Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads
Winkler, Jon; Booten, Chuck
2016-06-01
Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Dongyi
Scope and method of study. A systematic validation of the ASHRAE heat balance based residential cooling load calculation procedure (RHB) has been performed with inter-model comparison, analytical verification and experimental validation. The inter-model validation was performed using ESP-r as the reference model. The testing process was automated through parametric generation and simulation of large sets of test cases for both RHB and ESP-r. The house prototypes covered include a simple Shoebox prototype and a real 4-bedroom house prototype. An analytical verification test suite for building fabric models of whole building energy simulation programs has been developed. The test suite consists of a series of sixteen tests covering convection, conduction, solar irradiation, long-wave radiation, infiltration and ground-coupled floors. Using the test suite, a total of twelve analytical tests have been done with the RHB procedure. The experimental validation has been conducted using experimental data collected from a Cardinal Project house located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. During the diagnostic process of the experimental validation, comparisons have also been made between ESP-r simulation results and experimental data. Findings and conclusions. It is concluded RHB is acceptable as a design tool on a typical North American house. Analytical tests confirmed the underlying mechanisms for modeling basic heat transfer phenomena in building fabric. The inter-model comparison showed that the differences found between RHB and ESP-r can be traced to the differences in sub-models used by RHB and ESP-r. It also showed that the RHB-designed systems can meet the design criteria and that the RHB temperature swing option is helpful in reducing system over-sizing. The experimental validation demonstrated that the systems designed with the method will have adequate size to meet the room temperatures specified in the design, whether or not swing is utilized. However, actual system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.
2012-12-01
A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.
Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator
Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.
2004-10-01
As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.
Kusuda, T
1980-10-31
The TC 4.7 simplified energy calculation method is a bin method used by the REAP procedure of the Carrier Corporation, except for the load estimating calculations. The simplified procedure was compared with hourly simulation procedures for an office building in Washington, DC. The comparison studied the extent as well as the reasons for agreement and discrepancies due to these two different types of annual energy analysis (bin method and hourly simulation methods). Results of the parallel calculations are discussed and the major reasons of discrepancies between the hourly simulation technique and the simplified TC 4.7 method are identified. Data resulting from the calculation methods are tabulated. (MCW)
A Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.
1999-01-01
The advantages of using a hierarchical analysis approach to calculate the buckling load of an axially compressed composite cylindrical shell is demonstrated using an example taken from a recent experimental program. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (DISDECO) shell design code is used for this hierarchical analysis approach to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the actual shell structure. DISDECO includes the influence of the boundary conditions, initial geometric imperfections, the effects of stiffener and load eccentricities, and the effects of prebuckling deformations caused by edge constraints in the analysis. It is shown that the use of DISDECO makes it relatively simple to proceed step by step from simple to more complex models and solution procedures. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis of a large finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads.
1980-11-01
an inexpensive, accurate, and reliable simplified methodology , termed the "Modified Bin Method ", for 2 calculating building heating loads. In doing so...I AD-AI01 725 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGMT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/6 13/1 SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING BUILDING HEATING LOADS.(U) NOV 80 S 0...University The Graduate School ," Department of Architectural Engineering 4, Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads, -A /. ’.- A
Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
Calibration procedure of measuring system for vehicle wheel load estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kluziewicz, M.; Maniowski, M.
2016-09-01
The calibration procedure of wheel load measuring system is presented. Designed method allows estimation of selected wheel load components while the vehicle is in motion. Mentioned system is developed to determine friction forces between tire and road surface, basing on measured internal reaction forces in wheel suspension mechanism. Three strain gauge bridges and three-component piezoelectric load cell are responsible for internal force measurement in suspension components, two wire sensors are measuring displacements. External load is calculated via kinematic model of suspension mechanism implemented in Matlab environment. In the described calibration procedure, internal reactions are measured on a test stand while the system is loaded by a force of known direction and value.
Calculations of slurry pump jet impingement loads
Wu, T.T.
1996-03-04
This paper presents a methodology to calculate the impingement load in the region of a submerged turbulent jet where a potential core exits and the jet is not fully developed. The profile of the jet flow velocities is represented by a piece-wise linear function which satisfies the conservation of momentum flux of the jet flow. The adequacy of the of the predicted jet expansion is further verified by considering the continuity of the jet flow from the region of potential core to the fully developed region. The jet impingement load can be calculated either as a direct impingement force or a drag force using the jet velocity field determined by the methodology presented.
Procedures for Calculating Cessation Lag | Science Inventory ...
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is inplemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a consideravle period of time. The time of risk reduction associated with exposure reduction will vary by compound. Some recommended measures of the economic benefits associated with environmental regulations are sensitive to the timing of the risk reductions and cannot be effectively addressed by the conventional dose-response procedures. This paper introduces the concept and methodologies for calculating cessation lag effects, with the specific goal of answering the following questions: (1) How many cancer cases are avoided at age t after cessation (or reduction) of exposure concentrations? and (2) How long does the effect of an exposure last after exposure has terminated (or been reduced)? The proposed procedures do not require more information than what is required by the conventional dose-response procedures for which cumulative or an averaged lifetime exposure is used.
Calculating Dynamics Of Helicopters And Slung Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd
1991-01-01
General equations derived for numerical simulations of motions of multiple-lift, slung-load systems consisting of two or more lifting helicopters and loads slung from them by various combinations of spreader bars, cables, nets, and attaching hardware. Equations readily programmable for efficient computation of motions and lend themselves well to analysis and design of control strategies for stabilization and coordination.
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures to calculate interest rates. 1141.1 Section 1141.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES TO CALCULATE INTEREST RATES § 1141.1 Procedures to calculate interest rates. ...
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures to calculate interest rates. 1141.1 Section 1141.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES TO CALCULATE INTEREST RATES § 1141.1 Procedures to calculate interest rates. ...
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures to calculate interest rates. 1141.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES TO CALCULATE INTEREST RATES § 1141.1 Procedures to calculate interest rates. (a) For purposes of complying with a Board decision in a...
Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.
2015-11-01
Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runyan, Harry L; Woolston, Donald S
1957-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the loading on a finite wing oscillating in subsonic or sonic flow. The method is applicable to any plan form and may be used for determining the loading on deformed wings. The procedure is approximate and requires numerical integration over the wing surface.
Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation
Sun, T.Y.
1997-12-01
Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.
Dynamic Load Balancing of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations
O'Brien, M; Taylor, J; Procassini, R
2004-12-22
The performance of parallel Monte Carlo transport calculations which use both spatial and particle parallelism is increased by dynamically assigning processors to the most worked domains. Since the particle work load varies over the course of the simulation, this algorithm determines each cycle if dynamic load balancing would speed up the calculation. If load balancing is required, a small number of particle communications are initiated in order to achieve load balance. This method has decreased the parallel run time by more than a factor of three for certain criticality calculations.
Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations
Burdick, Arlan
2011-06-01
This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.
Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations
Burdick, A.
2011-06-01
This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.
Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.
1981-01-01
Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.
Load research manual. Volume 2: Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1980-11-01
This manual will assist electric utilities and state regulatory authorities in investigating customer electricity demand as part of cost-of-service studies, rate design, marketing research, system design, load forecasting, rate reform analysis, and load management research. Load research procedures are described in detail. Research programs at three utilities are compared: Carolina Power and Light Company, Long Island Lighting Company, and Southern California Edison Company. A load research bibliography and glossaries of load research and statistical terms are also included.
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all passenger...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...
Procedure for calculating interior daylight illumination with a programmable hand calculator
Bryan, H.J.; Clear, R.D.
1980-10-01
A procedure is described for calculating interior daylight illumination using an inexpensive programmable hand calculator. The proposed procedure calculates illumination at any point within a room utilizing sky luminance distribution functions that are consistent with the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Overcast and Clear Sky functions. This procedure separates the light reaching the point being considered into three components, these being (a) light directly from the sky, (b) light after being reflected from external, and (c) internal surfaces. Finally, two examples are presented in order to demonstrate the proposed procedure and indicate the speed with which the calculations may be performed.
Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
A simple method of calculating lower-bound limit loads for axisymmetric thin shells
Boyle, J.T.; Hamilton, R.; Shi, J.; Mackenzie, D.
1997-05-01
In this paper, a simple method for calculating lower-bound limit loads for shells is presented, based on Ilyushin`s and Ivanov`s generalized yield criterion, respectively, and using the elastic compensation procedure. Several examples, including torispherical and conical ends, radial nozzles, and a skirted vessel, are examined using this method. The results are compared with previously published results.
A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlisle, Earnest
A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…
A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlisle, Earnest
A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…
A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.
Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R
1983-12-01
A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data.
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard Calculation...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard Calculation...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard Calculation...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard Calculation...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard Calculation...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanger, Eugen
1932-01-01
A method is presented for approximate static calculation, which is based on the customary assumption of rigid ribs, while taking into account the systematic errors in the calculation results due to this arbitrary assumption. The procedure is given in greater detail for semicantilever and cantilever wings with polygonal spar plan form and for wings under direct loading only. The last example illustrates the advantages of the use of influence lines for such wing structures and their practical interpretation.
Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation
Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.
2014-05-19
The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Efficient Load Balancing and Data Remapping for Adaptive Grid Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak
1997-01-01
Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.
General Procedure for Lifetime Seaway Load Estimation (LSLE) With Examples
2007-05-01
LOAD ESTIMATION (LSLE) End : (1) NSWCCD-65-TR-2007/09, General Procedure for Lifetime Seaway Load Estimation (LSLE) with Examples 1. Enclosure (1...Operatons end Reft (070W4.1U), 1215 Jefferson Davis H s, Sukie 1204, A&VIn, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents shouId be aware that noW tidirg any other powson...in one document. Major elements of this unified LSLE approach go back several decades and were originally used for a major ship project in the 1970s
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.507...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.507...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.507...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.507...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510 Standard...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.507...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510 Standard...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 533.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by a manufacturer shall be deemed— (1) To include all light trucks in that class manufactured by persons who control...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 533.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by a manufacturer shall be deemed— (1) To include all light trucks in that class manufactured by persons who control...
Procedures for calculating the nonconvexity measures of a plane set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedev, P. D.; Uspenskii, A. A.
2009-03-01
The geometry of nonconvex sets is analyzed. The measure of nonconvexity of a closed set that has the sense of an angle is considered. Characteristic manifolds of nonconvex sets are constructed. Procedures for calculating the measure of nonconvexity are proposed for a class of plane sets.
Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe
2007-01-01
As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.
Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…
Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…
Inefficiencies of NERC`s transmission loading relief procedures
Rajaraman, R.; Alvarado, F.L.
1998-10-01
The recent proposal by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for transmission loading relief (TLR) procedures is quite sensible in many ways. It correctly addresses most engineering concerns pertaining to network security. Recent events, however, have brought into question the effectiveness of the procedure, in that it appears to turn a severe localized problem into a regional one. The manner in which the procedure is framed leads to suboptimal economic solutions. Their principal concern is that the NERC procedure does not optimize costs when curtailing trades but, rather, uses an arbitrary curtailment formula. Of secondary concern is the strictly bilateral viewpoint adopted by NERC. Other concerns pertain to system operational rules explicit and implicit in the procedure. Using numerical examples, the authors show that, under transmission congestion conditions, the NERC procedure invites gaming to capture congestion rents and always discourages optimal packaged trades, almost always resulting in less efficient dispatch and higher prices. The NERC TLR procedure may have at least partially contributed to the spectacular price spikes seen in June in the Eastern Interconnection and may be responsible for higher costs to consumers under transmission congestion conditions.
Extreme hydrodynamic load calculations for fixed steel structures
Jong, P.R. de; Vugts, J.; Gudmestad, O.T.
1996-12-31
This paper discusses the expected differences between the planned ISO code for design of offshore structures and the present Standard Norwegian Practice (SNP), concerning the extreme hydrodynamic design load calculation for fixed steel space frame structures. Since the ISO code is expected to be similar to the API RP2A LRFD code, the provisions of API RP2A LRFD are used to represent the ISO standard. It should be noted that the new ISO code may include NewWave theory, in addition to the wave theories recommended by the API. Design loads and associated failure probabilities resulting from the application of the code provisions are compared for a typical North Sea structure, the Europipe riser platform 16/11-E.
Comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minderman, Donald J.; Schultz, Larry L.
1989-01-01
The following analysis is a comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind load pressures. The analytical methods specified in ASCE Paper No. 3269, ANSI A58.1-1982, the Standard Building Code, and the Uniform Building Code were analyzed using various hurricane speeds to determine the differences in the calculated results. The winds used for the analysis ranged from 100 mph to 125 mph and applied inland from the shoreline of a large open body of water (i.e., an enormous lake or the ocean) a distance of 1500 feet or ten times the height of the building or structure considered. For a building or structure less than or equal to 250 feet in height acted upon by a wind greater than or equal to 115 mph, it was determined that the method specified in ANSI A58.1-1982 calculates a larger wind load pressure than the other methods. For a building or structure between 250 feet and 500 feet tall acted upon by a wind rangind from 100 mph to 110 mph, there is no clear choice of which method to use; for these cases, factors that must be considered are the steady-state or peak wind velocity, the geographic location, the distance from a large open body of water, and the expected design life and its risk factor.
A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.
1991-01-01
Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.
Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2016-01-01
Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true
WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures
Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.
1993-07-01
WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.
Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control
Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III
1993-10-27
Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.
Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aceves, S. M.; Comfort, W. J., III
1994-09-01
This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight. Theoverall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heard, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. S.; Slysh, P.
1976-01-01
An engineering procedure is presented for calculating the compressive buckling strength of isogrid cylinders using shell of revolution techniques and accounting for loading beyond the material proportional limit and/or local buckling of the skin prior to general buckling. A general nondimensional chart is presented which can be used in conjunction with formulas based on simple deformation plasticity theory to calculate postbuckling stiffnesses of the skin. The stiffening grid system is treated as an equivalent isotropic grid layer. Stiffnesses are determined for this grid layer, when loaded beyond the proportional limit, by the same plasticity theory used for the skin and a nonlinear stress-strain curve constructed from simple isogrid-handbook formulas and standard-reference-manual stress-strain curves for the material involved. Comparison of prebuckling strains and buckling results obtained by this procedure with data from a large isogrid-cylinder test is excellent with the calculated buckling load no more than 4 percent greater than the test value.
COMPARING MEASURED AND CALCULATED DOSES IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY PROCEDURES.
Oliveira da Silva, M W; Canevaro, L V; Hunt, J; Rodrigues, B B D
2017-03-16
Interventional cardiology requires complex procedures and can result in high doses and dose rates to the patient and medical staff. The many variables that influence the dose to the patient and staff include the beam position and angle, beam size, kVp, filtration, kerma-area product and focus-skin distance. A number of studies using the Monte Carlo method have been undertaken to obtain prospective dose assessments. In this paper, detailed irradiation scenarios were simulated mathematically and the resulting dose estimates were compared with real measurements made previously under very similar irradiation conditions and geometries. The real measurements and the calculated doses were carried out using or simulating an interventional cardiology system with a flat monoplane detector installed in a dedicated room with an Alderson phantom placed on the procedure table. The X-ray spectra, beam angles, focus-skin distance, measured kerma-area product and filtration were simulated, and the real dose measurements and calculated doses were compared. It was shown that the Monte Carlo method was capable of reproducing the real dose measurements within acceptable levels of uncertainty.
Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.
2012-11-01
Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.
[A procedure for calculating needs for antituberculous drugs].
Bogorodskaia, E M; Antonova, N V; Perel'man, M I; Puchkov, K G; Ivanushkina, T N
2008-01-01
to develop a procedure for calculating needs for antituberculous drugs (ATD). A unified E-form (UEF) was developed as an "Excel" file with the underlying invariable formulas and coefficients for the computer-based calculation of ATD needs in any subject of the Russian Federation. The needs were estimated using the average number of tablets (capsules, vials) of each ATD required per man/course, by taking into account the conventional chemotherapy regimens, the duration of chemoprophylaxis, antirecurrent courses, ATD test therapy, a treatment regimen for complications due to BCG vaccination. Information on the inventory of ATDs at the end of the previous year and their estimated deliveries from various sources was additionally considered. Data to be filled in the UEF were obtained from the reporting documents: 1) TB Form No. 2 "Information on patients registered for treatment" approved by Order No. 50 "On Consummation of Recording and Reporting Documents as to Tuberculosis Monitoring" issued by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on February 13, 2002; 2) Form No. 030-4/y "Tuberculosis Patient Follow-Up Schedule"; and 3) Form No. 33 "Information on Patients with Tuberculosis" approved by Regulation No. 80 issued by the Russian Statistics Agency on November 11, 2005. The filled-in UEFs were obtained from 82 subjects of the Russian Federation. among all the contingents of antituberculosis dispensaries, who were given ATDs, the absolute majority was the persons receiving chemoprophylaxis. Only 18.3% received chemotherapy for active tuberculosis. Of them, 56.8 and 15.3% were treated in accordance with chemotherapy regimens 1 and 3, respectively. The regimes (2B and 4) using second-line agents were given least frequently (7.1 and 7.1%, respectively). Comparing the data from Form No. 33 and those obtained on filling in UEF showed with a fair degree of assurance that the treatment of patients with a chronic tuberculous process had been incompletely registered
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.
1979-01-01
The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.
Calculations of the Acceleration of Centrifugal Loading on Adherent Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kang; Song, Yang; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Chunqiu
2017-07-01
Studies have shown that the morphology and function of living cells are greatly affected by the state of different high acceleration. Based on the centrifuge, we designed a centrifugal cell loading machine for the mechanical biology of cells under high acceleration loading. For the machine, the feasibility of the experiment was studied by means of constant acceleration or variable acceleration loading in the Petri dish fixture and/or culture flask. Here we analyzed the distribution of the acceleration of the cells with the change of position and size of the culturing device quantitatively. It is obtained that Petri dish fixture and/or culture flask can be used for constant acceleration loading by experiments; the centripetal acceleration of the adherent cells increases with the increase of the distance between the rotor center of the centrifuge and the fixture of the Petri dish and the size of the fixture. It achieves the idea that the general biology laboratory can conduct the study of mechanical biology at high acceleration. It also provides a basis for more accurate study of the law of high acceleration on mechanobiology of cells.
Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N.
2011-07-01
The approach of improved uncertainty-accounted conservative evaluation of vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) (reactor-) pressure-vessel (RPV) radiation loading parameters has been proposed. This approach is based on the calculational-experimental procedure, which takes into account C/E ratio, depending on over- or underestimation, and uncertainties of measured and calculated results. An application of elaborated approach to the full-scale ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments on Russian VVERs combined with neutron-transport calculations has been demonstrated in the paper. (authors)
A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.
1991-01-01
A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.
Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yager, E. M.; Kirchner, J. W.; Dietrich, W. E.
2007-07-01
Steep, rough channels occupy a large fraction of the total channel length in mountainous regions. Most sediment mobilized on hillslopes must pass through these streams before reaching lower-gradient channels. Steep channels have wide grain size distributions that are composed of finer, more mobile sediment and large, rarely mobile grains. The large grains can bear a significant portion of the total shear stress and thereby reduce the stress available to move the finer sediment. Conventional bed load transport equations often overpredict the sediment flux in steep channels by several orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that sediment transport equations overpredict the sediment flux because they do not (1) account for the stress borne by rarely mobile grains, (2) differentiate between highly and rarely mobile sediment, and (3) account for the limited availability of mobile sediment. Here we modify a conventional bed load transport equation to include these three effects. We use measurements of the flow, bed properties, and sediment flux in a small, steep flume to test this equation. We supply gravel at a constant rate through fields of regularly spaced immobile spheres and measure the bed coverage by gravel and sphere protrusion (the percent of the sphere that protrudes above the gravel deposit). For a given sphere spacing, the proportion of the bed covered by gravel increases and the sphere protrusion decreases with greater sediment supply. Thus bed coverage and immobile grain protrusion may serve as proxies for sediment availability in steep, rough streams. Unlike most transport equations that we tested, our modified bed load equation predicts sediment fluxes to within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Our results demonstrate that accurately predicting bed load transport in steep, rough streams may require accounting for the effects of local sediment availability (coverage by mobile sediment) and drag due to rarely mobile particles.
Calculation of wing spars of variable cross-section and linear load
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirste, Leon
1925-01-01
The calculation of wing spars of constant cross-section and load has been thoroughly treated by a large number of authors. Such is not the case,however, regarding the calculation of wing spars whose section and linear load diminish toward the ends, as in wings of trapezoidal contour and decreasing section.
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. 3280.508 Section 3280.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information,...
Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading.
Nagode, Marko
2014-01-01
The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress-strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history.
Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading
Nagode, Marko
2014-01-01
The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress–strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history. PMID:26150939
Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.
1995-01-01
Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.
Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms
Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)
1993-02-01
With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.
Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne
2004-01-01
Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase.
Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne
2004-01-01
Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase.
Boundary condition computational procedures for inviscid, supersonic steady flow field calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbett, M. J.
1971-01-01
Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... Effectiveness after loading is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass concentration of particles of a... of this device shall be such that the relative measurement error is less than 5.0 percent for the difference between the initial and final weight of the total filter. The identical analytic balance shall...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... Effectiveness after loading is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass concentration of particles of a... of this device shall be such that the relative measurement error is less than 5.0 percent for the difference between the initial and final weight of the total filter. The identical analytic balance shall...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
.... Effectiveness after loading is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass concentration of particles of a... of this device shall be such that the relative measurement error is less than 5.0 percent for the difference between the initial and final weight of the total filter. The identical analytic balance shall...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
.... Effectiveness after loading is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass concentration of particles of a... of this device shall be such that the relative measurement error is less than 5.0 percent for the difference between the initial and final weight of the total filter. The identical analytic balance shall...
High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading
2016-07-20
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND TECHNICAL INFORMATION MEMORANDUM...REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/49 HIGH-FREQUENCY AXIAL FATIGUE TEST PROCEEDURES FOR SPECTRUM LOADING by David T. Rusk, AIR ...4.3.3.5 Robert E. Taylor, AIR 4.3.4.1 20 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DEPARTMENT
Comparison of Rotor Structural Loads Calculated using Comprehensive Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo
2005-01-01
Blade flap and chord bending and torsion moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speed: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO- 105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations were made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap and chord bending moments between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2. Torsion moment correlation, in general, is fair to good for all the rotors investigated. Better flap bending and torsion moment correlation is obtained for the UH-60A and BO-105 rotors by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally better correlation in magnitude than in phase for the flap bending and torsion moments. However, a significant underprediction of chord bending moment is observed for the research Puma and UH-60A. The poor chord bending moment correlation appears to be caused by the airloads model, not the structural dynamics.
