method shows very good agreement with the results obtained by mass spectrometry. PMID:27591623

  4. Digital Pulse Shape Analysis with Phoswich Detectors to Simplify Coincidence Measurements of Radioactive Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2005-08-31

    detector system to the level of a single detector per sample chamber while maintaining the required sensitivity and precision to detect radioactive Xenon in the atmosphere. Ely, J. H. et al (2003), “NOVEL BETA-GAMMA COINCIDENCE MEASUREMENTS USING PHOSWICH DETECTORS” in Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review – Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, LA-UR-03-6029.

  5. P - ρ - T data for H2O up to 260 GPa under laser-driven shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Ozaki, N.; Sano, T.; Okuchi, T.; Shimizu, K.; Miyanishi, K.; Terai, T.; Kakeshita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kodama, R.

    2014-12-01

    .109-138. 2S. P. Lyon and J. D. Johnson, Los Alamos Technical Report No. LA-UR-92-3407, 1992. 3F. H. Ree, Lawrence Livemore Laboratory Technical Report No. UCRL-52190, 1976. 4M. French et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 054107 (2009). 5M. D. Knudson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 091102 (2012). 6 R. Redmer et al., Icarus 211, 798 (2011). 7T. Kimura et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074501 (2014).

  6. MCNP5 CRITICALITY VALIDATION AND BIAS FOR INTERMEDIATE ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    FINFROCK SH

    2009-12-10

    The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) code Version 1.40 (LA-UR-03-1987, 2005) and its cross-section database for k-code calculations of intermediate enriched uranium systems on INTEL{reg_sign} processor based PC's running any version of the WINDOWS operating system. Configurations with intermediate enriched uranium were modeled with the moderator range of 39 {le} H/Fissile {le} 1438. See Table 2-1 for brief descriptions of selected cases and Table 3-1 for the range of applicability for this validation. A total of 167 input cases were evaluated including bare and reflected systems in a single body or arrays. The 167 cases were taken directly from the previous (Version 4C [Lan 2005]) validation database. Section 2.0 list data used to calculate k-effective (k{sub eff}) for the 167 experimental criticality benchmark cases using the MCNP5 code v1.40 and its cross section database. Appendix B lists the MCNP cross-section database entries validated for use in evaluating the intermediate enriched uranium systems for criticality safety. The dimensions and atom densities for the intermediate enriched uranium experiments were taken from NEA/NSC/DOC(95)03, September 2005, which will be referred to as the benchmark handbook throughout the report. For these input values, the experimental benchmark k{sub eff} is approximately 1.0. The MCNP validation computer runs ran to an accuracy of approximately {+-} 0.001. For the cases where the reported benchmark k{sub eff} was not equal to 1.0000 the MCNP calculational results were normalized. The difference between the MCNP validation computer runs and the experimentally measured k{sub eff} is the MCNP5 v1.40 bias. The USLSTATS code (ORNL 1998) was utilized to perform the statistical analysis and generate an acceptable maximum k{sub eff} limit for calculations of the intermediate enriched uranium type systems.

  7. Thermal and Colloid Related Processes and Uncertainty Affecting Plutonium Transport in NTS Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsberg, A. V.; Lu, G.; Glascoe, L. G.; McGraw, M. M.; Olson, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    under contract with the United States Department of Energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36. LA-UR-01-4972.

  8. Class 1 Permit Modification Notification Addition of Structures within Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11, Dome 375 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Lechel, Robert A.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to notify the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of a Class 1 Permit Modification to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in November 2010. The modification adds structures to the container storage unit at Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, Pad 11. Permit Section 3.1(3) requires that changes to the location of a structure that does not manage hazardous waste shall be changed within the Permit as a Class 1 modification without prior approval in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (40 CFR), {section}270.42(a)(1). Structures have been added within Dome 375 located at TA-54, Area G, Pad 11 that will be used in support of waste management operations within Dome 375 and the modular panel containment structure located within Dome 375, but will not be used as waste management structures. The Class 1 Permit Modification revises Figure 36 in Attachment N, Figures; and Figure G.12-1 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Descriptions of the structures have also been added to Section A.4.2.9 in Attachment A, TA - Unit Descriptions; and Section 2.0 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Full description of the permit modification and the necessary changes are included in Enclosure 1. The modification has been prepared in accordance with 40 CFR {section}270.42(a)(l). This package includes this letter and an enclosure containing a description of the permit modification, text edits of the Permit sections, and the revised figures (collectively LA-UR-12-22808). Accordingly, a signed certification page is also enclosed. Three hard copies and one electronic copy of this submittal will be delivered to the NMED-HWB.

  9. Enabling coherent control of trapped ions with economical multi-laser frequency stabilization technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lybarger, Warren Emanuel, Jr.

    referred to here as the quantum Field Programmable Gate Array (q-FPGA), which has been jointly developed by John Chiaverini and this author in an ongoing collaboration. It virtually eliminates decoherence from spontaneous emission, and it also mitigates much of the laser and optical engineering requirements associated with conceptually similar devices. LANL technical release number LA-UR 09-08135.

  10. SMARTSware for SMARTS users to facilitate data reduction and data analysis

    2005-01-01

    formats) and National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois (the Hierarchical Data Format Software Library and Utilities) are used in the programs. All these subroutines and libraries are publicly available through the GNU Public License and/or Freeware. The package also contains sample input and output text files and a manual (LA-UR 04-6581). The executables and sample files will be available for down load at http://public.lanl.gov/clausen/SMARTSware.html and ftp://lansce.lanl.gov/clausen/SMARTSware/SMARTSware.zip, but the source codes will only be made available by written request to clausen@lanl.gov.« less

  11. Features added in new release of SRFYDO - February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Version 2.0 of SRFYDO, released in February 2009, has a number of new features. This document describes these additions and is designed to complement the document 'Calculating System Reliability with SRFYDO: A User Guide' (Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report LA-UR 08-06161). The new features include: (1) Reliability Estimates for Combinations of Components - Users can now estimate the reliability of collections of components, such as a sections or sub-systems. This optional feature is activated via a new table, SectionDef, which is used to define names and component associations for the section or sub-system aggregate. If the SectionDef table is present, section plots and tabulated reliabilities will be created during the SRY3 phase. For more details see section 1. (2) Plots of System or Component Reliability Priors - SRFYDO now creates reliability plots for each system (if system priors were given) or each component (if component priors were given) during the SRY1 phase. These plots, written in the directory 'priorPDFs', are provided to help users visualize the impact of their estimates on the final reliability calculation. For more details see section 2. (3) Convenient Exclusion of Lifecycle Covariates - Both GUI and command-line interfaces to SRFYDO now allow the user to exclude one or both of the lifecycle covariates without requiring modification to the spreadsheet. With this capability users can readily explore the effect of adding or removing lifecycle measures on the resulting statistical analysis. Note that excluding a lifecycle covariate is not the same as setting its rate (-b or -c) to zero. For more details see section 3. (4) MCMC Diagnostic Plots - Diagnostic or 'trace' plots may optionally be created for each of the statistical parameters generated during the Monte Carlo phase (SRY2). These plots can help the user determine if (1) appropriate lifecycle variable choices have been made, (2) more sampling iterations, '-i', are required, and

  12. Determination of commonly used polar herbicides in agricultural drainage waters in Australia by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T K; Hyne, Ross V; Doble, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The present study describes the application of different extraction techniques for the preconcentration of ten commonly found acidic and non-acidic polar herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, bensulfuron-methyl, clomazone, dicamba, diuron, MCPA, metolachlor, simazine and triclopyr) in the aqueous environment. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges or SBD-XC Empore disks were compared for extraction efficiency of these herbicides in different matrices, especially water samples from contaminated agricultural drainage water containing high concentrations of particulate matter. Herbicides were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. SPE using SDB-XC Empore disks was applied to determine target herbicides in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (NSW, Australia) during a two-week survey from October 2005 to November 2005. The daily aqueous concentrations of herbicides from 24-h composite samples detected at two sites increased after run-off from a storm event and were in the range of: 0.1-17.8 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.9 microg l(-1) and 0.2-17.8 microg l(-1) at site 1; < 0.1-3.5 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.2 microg l(-1) and < 0.2-3.2 microg l(-1) at site 2 for simazine, atrazine and diuron, respectively.