Design Procedures for Embedment Anchors Subjected to Dynamic Loading Conditions
1981-11-01
8217,i ’_- __. .,’,,;: _ L , . - Naval Facilities Engineering Command* (1971). Design man- ual -Soil mechanics, foundations, and earth structures, NAV...expended in deep water L-j but recovered in % hallower depths of less than 600 ft touchdown Dpk{ t anchor established keying penetration Figure 3. Schematic...to 30 significant loading cycles, depending upon the magnitude of the earth - quake), which differ from the preceding category in that the cyclic
Calculation Method for Flight Limit Load of V-band Clamp Separation Shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong
A simplified calculation method for estimating a flight limit load of the V-band clamp separation shock was established. With this method, the flight limit load is estimated through addition of an appropriate envelope margin to the results acquired with the simplified analysis method proposed in our previous paper. The envelope margin used in the method was calculated based on the reviews on the differences observed between the results of a pyroshock test and the analysis. Using the derived envelope margin, a calculating formula of the flight limit load, which envelopes the actual pyroshock responses with a certain probability, was developed. Based on the formula, flight limit loads for several actual satellites were estimated and compared to the test results. The comparative results showed that the estimated flight limit loads appropriately envelope the test results, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yooil
2013-06-01
Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.
D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Heat Load Calculations for the Solenoid Chimney
Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab
1993-05-26
This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the chimney heat loads. These heat load numbers were reported in the D0 solenoid upgrade design report. The heat loads to the LN2 circuit were done by Andrew Stefanik, RDIMechanical Systems group. They were part of his LN2 shield calculations dated 2/23/93. Pages 1 thru 3 of his calculations that apply to the chimney are attached. The heat loads to the LHe circuit were done originally on 12/16/92 and then revised on 12/23/92 to be more conservative. The raw calculations are attached. I include both the original 12/16 version and the 12/23 revised version to document the amount of conservativeness added.
Boersen, Johannes T; van den Ham, Leo H; Heyligers, Jan M; Vahl, Anco C; Vriens, Patrick W; Reijnen, Michel M; de Vries, Jean-Paul P
2017-10-01
Endovascular aortic sealing (EVAS) with a sac anchoring endoprosthesis excludes abdominal aortic aneurysms based on polymer filling of endobags. Primary objective was to assess the reliability of pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) scans based calculations of required endobag volume in relation to intraoperative volume of the endobags. Forty elective EVAS patients were included. Pre-procedural estimations of endobag volume were based on CT segmentations of aortic flow lumen volume, including both automated and manually-adjusted segmentations, performed by two experienced users. Additionally, changes in maximum AAA diameter, thrombus volume and total AAA volume were calculated from pre- and post-procedural CT scans. Automatically determined volumes were comparable to manually-adjusted calculations (75.3 vs. 75.7 mL) and inter-observer agreement regarding pre-EVAS calculations of prefill volume appeared almost perfect with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The mean pressure of the endobags was 185 mmHg. Manually-adjusted pre-procedural volume calculations underestimated procedural volume of the endobags (-11.3±9.9 mL). Differences between pre-EVAS and procedural volume measurements were independent from endobag pressure (r=-0.06, P=0.72), prepocedural thrombus volume (r=-0.303, P=0.057) and changes in total AAA volume (r=0.02, P=0.91). A significant association was determined between differences in pre-EVAS and endobag volume versus changes in thrombus volume pre- and post-procedural (r=0.39, P=0.01). In this validation study, pre-procedural volume measurements underestimate the actual fill volume of the endobags. It should be advised to perform a prefill of the endobags during the EVAS procedure.
Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeiler, Thomas A.
1998-01-01
Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.
1979-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.
A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.
2006-10-01
A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with
Blocked Force and Loading Calculations for LaRC THUNDER Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Joel F.
2007-01-01
An analytic approach is developed to predict the performance of LaRC Thunder actuators under load and under blocked conditions. The problem is treated with the Von Karman non-linear analysis combined with a simple Raleigh-Ritz calculation. From this, shape and displacement under load combined with voltage are calculated. A method is found to calculate the blocked force vs voltage and spring force vs distance. It is found that under certain conditions, the blocked force and displacement is almost linear with voltage. It is also found that the spring force is multivalued and has at least one bifurcation point. This bifurcation point is where the device collapses under load and locks to a different bending solution. This occurs at a particular critical load. It is shown this other bending solution has a reduced amplitude and is proportional to the original amplitude times the square of the aspect ratio.
Calculation of Centrally Loaded Thin-Walled Columns Above the Buckling Limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinitzhuber, F.
1945-01-01
When thin-walled columns formed from flanged sheet, such as used in airplane construction, are subjected to axial load, their behavior at failure varies according to the slenderness ratio. On long columns the axis deflects laterally while the cross section form is maintained; buckling results. The respective breaking load in the elastic range is computed by Euler's formula and for the plastic range by the Engesser- Karman formula. Its magnitude is essentially dependent upon the length. On intermediate length columns, especially where open sections are concerned, the cross section is distorted while the cross section form is preserved; twisting failure results. The buckling load in twisting is calculated according to Wagner and Kappus. On short columns the straight walls of low-bending resistance that form the column are deflected at the same time that the cross section form changes - buckling occurs without immediate failure. Then the buckling load of the total section computable from the buckling loads of the section walls is not the ultimate load; quite often, especially on thin-walled sections, it lies considerably higher and is secured by tests. Both loads, the buckling and the ultimate load are only in a small measure dependent upon length. The present report is an attempt to theoretically investigate the behavior of such short, thin-walled columns above the buckling load with the conventional calculating methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanger, Eugen
1932-01-01
In the present report the computation is actually carried through for the case of parallel spars of equal resistance in bending without direct loading, including plotting of the influence lines; for other cases the method of calculation is explained. The development of large size airplanes can be speeded up by accurate methods of calculation such as this.
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system
Ostrom, M.J.
1994-11-01
This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations.
Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, N.
2010-01-01
The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.
Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent
1991-01-01
In this paper transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.
Chen, C.W.; Herr, J.; Ziemelis, L.
1998-12-01
WARMF (Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework) is a decision support system that can guide stakeholders to a consensus watershed management plan. All necessary databases, simulation models, and graphical software are integrated into a Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI). The models, embedded in WARMF, can educate stakeholders on how meteorology generates hydrology and nonpoint loads; how land use affects nonpoint loads; how point and nonpoint loads are spatially distributed; how point and nonpoint loads translates to water quality in rivers and lakes; and whether the water quality is suitable for intended uses. The reliability of the models can be checked by comparing the simulated results to the observed data. The road map of the consensus process contains 7 steps. In each step, WARMF presents stakeholders with relevant information so that they can understand and make informed decisions. The TMDL calculation sheet provides a step by step procedure to evaluate the total maximum daily load of various pollutants for a series of control points, progressing from upstream to downstream in a river basin. A context sensitive help menu is provided for every task. An uncertainty analysis can be performed to evaluate the chance of failure for a management plan that may involve multi-million dollars of private and public investment. WARMF has been applied to Catawba River Basin of North and South Carolina, Holston River Basin of Virginia and Tennessee, Hockanum River Basin of Connecticut and the Techi Watershed of Taiwan.
Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent
1991-01-01
Determining transient electromagnetic fields in antennas with nonlinear loads is a challenging problem. Typical methods used involve calculating frequency domain parameters at a large number of different frequencies, then applying Fourier transform methods plus nonlinear equation solution techniques. If the antenna is simple enough so that the open circuit time domain voltage can be determined independently of the effects of the nonlinear load on the antennas current, time stepping methods can be applied in a straightforward way. Here, transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case, the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets, including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.
1979-01-01
The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... Floor Systems 23.15Pipes 23.17Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment 23.18Refrigerated Rooms and Buildings 24.18Mechanical and Industrial Systems 25.19Commercial Building Envelope Leakage 27.9Calculation of Heat Loss from... consistent with the calculation procedures provided in the document, Overall U-values and...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; OBrien, T. Kevin
1999-01-01
Three simple procedures were developed to determine strain energy release rates, G, in composite skin/stringer specimens for various combinations of unaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. These procedures may be used for parametric design studies in such a way that only a few finite element computations will be necessary for a study of many load combinations. The results were compared with mixed mode strain energy release rates calculated directly from nonlinear two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The first procedure involved solving three unknown parameters needed to determine the energy release rates. Good agreement was obtained when the external loads were used in the expression derived. This superposition technique was only applicable if the structure exhibits a linear load/deflection behavior. Consequently, a second technique was derived which was applicable in the case of nonlinear load/deformation behavior. The technique involved calculating six unknown parameters from a set of six simultaneous linear equations with data from six nonlinear analyses to determine the energy release rates. This procedure was not time efficient, and hence, less appealing. A third procedure was developed to calculate mixed mode energy release rates as a function of delamination lengths. This procedure required only one nonlinear finite element analysis of the specimen with a single delamination length to obtain a reference solution for the energy release rates and the scale factors. The delamination was extended in three separate linear models of the local area in the vicinity of the delamination subjected to unit loads to obtain the distribution of G with delamination lengths. This set of sub-problems was Although additional modeling effort is required to create the sub- models, this local technique is efficient for parametric studies.
STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF AN EMPLACEMENT PALLET STATICALLY LOADED BY A WASTE PACKAGE
S. Mastilovic
2000-02-02
The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to static load from the mounted waste package (WP). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensity magnitudes. This calculation is associated with the waste emplacement systems design; calculations are performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element solutions are performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The results of these calculations are provided in terms of maximum stress intensity magnitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, A.; Strauss, P.; Krueger, T.; Quinton, J. N.
2010-07-01
SummaryStreams in intensively used agricultural catchments are frequently characterised by high transport of suspended solids during rainfall events. Due to a high variability in runoff, the sediment concentration relationship during and between different events and various hysteresis effects, instantaneous sediment concentrations and event loads are difficult to calculate. We tested the applicability of turbidity measurements for calculating instantaneous sediment concentrations and loads in a small agricultural catchment in Austria. We calibrated quasi-continuous turbidity measurements using additional water sampling and employed these calibrated sediment concentrations as benchmark sediment concentrations. Four different methods to calculate instantaneous sediment concentrations were tested on 19 events. A generalized rating curve approach resulted in a considerable bias for both event specific sediment concentrations and total sediments loads. Fitting of event-specific rating curves still misrepresented instantaneous sediment concentrations for the different events, but gave load estimations that were in a range of 5% of the benchmark values. Two approaches accounting explicitly for hysteresis exhibited the best fit and provided load estimations that were in a range of 0-1% deviation to the benchmark sediment concentrations. Nevertheless, several limitations to the hysteresis model approach were identified. Testing the various hysteresis effects against other event parameters such as total rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity and initial soil water content revealed interactions to these parameters that could predefine parameter values of the hysteresis model approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter; Krueger, Tobias
2010-05-01
Streams in intensively used agricultural catchments are frequently characterised by high transport of suspended solids during rainfall events. Due to a high variability in runoff, the sediment concentration relationship during and between different events and various hysteresis effects, instantaneous sediment concentrations and event loads are difficult to calculate. We tested the applicability of turbidity measurements for calculating instantaneous sediment concentrations and loads in a small agricultural catchment in Austria. We calibrated quasi-continuous turbidity measurements using additional water sampling and employed these calibrated sediment concentrations as benchmark sediment concentrations. Four different methods to calculate instantaneous sediment concentrations were tested on 19 events. A generalized rating curve approach resulted in a considerable bias for both event specific sediment concentrations and total sediments loads. Fitting of event specific rating curves still misrepresented instantaneous sediment concentrations for the different events, but gave load estimations that were in a range of 5% of the benchmark values. Two approaches accounting explicitly for hysteresis exhibited the best fit and provided load estimations that were in a range of 0 - 1% deviation to the benchmark sediment concentrations. Nevertheless, several limitations to the hysteresis model approach were identified. Testing the various hysteresis effects against other event parameters such as total rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity and initial soil water content revealed interactions to these parameters that could predefine parameter values of the hysteresis model approach.
Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System
Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.
2003-09-01
This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.
Calculation of Dynamic Loads Due to Random Vibration Environments in Rocket Engine Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, Eric R.; Brown, Andrew M.; Frady, Greg P.
2007-01-01
An important part of rocket engine design is the calculation of random dynamic loads resulting from internal engine "self-induced" sources. These loads are random in nature and can greatly influence the weight of many engine components. Several methodologies for calculating random loads are discussed and then compared to test results using a dynamic testbed consisting of a 60K thrust engine. The engine was tested in a free-free condition with known random force inputs from shakers attached to three locations near the main noise sources on the engine. Accelerations and strains were measured at several critical locations on the engines and then compared to the analytical results using two different random response methodologies.
Detailed heat load calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor
Wemple, C.A.
1993-12-01
A very detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor has been developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. All reactor components inside the reflector vessel were included, and al components were highly segmented. Specific heat loads (watts per gram) have been calculated for each segment in the model, and system-integrated total powers are compared with the design value for the total reactor fission power. The calculated results agree very well with the design values. Axial profiles of the heat loads are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the heat loads for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 5%.
Wall, G.R.; Ingleston, H.H.; Litten, S.
2005-01-01
Total mercury (THg) load in rivers is often calculated from a site-specific "rating-curve" based on the relation between THg concentration and river discharge along with a continuous record of river discharge. However, there is no physical explanation as to why river discharge should consistently predict THg or any other suspended analyte. THg loads calculated by the rating-curve method were compared with those calculated by a "continuous surrogate concentration" (CSC) method in which a relation between THg concentration and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) is constructed; THg loads then can be calculated from the continuous record of SSC and river discharge. The rating-curve and CSC methods, respectively, indicated annual THg loads of 46.4 and 75.1 kg for the Mohawk River, and 52.9 and 33.1 kg for the upper Hudson River. Differences between the results of the two methods are attributed to the inability of the rating-curve method to adequately characterize atypical high flows such as an ice-dam release, or to account for hysteresis, which typically degrades the strength of the relation between stream discharge and concentration of material in suspension. ?? Springer 2005.
[Calculation of the strain-deformation condition of the spinal motor segment during loading].
Chumachenko, E N; Logashina, I V
2014-01-01
A mathematical model is proposed to analyze the spinal strain-deformation condition resulting from axial and lateral g-loads generated by changes in the gravity field and/or pilot's maneuvering high-performance aircraft. The solution algorithm takes into account changes in the intervertebral disk pressure and the fibrous ring shape at the time of close-to-critical g values. Calculation of the spinal strain-deformation condition was implemented by the instrumentality of computer system SPLEN (KOMMEK ltd., Russia). Analysis of the spinal strain-deformation condition was made for 2 types of external loads, i.e. normal and unilateral with a bending moment. Maximum permissible loads on a spinal segment were evaluated, as well as distribution of strain intensity, mean strains, spinal deformation and destruction field was described. The constructed computer models could be used as a basis for developing a technique of predicting characteristic spinal injuries in consequence of specific extreme loads and pathologies.
Loss of Load Probability Calculation for West Java Power System with Nuclear Power Plant Scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizah, I. D.; Abdullah, A. G.; Purnama, W.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Shafii, M. A.
2017-03-01
Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) index showing the quality and performance of an electrical system. LOLP value is affected by load growth, the load duration curve, forced outage rate of the plant, number and capacity of generating units. This reliability index calculation begins with load forecasting to 2018 using multiple regression method. Scenario 1 with compositions of conventional plants produce the largest LOLP in 2017 amounted to 71.609 days / year. While the best reliability index generated in scenario 2 with the NPP amounted to 6.941 days / year in 2015. Improved reliability of systems using nuclear power more efficiently when compared to conventional plants because it also has advantages such as emission-free, inexpensive fuel costs, as well as high level of plant availability.
Thomas, Lily; Donohue-Porter, Patricia; Stein Fishbein, Joanna
Medication administration errors are difficult to intercept since they occur at the end of the process. The study describes interruptions, distractions, and cognitive load experienced by registered nurses during medication administration and explores their impact on procedure failures and medication administration errors. The focus of this study was unique as it investigated how known individual and environmental factors interacted and culminated in errors.
A Procedure for Setting Environmentally Safe Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for Selenium
A. Dennis Lemly
2002-01-01
This article presents a seven-step procedure for developing environmentally safe total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for selenium. The need for this information stems from recent actions taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that may require TMDLs for selenium and other contaminants that are impairing water bodies. However, there is no technical...
Calculations of the stress tensor under Symmetric cylindrical shock wave loading
Chikhradze, N. M.; Lomidze, I.; Marquis, F. D. S.; Staudhammer, Karl P.; Japaridze, L. A.; Peikrishvili, A. B.
2001-01-01
The calculation of the components of the stress tensor under symmetric cylindrical shock wave loading, when the pressure impulse of cylindrical symmetry is being spread uniformly along the surface of an infinite cylindrical elastic body, have been carried out. The objective of these calculations is to assess with a sufficient approximation the stress-deformed state in samples during low intensity axis-symmetric shock wave loading. The necessity of such an assessment is grounded on a wide utilization and practical applications of shock wave axis-symmetric loading used in the explosive processing of advanced materials. Tile main assumptions made at the initial stage of these calculations are: elasticity and isotropy of medium, constancy of the sound speed and Lame elasticity constants, and medium boundary conditions of cylindrical symmetry. Subsequently, the removal of some assumptions during the investigation process makes possible to take into account effects engendered by boundary conditions' asymmetry and changes in the sound speed and Lame constants These changes are caused by irreversible thermal transformations going on in the medium. Well known methods for solving differential equations, such as the Fourier method, functions of Bessel, Neumann, and Hankel, equations of Helmholtz, are used in these calculations. These calculations, assuming axial symmetry, are presented as a set of simple equations where the arguments are components of the stress tensor and the solution of this set, for this specific case, gives all the components of the stress tensor.
Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings
2015-08-01
Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.
Measuring cognitive load during procedural skills training with colonoscopy as an exemplar.
Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S
2016-06-01
Few studies have investigated cognitive factors affecting learning of procedural skills in medical education. Cognitive load theory, which focuses on working memory, is highly relevant, but methods for measuring cognitive load during procedural training are not well understood. Using colonoscopy as an exemplar, we used cognitive load theory to develop a self-report instrument to measure three types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous and germane load) and to provide evidence for instrument validity. We developed the instrument (the Cognitive Load Inventory for Colonoscopy [CLIC]) using a multi-step process. It included 19 items measuring three types of cognitive load, three global rating items and demographics. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey that was administered electronically to 1061 gastroenterology trainees in the USA. Participants completed the CLIC following a colonoscopy. The two study phases (exploratory and confirmatory) each lasted for 10 weeks during the 2014-2015 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis determined the most parsimonious factor structure; confirmatory factor analysis assessed model fit. Composite measures of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load were compared across years of training and with global rating items. A total of 477 (45.0%) invitees participated (116 in the exploratory study and 361 in the confirmatory study) in 154 (95.1%) training programmes. Demographics were similar to national data from the USA. The most parsimonious factor structure included three factors reflecting the three types of cognitive load. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a three-factor model was the best fit. Intrinsic, extraneous and germane load items had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.90, 0.87 and 0.96, respectively) and correlated as expected with year in training and global assessment of cognitive load. The CLIC measures three types of cognitive load during colonoscopy training. Evidence of validity is
Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems
Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur
2014-03-21
The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals
A design procedure for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded resonant inverter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Roger J.
1989-01-01
High-frequency-link power conversion and distribution based on a resonant inverter (RI) has been recently proposed. The design of several topologies is reviewed, and a simple approximate design procedure is developed for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded RI. This design procedure seeks to ensure the benefits of resonant conversion and is verified by data from a laboratory 2.5 kVA, 20-kHz converter. A simple phasor analysis is introduced as a useful approximation for design purposes. The load is considered to be a linear impedance (or an ac current sink). The design procedure is verified using a 2.5-kVA 20-kHz RI. Also obtained are predictable worst-case ratings for each component of the resonant tank circuit and the inverter switches. For a given load VA requirement, below-resonance operation is found to result in a significantly lower tank VA requirement. Under transient conditions such as load short-circuit, a reversal of the expected commutation sequence is possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.
1976-01-01
Methods are presented for calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria. The approach is based on the concept that the desired limit load, defined as the largest load occurring in a mission, is a random variable having a specific probability distribution which may be determined from extreme-value theory. The design limit load, defined as a particular of this random limit load, is the value conventionally used in structural design. Methods are presented for determining the limit load probability distributions from both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic load simulations. Numerical demonstrations of the method are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranin, Y.; Burmistrov, A.; Salikeev, S.; Fomina, M.
2015-08-01
Basic propositions of calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors characteristics are presented. It is shown that mathematical modelling of working process in a scroll compressor makes it possible to take into account such factors influencing the working process as heat and mass exchange, mechanical interaction in working chambers, leakage through slots, etc. The basic mathematical model may be supplemented by taking into account external heat exchange, elastic deformation of scrolls, inlet and outlet losses, etc. To evaluate the influence of procedure on scroll compressor characteristics calculations accuracy different calculations were carried out. Internal adiabatic efficiency was chosen as a comparative parameter which evaluates the perfection of internal thermodynamic and gas-dynamic compressor processes. Calculated characteristics are compared with experimental values obtained for the compressor pilot sample.
Calculation and optimization of thermoelectric cooling modes of thermally loaded elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasil'ev, E. N.
2017-01-01
The results of calculating the characteristics of the heat-transfer process in thermoelectric cooling and temperature control are presented. The influence of the inhomogeneity of the heat flux and thermal contacts on the temperature increase of the heat-loaded element has been defined. The analysis of the cooling efficiency depending on the operating characteristics and the current strength of the power supply of thermoelectric modules, parameters of the heat-loaded element and the individual components of the system, and the conditions of the heat exchange with the external environment has been performed. It has been shown that, under certain conditions, the use of the thermoelectric modules cannot lead to a cooling of the element, but rather to heating. The possibility of optimizing the cooling to reduce the temperature of the heat-loaded element and power consumption of the thermoelectric module has been considered.
Bartel, Thomas W.; Yaniv, Simone L.
1997-01-01
The 60 min creep data from National Type Evaluation Procedure (NTEP) tests performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on 65 load cells have been analyzed in order to compare their creep and creep recovery responses, and to compare the 60 min creep with creep over shorter time periods. To facilitate this comparison the data were fitted to a multiple-term exponential equation, which adequately describes the creep and creep recovery responses of load cells. The use of such a curve fit reduces the effect of the random error in the indicator readings on the calculated values of the load cell creep. Examination of the fitted curves show that the creep recovery responses, after inversion by a change in sign, are generally similar in shape to the creep response, but smaller in magnitude. The average ratio of the absolute value of the maximum creep recovery to the maximum creep is 0.86; however, no reliable correlation between creep and creep recovery can be drawn from the data. The fitted curves were also used to compare the 60 min creep of the NTEP analysis with the 30 min creep and other parameters calculated according to the Organization Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML) R 60 analysis. The average ratio of the 30 min creep value to the 60 min value is 0.84. The OIML class C creep tolerance is less than 0.5 of the NTEP tolerance for classes III and III L. PMID:27805151
Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong
2017-06-01
Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.
Calculating frequency at loads in simulations of electro-mechanical transients
Nutaro, James J; Protopopescu, Vladimir A
2012-01-01
This paper introduces a new method for calculating frequency at an electrical load in simulations of electro-mechanical transients. The method is designed for simulation studies that require accurate models of sensors such as phasor measurement units and F-Net devices, which measure frequency at locations away from generating plants. These sensors are poised to become critical components in the control systems of electrical power grids, and therefore simulation tools that incorporate accurate models of these devices are essential. The method proposed here corrects two drawbacks of using numerically computed phase angle derivatives to approximate frequency. First, it eliminates spurious spikes in frequencies calculated at loads. Second, it eliminates instabilities induced by the simulator in studies of frequency responsive loads. The proposed method is derived from a simplified model of the generators and loads in an electrical system, but in the final analysis does not depend critically on these simplifications and is therefore applicable to more sophisticated models. The method is demonstrated with the simplified model applied to the IEEE 14 and 300 bus systems.
Jordan, Claus; Luttmann, Alwin; Theilmeier, Andreas; Kuhn, Stefan; Wortmann, Norbert; Jäger, Matthias
2011-05-26
The human spine is often exposed to mechanical load in vocational activities especially in combination with lifting, carrying and positioning of heavy objects. This also applies in particular to nursing activities with manual patient handling. In the present study a detailed investigation on the load of the lumbar spine during manual patient handling was performed. For a total of 13 presumably endangering activities with transferring a patient, the body movements performed by healthcare workers were recorded and the exerted action forces were determined with regard to magnitude, direction and lateral distribution in the time course with a "measuring bed", a "measuring chair" and a "measuring floor". By the application of biomechanical model calculations the load on the lowest intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine (L5-S1) was determined considering the posture and action force data for every manual patient handling. The results of the investigations reveal the occurrence of high lumbar load during manual patient handling activities, especially in those cases, where awkward postures of the healthcare worker are combined with high action forces caused by the patient's mass. These findings were compared to suitable issues of corresponding investigations provided in the literature. Furthermore measurement-based characteristic values of lumbar load were derived for the use in statement procedures concerning the disease no. 2108 of the German list of occupational diseases. To protect healthcare workers from mechanical overload and the risk of developing a disc-related disease, prevention measures should be compiled. Such measures could include the application of "back-fairer" nursing techniques and the use of "technical" and" small aids" to reduce the lumbar load during manual patient handling. Further studies, concerning these aspects, are necessary.
2011-01-01
Background The human spine is often exposed to mechanical load in vocational activities especially in combination with lifting, carrying and positioning of heavy objects. This also applies in particular to nursing activities with manual patient handling. In the present study a detailed investigation on the load of the lumbar spine during manual patient handling was performed. Methods For a total of 13 presumably endangering activities with transferring a patient, the body movements performed by healthcare workers were recorded and the exerted action forces were determined with regard to magnitude, direction and lateral distribution in the time course with a "measuring bed", a "measuring chair" and a "measuring floor". By the application of biomechanical model calculations the load on the lowest intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine (L5-S1) was determined considering the posture and action force data for every manual patient handling. Results The results of the investigations reveal the occurrence of high lumbar load during manual patient handling activities, especially in those cases, where awkward postures of the healthcare worker are combined with high action forces caused by the patient's mass. These findings were compared to suitable issues of corresponding investigations provided in the literature. Furthermore measurement-based characteristic values of lumbar load were derived for the use in statement procedures concerning the disease no. 2108 of the German list of occupational diseases. Conclusions To protect healthcare workers from mechanical overload and the risk of developing a disc-related disease, prevention measures should be compiled. Such measures could include the application of "back-fairer" nursing techniques and the use of "technical" and" small aids" to reduce the lumbar load during manual patient handling. Further studies, concerning these aspects, are necessary. PMID:21615895
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....
Heuristic procedure for the assembly line balancing problem with postural load smoothness.
Jaturanonda, Chorkaew; Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Das, Sanchoy K
2013-01-01
This paper presents a heuristic procedure for assigning assembly tasks to workstations where both productivity and ergonomics issues are considered concurrently. The procedure uses Kilbridge and Wester's algorithm to obtain an initial task-workstation assignment solution which minimizes the balance delay of an assembly line. A task reassignment algorithm was applied to improve the initial solution by exchanging assembly tasks, which smooth postural load among workers, between workstations. A composite index of variation was used to measure the effectiveness of the task-workstation assignment solution. On the basis of clothes assembling, it was found that the task-workstation assignment solution with a minimum composite index of variation can be obtained with relatively equal weights in balance delay and postural load.
Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.
1984-01-01
A nonlinear least squares procedure and a log transformation procedure for calculating first-order rate coefficients from experimental concentration-versus-time data were compared using laboratory measurements of the volatilization from water of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,2-dichloroethane and the absorption of oxygen by water. Ratios of the nonlinear least squares to log transformation volatilization and absorption coefficients for 77 tests ranged from 0.955 to 1.08 and averaged 1.01. Comparison of the maximum, minimum, and mean root-mean-square errors of prediction for six sets of coefficients showed that the errors for the nonlinear least squares procedure were almost always smaller than the errors for the log transformation procedure.
[Method to Calculate the Yield Load of Bone Plate in Four-point Bending Test].
Jia, Xiaohang; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Jun; Wen, Yan
2015-09-01
This paper developed a calculation method to acquire the yield load P of bone plate during four-point bending test. This method is based on the displacement--force (δ-F) curve function f(M)(δ) obtained from the test, each slope of the curve was calculated using piecewise smooth function and the line segment in f(M)(δ) elastic deformation area was searched by setting the minimum slope T. Slope S was obtained through linear fit so as to build parallel displacement function f(L)(δ). Then, approximating intersection point of f(M)(δ) and f(L)(δ) was obtained through linear interpolation. Thus, yield load P was acquired. The method in the paper was loyal to YY/T 0342-2002 regulation and was liable to program calculation. The calculating process was nothing to do with whether the initial point during the test was preloaded or unloaded, and there was no need to correct the original point. In addition, T was set in an ideal fitting level guaranteed by the fitting coefficient of determination R2, and thus S was very close to the real value, and P was with a high accuracy.
Chen, Ding-Jiang; Sun, Si-Yang; Jia, Ying-Na; Chen, Jia-Bo; Lü, Jun
2013-01-01
Based on the hydrological difference between the point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution processes and the major influencing mechanism of in-stream retention processes, a bivariate statistical model was developed for relating river phosphorus load to river water flow rate and temperature. Using the calibrated and validated four model coefficients from in-stream monitoring data, monthly phosphorus input loads to the river from PS and NPS can be easily determined by the model. Compared to current hydrologica methods, this model takes the in-stream retention process and the upstream inflow term into consideration; thus it improves the knowledge on phosphorus pollution processes and can meet the requirements of both the district-based and watershed-based wate quality management patterns. Using this model, total phosphorus (TP) input load to the Changle River in Zhejiang Province was calculated. Results indicated that annual total TP input load was (54.6 +/- 11.9) t x a(-1) in 2004-2009, with upstream water inflow, PS and NPS contributing to 5% +/- 1%, 12% +/- 3% and 83% +/- 3%, respectively. The cumulative NPS TP input load during the high flow periods (i. e. , June, July, August and September) in summer accounted for 50% +/- 9% of the annual amount, increasing the alga blooming risk in downstream water bodies. Annual in-stream TP retention load was (4.5 +/- 0.1) t x a(-1) and occupied 9% +/- 2% of the total input load. The cumulative in-stream TP retention load during the summer periods (i. e. , June-September) accounted for 55% +/- 2% of the annual amount, indicating that in-stream retention function plays an important role in seasonal TP transport and transformation processes. This bivariate statistical model only requires commonly available in-stream monitoring data (i. e. , river phosphorus load, water flow rate and temperature) with no requirement of special software knowledge; thus it offers researchers an managers with a cost-effective tool for
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...
Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.
2002-01-01
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.
2001-01-01
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
Robert, T; Chèze, L; Dumas, R; Verriest, J-P
2007-01-01
The joint forces and moments driving the motion of a human subject are classically computed by an inverse dynamic calculation. However, even if this process is theoretically simple, many sources of errors may lead to huge inaccuracies in the results. Moreover, a direct comparison with in vivo measured loads or with "gold standard" values from literature is only possible for very specific studies. Therefore, assessing the inaccuracy of inverse dynamic results is not a trivial problem and a simple method is still required. This paper presents a simple method to evaluate both: (1) the consistency of the results obtained by inverse dynamics; (2) the influence of possible modifications in the inverse dynamic hypotheses. This technique concerns recursive calculation performed on full kinematic chains, and consists in evaluating the loads obtained by two different recursive strategies. It has been applied to complex 3D whole body movements of balance recovery. A recursive Newton-Euler procedure was used to compute the net joint loads. Two models were used to represent the subject bodies, considering or not the upper body as a unique rigid segment. The inertial parameters of the body segments were estimated from two different sets of scaling equations [De Leva, P., 1996. Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Suleyanov's segment inertia parameters. Journal of Biomechanics 29, 1223-1230; Dumas, R., Chèze, L., Verriest, J.-P., 2006b. Adjustments to McConville et al. and Young et al. Body Segment Inertial Parameters. Journal of Biomechanics, in press]. Using this comparison technique, it has been shown that, for the balance recovery motions investigated: (1) the use of the scaling equations proposed by Dumas et al., instead of those proposed by De Leva, improves the consistency of the results (average relative influence up to 30% for the transversal moment); (2) the arm motions dynamically influence the recovery motion in a non negligible way (average relative influence up to 15% and 30
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs, the...
Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.
1973-01-01
The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.
Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents.
Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.
2000-11-29
In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.
Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, John P.; Gabor, Rachel; Neubauer, Janelle
2001-07-01
In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or "wobbled" beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.
Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures
Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita
2012-05-15
Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Press, Harry; Meadows, May T; Hadlock, Ivan
1956-01-01
The available information on the spectrum of atmospheric turbulence is first briefly reviewed. On the basis of these results, methods are developed for the conversion of available gust statistics normally given in terms of counts of gusts or acceleration peaks into a form appropriate for use in spectral calculations. The fundamental quantity for this purpose appears to be the probability distribution of the root-mean-square gust velocity. Estimates of this distribution are derived from data for a number of load histories of transport operations; also, estimates of the variation of this distribution with altitude and weather condition are derived from available data and the method of applying these results to the calculation of airplane gust-response histories in operations is also outlined. (author)
Load calculation on the nozzle in a flue gas desulphurization system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Róbert, Olšiak; Zoltán, Fuszko; Zoltán, Csuka
2017-09-01
The desulphurization system is used to remove sulfur oxides from exhaust, so-called flue gases through absorbing them via the sprayed suspension. The suspension delivered from the pump system to the atmospheric bi-directional double hollow cone nozzle has the prescribed working pressure. The unknown mechanical load on the solid body of the nozzle is present through the change of moment due to the flow of the suspension through the bi-directional outflow areas [1], [4]. The calculation of the acting forces and torques in the 3 directions was carried out with the methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the software ANSYS Fluent. The geometric model of the flow areas of the nozzle were created with the methods of reverse engineering. The computational mesh required by the CFD solver was created, and its quality verified with the standard criteria. The used boundary conditions were defined by the hydraulic parameters of the pump system, the properties of the suspension present in the hydraulic system were specified by sample analysis. The post-processed and analyzed results of the CFD calculation, the pressure-field and the velocity magnitudes in particular directions were further used as input parameters at the mechanical analysis of the load on the bi-directional nozzle.
ICRF Plasma Loading Comparison of Calculations to Measurements in VX-10
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Ilin, A. V.; Jacobson, V. T.; Glover, T. W.; McCaskill, G. E.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.
2003-10-01
The VASIMR propulsion concept accelerates ions using ion cyclotron resonance. ICRF power is applied to an antenna on the high field side of the fundamental resonance. The antenna is designed to launch the Ion Cyclotron Wave (ICW) primarily downstream to the resonance in the flowing plasma. Such an antenna has been installed in the VX-10 experiment for low power testing on a flowing helicon discharge with a high degree of ionization. Plasma loading measurements at about 2 MHz are made with a tuned resonant high Q circuit and an HP network analyzer. Measurements with up to 1.5 kW of applied power are also made. Plasma conditions are held constant from shot-to-shot while the tuned frequency is scanned. This scan is repeated for several different parameters, e.g. magnetic field strength, magnetic polarity, discharge species (D2, He and Ar), and plasma density. Results from a reduced order calculation agree well with experiment and illustrate the significance of the Doppler shift. Measured plasma loading as compared to calculation will be presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auersch, L.
2006-06-01
The propagation of waves through homogeneous or layered soil is calculated based on half-space theory. The moving dynamic loads of a train are approximated by fixed dynamic loads and the wave field can be calculated if the spectrum of the dynamic train loads is known. In addition to this dynamic wave field, there are three different components at three different frequency ranges which are caused by the passage of the static loads: the regular static component at low frequencies, the irregular static component at medium frequencies, the sleeper-passing component at high frequencies. For each of these components, an approximate solution is presented. The calculated wave field is compared with measurements of different trains at different sites. The measurement of impulse and harmonic point load excitation verifies the soil dynamic base of the method.
Fatigue life estimation procedure for a turbine blade under transient loads
Vyas, N.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rao, J.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-01-01
Fatigue analysis and consequent life prediction of turbomachine blading requires the stress load history of the blade. A blade designed for safe operation at particular constant rotor speeds may, however, incur damaging stresses during start-up and shut-down operations. During such operations the blade experiences momentary resonant stresses while passing through the criticals, which may lie in the speed range through which the rotor is accelerated. Fatigue due to these transient influences may accumulate to lead to failure. In this paper a technique for fatigue damage assessment during variable-speed operations is presented. Transient resonant stresses for a blade with nonlinear damping have been determined using a numerical procedure. A fatigue damage assessment procedure is described. The fatigue failure surface is generated on the S-N-mean stress axes and Miner's Rule is employed to estimate the accumulation of fatigue.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stroud, W. J.; Agranoff, N.; Anderson, M. S.
1977-01-01
A procedure is presented for designing uniaxially stiffened panels made of composite material and subjected to combined inplane loads. The procedure uses a rigorous buckling analysis and nonlinear mathematical programing techniques. Design studies carried out with the procedure consider hat-stiffened and corrugated panels made of graphite-epoxy material. Combined longitudinal compression and shear and combined longitudinal and transverse compression are the loadings used in the studies. The capability to tailor the buckling response of a panel is also explored. Finally, the adequacy of another, simpler, analysis-design procedure is examined.
Importance of loading and unloading procedures for gecko-inspired controllable adhesives.
Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L
2013-08-27
The importance of loading and unloading procedures has been shown in a variety of different methods for biological dry adhesives, such as the fibers on the feet of the Tokay gecko, but biomimetic dry adhesives have yet to be explored in a similar manner. To date, little work has systematically varied multiple parameters to discern the influence of the testing procedure, and the effect of the approach angle remains uncertain. In this study, a synthetic adhesive is moved in 13 individual approach and retraction angles relative to a flat substrate as well as 9 different shear lengths to discern how loading and unloading procedures influence the preload, adhesion, and shear/friction forces supported. The synthetic adhesive, composed of vertical 10 μm diameter semicircular poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, is tested against a 4 mm diameter flat glass puck on a home-built microtribometer using both vertical approach and retraction tests and angled approach and retraction tests. The results show that near maximum adhesion and friction can be obtained for most approach and retraction angles, provided that a sufficient shear length is performed. The results also show that the reaction forces during adhesive placement can be significantly reduced by using specific approach angles, resulting for the vertical fibers in a 38-fold increase in the ratio of adhesion force to preload force, μ', when compared to that when using a vertical approach. These results can be of use to those currently researching gecko-inspired adhesives when designing their testing procedures and control algorithms for climbing and perching robots.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson's GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N - 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. In all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm(-1) from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C_{1} symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm^{–1} from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, Nikolay; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom
2016-01-01
When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.
Belov, Nikolay Kopanitsa, Dmitry Yugov, Alexey Kaparulin, Sergey Plyaskin, Andrey Kalichkina, Anna Ustinov, Artyom; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Georgy
2016-01-15
When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.
Comparison of calculated and measured blade loads on a full-scale tilting proprotor in a wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1980-01-01
The loads measured in a wind tunnel on a full-scale tilting proprotor are compared with calculated results. The data consists primarily of oscillatory beamwise bending moments at 35% radial station, oscillatory spindle chord bending moments, and oscillatory pitch link loads. The measured and calculated results as a function of thrust are compared over a range of nacelle angles from 0 to 75 deg, and a range of speeds from 80 to 185 knots.
An analytical derivative procedure for the calculation of vibrational Raman optical activity spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liégeois, Vincent; Ruud, Kenneth; Champagne, Benoît
2007-11-01
We present an analytical time-dependent Hartree-Fock algorithm for the calculation of the derivatives of the electric dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability with respect to atomic Cartesian coordinates. Combined with analogous procedures to determine the derivatives of the electric dipole-electric dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizabilities, it enables a fully analytical evaluation of the three frequency-dependent vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) invariants within the harmonic approximation. The procedure employs traditional non-London atomic orbitals, and the gauge-origin dependence of the VROA intensities has, therefore, been assessed for the commonly used aug-cc-pVDZ and rDPS:3-21G basis sets.
Experimental-calculation simulation of the ejection of particles from a shock-loaded surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, A. L.; Ogorodnikov, V. A.; Sasik, V. S.; Raevskii, V. A.; Lebedev, A. I.; Zotov, D. E.; Erunov, S. V.; Syrunin, M. A.; Sadunov, V. D.; Nevmerzhitskii, N. V.; Lobastov, S. A.; Burtsev, V. V.; Mishanov, A. V.; Kulakov, E. V.; Satarova, A. V.; Georgievskaya, A. B.; Knyazev, V. N.; Kleshchevnikov, O. A.; Antipov, M. V.; Glushikhin, V. V.; Yurtov, I. V.; Utenkov, A. A.; Sen'kovskii, E. D.; Abakumov, S. A.; Presnyakov, D. V.; Kalashnik, I. A.; Panov, K. N.; Arinin, V. A.; Tkachenko, B. I.; Filyaev, V. N.; Chapaev, A. V.; Andramanov, A. V.; Lebedeva, M. O.; Igonin, V. V.
2014-05-01
The possibilities of measuring complex Pylenie, which is intended for studying the parameters of the particles ejected from the free surface of a shock-loaded material and was created at the Institute of Experimental Gas Dynamics and Detonation Physics RFNC-VNIIEF, are demonstrated. The operation of the complex is based on the following three methods, which are based on different physical principles and supplement each other: laser-optical method (macro- and microfilming), pulsed X-ray method, and piezoelectric pressure sensors. This complex is used to study the ejection of particles from the free surface of lead samples when a shock wave with a pressure of 7, 16, and 23 GPa at its front reaches this surface. The effect of the surface roughness and the pressure amplitude at the shock wave front on the quantitative characteristics of the process is shown. The calculation-theoretical simulation is performed by two-dimensional numerical calculations of gasdynamic flows, and the calculation results are used to estimate the "ejecta" characteristics in terms of the developed phenomenological model of the process.
Is Earth-based scaling a valid procedure for calculating heat flows for Mars?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Javier; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Dohm, James M.; Fernández, Carlos; López, Valle
2013-09-01
Heat flow is a very important parameter for constraining the thermal evolution of a planetary body. Several procedures for calculating heat flows for Mars from geophysical or geological proxies have been used, which are valid for the time when the structures used as indicators were formed. The more common procedures are based on estimates of lithospheric strength (the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere or the depth to the brittle-ductile transition). On the other hand, several works by Kargel and co-workers have estimated martian heat flows from scaling the present-day terrestrial heat flow to Mars, but the so-obtained values are much higher than those deduced from lithospheric strength. In order to explain the discrepancy, a recent paper by Rodriguez et al. (Rodriguez, J.A.P., Kargel, J.S., Tanaka, K.L., Crown, D.A., Berman, D.C., Fairén, A.G., Baker, V.R., Furfaro, R., Candelaria, P., Sasaki, S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 150-194) criticized the heat flow calculations for ancient Mars presented by Ruiz et al. (Ruiz, J., Williams, J.-P., Dohm, J.M., Fernández, C., López, V. [2009]. Icarus 207, 631-637) and other studies calculating ancient martian heat flows from lithospheric strength estimates, and casted doubts on the validity of the results obtained by these works. Here however we demonstrate that the discrepancy is due to computational and conceptual errors made by Kargel and co-workers, and we conclude that the scaling from terrestrial heat flow values is not a valid procedure for estimating reliable heat flows for Mars.
Suspended sediment measurements and calculation of the particle load at HPP Fieschertal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.