  13. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol.

  14. Occurrence of emerging and priority pollutants in municipal reverse osmosis concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaozhu; Gu, Ping; Zhang, Guanghui; Huang, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the occurrence and concentrations of emerging and priority pollutants in the municipal reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that there were varieties of pollutants, including chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs), pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), herbicides and flame retardants, in the ROC. Most of the pollutants were quantified, and the performance of the analytical method was explored. For most of the target compounds, the mean recoveries at two concentration levels (0.17 μg L(-1) and 1.67 μg L(-1)) ranged from 70% to 130% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 20%, indicating excellent accuracy and precision. Typical concentrations of most of the pollutants were as low as tens or hundreds of ng L(-1), whereas others were as high as several μg L(-1) (such as, the concentration of 2-chloroethyl ether was 1.42 μg L(-1), of caffeine was 3.73 μg L(-1), and of benzyl butyl phthalate was 4.90 μg L(-1)).

  15. Double-exposure materials for pitch division with 193nm lithography: requirements, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, Robert; Shykind, David; Kim, Sungwon; Borodovsky, Yan; Schwartz, Evan; Turner, Courtney; Masson, Georgeta; Min, Ke; Esswein, Katherine; Blackwell, James M.; Suetin, Nikolay

    2009-03-01

    We present the results of both theoretical and experimental investigations of materials for application either as a reversible Contrast Enhancement Layer (rCEL) or a Two-Stage PAG. The purpose of these materials is to enable Litho- Litho-Etch (LLE) patterning for Pitch Division (PD) at the 16nm logic node (2013 Manufacturing). For the rCEL, we find from modeling using an E-M solver that such a material must posses a bleaching capability equivalent to a Dill A parameter of greater than 100. This is at least a factor of ten greater than that achieved so far at 193nm by any usable organic material we have tested. In the case of the Two-Stage PAG, analytical and lithographic modeling yields a usable material process window, in terms of reversibility and two-photon vs. one-photon acid production rates (branching ratio). One class of materials, based on the cycloadduct of a tethered pair of anthracenes, has shown promise under testing at 193nm in acetonitrile. Sufficient reversibility without acid production, enabled by near-UV exposure, has been achieved. Acid production as a function of dose shows a clear quadratic component, consistent with a branching ratio greater than 1. The experimental data also supports a acid contrast value of approximately 0.05 that could in principle be obtained with this molecule under a pitch division double-exposure scenario.

  16. Observation of asymmetric implosions in indirect-drive ICF associated with changes in laser beam-hohlraum coupling and relevance to mix experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. E.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Wallace, R. J.; Thorp, K.; Pien, G.

    2004-11-01

    Indirect drive ICF experiments were performed on the Omega laser at LLE, both with and without distributed polarization rotators (DPR) in the laser beams. The hohlraums were irradiated with a three-cone beam geometry, experimentally adjusted to produce high-yield implosions with no DPRs installed. X-ray images of the cores of these implosions showed a small but tolerable P2 asymmetry. Similar experiments with DPRs installed produced lower yields, and x-ray images of the imploded cores showed substantially increased P2 asymmetries, suggesting that the shallow-angle cone of beams, which transits through the longest length of plasma and along the shallowest density gradients, had substantially increased absorption compared to the no-DPR case. We will show high magnification (nearly 100x) x-ray images of the cores, along with fusion neutron data. For capsules driven with good symmetry, we show the neutron yield results from capsules whose surfaces have been deliberately roughened by a measured amount, in order to compare to mix models in simulations.

  17. Systemic Administration of a Proteasome Inhibitor Does Not Cause Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Brian N.; Neely, M. Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2007-01-01

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic slice cultures, indicating that impairment of proteasome function in vitro is toxic. Moreover, systemic administration of PSI transiently decreased brain proteasome activity. Systemic treatment of rats with PSI did not, however, result in any biochemical or anatomical evidence of lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, nor were any changes in locomotor activity observed. These data suggest that systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors to normal adult rats does not reliably cause an animal model of parkinsonism. PMID:17706185

  18. Predictive radiation-MHD simulations with FLASH: Magnetic field generation and turbulent amplification experiments with the Omega EP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, Petros; Daley, Christopher; Fatenejad, Milad; Flocke, Norbert; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q.; Lee, Dongwook; Scopatz, Anthony; Weide, Klaus; Doyle, Hugo; Gregori, Gianluca; Meinecke, Jena; Reville, Brian; Miniati, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    The process of generation and amplification of Biermann battery magnetic fields is closely linked to the development of turbulence. In an astrophysical environment, a small seed field can be formed in asymmetric supernova remnant blast waves due to misaligned pressure and density gradients. Inhomogeneities in the density distribution can cause the flow to become turbulent and the B-field can be amplified via dynamo action. In this context, the COSMOLAB team will perform experiments using the Omega EP laser at LLE, that represent a scaled-down model of the astrophysical process in a controlled environment. The experiments involve the illumination of a slab-like target, which produces a plasma flow and a Biermann battery field. The flow then propagates through a grid that creates turbulence and amplifies the field. In this study we describe 2D and 3D radiative MHD simulations of the experimental setup, carried out using the FLASH code on Mira (BG/Q) at ALCF. The objective of these simulations is to explore the morphology and strength of the B-fields generated by ablation of target material by the laser, and their amplification due to the grid. This work was supported by DOE NNSA ASC.

  19. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in rapeseed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Boucher, J; Cengelli, F; Trumbic, D; Marison, I W

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bodies are minute plant organelles (0.5-2.0microm diameter) consisting of an oil core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer/proteinaceous membrane. Oil-bodies have been isolated from rapeseed seeds and demonstrated to constitute a novel type of micro-capsule suitable for the extraction of hydrophobic organic compounds from aqueous environments. Three hydrophobic pesticides: atrazine (2-chlor-4-ethyl-amino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and parathion (O,O-diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate), as well as naphthalene and 2-phenylethanol were successfully extracted from aqueous solutions, with absorption in the inner oily core of OB as sorption mechanism. The OB membrane does not represent a barrier for the mass transfer of the compound towards the inner oily core of OB. Moreover, due to very high surface area to volume ratio, oil-bodies exhibit very good mass transfer properties compared with larger synthetic microcapsules or two-phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques, which diminishes the need for strong agitation and avoids the formation of difficult to separate stable emulsions.

  20. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  1. Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-gain point design

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Tabak, M.

    2014-04-17

    Here, integrated fast ignition experiments were performed at ILE, Osaka, and LLE, Rochester, in which a nanosecond driver laser implodes a deuterated plastic shell in front of the tip of a hollow metal cone and an intense ultrashort-pulse laser is injected through the cone to heat the compressed plasma. Based on the initial successful results of fast electron heating of cone-in-shell targets, large-energy short-pulse laser beam lines were constructed and became operational: OMEGA-EP at Rochester and LFEX at Osaka. Neutron enhancement due to heating with a ~kJ short-pulse laser has been demonstrated in the integrated experiments at Osaka and Rochester. The neutron yields are being analyzed by comparing the experimental results with simulations. Details of the fast electron beam transport and the electron energy deposition in the imploded fuel plasma are complicated and further studies are imperative. The hydrodynamics of the implosion was studied including the interaction of the imploded core plasma with the cone tip. Theory and simulation studies are presented on the hydrodynamics of a high-gain target for a fast ignition point design.

  2. Two crystal x-ray spectrometers for OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, C.; Casner, A.; Girard, F.; Lecherbourg, L.; Loupias, B.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.