2016-11-01
In the scope of a research project on hydro-abrasive erosion of Pelton turbines, a field study was conducted at the high-head HPP Fieschertal in Valais, Switzerland. The suspended sediment mass concentration (SSC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the penstock have been continuously measured since 2012 using a combination of six measuring techniques. The SSC was on average 0.52 g/l and rose to 50 g/l in a major flood event in July 2012. The median particle size d 50 was usually 15 pm, rising up to 100 μm when particles previously having settled in the headwater storage tunnel were re-suspended at low water levels. The annual suspended sediment loads (SSL) varied considerably depending on flood events. Moreover, so-called particle loads (PLs) according to the relevant guideline of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62364) were calculated using four relations between particle size and the relative abrasion potential. For the investigated HPP, the time series of the SSL and the PLs had generally similar shapes over the three years. The largest differences among the PLs were observed during re-suspension events when the particles were considerably coarser than usual. Further investigations on the effects of particle sizes on hydroabrasive erosion of splitters and cut-outs of coated Pelton turbines are recommended.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the third in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals with the calculation procedures associated with a step-feed process. Illustrations and examples are included to…
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θ_{D} of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.
Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio
2016-10-01
We have developed a novel, rapid and easy calculation procedure for Mass Isotopomer Distribution Analysis based on multiple linear regression which allows the simultaneous calculation of the precursor pool enrichment and the fraction of newly synthesized labelled proteins (fractional synthesis) using linear algebra. To test this approach, we used the peptide RGGGLK as a model tryptic peptide containing three subunits of glycine. We selected glycine labelled in two (13) C atoms ((13) C2 -glycine) as labelled amino acid to demonstrate that spectral overlap is not a problem in the proposed methodology. The developed methodology was tested first in vitro by changing the precursor pool enrichment from 10 to 40% of (13) C2 -glycine. Secondly, a simulated in vivo synthesis of proteins was designed by combining the natural abundance RGGGLK peptide and 10 or 20% (13) C2 -glycine at 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 3 : 1 ratios. Precursor pool enrichments and fractional synthesis values were calculated with satisfactory precision and accuracy using a simple spreadsheet. This novel approach can provide a relatively rapid and easy means to measure protein turnover based on stable isotope tracers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Calculation procedures for the analysis of integral experiments for fusion-reactor design
Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Oblow, E.M.
1981-07-01
The calculational models, nuclear data, and radiation transport codes that are used in the analysis of integral measurements of the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through laminated slabs of materials typical of those found in fusion reactor shields are described. The two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations to optimize the experimental configuration for reducing the neutron and gamma ray background levels and for obtaining an equivalent, reduced geometry of the calculational model to reduce computer core storage and running times are also presented. The equations and data to determine the energy-angle relations to neutrons produced in the reactions of 250 keV deuterons in a titanium-tritide target are given. The procedures used to collapse the 17ln-36..gamma.. VITAMIN C cross section data library to a 53n-21..gamma.. broad group library are described. Finally, a description of the computer code network used to obtain neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for comparison with measured data is included.
An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chiu, Y. Danny
1990-01-01
An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic optimization procedure is developed to minimize vibratory root shears and moments. The optimization is formulated with 4/rev vertical and 3/rev inplane shears at the blade root as objective functions and constraints, and 4/rev lagging moment. Constraints are also imposed on blade natural frequencies, weight, autorotational inertia, centrifugal stress, and rotor thrust. The 'Global Criteria Approach' is used for formulating the multi-objective optimization. Design variables include spanwise distributions of bending stiffnesses, torsional stiffness, nonstructural mass, chord, radius of gyration, and blade taper ratio. The program CAMRAD is coupled with an optimizer, which consists of the program CONMIN and an approximate analysis, to obtain optimum designs. The optimization procedure is applied to an advanced rotor as a reference design. Optimum blade designs, obtained with and without a constraint on the rotor thrust, are presented and are compared to the reference blade. Substantial reductions are obtained in the vibratory root forces and moments. As a byproduct, improvements are also found in some performance parameters, such as total power required, which were not considered during optimization.
Jordaan, I.J.; Brown, P.W. ); Maes, M.A.; Hermans, I.P. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)
1993-02-01
Extensive work in recent years has been carried out on the calculation of global ice loads on a probabilistic basis. An analysis method is presented for local ice pressures, which yields values of pressure for specific values of exceedance probability. In developing this method, particular attention has been paid to problems of exposure (length, position and number of impacts), as well as the area of exposure (area within area versus nominal contact area). The solution has been formulated for a series of discrete impacts, e.g., rams by a vessel, or a series of periods of continuous interactions. Data for the MV CANMAR Kigoriak and USCGC Polar Sea were ranked and curves were fitted through the tail of probability plots for three panel sizes. This allowed determination of exceedance probabilities of the design coefficients for pressure as a junction of area. The method developed was then applied to an example for a ship based on the data and expected number of rams per year. Formulas useful in the design of structures in ice are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gainer, Patrick A.; Aiken, William S., Jr.
1959-01-01
A method is presented for shortening the computations required to determine the steady-state span loading on flexible wings in subsonic flight. The method makes use of tables of downwash factors to find the necessary aerodynamic-influence coefficients for the application of lifting-line theory. Explicit matrix equations of equilibrium are converted into a matrix power series with a finite number of terms by utilizing certain characteristic properties of matrices. The number of terms in the series is determined by a trial-and-error process dependent upon the required accuracy of the solution. Spanwise distributions of angle of attack, airload, shear, bending moment, and pitching moment are readily obtained as functions of qm(sub R) where q denotes the dynamic pressure and mR denotes the lift-curve slope of a rigid wing. This method is intended primarily to make it practical to solve steady-state aeroelastic problems on the ordinary manually operated desk calculators, but the method is also readily adaptable to automatic computing equipment.
Calculation and Optimization of ITER Upper VS Feeder Under an Electromagnetic Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Huan
2014-11-01
The upper vertical stability (VS) feeder is a part connected to the upper VS coil by a welding joint. The function of the feeder is to transfer current and coolant water to the VS coil. A giant electromagnetic force will be generated during normal operation by the current flowing in the VS coils, interacting with the external background field. The Lorentz force will induce Tresca stress in the feeder. The amplitudes of the magnetic field and Lorentz force along the conductor running direction have been calculated based on Maxwell's equations. To extract the Tresca stress in the feeder, a finite element model was created using the software ANSYS and an electromagnetic load was applied on the model. According to the analytical design, the stresses were classified and evaluated based on ASME. In order to reduce the Tresca stress, some optimization works have been done and the Tresca stress has had a significant reduction in the optimized model. This analytical work figured out the stress distribution in the feeder and checked the feasibility of the prototype design model. The ANSYS analysis results will provide a guidance for later improvement and fabrication.
Volkov, S. A.
2016-06-15
A new subtractive procedure for canceling ultraviolet and infrared divergences in the Feynman integrals described here is developed for calculating QED corrections to the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The procedure formulated in the form of a forest expression with linear operators applied to Feynman amplitudes of UV-diverging subgraphs makes it possible to represent the contribution of each Feynman graph containing only electron and photon propagators in the form of a converging integral with respect to Feynman parameters. The application of the developed method for numerical calculation of two- and threeloop contributions is described.
Triple procedure; analysis of outcome, refraction, and intraocular lens power calculation
Geerards, A.; Hassmann, E.; Beekhuis, W; Remeyer, L; van Rij, G.; Rijneveld, W.
1997-01-01
AIMS—A total of 97 triple procedures performed over a 6 year period were studied retrospectively to determine the best approach to calculate intraocular lens power. METHODS—The cases were divided into two diagnostic categories. RESULTS—After 1 year best corrected visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 37.5% of the cases of the `modified group'. This group consists of patients with the diagnosis Fuchs' dystrophy, non-guttate endothelial dystrophy, and Reis-Buckler dystrophy. Analysis of visual acuity was made using logMAR. A final postoperative refraction within 2 dioptres of predicted refraction was achieved in 76.5% of patients in the modified group. CONCLUSION—In future, in the absence of a keratometry, a keratometry value of 7.49 mm will be used for calculation of the power of the implant as analysed in this study. PMID:9422932
1946-04-01
set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations Is solved. 3. Solution of the entire’set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the...In the ring She results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis...The agreement Is found to.be good.’ The amount of work necessary for the solution of’ ring problems by. the methods described In the present
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stroud, W. J.; Agranoff, N.
1976-01-01
An analytical procedure is presented for designing hat stiffened and corrugated panels made of composite material and subjected to longitudinal (in the direction of the stiffeners) compression and shear loadings. The procedure is based on nonlinear mathematical programming techniques and a simplified set of buckling equations. Design requirements considered are buckling, strength, and extensional and shear stiffness. The effects of specified thickness, variation of cross-section dimensions, stiffness requirements, local buckling boundary conditions, and the effect of combined compression and shear loadings are shown.
Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula
2016-01-01
Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion-evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box-Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN "S8" were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in C max and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the developed
Calculation of muscle loading and joint contact forces during the rock step in Irish dance.
Shippen, James M; May, Barbara
2010-01-01
A biomechanical model for the analysis of dancers and their movements is described. The model consisted of 31 segments, 35 joints, and 539 muscles, and was animated using movement data obtained from a three-dimensional optical tracking system that recorded the motion of dancers. The model was used to calculate forces within the muscles and contact forces at the joints of the dancers in this study. Ground reaction forces were measured using force plates mounted in a sprung floor. The analysis procedure is generic and can be applied to any dance form. As an exemplar of the application process an Irish dance step, the rock, was analyzed. The maximum ground reaction force found was 4.5 times the dancer's body weight. The muscles connected to the Achilles tendon experienced a maximum force comparable to their maximal isometric strength. The contact force at the ankle joint was 14 times body weight, of which the majority of the force was due to muscle contraction. It is suggested that as the rock step produces high forces, and therefore the potential to cause injury, its use should be carefully monitored.
Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Yeh, Shyh-An; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chen, Pang-Yu
2015-09-08
Brachytherapy used in local cervical cancer is still widely based on 2D standard dose planning with the prescription to point A, which is invisible on imaging and located at a high-dose gradient. In this study, the geometric location error of point A was investigated. It is traditionally reconstructed in the treatment planning system after carefully digitizing the point marks that were previously drawn on the orthogonal radiographs into the system. Two Cartesian coordinates of point A were established and compared. One was built up based on the geometric definition of point A and would be taken as the true coordinate, while the other was built up through traditional clinical treatment procedures and named as the practical coordinate. The orthogonal-film reconstruction technique was used and the location error between the practical and the true coordinate introduced from the variations of, first, the angle between the tandem and the simulator gantry-rotation-axis, and second, the interval between the tandem flange and the simulator isocenter, was analyzed. The location error of point A was higher if the tandem was rotated away from the gantry-rotation-axis or if the location of the tandem flange was set away from the isocenter. If a tandem with a 30-degree curvature was rotated away from the gantry-rotation-axis 10 degrees in the anterior-posterior (AP) view, and there was an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter, the location error of point A would be greater than 3 mm without including other errors from simulator calibration, data input, patient setup and movements. To reduce the location error of point A calculated for traditional reconstruction procedures, it is suggested to move the couch or patient to make the mid-point of two points A near the isocenter and the tandem in the AP view parallel to the gantry-rotation-axis as much as possible.
Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Yeh, Shyh-An; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chen, Pang-Yu
2015-09-01
Brachytherapy used in local cervical cancer is still widely based on 2D standard dose planning with the prescription to point A, which is invisible on imaging and located at a high-dose gradient. In this study, the geometric location error of point A was investigated. It is traditionally reconstructed in the treatment planning system after carefully digitizing the point marks that were previously drawn on the orthogonal radiographs into the system. Two Cartesian coordinates of point A were established and compared. One was built up based on the geometric definition of point A and would be taken as the true coordinate, while the other was built up through traditional clinical treatment procedures and named as the practical coordinate. The orthogonal film reconstruction technique was used and the location error between the practical and the true coordinate introduced from the variations of, first, the angle between the tandem and the simulator gantry rotation axis, and second, the interval between the tandem flange and the simulator isocenter, was analyzed. The location error of point A was higher if the tandem was rotated away from the gantry rotation axis or if the location of the tandem flange was set away from the isocenter. If a tandem with a 30° curvature was rotated away from the gantry rotation axis 10° in the anterior-posterior (AP) view, and there was an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter, the location error of point A would be 3 mm without including other errors from simulator calibration, data input, patient setup, and movements. To reduce the location error of point A calculated for traditional reconstruction procedures, it is suggested to move the couch or patient to make the mid-point of two points A near the isocenter and the tandem in the AP view parallel to the gantry rotation axis as much as possible. PACS number: 87.55.km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzana, Ishrat M.; Krishna Mohana Rao, G.; Rama Murthy, G.
2013-01-01
A rapid calculation procedure is presented for the analysis of a functionally graded tube subjected to internal pressure under plane strain condition. The exact analysis for the problem involves derivation of a hyper-geometric differential equation whose solution is a hyper-geometric function. The exact analysis involves the use of complicated terms and is time-consuming. In order to simplify the calculations, a procedure based on an approximation of variation of modulus of elasticity by an integral average value has been studied which resulted in faster calculation and results obtained have been in close agreement with exact solution highlighting the effect of material properties on stresses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance
2011-01-01
A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included
Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.
1990-09-01
A simple and well known method of estimating residential heating loads is the variable base degree-day method, in which the steady-state heat loss rate (UA) is multiplied by the degree-days based from the balance temperature of the structure. The balance temperature is a function of the UA as well as the average rate of internal heat gains, reflecting the displacement of the heating requirements by these gains. Currently, the heat gains from solar energy are lumped with those from appliances to estimate an average rate over the day. This ignores the effects of the timing of the gains from solar energy, which are more highly concentrated during daytime hours, hence more frequently exceeding the required space heat and less utilizable than the gains from appliances. Simulations or specialized passive solar energy calculation methods have previously been required to account for this effect. This paper presents curves of the fraction of the absorbed solar energy utilized for displacement of space heat, developed by comparing heating loads calculated using a variable base degree-day method (ignoring solar gains) to heating loads from a large number of detailed DOE-2 simulations. The difference in the loads predicted by the two methods can be interpreted as the utilized solar gains. The solar utilization decreases as the thermal integrity increases, as expected, and the solar utilizations are similar across climates. They can be used to estimate the utilized fraction of the absorbed solar energy and, with the load predicted by the variable base degree-day calculation, form a modified degree-day method that closely reproduces the loads predicted by the DOE-2 simulation model and is simple enough for hand calculations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2015-01-01
The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment.
Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula
2016-01-01
Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the
Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rana, V; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D
2015-06-15
Purpose: A system was developed that automatically calculates the organ and effective dose for individual fluoroscopically-guided procedures using a log of the clinical exposure parameters. Methods: We have previously developed a dose tracking system (DTS) to provide a real-time color-coded 3D- mapping of skin dose. This software produces a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure. The data in the log files is input into PCXMC, a Monte Carlo program that calculates organ and effective dose for projections and exposure parameters set by the user. We developed a MATLAB program to read data from the log files produced by the DTS and to automatically generate the definition files in the format used by PCXMC. The processing is done at the end of a procedure after all exposures are completed. Since there are thousands of exposure pulses with various parameters for fluoroscopy, DA and DSA and at various projections, the data for exposures with similar parameters is grouped prior to entry into PCXMC to reduce the number of Monte Carlo calculations that need to be performed. Results: The software developed automatically transfers data from the DTS log file to PCXMC and runs the program for each grouping of exposure pulses. When the dose from all exposure events are calculated, the doses for each organ and all effective doses are summed to obtain procedure totals. For a complicated interventional procedure, the calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 30 minutes depending on the level of data grouping. Conclusion: This system allows organ dose to be calculated for individual procedures for every patient without tedious calculations or data entry so that estimates of stochastic risk can be obtained in addition to the deterministic risk estimate provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowe, D. R.; Henricks, W.
1983-01-01
The combined load statistics are developed by taking the acoustically induced load to be a random population, assumed to be stationary. Each element of this ensemble of acoustically induced loads is assumed to have the same power spectral density (PSD), obtained previously from a random response analysis employing the given acoustic field in the STS cargo bay as a stationary random excitation. The mechanically induced load is treated as either (1) a known deterministic transient, or (2) a nonstationary random variable of known first and second statistical moments which vary with time. A method is then shown for determining the probability that the combined load would, at any time, have a value equal to or less than a certain level. Having obtained a statistical representation of how the acoustic and mechanical loads are expected to combine, an analytical approximation for defining design levels for these loads is presented using the First Passage failure criterion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legallais, Ph.; Hureau, J.
1994-06-01
A free streamline wake model based on singularity distribution is proposed in order to treat the flow past an arbitrary curved obstacle with Helmholtz's wake. The slipping condition gives the vortex distribution on the obstacle and the steady evolution condition is written on the first part of the free streamlines in order to find their locations, the geometry of the second part being fixed by an asymptotic study. The validity of the method is judged by comparing results with those obtained by a formulation, to be used as a standard, which encloses conformal mapping and is an adaptation of Levi-Civita's method. Good agreement leads us to envisage extending the method to multi-element systems. Correlatively, we show a coupling procedure with a boundary layer calculation. Applied to the circular cylinder, it allows to bring out the existence of sub-and supercritical ranges. Although the latter is well predicted for the separation angle and the drag coefficient, the former is only approximately approached, with an overestimate of the critical Reynolds number as an immediate consequence. Nous mettons en œuvre une méthode de singularités pour calculer l'écoulement autour d'un obstacle à paroi courbe quelconque en présence d'un sillage de Helmholtz. La répartition de densité tourbillonnaire sur la paroi baignée de l'obstacle est calculée par l'application de la condition de glissement. La condition d'évolution stationnaire est écrite sur la première partie des lignes de glissement afin de déterminer leur position, la géométrie de la seconde partie provenant d'une étude asymptotique. Nous jugeons de la validité de la méthode en comparant les résultats avec ceux obtenus par une méthode étalon utilisant la transformation conforme, et qui est une adaptation de la méthode de Levi-Civita. Le bon accord entre les deux nous permet d'envisager l'extension de la méthode au cas multi-obstacles. Nous proposons ensuite une procédure de couplage avec un calcul
Improvements in sparse matrix/vector technique applications for on-line load flow calculation
Ristanovic, P.; Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S.
1989-02-01
Sparsity technique is applied to a wide range of problems in power systems analysis. In this paper the authors propose several analytical and computational improvements in sparsity applications. The new partial matrix refactorization method and ordering algorithm are presented. The proposed method is very efficient when applied to various kinds of programs, such as: on-line load flow, optimal power flow and steady-state security analysis. The proposed methodology is applied in a fast decoupled load flow program which include the treatment of tap violations on under-load tap changing (ULTC) transformers and reactive power generation on PV buses. Effects of proposed improvements are well tested and documented on the three networks: 118 bus IEEE test network and two utility networks with 209 and 519 buses, respectively. Keywords: sparsity technique, load flow analysis, security analysis.
Calculation of force distribution for a periodically supported beam subjected to moving loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, T.; Duhamel, D.; Foret, G.; Yin, H. P.; Joyez, P.; Caby, R.
2017-02-01
In this study, a novel model for a periodically supported beam subjected to moving loads was developed using a periodicity condition on reaction forces. This condition, together with Fourier transforms and Dirac combs, forms a relation between the beam displacement and support reaction forces. This relation explains the force distribution at the supports, and holds for any type of support and foundation behaviors. Based on this relation, a system equivalence for a periodically supported beam is presented in this paper. An application to non-ballasted viscoelastic supports is presented as an example and the results clearly match the existing model. Next, an approximation of real-time responses was developed for the moving loads as periodic series. The comparison shows that this approximation can be used for a limited number of loads if the distances between loads are sufficiently large. The system equivalence for a periodically supported beam is efficient for supports with linear behavior, and could be extended to other behaviors.
Wang, Lei; Yang, Qinmeng; Chen, Yirong; Chai, Yu; Li, Jiao Jiao; Du, Lin; Tan, Ruizhe; Yang, Shenyu; Tu, Mei; Yu, Bin
2017-02-01
This study reports the encapsulation of vancomycin, as a model hydrophilic drug, into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres using a novel reformative shear precipitation procedure. In contrast to the external aqueous phase used in the conventional microencapsulation technique based on emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction, the reformative shear precipitation procedure explored in this study uses a shear medium composed of glycerol as the viscous medium and ethanol as polymer antisolvent, which is relatively immiscible with the hydrophilic drug. This limits drug diffusion and leads to rapid microsphere solidification, which allows a large proportion of the hydrophilic drug to be encapsulated within the microspheres. The influence of various processing parameters, including polymer concentration, volume ratio of ethanol to glycerol in the shear medium, volume of aqueous drug solution, initial drug loading, and injecting rate of the drug-polymer emulsion, on the encapsulation efficiency and characteristics of resulting microspheres were investigated. The morphology and release characteristics, as well as mechanical, in vitro and in vivo behaviour of vancomycin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared using the novel procedure were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the reformative shear precipitation procedure could achieve the loading of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres with high encapsulation efficiency, and the success of the procedure was largely influenced by the volume ratio of ethanol to glycerol in the shear medium. Vancomycin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared using this procedure demonstrated favourable mechanical characteristics, antibacterial activity, and in vivo degradation behaviour which suggested their suitability for use as a sustained delivery system.
Dynamic Load Balancing for Finite Element Calculations on Parallel Computers. Chapter 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pramono, Eddy; Simon, Horst D.; Sohn, Andrew; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Computational requirements of full scale computational fluid dynamics change as computation progresses on a parallel machine. The change in computational intensity causes workload imbalance of processors, which in turn requires a large amount of data movement at runtime. If parallel CFD is to be successful on a parallel or massively parallel machine, balancing of the runtime load is indispensable. Here a frame work is presented for dynamic load balancing for CFD applications, called Jove. One processor is designated as a decision maker Jove while others are assigned to computational fluid dynamics. Processors running CFD send flags to Jove in a predetermined number of iterations to initiate load balancing. Jove starts working on load balancing while other processors continue working with the current data and load distribution. Jove goes through several steps to decide if the new data should be taken, including preliminary evaluate, partition, processor reassignment, cost evaluation, and decision. Jove running on a single SP2 node has been completely implemented. Preliminary experimental results show that the Jove approach to dynamic load balancing can be effective for full scale grid partitioning on the target machine SP2.
Dynamic Load Balancing for Finite Element Calculations on Parallel Computers. Chapter 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pramono, Eddy; Simon, Horst D.; Sohn, Andrew; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Computational requirements of full scale computational fluid dynamics change as computation progresses on a parallel machine. The change in computational intensity causes workload imbalance of processors, which in turn requires a large amount of data movement at runtime. If parallel CFD is to be successful on a parallel or massively parallel machine, balancing of the runtime load is indispensable. Here a frame work is presented for dynamic load balancing for CFD applications, called Jove. One processor is designated as a decision maker Jove while others are assigned to computational fluid dynamics. Processors running CFD send flags to Jove in a predetermined number of iterations to initiate load balancing. Jove starts working on load balancing while other processors continue working with the current data and load distribution. Jove goes through several steps to decide if the new data should be taken, including preliminary evaluate, partition, processor reassignment, cost evaluation, and decision. Jove running on a single SP2 node has been completely implemented. Preliminary experimental results show that the Jove approach to dynamic load balancing can be effective for full scale grid partitioning on the target machine SP2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis
2014-01-01
All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis
2014-01-01
All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnitzer, Emanuel
1953-01-01
A theoretical method is derived for the determination of the motions and loads during chine-immersed water landings of prismatic bodies. This method makes use of a variation of two-dimensional deflected water mass over the complete range of immersion, modified by a correction for three-dimensional flow. Equations are simplified through omission of the term proportional to the acceleration of the deflected mass for use in calculation of loads on hulls having moderate and heavy beam loading. The effects of water rise at the keel are included in these equations. In order to make a direct comparison of theory with experiment, a modification of the equations was made to include the effect of finite test-carriage mass. A simple method of computation which can be applied without reading the body of this report is presented as an appendix along with the required theoretical plots for determination of loads and motions in chine-immersed landings.
Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2016-03-01
The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.
Williams, D C; Bergeron, K D; Carroll, D E; Gasser, R D; Tills, J L; Washington, K E
1987-05-01
One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered.
Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.
1993-01-01
Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply.
Maksimova, M.P.
1986-03-01
Considerable amounts of chlorine and sodium enter river waters during exploration and operation of oil and gas fields due to lifting highly mineralized formation waters to the surface (the Volga-Ural gas and oil region). Urban and agricultural wastewaters are sources of entry for the components of a salt composition. Magnesium and sulfate ions are considerably inferior to chlorine and sodium with respect to the intensity of involvement in technogenic geochemical flows. Criteria of anthropogenic eutrophication at an early state, methods of separating natural and anthropogenic components of the biogenic runoff (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) of rivers, and methods of their quantitative calculation have been developed. The results of the calculations for all ions are given. The anthropogenic component of the dissolved load successfully increased. Total dissolved load of the Volga reaches 22%.
Uncertainty analysis on simple mass balance model to calculate critical loads for soil acidity
Harbin Li; Steven G. McNulty
2007-01-01
Simple mass balance equations (SMBE) of critical acid loads (CAL) in forest soil were developed to assess potential risks of air pollutants to ecosystems. However, to apply SMBE reliably at large scales, SMBE must be tested for adequacy and uncertainty. Our goal was to provide a detailed analysis of uncertainty in SMBE so that sound strategies for scaling up CAL...
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
The integration of methods for calculating soil loss caused by water erosion using a geoprocessing system is important to enable investigations of soil erosion over large areas. GIS-based procedures have been used in soil erosion studies; however in most cases it is difficult to integrate the functi...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.
1991-01-01
A Lanczos procedure is presently applied to a Navier-Stokes (N-S) solver for eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the small-perturbation analysis of the N-S equations' finite-difference representation for airfoil flows; the matrix used is very large, sparse, real, and nonsymmetric. The Lanczos procedure is shown to furnish complete spectral information for the eigenvalues, as required for transient-stability analysis of N-S solvers.
Martinez-Simon, A; Cacho-Asenjo, E; Hernando, B; Honorato-Cia, C; Naval, L; Panadero, A; Nuñez-Cordoba, J M
2017-04-01
Dexdor(®) do not include the possibility of loading dose, which could increase time to achieve adequate sedation for ambulatory procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of several loading dose of dexmedetomidine in the time to achieve and maintain an optimal level of sedation and its clinical hemodynamic repercussion. The IRB approved this observational study for patients that underwent oral and maxillofacial ambulatory surgery under dexmedetomidine at the University of Navarra Clinic from February 2013 to November 2014. According to the loading dose the patients were grouped into 3 categories:<0.5, 0.5, and>0.5μg/kg. Optimal level of sedation was defined as bispectral index<85. Data were analyzed using survival analysis techniques. Vasoactive drugs requirements was evaluated using exact logistic regression. Eighty-one patients were evaluated. Hazard ratios for patients in 0.5 and >0.5μg/kg loading dose categories for achieving a bispectral index<85 were 1.5 (95% CI 0.9, 2.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 0.8, 3.9), respectively, compared with the lowest category. Five patients (6.2%) required atropine for bradycardia. Patients in the group>0.5μg/kg showed greater risk of requiring atropine compared with the group<0.5μg/kg (odds ratio 2.2; 95% CI 0.03, 183). Loading dose of dexmedetomidine>0.5μg/kg appears minimize the time to achieve and maintain an optimal level of sedation during the first 60min of procedure. Further investigation to elucidate the association between loading dose of dexmedetomidine and subsequent atropine requirements may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mingelgrin, U.
1972-01-01
Many properties of gaseous systems such as electromagnetic absorption and emission, sound dispersion and absorption, may be elucidated if the nature of collisions between the particles in the system is understood. A procedure for the calculation of the classical trajectories of two interacting diatomic molecules is described. The dynamics of the collision will be assumed to be that of two rigid rotors moving in a specified potential. The actual outcome of a representative sample of many trajectories at 298K was computed, and the use of these values at any temperature for calculations of various molecular properties will be described. Calculations performed for the O2 microwave spectrum are given to demonstrate the use of the procedure described.
Li, Yingxia; Song, Ningning; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Shen, Zhenyao
2017-03-01
A significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust ends up in runoff. Accordingly, evaluating the content, possible wash-off load and constituent risks associated with street dust is critical for urban runoff usage. Based on the PAH concentrations examined in this study, different risk assessment methods were applied and the differences among results were analyzed. An improved PAH wash-off calculation method was established and the annual PAH wash-off load was obtained. In addition, emission sources were diagnosed based on isomer ratios and PMF methods. The overall mean ΣPAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) concentration in the street dust was 3.70μg/g, with the highest mean concentrations found for main roads (5.18μg/g). Adjacent anthropogenic activities had a greater effect on pollution characteristics of street dust than land use types. The toxic risk order was park (0.64μg/g)>main road (0.57μg/g)>residence (0.32μg/g)>street (0.29μg/g)>commerce (0.23μg/g), while that of the ecological risk index was main road (1278)>street (920)>residence (904)>commerce (713)>park (195). Although the park sites had a high level of toxic risk, they showed low ecological risk because they had less dust mass per unit area, indicating a great difference in the risk evaluation results and the difference methods. Using different values for different magnitudes of the antecedent dry days, rainfall event amounts, and dust mass fraction of different size ranges, the average wash-off load of ΣPAHs from street dust was calculated to be 23kg per year in Beijing from 2000 to 2014 with an improved wash-off load calculation method. The main sources of PAHs in the street dust of Beijing's center were identified as gasoline emissions, diesel emissions, coal combustion and unburned petroleum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larkin, N.; Solomon, R.; Strand, T.; Raffuse, S. M.; Craig, K.
2009-12-01
Fire and fuel managers often need to know how much fuel will be consumed by a fire, and how much smoke the fire will produce. Many factors influence the end result, including fuel type, loading, and moisture, quantity of live and dead fuels, terrain, and meteorology. A variety of fuel models and consumption models have been developed to help provide estimated quantities of fuel consumption and subsequent smoke production. We present results from this work, done as part of the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project that show that the specific choice of model and model coupling can have a large effect on the final answer. We have used four different consumption models (CONSUME3, EPM, FEPS, and FOFEM) with three different fuel loading maps (NFDRS, Hardy, FCCS) to bracket the simulated results. A new web-based database viewer now allows both scientists and land and fire managers to directly compare various results by selecting a fuel loading map and consumption model. For model users interested in information for a specific fire these comparisons can be useful in understanding the uncertainties resulting from different model choices.
Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.
2006-08-01
In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.
Procedure and computer program to calculate machine contribution to sawmill recovery
Philip H. Steele; Hiram Hallock; Stanford Lunstrum
1981-01-01
The importance of considering individual machine contribution to total mill efficiency is discussed. A method for accurately calculating machine contribution is introduced, and an example is given using this method. A FORTRAN computer program to make the necessary complex calculations automatically is also presented with user instructions.
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... Current Period), using the following escalation formula: Percent change in the Annual CPI-U = × 100. This cumulative percent change value is rounded to one decimal place. (b) Significance threshold. Not later than...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... Current Period), using the following escalation formula: Percent change in the Annual CPI-U = × 100. This cumulative percent change value is rounded to one decimal place. (b) Significance threshold. Not later than...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the...
Fatigue life estimation procedure for a turbine blade under transient loads
Vyas, N.S.; Rao, J.S. Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi )
1992-01-01
A technique for fatigue damage assessment during variable speed operations is presented. Transient resonant stresses for a blade with nonlinear damping have been determined using a numerical procedure. A fatigue damage assessment procedure is described. The fatigue failure surface is generated on the S-N-mean stress axes, and Miner's rule is employed to estimate the cumulation of fatigue. 16 refs.
Passman, F.J.; Daniels, D.A.; Chesneau, H.F.
1995-05-01
Low-grade microbial infections of fuel and fuel systems generally go undetected until they cause major operational problems. Three interdependent factors contribute to this: mis-diagnosis, incorrect or inadequate sampling procedures and perceived complexity of microbiological testing procedures. After discussing the first two issues, this paper describes a rapid field test for estimating microbial loads in fuels and associated water. The test, adapted from a procedure initially developed to measure microbial loads in metalworking fluids, takes advantage of the nearly universal presence of the enzyme catalase in the microbes that contaminated fuel systems. Samples are reacted with a peroxide-based reagent; liberating oxygen gas. The gas generates a pressure-head in a reaction tube. At fifteen minutes, a patented, electronic pressure-sensing device is used to measure that head-space pressure. The authors present both laboratory and field data from fuels and water-bottoms, demonstrating the excellent correlation between traditional viable test data (acquired after 48-72 hours incubation) and catalase test data (acquired after 15 min.-4 hours). We conclude by recommending procedures for developing a failure analysis data-base to enhance our industry`s understanding of the relationship between uncontrolled microbial contamination and fuel performance problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Copuroglu, Ebru
2017-02-01
By using the Löwdin-α function method, we have analytically calculated the two-center kinetic energy integrals over Slater type orbitals (STOs). The two-center kinetic energy integrals are presented in terms of the two-center overlap integrals. A new approach is applicable to accurate calculations of two-center kinetic energy integral over STOs for arbitrary values of scaling parameters and interatomic distances. Obtained results show that the proposed method is easy to apply to the real systems, and has better calculation CPU time with compared to the existing approximations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houpert, L. G.; Hamrock, B. J.
1985-01-01
The film thicknesses and pressures in elastohydrodynamically lubricated contacts have been calculated for a line contact by using an improved version of Okamura's approach. The new approach allows for lubricant compressibility, the use of Roelands' viscosity, a general mesh (nonconstant step), and accurate calculations of the elastic deformation. The new approach is described, and the effects on film thickness, pressure, and pressure spike of each of the improvements are discussed. Successful runs have been obtained at high pressure (to 4.8 GPa) with low CPU times.
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Namjun
If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…
A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto
1990-01-01
This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Namjun
If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanadi, Farzin; Emes, Matthew; Yu, Jeremy; Arjomandi, Maziar; Kelso, Richard
2017-06-01
Dynamic amplification and gust effects from turbulence can increase wind loads significantly over and above the static wind loads that have been used for heliostat design. This paper presents the results of analyzing the relationship between gust factor and turbulence intensity within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) based on the high fidelity measurements of wind velocity at the SLTEST facility in the Utah desert. Results showed that there are distinct characteristics of a low roughness ABL that deviate from semi-empirical relationships derived for open country and urban terrains with larger surface roughness heights. The analysis also indicated that gust factor is increased by 2.4% when lowering the gust period from 3s to 1s in the low roughness field experiment ABL, compared to a 3.6% increase in a suburban terrain at a 10m height. Although 3s gust periods are recommended in AS/NZS 1170.2 [1], comparison of gust factor data with a 1s gust period is recommended particularly in high roughness ABLs such as in urban areas, to ensure that buildings are adequately designed to withstand higher frequency gusts. This research proved the strength of the correlation between gust factor and turbulence intensity is dependent on the surface roughness height of the terrain. It is recommended that the coefficient in the previous semi-empirical equation must be adjusted to be fitted to the low roughness desert terrain in the field experiment ABL.
Improved Procedure for Loading the M198 Towed Howitzer Aboard a C130 Cargo Plane.
1986-04-01
steerable third wheel attached to and supporting the gun trails to eliminate the need for a 2 1/2-ton truck in the loading opera- tion. This proposal was...the ramp on the C130. A steerable third wheel would permit the 5- ton truck to be used in the on/off loading operations. Prompted by FORSCOM’s...states that the tire carcass temper- atures are obtained by stopping the vehicle and inserting a needle thermocouple *into holes drilled at predetermined
Resizing procedure for optimum design of structures under combined mechanical and thermal loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, H. M.; Narayanaswami, R.
1976-01-01
An algorithm is reported for resizing structures subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The algorithm is applicable to uniaxial stress elements (rods) and membrane biaxial stress members. Thermal Fully Stressed Design (TFSD) is based on the basic difference between mechanical and thermal stresses in their response to resizing. The TFSD technique is found to converge in fewer iterations than ordinary fully stressed design for problems where thermal stresses are comparable to the mechanical stresses. The improved convergence is demonstrated by example with a study of a simplified wing structure, built-up with rods and membranes and subjected to a combination of mechanical loads and a three dimensional temperature distribution.
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... required by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) by applying the following... factor = the increase factor in the cooling equipment efficiency measured by the Seasonal Energy... calculating Uo values, storm windows are treated as an additional pane. (f) Annual energy used...
Calculation of the Thermal Loading of the Cylinder-Piston Group of the Automobile Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barchenko, F. B.; Bakulin, V. N.
2017-05-01
We propose a mathematical model for calculating thermal loods of parts of the cylinder-piston group of the automobile engine operating under unstable conditions in its complete life cycle. Methods have been described for calculating the boundary conditions to determine the thermal state of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of such an engine with the use of theoretical formulas, empirical and semiempirical relations, and tabulated data. In modeling, we calculated the work of all systems of the engine (pumps, pipelines, heat exchangers) influencing directly or indirectly the thermal state of its cylinder-piston group. The nonstationary thermal state was calculated once in the operating cycle of the engine with the use of the cycle-averaged values of the local heat transfer coefficients and the resulting temperature of the medium. The personal computer counting time for one time step of a transport diesel engine of typical design with a number of units of the order of 500 was 5 s.
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... one-half the nominal insulation level of the surrounding building component. (d) High efficiency... Floor Systems 23.15Pipes 23.17Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment 23.18Refrigerated Rooms and Buildings 24.18Mechanical and Industrial Systems 25.19Commercial Building Envelope Leakage 27.9Calculation of Heat Loss...
The research of the maximum wind speed in Tomsk and calculations of dynamic load on antenna systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belan, B.; Belan, S.; Romanovskiy, O.; Girshtein, A.; Yanovich, A.; Baidali, S.; Terehov, S.
2017-01-01
The work is concerned with calculations and analysis of the maximum wind speed in Tomsk city. The data for analysis were taken from the TOR-station located in the north-eastern part of the city. The TOR-station sensors to measure a speed and a direction of wind are installed on the 10-meter meteorological mast. Wind is measured by M-63, which uses the standard approach and the program with one-minute averaging for wind gusts recording as well. According to the measured results in the research performed, the estimation of the dynamic and wind load on different types of antenna systems was performed. The work shows the calculations of wind load on ten types of antenna systems, distinguished by their different constructions and antenna areas. For implementation of calculations, we used methods developed in the Central Research and Development Institute of Building Constructions named after V.A. Kucherenko. The research results could be used for design engineering of the static antenna systems and mobile tracking systems for the distant objects.
Increased Memory Load during Task Completion when Procedures Are Presented on Mobile Screens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrd, Keena S.; Caldwell, Barrett S.
2011-01-01
The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure.…
Increased Memory Load during Task Completion when Procedures Are Presented on Mobile Screens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrd, Keena S.; Caldwell, Barrett S.
2011-01-01
The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure.…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milner, E. J.; Krosel, S. M.
1977-01-01
Techniques are presented for determining the elements of the A, B, C, and D state variable matrices for systems simulated on an EAI Pacer 100 hybrid computer. An automated procedure systematically generates disturbance data necessary to linearize the simulation model and stores these data on a floppy disk. A separate digital program verifies this data, calculates the elements of the system matrices, and prints these matrices appropriately labeled. The partial derivatives forming the elements of the state variable matrices are approximated by finite difference calculations.
Study made of procedures for externally loading and corrosion testing stress corrosion specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphries, T. S.
1967-01-01
Study was initiated to determine methods or test specimens for evaluating stress corrosion cracking characteristics of common structural materials. It was found that the methods of externally loading and corrosion testing were reliable in yielding reproducible results for stress corrosion evaluation.
Uncertainty analysis on simple mass balance model to calculate critical loads for soil acidity.
Li, Harbin; McNulty, Steven G
2007-10-01
Simple mass balance equations (SMBE) of critical acid loads (CAL) in forest soil were developed to assess potential risks of air pollutants to ecosystems. However, to apply SMBE reliably at large scales, SMBE must be tested for adequacy and uncertainty. Our goal was to provide a detailed analysis of uncertainty in SMBE so that sound strategies for scaling up CAL estimates to the national scale could be developed. Specifically, we wanted to quantify CAL uncertainty under natural variability in 17 model parameters, and determine their relative contributions in predicting CAL. Results indicated that uncertainty in CAL came primarily from components of base cation weathering (BC(w); 49%) and acid neutralizing capacity (46%), whereas the most critical parameters were BC(w) base rate (62%), soil depth (20%), and soil temperature (11%). Thus, improvements in estimates of these factors are crucial to reducing uncertainty and successfully scaling up SMBE for national assessments of CAL.
A NASTRAN DMAP procedure for calculation of base excitation modal participation factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Case, W. R.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a technique for calculating the modal participation factors for base excitation problems using a DMAP alter to the NASTRAN real eigenvalue analysis Rigid Format. The DMAP program automates the generation of the seismic mass to add to the degrees of freedom representing the shaker input directions and calculates the modal participation factors. These are shown in the paper to be a good measure of the maximum acceleration expected at any point on the structure when the subsequent frequency response analysis is run.
Main steam-line break core shroud loading calculations for BWRs
Shoop, U.; Feltus, M.A.; Baratta, A.J.
1995-12-31
In July 1994, the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission sent out Generic Letter 94-03 to all boiling water reactors in the United States, informing them of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core shrouds found in 2 reactors. The letter directed all to perform safety analysis of the BWR units. Penn State performed scoping calculations to determine the forces experienced by the core shroud during a main-stream line break transient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran Duc, Chinh
1997-05-01
In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of shallow shell with positive Gauss radius, and boundaries supported on the rectangular plane subject to influence of uniform load and concentrated forces has been considered. In order to solve differential equations (written in the form that assumes deflections as unknowns) of bending shallow shell theory, the author has used the finite difference technique on irregular networks. A detailed algorithm has been formulated that enables to solve the problem by computer. By the above algorithm, the author has obtained numerical results in the form of internal forces and deflections diagrams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.
2012-12-01
Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bunch, T. E.; Olsen, E.
1973-01-01
Chemical analyses of the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene compositions in chondrites are reported. Standard microprobe techniques to 15 kilovolts, 0.03 microamperes, and 40 second counting time were employed. Duplicate analyses were conducted on three grains of each opx and cpx together with two different raw data correction methods as checks on analytical precision and correction procedures. Only those analytical summations of between 99.20 and 100.80 weight percent, and cation summations between 3.980 and 4.020 (based on 6 oxygens) were used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.
1983-01-01
A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.
Preliminary Calculation of Electromagnetic Loads on Vacuum Vessel of HL-2M
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Lijun; Liu, Dequan; Ran, Hong; Li, Jiaxian; Li, Yong; Cao, Zeng
2013-03-01
For a robust design of vacuum vessel of HL-2M, the electromagnetic (EM) loads have to be understood clearly. In this paper, some crucial transient events, such as plasma major disruptions (MDs), vertical displacement events (VDEs), fast discharge of toroidal field (TF) coils, have been investigated to evaluate the eddy currents and EM forces on vacuum vessel and in-vessel components. The results show that the eddy currents depend strongly on the current decay time, and the maximum toroidal eddy current flowing in the whole vessel can reach up to 2.4 MA during MDs that is close to the plasma current. Large symmetric radial forces and a net vertical force on vessel shells could be caused by these transient events. Combination of eddy currents in in-vessel components and toroidal field could twist the copper plates and other internal parts, however, if these plates are supported and connected carefully, the twist moments will not have a big effect on the vessel shells and vessel support.
Three-dimensional calculations of fields and loading for loop and folded waveguide ICRF antennas
Carter, M.D.; Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Swain, D.W.; Haste, G.R.
1991-01-01
The ANT and ORION codes have been combined and used to study the loading of various antenna geometries with simple three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Both codes use a slab model with periodic Fourier analysis for modeling the toroidal and poloidal directions. The ANT code is used to prescribe current sets in a vacuum region where the field solutions are obtained analytically of each Fourier mode and matching conditions are used at poloidal/toroidal current sheet locations. Multiple current sheets are permitted and various feeder options are available to model the radial antenna currents. Current elements maybe oriented at arbitrary angles to the static magnetic field and may be independently phased in time. The fields at the plasma surface are prescribed by an impedance matrix for each Fourier mode. The ORION code solves for the fields in the plasma region using finite difference techniques, a plasma dispersion relation that retains the lowest-order finite gyroradius effects, and all three electric field components. Results are presented for a folded waveguide mock-up and for a loop antenna design under identical plasma conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwick, D.; Schafhirt, S.; Brommundt, M.; Muskulus, M.; S, Narasimhan; Mechineau, J.; Haugsøen, P. B.