    2016-11-01

    Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat a ̀ l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-Injection Device (XCCS-CID), records three spectra with three crystals coupled to a time integrated CID camera. The second one, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer (XCCS) with a framing camera, is time resolved and records four spectra with two crystals on the four frames of a framing camera. Cylindrical crystals are used in Johan geometry. Each spectrometer is positioned with a ten-inch manipulator inside the OMEGA target chamber. In each experiment, after choosing a spectral window, a specific configuration is designed and concave crystals are precisely positioned on a board with angled wedges and spacers. Slits on snouts enable 1D spatial resolution to distinguish spectra emitted from different parts of the target.

  3. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) for ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm, fizzle and ignited implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Deciantis, J. L.; Kurebayashi, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Soures, J. M.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hann, S. W.; Schmid, G. J.; Landen, O. L.; Izumi, N.

    2003-10-01

    A method for determining ρR_fuel of cryogenic deuterium-tritium plasmas involves measurement of the energy spectrum of elastically-scattered, primary neutrons. A spectrometer has been designed for doing this at OMEGA and the NIF, using scattered neutrons in the energy range 7-10 MeV to determine ρR_fuel and primary neutrons to measure T_i. The instrument utilizes a magnet and a conversion foil for production of charged particles. A large dynamic range (>10^6) will allow operation at yields as low as 10^12. This will allow ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm and cryogenic DT targets at OMEGA, and fizzle and ignited cryogenic DT targets at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the US DoE (contract W-7405-ENG-48 with LLNL, grant DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), and LLNL (subcontract B313975).

  4. Probing high areal-density cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions using downscattered neutron spectra measured by the magnetic recoil spectrometera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Radha, P. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Hatchett, S. P.; Haan, S. W.; Cerjan, C. J.; Landen, O. L.; Fletcher, K. A.; Leeper, R. J.

    2010-05-01

    For the first time high areal-density (ρR) cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions have been probed using downscattered neutron spectra measured with the magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) [J. A. Frenje et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 10E502 (2008)], recently installed and commissioned on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The ρR data obtained with the MRS have been essential for understanding how the fuel is assembled and for guiding the cryogenic program at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) to ρR values up to ˜300 mg/cm2. The ρR data obtained from well-established charged particle spectrometry techniques [C. K. Li et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4902 (2001)] were used to authenticate the MRS data for low-ρR plastic capsule implosions, and the ρR values inferred from these techniques are in excellent agreement, indicating that the MRS technique provides high-fidelity data. Recent OMEGA-MRS data and Monte Carlo simulations have shown that the MRS on the NIF [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will meet most of the absolute and relative requirements for determining ρR, ion temperature (Ti) and neutron yield (Yn) in both low-yield, tritium-rich, deuterium-lean, hydrogen-doped implosions and high-yield DT implosions.

  5. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    PubMed Central

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  6. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia.

  7. Sexual development and cryptic sexuality in fungi: insights from Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Paul S; O'Gorman, Céline M

    2012-01-01

    Major insights into sexual development and cryptic sexuality within filamentous fungi have been gained from investigations using Aspergillus species. Here, an overview is first given into sexual morphogenesis in the aspergilli, describing the different types of sexual structures formed and how their production is influenced by a variety of environmental and nutritional factors. It is argued that the formation of cleistothecia and accessory tissues, such as Hülle cells and sclerotia, should be viewed as two independent but co-ordinated developmental pathways. Next, a comprehensive survey of over 75 genes associated with sexual reproduction in the aspergilli is presented, including genes relating to mating and the development of cleistothecia, sclerotia and ascospores. Most of these genes have been identified from studies involving the homothallic Aspergillus nidulans, but an increasing number of studies have now in addition characterized 'sex-related' genes from the heterothallic species Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. A schematic developmental genetic network is proposed showing the inter-relatedness between these genes. Finally, the discovery of sexual reproduction in certain Aspergillus species that were formerly considered to be strictly asexual is reviewed, and the importance of these findings for cryptic sexuality in the aspergilli as a whole is discussed.

  8. Stability of catechins in green tea nutraceutical products: application of solid phase extraction-thin layer chromatography densitometry.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2014-08-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a powerful antioxidant and commonly used nutraceutical. Accelerated stability of EGCG in tablet formulations was investigated. LLE and SPE were employed for sample clean-up and enrichment of EGCG over caffeine. Samples were analysed after spiking with fixed concentration of gallic acid (GA), in order to verify reproducibility of analysis. A TLC-densitometric assay was developed and validated for determination of % loss EGCG. EGCG, GA and caffeine were resolved with Rf values 0.54, 0.69 and 0.80, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used to verify identity and purity of the EGCG band. Determination was carried out over a concentration range of 0.50-5.00μg/band and 0.20-2.40μg/band for GA and caffeine, respectively. Results showed significant reduction in EGCG content after one, three and six months: 24.00%, 28.00% and 52.00% respectively. Results continue to demonstrate that stability of nutraceutical products should be investigated in-depth using industry-oriented protocols before granting marketing authorisation. PMID:24629943

  9. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Hu, S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.; Betti, R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles, occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. We present initial results of experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP facility on magnetic reconnection between colliding, magnetized blowoff plasmas. While in previous experiments the magnetic fields were self-generated in the plasma by the Biermann battery effect, in these experiments the seed magnetic field is generated by pulsing current through a pair of external foils using the MIFEDS current generator (Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System) developed at LLE. Time-resolved images of the magnetic fields and plasma dynamics are obtained from proton radiography and x-ray self-emission, respectively. We present initial results of the experiments, including comparison to ``null'' experiments with zero MIFEDS magnetic field, and associated modeling using the radiation-hydro code DRACO and the particle-in-cell code PSC.

  10. Multi-component trace analysis of organic xenobiotics in surface water containing suspended particular matter by solid phase extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erger, Christine; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2012-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) often disturbs the analysis of surface water by conventional methods, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid phase extraction (SPE), caused by insufficient extraction or by plugging. Water and SPM are therefore often separately analysed, which is associated with high expenditure of time, work and costs. Hence, SPM is partly ignored, if the fraction of sorptively bound analytes is small compared to the total analyte concentration. However, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC) requires explicitly an investigation of the whole water sample including SPM, because many priority and priority hazardous substances can sorb substantially to SPM. Therefore, an SPE disk based method was developed for the determination of 54 priority and priority hazardous pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organic chlorinated pesticides (OCP) and other pesticides in surface water containing SPM. The developed SPE disk method allows analysis of 1L surface water containing up to 1000 mg SPM without prior separation of SPM in about 2h including gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) spectrometry analysis. The limits of quantification vary in a range of 0.8 to 38 ng/L. PMID:22749454

  11. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  12. Clickable 4-Oxo-β-lactam-Based Selective Probing for Human Neutrophil Elastase Related Proteomes.

    PubMed

    Ruivo, Eduardo F P; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Carvalho, Luís A R; Guedes, Rita C; Hofbauer, Stefan; Brito, José A; Archer, Margarida; Moreira, Rui; Lucas, Susana D

    2016-09-20

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a serine protease associated with several inflammatory processes such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The precise involvement of HNE in COPD and other inflammatory disease mechanisms has yet to be clarified. Herein we report a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, or 'click' chemistry) approach based on the 4-oxo-β-lactam warhead that yielded potent HNE inhibitors containing a triazole moiety. The resulting structure-activity relationships set the basis to develop fluorescent and biotinylated activity-based probes as tools for molecular functional analysis. Attaching the tags to the 4-oxo-β-lactam scaffold did not affect HNE inhibitory activity, as revealed by the IC50 values in the nanomolar range (56-118 nm) displayed by the probes. The nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-based probe presented the best binding properties (ligand efficiency (LE)=0.31) combined with an excellent lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE=4.7). Moreover, the probes showed adequate fluorescence properties, internalization in human neutrophils, and suitable detection of HNE in the presence of a large excess of cell lysate proteins. This allows the development of activity-based probes with promising applications in target validation and identification, as well as diagnostic tools. PMID:27465595

  13. Measurements of shock-bang and compression-bang time in NIF implosions using the particle Time-of-Flight (pTOF) diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Kimbrough, J.; Bell, P.; Kilkenny, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, C.; Olson, R.

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear shock-bang and compression-bang times provide unique information about the shock physics in, and dynamics of, ICF implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The shock-bang time may address questions about fuel preheat, whereas compression-bang time is an indicator of energy coupling to the capsule. The particle Time-of-Flight diagnostic (pTOF), recently implemented on the NIF, measures the bang times using shock-generated D3He protons and compression-generated DD-neutrons in D3He gas-filled tuning shots at the NIF. In combination with a Wedge Range-Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer fielded at the pTOF, time-resolved ρR measurements are also conducted. The diagnostic also measures the bang time in cryogenic DT and DT-Exploding Pusher implosion. The pTOF results from the tuning campaigns in 2011 will be presented, and the implications of the data will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  14. Determination of 13 Organic Toxicants in Human Blood by Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupling High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Aiying

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides and antidepressants are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime because of their toxicological effect and easy-availability. Therefore, it is essential for the development of a simple and reliable method for the determination of these organic toxicants in biological fluids. Here, we report on an applicable method by the combination of optimized liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify dimethoate, omethoate, dichlorvos, carbofuran, fenpropathrin, diazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolamm, chlorpromazine, phenergan, barbitone and phenobarbital in human blood. The method demonstrated a linear calibration curve in range of 20 - 500 μg/L (r > 0.994). The accuracy evaluated by recovery spiked at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μg/L) was in the range of 58.8 - 83.1% with a relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3.7 - 7.4%. The limits of quantification ranged over 6.7 - 33.3 μg/L. This method was proved to be simple and reliable, and was thus successfully applied to forensic toxicology. PMID:27302585

  15. [Aspartic Acid Generated in the Process of Chlorination Disinfection By-product Dichloroacetonitrile].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Li, Nai-jun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Meng-qing

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in drinking water by liquid- liquid micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( LLE-GC/MS), which used 1,2-dibromopropane as the internal standard and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the extractant for high accuracy. The aspartic acid was used as the precursor of the DCAN formation during chlorination and the influencing factors were evaluated. The formation mechanism of DCAN was also discussed. The results showed that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of pH value under the neutral and acidic conditions, however, the amount of DCAN decreased with the increase of pH value under the alkali condition. And the final amount of DCAN under the alkali condition was much less than that under the neutral and acidic conditions. It was also found that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of chlorine addition, while the temperature in the range of 10-30°C had little influence on the DCAN formation. The formation process of the DCAN from aspartic acid by chlorination included seven steps, such as substitution, decarboxylation, oxidation, etc and ultimately formed DCAN. PMID:27506037

  16. Analysis of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and its brominated analogues in chlorine-treated water by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Planas, Carles; Ventura, Francesc; Caixach, Josep; Martín, Jordi; Boleda, M Rosa; Paraira, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive method for the analysis of the strong mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and its brominated analogues (BMXs) in chlorine-treated water has been developed. The method is based on gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS), previous liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a smaller sample volume compared to other methods and on-line derivatization with a silylation reactive. GC-QqQ-MS/MS has been raised as an alternative easier to perform than gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for the analysis of MX and BMXs, and it allows to achieve low LODs (0.3 ng/L for MX and 0.4-0.9 ng/L for BMXs). This technique had not been previously described for the analysis of MX and BMXs. Quality parameters were calculated and real samples related to 3 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), tap water and both untreated and chlorinated groundwater were analyzed. Concentrations of 0.3-6.6 ng/L for MX and 1.0-7.3 ng/L for BMXs were detected. Results were discussed according to five of the main factors affecting MX and BMXs formation in chlorine-treated water (organic precursors, influence of bromide ions, evolution of MX and BMXs in the drinking water distribution system, groundwater chlorination and infiltration of water coming from chlorination processes in groundwater).

  17. Comparison of SVM and ANFIS for snore related sounds classification by using the largest Lyapunov exponent and entropy.

    PubMed

    Ankışhan, Haydar; Yılmaz, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Snoring, which may be decisive for many diseases, is an important indicator especially for sleep disorders. In recent years, many studies have been performed on the snore related sounds (SRSs) due to producing useful results for detection of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The first important step of these studies is the detection of snore from SRSs by using different time and frequency domain features. The SRSs have a complex nature that is originated from several physiological and physical conditions. The nonlinear characteristics of SRSs can be examined with chaos theory methods which are widely used to evaluate the biomedical signals and systems, recently. The aim of this study is to classify the SRSs as snore/breathing/silence by using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and entropy with multiclass support vector machines (SVMs) and adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Two different experiments were performed for different training and test data sets. Experimental results show that the multiclass SVMs can produce the better classification results than ANFIS with used nonlinear quantities. Additionally, these nonlinear features are carrying meaningful information for classifying SRSs and are able to be used for diagnosis of sleep disorders such as SAHS. PMID:24194786

  18. Design of Protease Activated Optical Contrast Agents That Exploit a Latent Lysosomotropic Effect for Use in Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new molecular-guided contrast agents to enhance surgical procedures such as tumor resection that require a high degree of precision. Cysteine cathepsins are highly up-regulated in a wide variety of cancers, both in tumor cells and in the tumor-supporting cells of the surrounding stroma. Therefore, tools that can be used to dynamically monitor their activity in vivo could be used as imaging contrast agents for intraoperative fluorescence image guided surgery (FGS). Although multiple classes of cathepsin-targeted substrate probes have been reported, most suffer from overall fast clearance from sites of protease activation, leading to reduced signal intensity and duration in vivo. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of near-infrared fluorogenic probes that exploit a latent cationic lysosomotropic effect (LLE) to promote cellular retention upon protease activation. These probes show tumor-specific retention, fast activation kinetics, and rapid systemic distribution. We demonstrate that they are suitable for detection of diverse cancer types including breast, colon and lung tumors. Most importantly, the agents are compatible with the existing, FDA approved, da Vinci surgical system for fluorescence guided tumor resection. Therefore, our data suggest that the probes reported here can be used with existing clinical instrumentation to detect tumors and potentially other types of inflammatory lesions to guide surgical decision making in real time. PMID:26039341

  19. Mixing enthalpy and liquid-liquid equilibrium of aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, U.; Enders, S.

    2014-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most important polymers in pharmaceutical or medical applications at room or at body temperature, where polymers with different chain lengths are employed. The purpose of this work is the analysis of a detailed association model taking into account self-association of water, self-association of polymer and cross-association. The model is applied in two different versions (model 1 without end-group effects and model 2 with end-group effects) to the correlation and prediction of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLEs), mixing enthalpies and hydration numbers of PEG in an aqueous solution. The required model parameters are estimated by fitting selected LLE data at high temperatures and some data points for the mixing enthalpy at low temperatures. The optimised set of parameters is used to predict simultaneously the effect of the polymer molecular weight on miscibility, the mixing enthalpy as a function of chain length and temperature as well as the number of hydration as a function of molecular weight and temperature. The obtained results were in fair agreement with experimental data from the literature. Additionally, some new mixing enthalpies were measured using isothermal titration calorimetry.

  20. GC-MS method development and validation for anabolic steroids in feed samples.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, Raquel; Santos-Montes, Ana; Izquierdo-Hornillos, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    A GC-MS method for the determination of AAS used as growth promoting agents using SIM in piglet feed samples has been developed and validated, using testosterone as internal standard. The formation of volatile steroid derivatives was carried out by derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The optimum separation was achieved using a Zebron ZB-5 column under a gradient temperature elution, allowing the separation of steroids in 18 min. The required sample treatment process was discussed. A leaching using ACN, saponification using a binary NaOH/MgCl2 solution, and LLE using ethyl acetate were finally selected. Method validation has been carried out according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria established for quantitative confirmatory methods. The extraction efficiencies, CCalpha and CCbeta for these compounds were in the ranges 78-98%, 10-21 and 18-35 mug/kg, respectively. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility at 1, 1.5, and 2 CCbeta concentration levels were smaller than 8.2, 7.5, and 5.8% and 12.2, 9.5, and 7.5%, respectively. Accuracy was in the 99-103% range. The robustness was evaluated using the Youden robustness test. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of steroids spiked in different kinds of animal feed samples with satisfactory results.