2014-12-01
Accurate load simulations are necessary in order to design cost-efficient support structures for offshore wind turbines. Due to software limitations and confidentiality issues, support structures are often designed with sequential analyses, where simplified wind turbine and support structure models replace more detailed models. The differences with an integrated analysis are studied here for a commercial OWEC Quattropod. Integrated analysis seems to generally predict less damage than sequential analysis, decreasing by 30-70 percent in two power production cases with small waves. Additionally it was found that using a different realization of the wave forces for the retrieval run in sequential analysis leads to an increase of predicted damage, which can be explained as the effect of applying two independent wave force series at the same time. The midsection of the detailed support structure model used shell elements. Additional analyses for a model with an equivalent beam model of the midsection showed only small differences, mostly overpredicting damage by a few percent. Such models can therefore be used for relatively accurate analysis, if carefully calibrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh, D.; Domagalski, J. L.; Johnson, H. M.; Lorenz, D. J.
2009-12-01
Mass loading and trends in concentration were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream; and, (2) the Sine Wave model (SineWave), in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal loading patterns. The models were applied to data for water years 1997 through 2005 provided by the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The pesticides considered in this study were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Data were analyzed for two seasons: precipitation season (October through March), and the irrigation season (April through September). Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. When compared with results from previous studies, both models well estimated seasonal loads and trends in concentrations. It is important to point out that loads estimated by the two models did not differ substantially from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and precipitation. At the same time, trends in pesticide concentrations over time, as estimated by both models, were nearly identical indicating that either model can be used equally for calculating trends in concentrations. However, in watersheds where pesticides are applied in specific patterns— involving multiple applications of various amounts—the SeaWave model might be a better model to use due to its robust capability to describe seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations. As a case study, trends in pesticide concentrations for streams in the Central Valley were
Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure
Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark
2015-01-01
Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834
Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure.
Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark
2015-01-01
This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAP ™ Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAP ™ Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruo, S. Y.
1978-01-01
A computer program was developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in transonic potential flow over an oscillation wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic box computer program for planar wing which was extended to account for the effect of wing thickness. Computational efficiency and accuracy were improved and swept trailing edges were accounted for. Account for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness was made by application of the local linearization concept with appropriate coordinate transformation. A brief description of each computer routine and the applications of cubic spline and spline surface data fitting techniques used in the program are given, and the method of input was shown in detail. Sample calculations as well as a complete listing of the computer program listing are presented.
Calculation procedure for collectors with a honeycomb cover of rectangular cross section
Platzer, W.J. )
1992-01-01
For a highly efficient collector with honeycomb cover an optimization procedure has to take into account a lot of parameters like material choice, geometric dimensions, cell wall thickness, and aspect ratios of the honeycomb. An approximate, but comprehensive theoretical description of the optical properties and the heat transport within a honeycomb absorber system is given and discussed in the paper. Selective absorbers and air gaps with convecting air can be treated within the model. Solar transmittance and heat transport are treated with a consistent model, which in principle needs only film data and the geometric parameters as input. Theoretical results compare quite favorable with experimental data from honeycomb structures. The main innovative features of the model are its use of an effective optical thickness, and the inclusion of both, convective boundary conditions and solar absorption, in a coupled mode analysis leading to an analytical solution.
Mochan, W Luis; Ortiz, Guillermo P; Mendoza, Bernardo S
2010-10-11
We present a very efficient recursive method to calculate the effective optical response of metamaterials made up of arbitrarily shaped inclusions arranged in periodic 3D arrays. We apply it to dielectric particles embedded in a metal matrix with a lattice constant much smaller than the wavelength of the incident field, so that we may neglect retardation and factor the geometrical properties from the properties of the materials. If the conducting phase is continuous the low frequency behavior is metallic, and if the conducting paths are thin, the high frequency behavior is dielectric. Thus, extraordinary-transparency bands may develop at intermediate frequencies, whose properties may be tuned by geometrical manipulation.
McKee, Richard H; Adenuga, M David; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos
2017-08-01
Hydrocarbon solvents are liquid hydrocarbon fractions, often with complex compositions. Due to the potential for human exposure, primarily to the more volatile solvents, substantial effort has been directed toward the development of occupational exposure recommendations. Because of the complex and variable nature of these substances, a proposed approach is to calculate occupational exposure levels (OELs) using an adaptation of the mixture formula developed by the ACGIH® in which "group guidance values" are assigned to similar constituents. This approach is supported by the results of toxicological studies of hydrocarbon solvents and their constituents which have shown that, with a few well-characterized exceptions, these substances have similar toxicological properties and produce additive effects. The objective of the present document is to summarize recommended revisions to the earlier proposals; these recommendations take into account recent toxicological information and changes in regulatory advice. Practical demonstrations on how to use these recommendations to develop occupational exposure advice in different situations (from simple complex solvents to blends of complex solvents) are also provided. Finally, a quantitative ideal gas method is proposed as a means of calculating occupational exposure limits for solvent blends in which, because the blended components have differing vapor pressures, there may be substantial differences between the liquid and vapor phase compositions.
Karton, Amir; O'Reilly, Robert J; Radom, Leo
2012-04-26
Accurate electronic barrier heights are obtained for a set of nine proton-transfer tautomerization reactions, which are either (i) uncatalyzed, (ii) catalyzed by one water molecule, or (iii) catalyzed by two water molecules. The barrier heights for reactions (i) and (ii) are obtained by means of the high-level ab initio W2.2 thermochemical protocol, while those for reaction (iii) are obtained using the W1 protocol. These three sets of benchmark barrier heights allow an assessment of the performance of more approximate theoretical procedures for the calculation of barrier heights of uncatalyzed and water-catalyzed reactions. We evaluate initially the performance of the composite G4 procedure and variants thereof (e.g., G4(MP2) and G4(MP2)-6X), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g., MP2, SCS-MP2, and MP4). We find that the performance of the G4(MP2)-type thermochemical procedures deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. This behavior is linked to deficiencies in the MP2-based basis-set-correction term in the G4(MP2)-type procedures. This is remedied in the MP4-based G4 procedure, which shows good performance for both the uncatalyzed and the water-catalyzed reactions, with mean absolute deviations (MADs) from the benchmark values lying below the threshold of "chemical accuracy" (arbitrarily defined as 1 kcal mol(-1) ≈ 4.2 kJ mol(-1)). We also examine the performance of a large number of density functional theory (DFT) and double-hybrid DFT (DHDFT) procedures. We find that, with few exceptions (most notably PW6-B95 and B97-2), the performance of the DFT procedures that give good results for the uncatalyzed reactions deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. The DHDFT procedures, on the other hand, show excellent performance for both the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions. Specifically, almost all of them afford MADs below the "chemical accuracy" threshold, with ROB2-PLYP and B2K
Extension of a GIS procedure for calculating the RUSLE equation LS factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongming; Yang, Qinke; Li, Rui; Liu, Qingrui; Moore, Demie; He, Peng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette
2013-03-01
The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revised USLE (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales, however a major limitation is the difficulty in extracting the LS factor. The geographic information system-based (GIS-based) methods which have been developed for estimating the LS factor for USLE and RUSLE also have limitations. The unit contributing area-based estimation method (UCA) converts slope length to unit contributing area for considering two-dimensional topography, however is not able to predict the different zones of soil erosion and deposition. The flowpath and cumulative cell length-based method (FCL) overcomes this disadvantage but does not consider channel networks and flow convergence in two-dimensional topography. The purpose of this research was to overcome these limitations and extend the FCL method through inclusion of channel networks and convergence flow. We developed LS-TOOL in Microsoft's.NET environment using C♯ with a user-friendly interface. Comparing the LS factor calculated with the three methodologies (UCA, FCL and LS-TOOL), LS-TOOL delivers encouraging results. In particular, LS-TOOL uses breaks in slope identified from the DEM to locate soil erosion and deposition zones, channel networks and convergence flow areas. Comparing slope length and LS factor values generated using LS-TOOL with manual methods, LS-TOOL corresponds more closely with the reality of the Xiannangou catchment than results using UCA or FCL. The LS-TOOL algorithm can automatically calculate slope length, slope steepness, L factor, S factor, and LS factors, providing the results as ASCII files which can be easily used in some GIS software. This study is an important step forward in conducting more accurate large area erosion evaluation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, A. C.; Schwartz, R. D.
1973-01-01
The prelaunch, lift-off, and midboost conditions that are important to the design of spacecraft are described. Original Apollo design concepts that were deficient in realistic and accurate analysis of spacecraft structural loads in a wind environment also are included. Important improvements in design criteria, mathematical models, wind-monitoring procedures, and loads analyses are discussed. Recommendations for future programs are presented.
Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L
2011-03-01
There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses.
Settlements around pumping wells: Analysis of influential factors and a simple calculation procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujades, Estanislao; De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Jurado, Anna
2017-05-01
Estimated and measured settlements caused by pumping rarely agree. Several reasons could explain this mismatch, including the influence of layering, the mechanical parameters used in the predictions, or the relationship between settlements and drawdown. We analyze the influence of the above issues by investigating the mechanical response of pumped elastic porous media under different conditions. A radially symmetric conceptual model is considered and several hydro-mechanical simulations are performed varying the boundary conditions, the size of the modeled domain and the presence or not of an overlying layer. The simplicity of the considered problem allows us to compare our results with existing analytical solutions, to identify the role of each variable on pumping settlements and to generalize the results. The most relevant results are as follows: (1) settlements are proportional to drawdown only outside a circle of radius equal to 0.7 times the thickness of the pumped porous medium; inside, they are virtually constant, which leads to two simple procedures for computing pumping settlements. (2) Poorly conductive layers located above (or below) a pumped porous medium (with higher hydraulic conductivity) reduce and smooth settlements. (3) Boundary constraints affect the local specific storage coefficient and the displacements occurred. (4) The specific storage coefficient evaluated by interpreting pumping tests with the Cooper and Jacob method (1946) leads to overestimation of the actual Young's Modulus of the soil. The main conclusion is that settlements are less differential than expected near pumping wells. Still, they must always be evaluated acknowledging the nature of layering, the boundary constraints and carefully selecting the mechanical parameters of the soil.
Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco
2016-09-01
In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.
Reacidification modeling and dose calculation procedures for calcium-carbonate-treated lakes
Scheffe, R.D.
1987-01-01
Two dose calculation models and a reacidification model were developed and applied to two Adirondack acid lakes (Woods Lake and Cranberry Pond) that were treated with calcite during May 30-31, 1985 as part of the EPRI-funded Lake Acidification Mitigation Project. The first dose model extended Sverdrup's (1983) Lake Liming model by incorporating chemical equilibrium routines to eliminate empirical components. The model simulates laboratory column water chemistry profiles (spatially and temporally) and dissolution efficiencies fairly well; however, the model predicted conservative dissolution efficiencies for the study lakes. Time-series water chemistry profiles of the lakes suggest that atmospheric carbon dioxide intrusion rate was far greater than expected and enhanced dissolution efficiency. Accordingly, a second dose model was developed that incorporated ongoing CO/sub 2/ intrusion and added flexibility in the handling of solid and dissolved species transport. This revised model simulated whole-lake water chemistry throughout the three week dissolution period. The Acid Lake Reacidification Model (ALaRM) is a general mass-balance model developed for the temporal prediction of the principal chemical species in both the water column and sediment pore water of small lakes and ponds.
Bozzetto, L; Giorgini, M; Alderisio, A; Costagliola, L; Giacco, A; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Annuzzi, G
2015-10-01
To evaluate feasibility and effectiveness on short-term blood glucose control of using glycaemic load counting (GLC) versus carbohydrate counting (CC) for prandial insulin dosing in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Nine T1D patients on insulin pump, aged 26-58 years, HbA1c 7.7 ± 0.8 % (61 ± 8.7 mmol/mol), participated in this real-life setting study. By a crossover design, patients were randomised to calculate their pre-meal insulin dose based on the insulin/glycaemic load ratio (GLC period) or the insulin/carbohydrate ratio (CC period) for 1 week, shifting to the alternate method for the next week, when participants duplicated their first week food plan. Over either week, a blind subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring was performed, and a 7-day food record was filled in. Total daily insulin doses (45 ± 10 vs. 44 ± 9 I.U.; M ± SD, p = 0.386) and basal infusion (26 ± 7 vs. 26 ± 8 I.U., p = 0.516) were not different during GLC and CC periods, respectively. However, the range of insulin doses (difference between highest and lowest insulin dose) was wider during GLC, with statistical significance at dinner (8.4 ± 6.2 vs. 6.0 ± 3.9 I.U., p = 0.041). Blood glucose iAUC after lunch was lower, albeit not significantly, during GLC than CC period (0.6 ± 8.6 vs. 3.4 ± 8.2 mmol/l∙3 h, p = 0.059). Postprandial glucose variability, evaluated as the maximal amplitude after meal (highest minus lowest glucose value), was significantly lower during GLC than CC period at lunch (4.22 ± 0.28 vs. 5.47 ± 0.39 mmol/l, p = 0.002) and dinner (3.89 ± 0.33 vs. 4.89 ± 0.33, p = 0.026). Calculating prandial insulin bolus based on glycaemic load counting is feasible in a real-life setting and may improve postprandial glucose control in people with T1D.
Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.
2014-04-01
This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimal, Q.; Naı̈li, S.; Watzky, A.
2004-09-01
The transient response of a linearly elastic structure made of a layer overlaying a half-space, subjected to a normal point force on its free surface, is investigated. Both welded contact and frictionless sliding are considered at the interface. This paper presents a method to calculate the response, for a wide range of loading durations ( T), on the axis of symmetry of the configuration (in the layer and the half-space). Equations of the boundary-value problem are manipulated in an integral transform domain and the Cagniard-de Hoop method is used. The final form of the exact analytical solution is a sum of contributions corresponding to the rays of the generalized ray theory; little computational effort need be developed for evaluating each contribution. While this theory has only been used to obtain early-time responses, long-time responses—up to 30 times the transit time of P-waves in the layer—have been calculated for this study. This work was conducted to help characterize the stress transmitted in the human lung (half-space) when the thoracic wall (layer) is subjected to a non-penetrating impact. Depending on T, multiple reflections of waves in the layer or typical low-frequency response are observed. The influence of the contact condition with respect to T is elucidated.
Silva, Jéssica Thaís do Prado; Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Geiss, Julia Maria Tonin; de Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes; Becker, Daniela; Bracht, Lívia; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Bona, Evandro; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess
2017-09-01
Lutein is a carotenoid presenting known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Lutein-rich diets have been associated with neurological improvement as well as reduction of the risk of vision loss due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Micro and nanoencapsulation have demonstrated to be effective techniques in protecting lutein against degradation and also in improving its bioavailability. However, actual lutein concentration inside the capsules and encapsulation efficiency are key parameters that must be precisely known when designing in vitro and in vivo tests. In this work an analytical procedure was validated for the determination of the actual lutein content in zein nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Method validation followed the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines which evaluate linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, accuracy and precision. The validated methodology was applied to characterize lutein-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani
2010-10-01
This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.
2015-12-01
Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly
Stamateris, B.; Olivera-Fuentes, C.
1996-12-31
A new procedure is proposed for the calculation and correlation of cohesion parameters in cubic equations of state of the Van der Waals type. In this method, the derivative (rather than the function itself) is computed subject to the Maxwell (equal area) and Clapeyron equations. Strong experimental evidence indicates that properly formulated a functions must generate negative values at high temperatures. A theoretical analysis demonstrates the correct, hard-body limiting behavior of the cohesion function at infinite temperatures. From this, the simplest possible form of the cohesion function follows as a two-constant expression that can be considered an extension of a functional form previously proposed by Martin. The proposed function`s performance is comparable to more complex expressions previously presented in the literature, predicting vapor pressures of polar and nonpolar fluids with relative deviations (i) of {+-} 1%. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tassa, Y.; Anderson, B. H.; Reshotko, E.
1977-01-01
An interactive procedure was developed for supersonic viscous flows that can be used for either two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations. The procedure is directed to supersonic internal flows as well as those supersonic external flows that require consideration of mutual interaction between the outer flow and the boundary layer flow. The flow field is divided into two regions: an inner region which is highly viscous and mostly subsonic and an outer region where the flow is supersonic and in which viscous effects are small but not negligible. For the outer region a numerical solution is obtained by applying the method of characteristics to a system of equations which includes viscous and conduction transport terms only normal to the streamlines. The inner region is treated by a system of equations of the boundary layer type that includes higher order effects such as longitudinal and transverse curvature and normal pressure gradients. These equations are coupled and solved simultaneously in the physical coordinates by using an implicit finite difference scheme. This system can also be used to calculate laminar and turbulent boundary layers using a scalar eddy viscosity concept.
Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier
2009-11-15
This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyachenko, Leonid K.; Benin, Andrey V.
2017-06-01
When the high-speed railway traffic is being organized, it becomes necessary to elaborate bridge design standards for high-speed railways (HSR). Methodology of studying the issues of HSR bridge design is based on the comprehensive analysis of domestic research as well as international experience in design, construction and operation of high-speed railways. Serious requirements are imposed on the HSR artificial structures, which raise a number of scientific tasks associated mainly with the issues of the dynamic interaction of the rolling stock and the bridge elements. To ensure safety of traffic and reliability of bridges during the whole period of operation one needs to resolve the dynamic problems of various types of high-speed trains moving along the structures. The article analyses dependences of the magnitude of inertial response on the external stress parameters and proposes a simplified method of determination of the dynamic live load factor caused by the passage of high-speed trains. The usefulness of the given research arises from the reduction of complexity of the complicated dynamic calculations needed to describe a high-speed train travelling along the artificial structures.
2013-01-01
In the last few years, synthesis of carrier-free immobilized biocatalysts by cross-linking of enzyme aggregates has appeared as a promising technique. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) present several interesting advantages over carrier-bound immobilized enzymes, such as highly concentrated enzymatic activity, high stability of the produced superstructure, important production costs savings by the absence of a support, and the fact that no previous purification of the enzyme is needed. However, the published literature evidences that a) much specific non-systematic exploratory work is being done and, b) recovered activity calculations in CLEAs still need to be optimized. In this context, this contribution presents results of an optimized procedure for the calculation of the activity retained by CLEAs, based on the comparison of their specific activity relative to their free enzyme counterparts. The protocol implies determination of precipitable protein content in commercial enzyme preparations through precipitation with ammonium sulphate and a protein co-feeder. The identification of linear ranges of activity versus concentration/amount of protein in the test reaction is also required for proper specific activity determinations. By use of mass balances that involve the protein initially added to the synthesis medium, and the protein remaining in the supernatant and washing solutions (these last derived from activity measurements), the precipitable protein present in CLEAs is obtained, and their specific activity can be calculated. In the current contribution the described protocol was applied to CLEAs of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase, which showed a recovered specific activity of 11.1% relative to native lipase. The approach described is simple and can easily be extended to other CLEAs and also to carrier-bound immobilized enzymes for accurate determination of their retained activity. PMID:23663379
Lu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Long-Fei
2015-01-01
Background The classic non-working (NW) heterotopic heart transplant (HTX) model in rodents had been widely used for researches related to immunology, graft rejection, evaluation of immunosuppressive therapies and organ preservation. But unloaded models are considered not suitable for some researches. Accordingly, We have constructed a volume-loaded (VL) model by a new and simple technique. Methods Thirty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, group NW with 14 rabbits and group VL with 16 rabbits, which served as donors and recipients. We created a large and nonrestrictive shunt to provide left heart a sufficient preload. The donor superior vena cave and ascending aorta (AO) were anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta (AAO) and inferior vena cava (IVC), respectively. Results No animals suffered from paralysis, pneumonia and lethal bleeding. Recipients’ mortality and morbidity were 6.7% (1/15) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively. The cold ischemia time in group VL is slight longer than that in group NW. The maximal aortic velocity (MAV) of donor heart was approximately equivalent to half that of native heart in group VL. Moreover, the similar result was achieved in the parameter of late diastolic mitral inflow velocity between donor heart and native heart in group VL. The echocardiography (ECHO) showed a bidirectional flow in donor SVC of VL model, inflow during diastole and outflow during systole. PET-CT imaging showed the standard uptake value (SUV) of allograft was equal to that of native heart in both groups on the postoperative day 3. Conclusions We have developed a new VL model in rabbits, which imitates a native heart hemodynamically while only requiring a minor additional procedure. Surgical technique is simple compared with currently used HTX models. We also developed a standard operating procedure that significantly improved graft and recipient survival rate. This study may be useful for investigations in transplantation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mugler, John P., Jr.
1960-01-01
An iteration method is presented by which the detailed aerodynamic loading and twist characteristics of a flexible wing with known elastic properties may be calculated. The method is applicable at Mach numbers approaching 1.0 as well as at subsonic Mach numbers. Calculations were made for a wing-body combination; the wing was swept back 45 deg and had an aspect ratio of 4. Comparisons were made with experimental results at Mach numbers from.0.80 to 0.98.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mnasri, Najib; Nyalosaso, Jeff L.; Kachbouri, Sana; Zajac, Jerzy; Elaloui, Elimame; Charnay, Clarence
2017-01-01
Rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (RMSN) with built-in gold nanoparticles or thin gold nanowires in the pore channels were in situ synthesized via a one-step procedure. The insertion of a hydrophobic gold precursor into the mesopores of RMSN was reached through a micellar solubilization mechanism and gold nanoparticles were achieved through a thermal reduction. The resulting RMSN and Au-RMSN samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning microscopies (TEM and SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen physisorption and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The interaction of Au precursor (a carbene complex) with the thiol group at the silica surface was identified and found to play a crucial role in the dispersion of the uniform metal nanoparticles at the internal surface of RMSN. Moreover, TEM micrographs revealed the absence of large gold particles outside the mesopore network. The shape of Au nanoparticles and their loading amount in the mesoporous silica could be easily tuned by altering the concentration of gold precursor.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of watershed-scale nutrient load estimates...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.
1972-01-01
The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W
1958-01-01
Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.
2015-08-01
Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.
Comparison of measured and calculated dynamic loads for the Mod-2 2.5 mW wind turbine system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, D. K.; Shipley, S. A.; Miller, R. D.
1995-01-01
The Boeing Company, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has completed a test program on the Mod-2 wind turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. The objectives were to update fatigue load spectra, discern site and machine differences, measure vortex generator effects, and to evaluate rotational sampling techniques. This paper shows the test setup and loads instrumentation, loads data comparisons and test/analysis correlations. Test data are correlated with DYLOSAT predictions using both the NASA interim turbulence model and rotationally sampled winds as inputs. The latter is demonstrated to have the potential to improve the test/analysis correlations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the importance of vortex generators, site dependence, and machine differences on fatigue loads. The adequacy of prediction techniques used are evaluated and recommendations are made for improvements to the methodology.
1982-06-01
Research Product 82-6 Intelligence Aid for Evaluating Enemy Courses of Action (ENCOA): Guide for Manual and HP41-CIHP41-CV Calculator Procedures...NUMBER 2.GOVT A CEiN No. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Research Product 82-06 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intelligence ...necesarmy mid identity by block number) * intelligence analysis aid multiattribute-utility analysis decision-making aid * HP4l-C/HP41-CV calculator IM
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters (400 feet) on a... location and must be positioned at a height between 1.2 and 1.5 meters (4 and 5 feet) above the ground....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters (400 feet) on a... location and must be positioned at a height between 1.2 and 1.5 meters (4 and 5 feet) above the ground....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters (400 feet) on a... location and must be positioned at a height between 1.2 and 1.5 meters (4 and 5 feet) above the ground....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
César Ricci, Mário
2015-10-01
In a companion paper of this was introduced a set of non-linear algebraic equations for ball's motion, sliding friction and internal loading distribution computation in a high-speed, single-row, angular-contact ball bearing, subjected to a known combined radial, thrust and moment load, which must be applied to the inner ring's center of mass. It was shown there that it is required the iterative solution of 9Z + 3 simultaneous non-linear equations - where Z is the number of balls - to yield exact solution for contact angles, ball attitude angles, rolling radii, normal contact deformations and axial, radial, and angular deflections of the inner ring with respect the outer ring. The Newton-Rhapson method is to be used to solve the problem. This paper deals with the numerical procedure description. The numerical results derived from the described procedure shall be published later.
Sienicki, J.J.
1997-06-01
A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. Flashing from coolant release, condensation heat transfer, intercompartment transport, and engineered safety features are described using best estimate models and correlations often based upon experiment analyses. Two notable capabilities of PACER that differ from most other containment loads codes are the modeling of the rates of steam and water formation accompanying coolant release as well as the correlations for steam condensation upon structure.
Métadier, M; Bertrand-Krajewski, J-L
2011-01-01
With the increasing implementation of continuous monitoring of both discharge and water quality in sewer systems, large data bases are now available. In order to manage large amounts of data and calculate various variables and indicators of interest it is necessary to apply automated methods for data processing. This paper deals with the processing of short time step turbidity time series to estimate TSS (Total Suspended Solids) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) event loads in sewer systems during storm events and their associated uncertainties. The following steps are described: (i) sensor calibration, (ii) estimation of data uncertainties, (iii) correction of raw data, (iv) data pre-validation tests, (v) final validation, and (vi) calculation of TSS and COD event loads and estimation of their uncertainties. These steps have been implemented in an integrated software tool. Examples of results are given for a set of 33 storm events monitored in a stormwater separate sewer system.
Dunn, W.N.
1994-07-01
LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platt, Robert C
1936-01-01
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...
Felice, Pietro; Pistilli, Roberto; Piattelli, Maurizio; Soardi, Elisa; Barausse, Carlo; Esposito, Marco
2014-01-01
To compare the efficacy of 1-stage versus 2-stage lateral maxillary sinus lift procedures. Sixty partially edentulous patients requiring 1 to 3 implants and having 1 to 3 mm of residual bone height and at least 5 mm bone width below the maxillary sinus, as measured on CT scans were selected. They were randomised according to a parallel group study design into two equal arms to receive either a 1-stage lateral window sinus lift with simultaneous implant placement or a 2-stage procedure with implant placement delayed by 4 months, using a bone substitute in three different centres. Implants were submerged for 4 months, loaded with reinforced provisional prostheses, which were replaced, after 4 months, by definitive prostheses. Outcome measures, assessed by masked assessors, were: augmentation procedure failures; prosthesis failures and implant failures; complications; and marginal peri-implant bone level changes. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Only data of implants placed in 1 to 3 mm of bone height were reported. Two patients dropped out from the 1-stage group and none from the 2-stage group. No sinus lift procedure failed in the 1-stage group but one failed in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 1.00). Two prostheses failed or could not be placed in the planned time in the 1-stage group and one in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.51). Three implants failed in three patients of the 1-stage group, versus one implant in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Two complications occurred in the 1-stage group and one in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.61). One year after loading, 1-stage treated patients lost an average of -1.01 mm (SD: 0.56) of peri-implant bone and 2-stage sites about -0.93 mm (SD: 0.40). There were no statistically significant differences in bone level change
Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, H Julian
1938-01-01
A method is presented for the rapid calculation of the incremental chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil section due to the deflection of a plain flap or tab, a split flap, or a serially hinged flap. This report is intended as a supplement to NACA Report no. 631, wherein a method is presented for the calculation of the chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil without a flap or, as it may be considered, an airfoil with flap (or flaps) neutral. The method enables the determination of the form and magnitude of the incremental normal-force distribution to be made for an airfoil-flap combination for which the section characteristics have been determined. A method is included for the calculation of the flap normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients without necessitating a determination of the normal-force distribution.
Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.
1995-01-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110
Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.
1983-05-01
A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.
1983-01-01
A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mullen, I. C.; Wilkinson, K. E.; Cresswell, R. G.; Kellett, J.
2007-05-01
Salt is widespread in the Australian landscape - in soil, regolith and groundwater - leading to concerns that land management practices may be putting much agricultural land and important water resources at risk of salinisation. Defining the location and nature of salt stores is an important first step in understanding the processes leading to salinity of soils, streams and groundwater resources, and predicting areas that may be at risk. Airborne geophysics can define subsurface salt stores and mobilisation pathways. Airborne electromagnetics (AEM) can map the three-dimensional conductivity structure of the landscape but does not, intrinsically, quantify the amount of salt. Salinity, moisture content, porosity and mineralogy all contribute to the electromagnetic signal, and each can vary significantly throughout the landscape. In the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland, the relationship between AEM and the amount of salt in the landscape was quantified using laboratory analyses of pore fluids from core samples. A general statistical relationship was established between AEM conductivity and salt load (defined as the product of pore fluid salinity, porosity and moisture content)—with a significant positive correlation although data were generally widely dispersed. Comparison of calculated salt load with borehole electromagnetic logs gives insight into the factors contributing to dispersion in the AEM data. The relationship transforms bulk conductivity to salt load in 5 m layers, allowing the generation of a three-dimensional map of the salt load. This is a powerful tool for identifying areas that may require monitoring and management interventions to reduce salinity risk. An example is given of salt loads beneath an established irrigation area in the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland.
Felice, Pietro; Pistilli, Roberto; Piattelli, Maurizio; Soardi, Elisa; Pellegrino, Gerardo; Corvino, Valeria; Esposito, Marco
2013-01-01
To compare the efficacy of 1-stage versus 2-stage lateral maxillary sinus lift procedures. Sixty partially edentulous patients requiring 1 to 3 implants and having 1 to 3 mm of residual bone height and at least 5 mm of bone width below the maxillary sinus, as measured on CT scans, were randomised into two equal groups to receive either a 1-stage lateral window sinus lift with simultaneous implant placement or a 2-stage procedure with implant placement delayed by 4 months using a bone substitute in 3 different centres. Implants were submerged for 4 months and loaded with reinforced provisional prostheses, which were replaced, after 4 months, by definitive prostheses. Outcome measures were augmentation procedure failures, prosthesis failures, implant failures, complications and marginal peri-implant bone loss assessed by a blinded outcome assessor. Patients were followed up to 4 months after loading. Only data of implants placed in 1 to 3 mm of bone height were reported. Two patients dropped out from the 1-stage group and none from the 2-stage group. No sinus lift procedure failed in the 1-stage group but 1 failed in the 2-stage group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 1.00). Two prostheses failed or could not be placed in the planned time in the 1-stage group and 1 in the 2-stage group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.51). Three implants failed in 3 patients of the 1-stage group versus 1 implant in the 2-stage group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Two complications occurred in the 1-stage group and 1 in the 2-stage group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.61). There were no statistically significant differences in bone loss between groups at loading (0.05 mm). Sites treated in 1 stage lost an average of 0.56 mm (SD: 0.36; 95% CI: -0.70 to -0.42; P < 0.001) of peri-implant bone and 2-stage sites approximately 0.61 mm (SD: 0.34; 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.48; P < 0.001). No
Dunn, W.N.
1998-03-01
LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marius Andrei, Mihalache; Gheorghe, Nagit; Gavril, Musca; Vasile, Merticaru, Jr.; Marius Ionut, Ripanu
2016-11-01
In the present study the authors propose a new algorithm for identifying the right loads that act upon a functional connecting rod during a full engine cycle. The loads are then divided into three categories depending on the results they produce, as static, semi-dynamic and dynamic ones Because an engine cycle extends up to 720°, the authors aim to identify a method of substitution of values that produce the same effect as a previous value of a considered angle did. In other words, the proposed method aims to pin point the critical values that produce an effect different as the one seen before during a full engine cycle. Only those values will then be considered as valid loads that act upon the connecting rod inside FEA analyses. This technique has been applied to each of the three categories mentioned above and did produced different critical values for each one of them. The whole study relies on a theoretical mechanical project which was developed in order to identify the right values that correspond to each degree of the entire engine cycle of a Daewoo Tico automobile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-01
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-15
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ona-Ruales, Jorge Oswaldo; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara
2017-06-01
Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S semiempirical calculations have been used for the calculation of the locations of maximum absorbance (LMA) of the Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) of 31 C_{34}H_{16} PAHs (molecular mass 424 Da) with unknown protocols of synthesis. The presence of benzo[a]pyrene bay-like regions and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene fjord-like regions in several of the structures that could be linked to an enhancement of the biological behavior and carcinogenic activity stresses the importance of C_{34}H_{16} PAHs in fields like molecular biology and cancer research. In addition, the occurrence of large PAHs in oil asphaltenes exemplifies the importance of these calculations for the characterization of complex systems. The C_{34}H_{16} PAH group is the largest molecular mass group of organic compounds analyzed so far following the Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S methodology. Future analysis using the same approach will provide evidence regarding the LMA of other high molecular mass PAHs.
Rana, V K; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D R
2016-09-01
Neurovascular interventional procedures using biplane fluoroscopic imaging systems can lead to increased risk of radiation-induced skin injuries. The authors developed a biplane dose tracking system (Biplane-DTS) to calculate the cumulative skin dose distribution from the frontal and lateral x-ray tubes and display it in real-time as a color-coded map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the physician. The agreement of the calculated values with the dose measured on phantoms was evaluated. The Biplane-DTS consists of multiple components including 3D graphic models of the imaging system and patient, an interactive graphical user interface, a data acquisition module to collect geometry and exposure parameters, the computer graphics processing unit, and functions for determining which parts of the patient graphic skin surface are within the beam and for calculating dose. The dose is calculated to individual points on the patient graphic using premeasured calibration files of entrance skin dose per mAs including backscatter; corrections are applied for field area, distance from the focal spot and patient table and pad attenuation when appropriate. The agreement of the calculated patient skin dose and its spatial distribution with measured values was evaluated in 2D and 3D for simulated procedure conditions using a PMMA block phantom and an SK-150 head phantom, respectively. Dose values calculated by the Biplane-DTS were compared to the measurements made on the phantom surface with radiochromic film and a calibrated ionization chamber, which was also used to calibrate the DTS. The agreement with measurements was specifically evaluated with variation in kVp, gantry angle, and field size. The dose tracking system that was developed is able to acquire data from the two x-ray gantries on a biplane imaging system and calculate the skin dose for each exposure pulse to those vertices of a patient graphic that are determined to be in the beam. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Trifonov, N. N.
2008-02-01
A procedure is proposed for calculating the swelling of the level of water on the saturation line when an abrupt drop of pressure occurs. A calculated study of the swelling of water level is carried out for different designs of direct-contact heaters. A comparison between the calculated and experimental data is given. The procedure can be used for calculating the swelling of water level in the apparatuses of turbine units at thermal and nuclear power stations and at boiler houses.
Wemple, C. A.; Schnitzler, B. G.
1995-04-01
The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a world-class research reactor and experimental center for neutron research, presently being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reactor consists of a 330-MW(f) highly enriched uranium core, which is cooled, moderated, and reflected with heavy water. When completed, it will be the preeminent ultrahigh neutron flux reactor in the world, with facilities for research programs in biology, materials science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, and analytical chemistry. Irradiation facilities are provided for a variety of isotope production capabilities, as well as materials irradiation. The ANS reactor design, at the time of this report, has completed the conceptual design phase and entered the advanced conceptual design phase. This report is part of an effort to fully document the analysis methods and results for the conceptual design. It details the methods used to perform heat load calculations on the ANS reactor design, describes the model used, and gives the resulting heat loads in all components of the reactor, in both a differential (by segment) and integral (by component) fashion. These heat load data are provided at three times within the ANS fuel cycle - at beginning (0 days), middle (8.5 days), and end (17 days) of cycle. The remainder of the report is dedicated to this description. In Chapter 2, some necessary background on the reactor design is provided. Chapters 3 and 4 give details of the depletion methods used and revisions to previous MCNP models. Chapter 5 analyzes the results of these calculations, and Chapter 6 provides a summary and conclusions.
Kraft, M; Rauchfuss, K; Sievering, S; Wöckner, M; Neugebauer, F; Fromme, H
2017-03-01
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a substance group of 209 theoretically possible compounds. The human body burden of PCBs is commonly calculated based on so-called indicator congeners such as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180, which are analyzed in human blood. The German "Human Biomonitoring (HBM) Commission" assumes that the sum of these indicator congeners multiplied by a factor of 2 represents the total PCB burden. This norm is based on data obtained from exposure studies after dietary intake. Data from indoor air shows a different congener pattern, which might lead to a relatively higher intake of lower chlorinated PCBs by inhalation. In two independent studies with adult participants from two regions in Germany, we measured all 209 PCB congeners in 44 whole blood and 42 plasma samples. Participants from the whole blood study group had additional exposure to PCBs via indoor air. With our analytical method, 141 individual PCB congeners, 27 coeluted pairs of PCB congeners and 2 records of 3 and 4 coeluted PCBs could be determined. Thus, 172 analysis results were reported per sample. In the whole blood samples, 50 congeners showed values below the limit of quantification (LOQ), whereas 94 congeners could not be detected in any of plasma samples. Total PCB concentrations (Σ 209 PCB congeners, incl. ½ LOQ) in the whole blood samples ranged from 99 to 2152ng PCB/g lipid (Median: 454ng/g lipid; 95th Percentile: 1404ng/g lipid). The sum of all 209 measured PCB (incl. ½ LOQ) in plasma samples showed levels between 52 and 933ng PCB/g lipid (Median: 226ng/g lipid; 95th Percentile: 642ng/g lipid). Our results show that the burden of PCBs on the human body is caused mainly by the three highly chlorinated indicator congeners PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. In median approximately 50% of the total PCB content in human whole blood or plasma samples can be attributed to these congeners. Total PCB, calculated by multiplying the sum of the three indicator congeners by 2, showed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tari, H.; Scheidler, J. J.; Dapino, M. J.
2015-06-01
A reformulation of the Discrete Energy-Averaged model for the calculation of 3D hysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of iron-gallium (Galfenol) alloys is presented in this paper. An analytical solution procedure based on an eigenvalue decomposition is developed. This procedure avoids the singularities present in the existing approximate solution by offering multiple local minimum energy directions for each easy crystallographic direction. This improved robustness is crucial for use in finite element codes. Analytical simplifications of the 3D model to 2D and 1D applications are also presented. In particular, the 1D model requires calculation for only one easy direction, while all six easy directions must be considered for general applications. Compared to the approximate solution procedure, it is shown that the resulting robustness comes at no expense for 1D applications, but requires almost twice the computational effort for 3D applications. To find model parameters, we employ the average of the hysteretic data, rather than anhysteretic curves, which would require additional measurements. An efficient optimization routine is developed that retains the dimensionality of the prior art. The routine decouples the parameters into exclusive sets, some of which are found directly through a fast preprocessing step to improve accuracy and computational efficiency. The effectiveness of the model is verified by comparison with existing measurement data.
Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James; Rodriguez, Mark A.
2015-07-01
Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.
Taffe, Michael A.; Taffe, William J.
2011-01-01
Several nonhuman primate species have been reported to employ a distance-minimizing, traveling salesman-like, strategy during foraging as well as in experimental spatial search tasks involving lesser amounts of locomotion. Spatial sequencing may optimize performance by reducing reference or episodic memory loads, locomotor costs, competition or other demands. A computerized self-ordered spatial search (SOSS) memory task has been adapted from a human neuropsychological testing battery (CANTAB, Cambridge Cognition, Ltd) for use in monkeys. Accurate completion of a trial requires sequential responses to colored boxes in two or more spatial locations without repetition of a previous location. Marmosets have been reported to employ a circling pattern of search, suggesting spontaneous adoption of a strategy to reduce working memory load. In this study the SOSS performance of rhesus monkeys was assessed to determine if the use of a distance-minimizing search path enhances accuracy. A novel strategy score, independent of the trial difficulty and arrangement of boxes, has been devised. Analysis of the performance of 21 monkeys trained on SOSS over two years shows that a distance-minimizing search strategy is associated with improved accuracy. This effect is observed within individuals as they improve over many cumulative sessions of training on the task and across individuals at any given level of training. Erroneous trials were associated with a failure to deploy the strategy. It is concluded that the effect of utilizing the strategy on this locomotion-free, laboratory task is to enhance accuracy by reducing demands on spatial working memory resources. PMID:21840507
Taffe, Michael A; Taffe, William J
2011-09-21
Several nonhuman primate species have been reported to employ a distance-minimizing, traveling salesman-like, strategy during foraging as well as in experimental spatial search tasks involving lesser amounts of locomotion. Spatial sequencing may optimize performance by reducing reference or episodic memory loads, locomotor costs, competition or other demands. A computerized self-ordered spatial search (SOSS) memory task has been adapted from a human neuropsychological testing battery (CANTAB, Cambridge Cognition, Ltd) for use in monkeys. Accurate completion of a trial requires sequential responses to colored boxes in two or more spatial locations without repetition of a previous location. Marmosets have been reported to employ a circling pattern of search, suggesting spontaneous adoption of a strategy to reduce working memory load. In this study the SOSS performance of rhesus monkeys was assessed to determine if the use of a distance-minimizing search path enhances accuracy. A novel strategy score, independent of the trial difficulty and arrangement of boxes, has been devised. Analysis of the performance of 21 monkeys trained on SOSS over 2 years shows that a distance-minimizing search strategy is associated with improved accuracy. This effect is observed within individuals as they improve over many cumulative sessions of training on the task and across individuals at any given level of training. Erroneous trials were associated with a failure to deploy the strategy. It is concluded that the effect of utilizing the strategy on this locomotion-free, laboratory task is to enhance accuracy by reducing demands on spatial working memory resources.
Cook, Troy A.
2013-01-01
Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in ~ 10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in π10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
Moura, Gustavo L C; Simas, Alfredo M
2012-04-05
In this article, we advance the foundations of a strategy to develop a molecular mechanics method based not on classical mechanics and force fields but entirely on quantum mechanics and localized electron-pair orbitals, which we call quantum molecular mechanics (QMM). Accordingly, we introduce a new manner of calculating Hartree-Fock ab initio wavefunctions of closed shell systems based on variationally preoptimized nonorthogonal electron pair orbitals constructed by linear combinations of basis functions centered on the atoms. QMM is noniterative and requires only one extremely fast inversion of a single sparse matrix to arrive to the one-particle density matrix, to the electron density, and consequently, to the ab initio electrostatic potential around the molecular system, or cluster of molecules. Although QMM neglects the smaller polarization effects due to intermolecular interactions, it fully takes into consideration polarization effects due to the much stronger intramolecular geometry distortions. For the case of methane, we show that QMM was able to reproduce satisfactorily the energetics and polarization effects of all distortions of the molecule along the nine normal modes of vibration, well beyond the harmonic region. We present the first practical applications of the QMM method by examining, in detail, the cases of clusters of helium atoms, hydrogen molecules, methane molecules, as well as one molecule of HeH(+) surrounded by several methane molecules. We finally advance and discuss the potentialities of an exact formula to compute the QMM total energy, in which only two center integrals are involved, provided that the fully optimized electron-pair orbitals are known.
Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.
1983-05-01
The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael
2014-05-01
The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International
Heyman, Gene M.; Grisanzio, Katherine A.; Liang, Victor
2016-01-01
We tested whether principles that describe the allocation of overt behavior, as in choice experiments, also describe the allocation of cognition, as in attention experiments. Our procedure is a cognitive version of the “two-armed bandit choice procedure.” The two-armed bandit procedure has been of interest to psychologistsand economists because it tends to support patterns of responding that are suboptimal. Each of two alternatives provides rewards according to fixed probabilities. The optimal solution is to choose the alternative with the higher probability of reward on each trial. However, subjects often allocate responses so that the probability of a response approximates its probability of reward. Although it is this result which has attracted most interest, probability matching is not always observed. As a function of monetary incentives, practice, and individual differences, subjects tend to deviate from probability matching toward exclusive preference, as predicted by maximizing. In our version of the two-armed bandit procedure, the monitor briefly displayed two, small adjacent stimuli that predicted correct responses according to fixed probabilities, as in a two-armed bandit procedure. We show that in this setting, a simple linear equation describes the relationship between attention and correct responses, and that the equation’s solution is the allocation of attention between the two stimuli. The calculations showed that attention allocation varied as a function of the degree to which the stimuli predicted correct responses. Linear regression revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the predictiveness of a stimulus and the probability of attending to it. Nevertheless there were deviations from probability matching, and although small, they were systematic and statistically significant. As in choice studies, attention allocation deviated toward maximizing as a function of practice, feedback, and incentives. Our approach also predicts the
Rana, V. K.; Rudin, S.; Bednarek, D. R.