  1. X-ray laser beam propagation in double-foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, B.; Shvarts, D.; Boehly, T.; Yaakobi, B.

    1990-02-01

    Refraction effects on the gain of an x-ray laser propagating in a convex (lateral) plasma density profile have been studied previously. Here the corresponding case of concave density profile is studied theoretically. Experimentally, the convex profile is obtained by irradiating a single (exploding) foil target; the concave case can be realized by various two-beam irradiation configurations. Such geometries have been studied experimentally at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) [SPIE Proceedings (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1987), Vol. 831, Paper 40, p. 283; Paper 42, p. 305]. The concave profile has a waveguiding effect on the propagation of the x-ray laser and can reduce the deleterious effects of refraction. The output power, its dependence on the length of the amplifying medium, and its angular distribution are studied and compared with the convex profile case. An amplifier mode (in which a collimated beam is incident on an amplifying medium) is compared with an amplified spontaneous emission mode (where spontaneous emission sources exist throughout the amplifying medium).

  2. Design of a compact, low energy charged particle spectrometer for stellar nucleosynthesis experiments at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simulations have been used to model an ``Orange Spectrometer'' for measuring alpha and proton energy spectra in the range ~1-5 MeV for experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An important application will be the study of stellar nucleosynthesis reactions, in particular 3He +3He --> α + p +p, which is a step in the solar proton-proton chain. Experiments to study this reaction have been undertaken at OMEGA before, but no diagnostics have been able to measure the low-energy, low-yield alpha particles generated in the reaction. Feasibility studies were performed with particle trajectory calculations utilizing magnetic field models from COMSOL, and several designs have been identified for testing and development. Ability to study the alpha particles in addition to the protons is essential for understanding the nuclear physics governing the final-state interactions between pairs of particles in the three-body final state. This work was supported in part by NLUF, DOE, and LLE.

  3. Measurements of charged-particle stopping around the Bragg peak in OMEGA ICF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R.; Grabowski, P.; Mancini, R.; Regan, S.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T.

    2014-10-01

    We report on measurements of charged-particle stopping around the Bragg peak in plasmas relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The energy loss of DD-tritons, DD-protons, D3He-alphas and D3He-protons, which are ideal particles for validating approximations to the ion-electron collision operator, have been measured in D3He gas-filled filled implosions. These experiments are relevant to alpha-particle transport and heating in hot-sport ignition experiments. As the DD and D3He fusion products span a large range of velocities, these measurements represent the first detailed experimental study of charged-particle stopping, ranging from linear low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping. The results are contrasted to commonly used theories, including the Brown-Preston-Singleton and Li-Petrasso formalisms. The data is also used to rule out theories that neglect quantum diffraction and dynamic screening. This work was supported in part by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE and GA.

  4. Studies of 3He+3He, T+3He, and p +D nuclear reactions relevant to stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using ICF plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Rosenberg, Michael; Rinderknecht, Hans; Petrasso, Richard; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yong Ho; Hale, Gerry; McNabb, Dennis; Sayre, Dan; Pino, Jesse; Brune, Carl; Bacher, Andy; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Janezic, Roger; Sangster, Craig

    2014-10-01

    The 3He+3He, T+3He, and p +D reactions directly relevant to Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using high-temperature low-density `exploding pusher' implosions. The advantage of using these plasmas is that they better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. Measured proton spectra from the 3He3He reaction are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling. The resulting T+3He γ-ray data rule out an anomalously-high 6Li production during BBN as an explanation to the high observed values in primordial material. The proton spectrum from the T+3He reaction is also being used to constrain the R-matrix model. Recent experiments have probed the p +D reaction for the first time in a plasma; this reaction is relevant to energy production in protostars, brown dwarfs and at higher CM energies to BBN. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  5. Measuring radial profiles of nuclear burn in ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF using proton emission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Amendt, P. A.; Bellei, C.; Le Pape, S.; Wilks, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Fusion reactions in ICF implosions of D3He-filled capsules produce 14.7-MeV D3He protons and 3-MeV DD protons. Measurements of the spatial distributions of the D3He and DD reactions are studied with a penumbral imaging system that utilizes a CR-39-based imaging detector to simultaneously record separate penumbral images of the two types of protons. Measured burn profiles are useful for studying implosion physics and provide a critical test for benchmarking simulations. Recent implosions at OMEGA of CD capsules containing 3He gas fill and SiO2 capsules containing low-pressure D3He gas were expected to have hollow D3He burn profiles (in the 3He-filled capsule, due to fuel-shell mix), but penumbral imaging showed that the reactions were centrally peaked due to enhanced ion diffusion. The imaging technique is to be implemented soon on the NIF. This work was supported in part by NLUF, DOE, and LLE.

  6. Studies of ion species separation in ICF-relevant plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, Hans; Wilks, Scott; Amendt, Peter; Ross, Steve; Park, Hye-Sook; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard; Rosenberg, Michael; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Sangster, Craig; Zylstra, Alex; Hoffman, Nelson; Kwan, Tom; Larroche, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas produced in high-energy density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments generally contain multiple ion species, which allows for multiple-ion species dynamics that are not simulated in typical single-ion fluid hydro codes. In implosions of D3He-gas filled thin-glass spheres on the OMEGA laser facility, comprehensive nuclear diagnostics were used to infer the composition of the fuel during nuclear production, demonstrating that the deuterium fraction was reduced during the implosion of the fuel. Hydrodynamic simulations including an ion diffusion model indicate that pressure, temperature, and potential gradients drive diffusive separation of the ion species, producing better agreement with the experiments than standard hydrodynamic codes. The results of fully kinetic (Vlasov-Fokker-Planck and PIC) simulations confirm the importance of multi-species dynamics to the evolution of these experiments. Implications for multi-species (DT) cryogenic implosions on the National Ignition Facility will be addressed. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  7. Feasibility of an experiment to measure stopping powers in solid-density deuterium plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Regan, S.; Sangster, C.; Graziani, F.; Collins, G. W.; Rygg, J. R.; Grabowski, P.; Glenzer, S.; Keiter, P.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental design to measure the stopping powers of charged-particles through solid-density, fully-ionized deuterium plasmas at temperatures around 10 eV is investigated. Stopping power in this regime is crucial to the understanding of alpha-heating and burn in Internal Confinement Fusion. Recent work by A.B. Zylstra et al. on the OMEGA laser facility has demonstrated such measurements of stopping power in partially ionized Be plasmas, by measuring the downshift of D3He-protons in an isochorically heated sample. As noted in their work, the effects of partial ionization are not well understood; however such effects are not applicable to hydrogenic fuels, for which the plasmas are expected to be fully ionized. This study will consider the viability of isochorically or shock heating a target to Warm Dense Matter conditions using a platform similar to the planar cryogenic system described by S.P. Regan et al. Plasma properties will be determined by x-ray Thomson scattering while stopping powers will be inferred through measuring downshift of either DD-protons, D3He-protons or D3He-alphas, the latter of which is directly applicable to the stopping of DT-alphas in ignition experiments. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  8. Studies of nuclear reactions relevant to stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using ICF plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho; Hale, Gerry; Paris, Mark; McEvoy, Aaron; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard; McNabb, Dennis; Sayre, Dan; Pino, Jesse; Brune, Carl; Bacher, Andy; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Janezic, Roger; Sangster, Craig

    2015-10-01

    The 3He+3He, T+3He, and p + D reactions directly relevant to Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using high-temperature low-density `exploding pusher' implosions. The advantage of using these plasmas is that they better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. Measured proton spectra from the 3He3He reaction are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling. The resulting T+3He gamma-ray data rule out an anomalously-high 6Li production during the Big Bang as an explanation to the high observed values in metal poor first generation stars. The proton spectrum from the T+3He reaction is also being used to constrain the R-matrix model. Recent experiments have probed the p + D reaction for the first time in a plasma; this reaction is relevant to energy production in protostars, brown dwarfs and at higher CM energies to BBN. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  9. Observation of variations in the T +T neutron spectrum with varying center-of-mass energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Forrest, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, T.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Shmayda, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Sayre, D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Hatarik, R.; McNabb, D. P.; Pino, J. E.; Bacher, A.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Bourgade, J.-. L.; Landoas, O.; Rosse, B.

    2014-10-01

    C. BRUNE, Ohio University - The T +T fusion reaction, which produces two neutrons and an alpha particle in a 3-body final state, has been studied in a series of direct-drive, T2-gas-filled thin (~3 μm) glass-capsule implosions at OMEGA. The shapes of the reaction product spectra are dictated by the final-state interactions between n- α (5He in the ground- and excited states) and n-n (di-neutron interaction). The theory behind final-state interactions is not well understood and detailed study of the reaction product spectra can teach us about the intricacies of the nuclear theory involved. In this presentation, measured neutron spectra are interpreted in terms of the sequential decay through 5He in the ground- and excited states. A clear energy dependence in relative reaction-channel strength at low center-of-mass energy (18-55 keV) is observed in the data. The role of the di-neutron interaction could be more clearly deduced through study of the alpha particle spectrum. In the presentation, we also identify steps required to successfully measure the T +T alpha spectrum in future experiments. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLNL and LLE.

  10. Studies of multi-ion-fluid yield anomaly in shock-driven implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S. C.; Zimmerman, G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Marshall, F. J.; Seka, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2014-10-01

    A. NIKROO, GA - Anomalously reduced yields relative to hydrodynamically calculated values have been observed for mixtures of D:3He compared to pure D2 gas-filled implosions in a series of shock-driven implosions at OMEGA. An extensive suite of measurements including temporal and spatial measurements of both the DD- and D3He-fusion reactions were obtained to identify the origin and physics behind this anomalous yield reduction. Measured spectral linewidths of fusion products suggest that the D ions are not thermalized to 3He during the burn, contributing to the reduced yield. The hypothesis that ion-species separation due to diffusive processes contributes to the observed yield reduction is explored using hydrodynamic simulations incorporating ion diffusion. Recent observations by Rosenberg et al. of a yield reduction with increased ion-ion mean free path do not explain the observed anomalous yield trend. Future work that will directly probe species separation with high-precision relative fusion reaction rate measurements between DD-neutrons and D3He-protons using the DualPTD instrument is discussed. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  11. Studies of nuclear reactions relevant to stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using ICF plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho; Hale, Gerry; Paris, Mark; McEvoy, Aaron; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard; McNabb, Dennis; Sayre, Dan; Pino, Jesse; Brune, Carl; Bacher, Andy; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Janezic, Roger; Sangster, Craig

    2015-11-01

    The 3He+3He, T+3He, and p +D reactions directly relevant to Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using high-temperature low-density `exploding pusher' implosions. The advantage of using these plasmas is that they better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. Measured proton spectra from the 3He3He reaction are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling. The resulting T+3He gamma-ray data rule out an anomalously-high 6Li production during the Big Bang as an explanation to the high observed values in metal poor first generation stars. The proton spectrum from the T+3He reaction is also being used to constrain the R-matrix model. Recent experiments have probed the p +D reaction for the first time in a plasma; this reaction is relevant to energy production in protostars, brown dwarfs and at higher CM energies to BBN. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  12. Ultraviolet A radiation induces rapid apoptosis of human leukemia cells by Fas ligand-independent activation of the Fas death pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shougang; Kochevar, Irene E

    2003-07-01

    Endogenous cellular chromophores absorb ultraviolet A radiation (UVA, 290-320 nm), the major UV component of terrestrial solar radiation, leading to the formation of reactive oxidizing species that initiate apoptosis, gene expression and mutagenesis. UVA-induced apoptosis of T helper cells is believed to underlie the UVA phototherapy for atopic dermatitis and other T cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. We have evaluated the involvement of the Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) pathway in rapid UVA-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. UVA-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by pretreatment with a neutralizing anti-Fas antibody, although the same UVA treatment initiated cleavage of caspase-8 and subsequent processing of Bid and caspase-3-like proteases. Inhibition of caspase-8 by Lle-Glu (OMe)-Thr-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone completely blocked caspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis in UVA-treated cells, suggesting that apoptosis was initiated by the Fas pathway. This inference was supported by demonstrating that immunoprecipitates obtained from UVA-treated cells using anti-Fas antibody contained caspase-8 and Fas-associating protein with death domain (FADD). In addition, Fas clustering in response to UVA treatment was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. These data support a mechanism for rapid, UVA-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells involving initial formation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 death complex in an FasL-independent manner.

  13. Performance measurements on NIF beamlines for future experiments to support polar direct drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. K.; Kruschwitz, B.; Yang, S. T.; Bowers, M.; Browning, D.; Budge, T.; Canning, D.; Chou, J.; Consentino, A.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Dixit, S.; Dorrer, C.; Erbert, G.; Hackel, R.; Heebner, J.; Hill, E.; Johnston, M.; Kelly, J.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Shaw, M.; Smith, L.; Wegner, P.; Zuegel, J.

    2016-05-01

    We are studying the implementation of polar direct drive (PDD) ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. Part of this preparation involves testing the performance of the NIF laser system over a broader span of center wavelengths, 3.6 nm, where the laser currently operates and that gain models describe. The temporal shape for the PDD pulses consists of a drive pulse preceded by three lower power “picket pulses”. These picket pulses require a multi-FM sinusoidal phase modulation format with a bandwidth of ∼ 200 GHz and a more dispersive grating in the preamplifier module (PAM) for smoothing-by-spectral-dispersion (SSD). In this paper we discuss recent measurements of gain on the NIF laser system over this broader wavelength range. We measured FM-to-AM conversion over the 3.6 nm wavelength range. The possibility of pinhole closure due to the larger bandwidth and dispersion associated with multi-FM SSD was studied at LLE on the OMEGA EP laser.

  14. Experienced workers may sacrifice peak torso kinematics/kinetics for enhanced balance/stability during repetitive lifting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungyong; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-04-01

    Work-related low back disorders (WRLBDs) are widely recognized problems, and work experience, while often considered important, has an unclear role with respect to modifying WRLBD risks. For example, some studies have shown that peak torso kinematics/kinetics are higher among experienced workers, suggesting a counterintuitive higher risk. To better understand the movement strategies of experienced workers, additional analyses were conducted using data from a prior study, to assess whole body balance and torso movement stability of 6 experienced workers vs. 6 novices during repetitive lifts/lowers. Dynamic balance and torso movement stability were quantified using peak linear/angular momenta and largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of torso flexion/extension, respectively. Peak horizontal linear momenta, all angular momenta, and LLEs were lower among experienced workers, suggestive of superior balance maintenance and more stable torso flexion/extension. Thus, experienced workers seem to sacrifice peak torso kinematics/kinetics to obtain better balance maintenance and torso movement stability, whereas the opposite strategies were evident among novices. These findings highlight that movement strategies can be modified by work experience and have potential implications/applications for worker training or work method analyses.

  15. A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-09

    When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

  16. Determination of steroidal oestrogens in tap water samples using solid-phase extraction on a molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent and quantification with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of steroidal oestrogens in tap water samples. Gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the identification/quantification of selected compounds and the analytical performance of these techniques was evaluated. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) stationary phase that was highly selective for oestrogens were used for the extraction of 100-mL aliquots of water samples. The recoveries of analytes with the described methods ranged from 92 to 114 %, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 2.1 to 15.2 % (n = 5). It was concluded that SPE with MIP that was highly selective for oestrogens in combination with GC-HRMS detection is more preferable for the analysis of oestrogens in tap water samples. The typical oestrogen, 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), was detected above the method limit of quantification (m-LOQ) in 5 of 14 analysed tap water samples at concentrations from 0.09 to 0.15 ng L(-1). Despite that 17α-ethynylestradiol (17α-EE2) was not quantified in this study above m-LOQ, the presence of this chemical was qualitatively confirmed in some of the analysed samples.

  17. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W

    2016-05-18

    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma. PMID:27141971

  18. Photolithography simulation on nonplanar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Michael S.

    1990-06-01

    A iod1 of oJ. )tica. I hthograpliy suitable for certain types of onedimensional 1)eriOdic tOpogra)hy including birds beaks afl(L reflowed BISC4 structures is described. it is based on a formalism of diffraction grating theory which uses a. coordinate t. raiisforna. tiou to iap all the nonpla. uar surfaces oiit. o parallel planes a. iid it ca. ii be used for the rigorous simulation of photoresist. latent images of oiiedimensional mask patterns with periodicity fuller j)a. ra. lleI or I)(rI)e11(Iicu1a. r to that of the topogra)hy. Effects of t. opogra)11y scattering 1)111k illiaging and )11otob1eachu1Ig are fully ta. keii into a. ccounl. for both types of mask patterns. Simulation results illustrate the combined effects of topography scattering and I) ulk iiiaging in iioiipla. na. r pliotoli tliogra. phiy using high iiuinerical aperture optics.

  19. Organotin speciation in Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Mzoughi, N; Lespes, G; Bravo, M; Dachraoui, M; Potin-Gautier, M

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, organotins have been assessed in samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, in Tunisia, during two seasons (summer and winter). The organotin distribution was studied in marine sediments and mussels tissues of this lagoon. Butyl-, phenyl- and octyltins were determined using a rapid speciation analytical method based on one-step ethylation/extraction with sodium tetraethylborate in aqueous phase. Simultaneously to the ethylation, the extraction was performed by either liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) or head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) was used to perform quantitative determination. The technique has been validated using biological and sediment reference materials. The different samples from Bizerte lagoon were found to be moderately contaminated, especially by butyltins. This pollution was attributed to industrial activities, which are very important in this area. Organotins appeared accumulated in both sediments and mussels, while significant degradations of triorganotins to monosubstituted ones was observed in water. PMID:16198682

  20. Searching ingredients polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in feeds due to atmospheric or pyrolytic sources.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    The primary aim of the proposed work is to propose the potential sources of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in feeds and ingredients. To reach this propose the development of a simple, fast, quantitative and economic method for determining PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up and detection by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) in polluting feeds and ingredients was developed. The overall method quantification limits range from 0.020 to 4.0μg/kg and analyte recoveries are between 70% and 105% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 20%. Molecular patterns of PAHs were used to study their distribution in the selected samples by cluster analysis, separating them in two groups: contaminated by atmospheric or pyrolytic sources. In order to find a relationship between the nutritional composition (protein, fibre, ash and fat content), and the hypothetical toxicity of selected feeds, a partial least squared (PLS) analysis was used, showing that fibre was a major contributor. Moreover, the complete data set of 27 feed samples and 25 feed ingredients x 13 PAH concentrations were analysed by PCA to find out what ingredients were controlling PAH pollution.

  1. Occurrence of emerging and priority pollutants in municipal reverse osmosis concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaozhu; Gu, Ping; Zhang, Guanghui; Huang, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the occurrence and concentrations of emerging and priority pollutants in the municipal reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that there were varieties of pollutants, including chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs), pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), herbicides and flame retardants, in the ROC. Most of the pollutants were quantified, and the performance of the analytical method was explored. For most of the target compounds, the mean recoveries at two concentration levels (0.17 μg L(-1) and 1.67 μg L(-1)) ranged from 70% to 130% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 20%, indicating excellent accuracy and precision. Typical concentrations of most of the pollutants were as low as tens or hundreds of ng L(-1), whereas others were as high as several μg L(-1) (such as, the concentration of 2-chloroethyl ether was 1.42 μg L(-1), of caffeine was 3.73 μg L(-1), and of benzyl butyl phthalate was 4.90 μg L(-1)). PMID:25582672

  2. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  3. The use of design-of-experiments methodology to optimize polymer capsule fabrication. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, L.

    1999-03-01

    Future inertial-fusion experiments on Omega will utilize {approximately} 1 mm-diameter cryogenic targets that have a {approximately} 100-{micro}m-thick, uniformly-frozen fuel layer on their interior. It is desired that they have a stress-free wall thickness < 1 {micro}m and an rms surface roughness < 20 nm. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was used to characterize a glow-discharge-polymerization coater built at LLE to fabricate smooth, stress-free capsules with submicron wall thicknesses. The DOE approach was selected because several parameters can be changed simultaneously in a manner which allows the minimum number of runs to be performed to obtain statistically-relevant data. Planar, silicon substrates were coated with {approximately} 3--5 {micro}m of polymer and profilometry was used to determine the coating rate, the film stress, and the surface roughness. The coating rate was found to depend on the trans-2-butene/hydrogen ratio, the total gas-flow rate, the total chamber pressure, and the RF power. In addition, a two-parameter interaction between the total pressure and the RF power also affects the coating rate. The film stress depends on the total chamber pressure and the total mass-flow rate. The surface roughness is independent of the parameters studied. Preliminary results indicate that capsules can be produced rapidly without affecting the smoothness of their outside surface and without residual stress in their walls.

  4. Analytical methods for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure during human fetal and lactation stages: a review.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-09-10

    In the present work, a review of the analytical methods developed in the last 15 years for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in human samples related with children, including placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, maternal blood, maternal urine and breast milk, is proposed. Children are highly vulnerable to toxic chemicals in the environment. Among these environmental contaminants to which children are at risk of exposure are EDCs -substances able to alter the normal hormone function of wildlife and humans-. The work focuses mainly on sample preparation and instrumental techniques used for the detection and quantification of the analytes. The sample preparation techniques include, not only liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), but also modern microextraction techniques such as extraction with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) or ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), which are becoming alternatives in the analysis of human samples. Most studies focus on minimizing the number of steps and using the lowest solvent amounts in the sample treatment. The usual instrumental techniques employed include liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) mainly coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiresidue methods are being developed for the determination of several families of EDCs with one extraction step and limited sample preparation. PMID:26388473

  5. Analytical procedures for the determination of fuel combustion products, anti-corrosive compounds, and de-icing compounds in airport runoff water samples.

    PubMed

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Żaneta; Astel, Aleksander; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to propose and evaluate new procedures for determination of fuel combustion products, anti-corrosive and de-icing compounds in runoff water samples collected from the airports located in different regions and characterized by different levels of the activity expressed by the number of flights and the number of passengers (per year). The most difficult step in the analytical procedure used for the determination of PAHs, benzotriazoles and glycols is sample preparation stage, due to diverse matrix composition, the possibility of interference associated with the presence of components with similar physicochemical properties. In this study, five different versions of sample preparation using extraction techniques, such as: LLE and SPE, were tested. In all examined runoff water samples collected from the airports, the presence of PAH compounds and glycols was observed. In majority of the samples, BT compounds were determined. Runoff water samples collected from the areas of Polish and British international airports as well as local airports had similar qualitative composition, but quantitative composition of the analytes was very diverse. New and validated analytical methodologies ensure that the necessary information for assessing the negative impact of airport activities on the environment can be obtained.

  6. Software Engineering Processes Used to Develop the NIF Integrated Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwigsen, A P; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Lagin, L J; Reddi, U P; Van Arsdall, P J

    2007-10-03

    We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [1]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d [2]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, fluid LPI theory reproduces the SBS thresholds and absolute reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS. This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations.

  7. Three dimensional modeling of Laser-Plasma interaction: benchmarking our predictive modeling tools vs. experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L; Berger, R; Meezan, N; Froula, D H; Dixit, S; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-08

    We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA[2]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d[3]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements(SBS thresholds, reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of laser-plasma interaction: Benchmarking our predictive modeling tools versus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L.; Berger, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Froula, D. H.; Dixit, S.; Michel, P.; London, R.; Strozzi, D.; Ross, J.; Williams, E. A.; Still, B.; Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2008-05-15

    New experimental capabilities [Froula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 085001 (2007)] have been developed to study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester). By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV was created. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed to benchmark hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [Meezan et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056304 (2007)]. As a result of this effort, these simulations can be used with much confidence as input parameters for the LPI simulation code PF3D [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. In this paper, it is shown that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements (SBS thresholds, reflectivity values, and the absence of measurable stimulated Raman scattering). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  9. Laser-plasma interaction in ignition relevant plasmas: benchmarking our 3D modelling capabilities versus recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L; Froula, D H; Meezan, N; Berger, R; London, R A; Michel, P; Glenzer, S H

    2007-09-27

    We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [1]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d [2]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, fluid LPI theory reproduces the SBS thresholds and absolute reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS. This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations.

  10. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  11. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  12. Gatling gun approach to long duration x-ray drives for laboratory astrophysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, David; Kane, J. O.; Heeter, R. F.; Casner, A.; Villette, B.; Mancini, R. C.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory astrophysics studies investigating the pillar structures in the Eagle Nebula, or photoionization studies require a steady light source of sufficient duration to recreate relevant physics. To address these experimental requirements we successfully developed a 30 ns, 90 eV x-ray radiation drive using a foam-filled multi-barrel (``Gatling Gun'') hohlraum driven with three 10ns pulse UV beams on the Omega EP laser system located at LLE. The multi-barrel hohlraum consisted of three adjacent Cu cavities, heated in succession to generate long duration x-ray source. The Gatling gun approach mitigated the issues of LEH closure from a single hohlraum heated for extended durations. Characterization of the Gatling gun hohlraum, using uDMX and VISAR diagnostics, will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-640737.

  13. Experimental investigation of Eagle nebula pillars using a multiple hohlraum array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, David; Kane, Jave; Villette, Bruno; Pound, Mark; Casner, Alexis; Heeter, Robert; Mancini, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The ``pillars of creation'' are stunningly beautiful and physically puzzling molecular cloud structure in the Eagle nebula. Formation of these pillars has been subject of debate since their observation. Although extensive observation and modeling have attempted to answer the creation of the observed pillars, experiments have not adequately tested the theoretical models surrounding the photoevaporation of the molecular clouds. Recent Omega EP experiments at the LLE developed a 30 ns x-ray drive using a multiple hohlraum array (``Gatling gun'' approach) to drive the photoevaporation process and test pillar formation. This proof of principle experiment imaged the initial stages of a pillar using Ti area backlighter through a driven 50 mg/cc R/F foam with an embedded solid density CH ball. This presentation will give an overview of the experimental design and results from the experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656872.

  14. Alois Alzheimer and Gaetano Perusini: should man divide what fate united?

    PubMed

    Macchi, G; Brahe, C; Pomponi, M

    1997-01-01

    Three points of interest lie in considering how Alzheimer, and more significantly Perusini, struggled to throw light on the cause of this devastating disease. There is a stimulating possibility that Perusini believed presenile forms of Alzheimer's disease described the same disease as senile forms. If so this would anticipate current opinion, and reveal Perusini to dissent from Kraepelin. In addition, Perusini may have understood the pathological relationship between neuritic plaques and vascular changes, once more foreseeing the modern view of Alzheimer's disease. Finally, Perusini and Alzheimer disagreed with Jung's view concerning the relationship between neuropathology and clinical psychiatry. This point highlights the major change occurring at that time from classical neurology to the psychoanalytic era. In his last work (1911) Alzheimer quoted his Italian disciple many times, even speaking of 'Perusini's cases' (Perusinischen Fälle). This article is an attempt to change the eponym of Alzheimer's disease into the Alzheimer-Perusini disease. This is a brief history of a master and his disciple, whose scientific lives were, by events, divided.

  15. Development of high-throughput multi-residue method for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs monitoring in swine muscle by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Tamara S; Barreto, Fabiano; Meneghini, Leonardo; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    A reliable and simple method for the detection and quantification of residues of 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a metamizole metabolite in swine muscle was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (ACN) in solid-liquid extraction followed by a low-temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) process at -20 ± 2°C. After evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted with hexane and a mixture of water:acetonitrile (1:1). LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase (RP18) column with gradient elution using water (phase A) and ACN (phase B) both containing 1 mmol l(-)(1) ammonium acetate (NH4COO) with 0.025% acetic acid. Analysis was carried out on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray interface in negative and positive mode in a single run. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The matrix effect and linearity were evaluated. Decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy and repeatability of the method are also reported. The proposed method proved to be simple, easy and adequate for high-throughput analysis and was applied to routine analysis by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. PMID:27268755

  16. An ERP Investigation of Orthographic Priming with Relative-Position and Absolute-Position Primes

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials to examine the time-course of relative-position and absolute-position orthographic priming. Relative-position priming was examined using primes formed by a concatenated subset of the target word’s letters (e.g., cllet/COLLECT vs. dlema/COLLECT), and absolute-position priming was investigated using hyphenated versions of these primes (c-lle-t/COLLECT vs. d-lem-a/COLLECT). Both manipulations modulated the ERP waveform starting at around 100 ms post-target onset and extending into the N400 component. The first clear manifestation of priming was found in the N250 component, where hyphenated primes were found to have an earlier, more robust and more widely distributed effect than the concatenated primes. On the other hand, both prime types had similar effects on N400 amplitude. These results provide important information about the time-course of activation of location-specific and location-invariant (word-centered) orthographic representations during visual word recognition. PMID:19285966

  17. Impact of x-ray dose on the CR-39 response to 1-9 MeV protons with application to proton spectroscopy at OMEGA and NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.

    2014-10-01

    CR-39 is a clear plastic nuclear track detector utilized in many nuclear diagnostics fielded in large-scale inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray fluences in ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. A thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray machine was used to expose CR-39 to various x-ray doses to determine their impact on the CR-39 response to protons. This x-ray machine emits Cu- α line-radiation at 8 keV and has been absolutely calibrated using radiochromic film. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to D3He-protons generated by the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays. For example, a dose of 60 +/- 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of 53% in the track diameter, while a dose of 5 +/- 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of 7.5% in the track diameter. Doses of approximately 5Gy are typical on CR-39 detectors used to diagnose ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF. The resulting data will be used to evaluate how x-ray doses received by CR-39 in OMEGA and NIF experiments affect the recorded data. This undergraduate research was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  18. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  19. Suspended matter and bottom deposits in the maroni estuarine system (French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jounneau, J. M.; Pujos, M.

    The purpose of the research on the major rivers in French Guiana is identification and estimation of their contribution to estuarine and inshore continental shelf sedimentation. Results are reported of field studies on the Maroni river conducted during one rainy season and one dry season. The sands of the Maroni fluvio-estuarine system are subject to seasonal variations. During the dry season the sands were distributed in two groups on either side of the lle aux Pigeons, whereas during the rainy season, greater homogeneity was noted throughout the estuary. The sands gave evidence of a lengthy history including marine, continental and finally fluviatile stages. The play a part in sedimentation on the inner continental shelf. Fine sediments had uniform characteristics throughout the year. Mineralogic and elemental composition in the vicinity of Ile Portal indicated that they were different on either side of a limit separating the fluviatile and estuarine zones. Sediment groups were respectively autochtonal (upstream) and allochtonal (downstream), while the characteristics of the clay assemblage and elemental composition in the latter zone are evidence of an Amazon river origin. Their patterns showed evidence of a local stock that is quickly diluted by the mass of sediments derived from the Amazon river, the predominant source for the region.

  20. Summary of the First Neutron Image Data Collected at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Clark, D J; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T.-S. F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Fittinghoff, D N; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-11-01

    A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of the data collected and measurements made to date. Data form directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as, indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data presented show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 +/- 3 um, as indirect cores (25 +/- 4 and 29 +/- 4 um and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. -14% and -7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data from on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion. This work was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration and by the National Ignition Campaign partners; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of Rochester -Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), General Atomics(GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). Other contributors include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), England, and Commissariat `a l’ ´ Energie Atomique (CEA), France.