2016-01-01
Purpose: Neurovascular interventional procedures using biplane fluoroscopic imaging systems can lead to increased risk of radiation-induced skin injuries. The authors developed a biplane dose tracking system (Biplane-DTS) to calculate the cumulative skin dose distribution from the frontal and lateral x-ray tubes and display it in real-time as a color-coded map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the physician. The agreement of the calculated values with the dose measured on phantoms was evaluated. Methods: The Biplane-DTS consists of multiple components including 3D graphic models of the imaging system and patient, an interactive graphical user interface, a data acquisition module to collect geometry and exposure parameters, the computer graphics processing unit, and functions for determining which parts of the patient graphic skin surface are within the beam and for calculating dose. The dose is calculated to individual points on the patient graphic using premeasured calibration files of entrance skin dose per mAs including backscatter; corrections are applied for field area, distance from the focal spot and patient table and pad attenuation when appropriate. The agreement of the calculated patient skin dose and its spatial distribution with measured values was evaluated in 2D and 3D for simulated procedure conditions using a PMMA block phantom and an SK-150 head phantom, respectively. Dose values calculated by the Biplane-DTS were compared to the measurements made on the phantom surface with radiochromic film and a calibrated ionization chamber, which was also used to calibrate the DTS. The agreement with measurements was specifically evaluated with variation in kVp, gantry angle, and field size. Results: The dose tracking system that was developed is able to acquire data from the two x-ray gantries on a biplane imaging system and calculate the skin dose for each exposure pulse to those vertices of a patient graphic that are determined to be
Vásquez, M; Scheraga, H A
1988-02-01
An implementation of the variable-target-function procedure, first introduced by Braun and Go [W. Braun and N. Go, J. Mol. Biol. 186, 611-626 (1985)], has been used to generate conformations of the small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), given a limited set of simulated data that could be obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A hybrid strategy was also used to calculate conformations of BPTI, given the same information. In the hybrid strategy, low-energy structures of medium-size fragments (decapeptides) of BPTI were generated using the variable-target-function method, followed by restrained energy optimization. The low-energy conformations were used as a basis to build up the complete fifty-eight-residue BPTI molecule. By using the variable-target-function approach, in which energy considerations were not introduced until full conformations of the entire BPTI molecule had been generated, it was not possible to obtain calculated structures with rms deviations from the X-ray conformation of less than 1.6 A for the alpha-carbons. On the other hand, with the hybrid strategy, which involved the consideration of realistic energy terms in the early stages of the calculations, it was possible to calculate low-energy conformations of BPTI with rms deviations from the X-ray structure of 1.06 to 1.50 A for the alpha-carbons. When the rms deviations were computed along the amino acid sequence, it was found that there was a good correlation between deviations among the calculated structures and deviations from the X-ray structure.
Use of quadratic components for buckling calculations
Dohrmann, C.R.; Segalman, D.J.
1996-12-31
A buckling calculation procedure based on the method of quadratic components is presented. Recently developed for simulating the motion of rotating flexible structures, the method of quadratic components is shown to be applicable to buckling problems with either conservative or nonconservative loads. For conservative loads, stability follows from the positive definiteness of the system`s stiffness matrix. For nonconservative loads, stability is determined by solving a nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, which depends on both the stiffness and mass distribution of the system. Buckling calculations presented for a cantilevered beam are shown to compare favorably with classical results. Although the example problem is fairly simple and well-understood, the procedure can be used in conjunction with a general-purpose finite element code for buckling calculations of more complex systems.
Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different
PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING CESSATION LAG
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is implemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a considerable period of time. The t...
Procedures for Calculating Cessation Lag
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is inplemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a consideravle period of time. The ...
PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING CESSATION LAG
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is implemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a considerable period of time. The t...
Procedures for Calculating Cessation Lag
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is inplemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a consideravle period of time. The ...
Rana, Vijay K; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R
2013-03-06
We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) to manage the risk of deterministic skin effects to the patient during fluoroscopic image-guided interventional cardiac procedures. The DTS calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba C-arm unit and displays the cumulative dose values as a color map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Several recent updates have been made to the software to improve its function and performance. Whereas the older system needed manual input of pulse rate for dose-rate calculation and used the CPU clock with its potential latency to monitor exposure duration, each x-ray pulse is now individually processed to determine the skin-dose increment and to automatically measure the pulse rate. We also added a correction for the table pad which was found to reduce the beam intensity to the patient for under-table projections by an additional 5-12% over that of the table alone at 80 kVp for the x-ray filters on the Toshiba system. Furthermore, mismatch between the DTS graphic and the patient skin can result in inaccuracies in dose calculation because of inaccurate inverse-square-distance calculation. Therefore, a means for quantitative adjustment of the patient-graphic-model position and a parameterized patient-graphic library have been developed to allow the graphic to more closely match the patient. These changes provide more accurate estimation of the skin-dose which is critical for managing patient radiation risk.
Rana, Vijay K.; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2013-01-01
We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) to manage the risk of deterministic skin effects to the patient during fluoroscopic image-guided interventional cardiac procedures. The DTS calculates the radiation dose to the patient’s skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba C-arm unit and displays the cumulative dose values as a color map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Several recent updates have been made to the software to improve its function and performance. Whereas the older system needed manual input of pulse rate for dose-rate calculation and used the CPU clock with its potential latency to monitor exposure duration, each x-ray pulse is now individually processed to determine the skin-dose increment and to automatically measure the pulse rate. We also added a correction for the table pad which was found to reduce the beam intensity to the patient for under-table projections by an additional 5–12% over that of the table alone at 80 kVp for the x-ray filters on the Toshiba system. Furthermore, mismatch between the DTS graphic and the patient skin can result in inaccuracies in dose calculation because of inaccurate inverse-square-distance calculation. Therefore, a means for quantitative adjustment of the patient-graphic-model position and a parameterized patient-graphic library have been developed to allow the graphic to more closely match the patient. These changes provide more accurate estimation of the skin-dose which is critical for managing patient radiation risk. PMID:24817801
40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...
40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...
40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...
Pressure vessel calculations for VVER-440 reactors.
Hordósy, G; Hegyi, Gy; Keresztúri, A; Maráczy, Cs; Temesvári, E; Vértes, P; Zsolnay, E
2005-01-01
For the determination of the fast neutron load of the reactor pressure vessel a mixed calculational procedure was developed. The procedure was applied to the Unit II of Paks NPP, Hungary. The neutron source on the outer surfaces of the reactor was determined by a core design code, and the neutron transport calculations outside the core were performed by the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The reaction rate in the activation detectors at surveillance positions and at the cavity were calculated and compared with measurements. In most cases, fairly good agreement was found.
1980-11-01
nomograms, and a programmable calculator . Appendices present worksheets, example problems, procedures for determining meteorological inputs, a procedure for determining evaporative source strength, and other items.
Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G
2014-06-01
Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)
Rogatkin, D A
2007-01-01
The goal of this work is to discuss the problems of accuracy and reliability of the procedure for determination of optical per-unit-length properties of light-scattering biological tissues and media in medical noninvasive spectrophotometry. The determination procedure is based on the two-flux Kubelka-Munk approach. A simple one-dimensional model problem is formulated. The accurate solution of this problem is compared to its solution based on the Kubelka-Munk approach in various approximations. It is shown that in the general case of light-scattering and absorbing medium use of two independent transport coefficients (for scattering and absorption processes), as suggested in the conventional Kubelka-Munk approach, leads to errors of direct calculation of properties of backscattered and transmitted radiation in biological tissues. More valid and accurate expressions for transport coefficients can be obtained on the basis of a particular solution of the problem for a surface element of the model medium with known photometrical properties. This method makes it possible to determine accurately the radiation flux at the external boundary of the medium using the Kubelka-Munk approach. It is expected that solution of the inverse problem would make it possible to reconstruct accurately the optical properties of biological tissues from the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucatto, Bruno; Assali, Lucy V. C.; Pela, Ronaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.
2017-08-01
A major challenge in creating a quantum computer is to find a quantum system that can be used to implement the qubits. For this purpose, deep centers are prominent candidates, and ab initio calculations are one of the most important tools to theoretically study their properties. However, these calculations are highly involved, due to the large supercell needed, and the computational cost can be even larger when one goes beyond the Kohn-Sham scheme to correct the band gap problem and achieve good accuracy. In this work, we present a method that overcomes these problems and provides the optical transition energies as a difference of Kohn-Sham eigenvalues; even more, provides a complete and accurate band structure of the defects in a semiconductor. Despite the original motivations, the presented methodology is a general procedure, which can be used to systematically study the optical transitions between localized levels within the band gap of any system. The method is an extension of the low-cost and parameter-free DFT-1/2 approximate quasiparticle correction, and allows it to be applied in the study of complex defects. As a benchmark, we apply the method to the NV- center in diamond. The agreement with experiments is remarkable, with an accuracy of 0.1 eV. The band structure agrees with the expected qualitative features of this system, and thus provides a good intuitive physical picture by itself.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.
2009-03-01
This paper presents a new method for modelling floating-slab tracks with discontinuous slabs in underground railway tunnels. The track is subjected to a harmonic load moving with a constant velocity. The model consists of two sub-models. The first is an infinite track with periodic double-beam unit formulated as a periodic infinite structure. The second is modelled with a new version of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model that accounts for a tunnel wall embedded in a half-space. The two sub-models are coupled by writing the force transmitted from the track to the tunnel as a continuous function using Fourier series representation and satisfying the compatibility condition. The displacements at the free surface are calculated for a track with discontinuous slab and compared with those of a track with continuous slab. The results show that the far-field vibration can be significantly increased due to resonance frequencies of slabs for tracks with discontinuous slabs.
Gardner, Ron
2012-04-01
This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning
Noguchi, Kyotaro; Tanikawa, Toko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ishizuka, Shigehiro
2017-06-01
Several recent studies have used the net sheet method to estimate fine root production rates in forest ecosystems, wherein net sheets are inserted into the soil and fine roots growing through them are observed. Although this method has advantages in terms of its easy handling and low cost, there are uncertainties in the estimates per unit soil volume or unit stand area, because the net sheet is a two-dimensional material. Therefore, this study aimed to establish calculation procedures for estimating fine root production rates from two-dimensional fine root data on net sheets. This study was conducted in a hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl.) stand in western Japan. We estimated fine root production rates in length and volume from the number (RN) and cross-sectional area (RCSA) densities, respectively, for fine roots crossing the net sheets, which were then converted to dry mass values. For these calculations, we used empirical regression equations or theoretical equations between the RN or RCSA densities on the vertical walls of soil pits and fine root densities in length or volume, respectively, in the soil, wherein the theoretical equations assumed random orientation of the growing fine roots. The estimates of mean fine root (diameter <1 mm) production rates were ∼80-100 g m-2 year-1 using the empirically obtained regression equations, whereas those from the theoretical equations were ∼40-50 g m-2 year-1. The difference in the estimates was attributed to larger slope values of the empirical regression equations than those of the theoretical equations, suggesting that fine root orientation was not random in our study site. In light of these results, we concluded that fine root production rates were successfully estimated from two-dimensional fine root data on the net sheets using these calculation procedures, with the empirical regression equations reflecting fine root orientation in the study site. © The Author 2017. Published by
Esquivel, C; Patton, L; Nelson, K; Lin, B
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of the tandem loading in the treatment of cervical cancer for HDR brachytherapy procedures. Methods: Ten patients were evaluated, each of whom received 5 fractions of treatment. Tandem and ovoid sets were inserted into the uterine cavity based on institutional protocols and procedures. Following insertion and stabilization, CT image sets of 1.5mm slice thickness were acquired and sent to the Oncentra V4.3 Treatment Planning System. Critical structures such as the CTV, bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and bowel were contoured and a fractional dose of 5.5Gy was prescribed to Point A for each patient. Six different treatment plans were created for each fraction using varying tandem weightings; from 0.5 to 1.4 times that of the ovoids. Surface dose evaluation of various ovoid diameters, 2.0-3.5cm, at the vaginal fornices was also investigated. Results: Critical structures were evaluated based on varying dose and volume constraints, in particular the 2.0 cc volume recommendation cited by the gynecological GEC-ESTRO working group. Based on dose volume histogram evaluation, a reduction of dose to the critical structures was most often discovered when the tandem weighting was increased. CTV coverage showed little change as the tandem weighting was varied. Ovoid surface dose decreased by 50-65% as the tandem weighting increased. Conclusion: The advantage of 3D planning with HDR brachytherapy is the dose optimization for each individual treatment plan. This investigation shows that by utilizing large tandem weightings, 1.4 times greater than the ovoid, one can still achieve adequate coverage of the CTV and relatively low doses to the critical structures. In some cases, one would still have to optimize further per individual case. In addition, the ovoid surface dose was greatly decreased when large tandem weighting was utilized; especially for small ovoid diameters.
Characterizing the uncertainty in holddown post load measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, J. A.; Townsend, J. S.
1993-01-01
In order to understand unexpectedly erratic load measurements in the launch-pad supports for the space shuttle, the sensitivities of the load cells in the supports were analyzed using simple probabilistic techniques. NASA engineers use the loads in the shuttle's supports to calculate critical stresses in the shuttle vehicle just before lift-off. The support loads are measured with 'load cells' which are actually structural components of the mobile launch platform which have been instrumented with strain gauges. Although these load cells adequately measure vertical loads, the horizontal load measurements have been erratic. The load measurements were simulated in this study using Monte Carlo simulation procedures. The simulation studies showed that the support loads are sensitive to small deviations in strain and calibration. In their current configuration, the load cells will not measure loads with sufficient accuracy to reliably calculate stresses in the shuttle vehicle. A simplified model of the holddown post (HDP) load measurement system was used to study the effect on load measurement accuracy for several factors, including load point deviations, gauge heights, and HDP geometry.
Keul, Christine; Köhler, Patrick; Hampe, Rüdiger; Roos, Malgorzata; Stawarczyk, Bogna
Pull-out testing was used to determine the tensile load (TL) and tensile strength (TS) of five different fiber post systems bonded to human intracanal dentin. 120 caries-free premolars, canines, and maxillary central incisors were divided into 5 different groups for 5 fiber post systems (n = 24): 1. RelyX Fiber Post 3D (RX3D); 2. RelyX Fiber Post (RX); 3. Luxa- Post (LP); 4. FibreKleer 4X Tapered Post (FK); 5. ParaPost Taper Lux (PP). The teeth were prepared and posts inserted. Core buildups were performed with the corresponding product's resin composite. All specimens were stored in water for 24 h at 37°C. TL and TS were tested on half of the specimens (n = 12/group). The remaining samples were thermocycled (10,000 x 5°C/55°C) before testing. TL was directly measured and TS was calculated using the bonding surface. Failure modes were identified using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using twoway ANOVA with the post-hoc Scheffé test, as well as the chi-squared test (p < 0.05). FK and LP resulted in the lowest mean TL but were not significantly different from those of RX and RX3D. The highest mean TL and TS were observed for PP. Nevertheless, PP fell within the same statistical subset as RX3D and RX. Thermocycling showed no impact on the results. RX3D predominantly showed debonding of the post plus core buildup from the tooth; all other systems mainly demonstrated detachment of the core from the posts. PP, RX, and RX3D together with an adhesive core buildup yielded the highest bond strength to human dentin. Parameters TL and TS showed the same tendencies and statistical evidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcipiani, Biagio; Pedretti, Edmondo
1980-07-01
This paper reports on a procedure to correct for the detector efficiency and radiation self-absorption the number of counts tallied when the activity of a gamma-emitting thick foil is measured by means of a sodium iodide crystal. A model is set up whereby, after ideally dividing the disk into a large number of slices, it is shown how to separate for each slice the role of radiation detection from that of the absorption in the material between the slice and the crystal. While the former is accounted for by using an available Monte Carlo code, the latter is reduced to the calculation of suitable geometrical factors. Formulas for these factors are derived and were coded for an electronic computer. The Fortran IV program is available. Numerical results of the geometrical factors are shown for a 14 mm radius and 2.07 mm thick indium foil irradiated in a plasma focus machine, and these are compared with those obtained by a crude approximation reported elsewhere.
Piano, Sergio; Romeo, Eugenio; Sbricoli, Luca; Pisoni, Gianluca; Cea, Niccoló; Lops, Diego
2016-12-01
The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of a system for the fixed retention of complete maxillary prostheses supported by four implants with a follow-up of 2 years. Patients were treated between September 2009 and December 2010 with four Straumann Bone Level SLActive implants supporting a complete prosthesis (CPs). The two distal implants were positioned mesially to the maxillary sinus and with a mesio-distal inclination ≤ 30° in order to reduce the distal prosthesis cantilever. An immediate loading surgical protocol was used. The CPs were planned to be fixed to multibase abutments to test their retention for a fixed rehabilitation. Clinical and radiographic parameters as probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding score (mBI), plaque index (PI), and marginal bone loss (MBL) were assessed at a 1- and 2-year follow-up visits. Moreover, any biological and prosthodontic maintenance events were recorded. Clinical and radiographic parameters changes were analyzed. Twenty-one patients treated with a total of 84 implants completed the 2-year examination period. Four patients were lost to follow up. No technical complication was recorded. Also, no implant, reconstruction, or abutment failures were observed. Therefore, an implant and prosthetic survival rate of 100% were achieved after 2 years. The mean periodontal parameter scores after 2 years of function were 2.6 mm for PPD (SD 0.8 mm), 0.3 for mBI (SD 0.5 mm), and 1.2 for PI (SD 0.4 mm) indexes, respectively. In addition, the mean MBL score measured at the 2-year follow-up visit was -0.34 mm (SD of -0.45 mm). Furthermore, no peri-implant soft tissue inflammation or peri-implant infection was observed. It has been shown that immediate loading of four implants positioned anteriorly to the maxillary sinus could be a reliable treatment procedure to support fixed complete restorations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shope, Christopher L.; Angeroth, Cory E.
2015-01-01
Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s.We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates,we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.
Shope, Christopher L; Angeroth, Cory E
2015-12-01
Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s. We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates, we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.
Smith, Rachael A; Warne, Michael St J; Mengersen, Kerrie; Turner, Ryan Dr
2016-10-24
Pollutant loads are widely used to set pollution reduction targets and assess regulatory compliance for the protection of receiving waterbodies. However, when a pollutant load consists of a mixture of chemicals, reducing the overall load (mass) will not necessarily reduce the toxicity by a similar amount. This can be overcome by setting targets based on toxicity-based loads (toxic loads, TLs), where the load is modified according to the relative toxicity (expressed as toxic equivalency factors [TEFs]) of each toxicant. Here, we present the second article of a two-part series in which a case study is used to demonstrate the application of the toxic load method proposed in Part 1. The toxic load method converts a pollutant load, comprised of multiple chemicals, to a toxic load, using a modified TEF approach. The modified approach uses a cumulative distribution of relative potency (ReP) estimates of multiple species to determine a TEF. It further improves upon previously published methods by including two tests to select the optimal percentile of the ReP distribution to determine the TEF. The first test is a test for environmental relevance that compares results against an independent mixture method, identifying the percentile that produces the most environmentally relevant TEFs and TLs. The second is a test for robustness which ensures the results are independent of the ReP of the selected reference chemical. Here, the TL method is applied to mixtures of pesticides that are discharged from agricultural land to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) to test its utility. In this case study, the most environmentally relevant and robust TLs were generated using the 75th percentile of the ReP cumulative distribution. The results demonstrate that it is essential to develop pollution reduction targets based on toxic loads and making progress to meeting them will lead to a commensurate reduction in toxic effects caused by toxicants in waters of the GBR. Integr Environ Assess Manag
Henjum, Michael B; Hozalski, Raymond M; Wennen, Christine R; Novak, Paige J; Arnold, William A
2010-01-01
A network of in situ sensors and nutrient analyzers was deployed to measure nitrate, specific conductance (surrogate for chloride), and turbidity (surrogate for total suspended solids (TSS)) for 28 days in two urban streams near Minneapolis, MN. The primary objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the accuracy associated with quantifying pollutant loading using periodic discrete (i.e., grab) samples in comparison to in situ near real-time monitoring and (2) to identify pollutant sources. Within a highly impervious drainage area (>35%) the majority of pollutant load (>90% for nitrate, chloride, and TSS) was observed to be discharged in a small percentage of time (<20%). Consequently, periodic sampling is prone to underestimate pollutant loads. Additionally, when compared to loads based on near real-time sampling, average errors of 19-200% were associated with sampling 1-2 times a month. There are also limitations of periodic sampling with respect to pollutant source determination. Resulting implications with regard to total maximum daily load (TMDL) assessments are discussed.
Impedance matching between ventricle and load.
Piene, H
1984-01-01
Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pesetskaya, N. N.; Timofeev, I. YA.; Shipilov, S. D.
1988-01-01
In recent years much attention has been given to the development of methods and programs for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of multiblade, saber-shaped air propellers. Most existing methods are based on the theory of lifting lines. Elsewhere, the theory of a lifting surface is used to calculate screw and lifting propellers. In this work, methods of discrete eddies are described for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of propellers using the linear and nonlinear theories of lifting surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pesetskaya, N. N.; Timofeev, I. YA.; Shipilov, S. D.
1988-01-01
In recent years much attention has been given to the development of methods and programs for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of multiblade, saber-shaped air propellers. Most existing methods are based on the theory of lifting lines. Elsewhere, the theory of a lifting surface is used to calculate screw and lifting propellers. In this work, methods of discrete eddies are described for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of propellers using the linear and nonlinear theories of lifting surfaces.
Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent ‘raised’ and ‘lowered’ postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen–pelvis, and chest–abdomen–pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97–32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from −15.01 to −11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube
Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George
2015-04-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent 'raised' and 'lowered' postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97-32.12% larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from -15.01 to -11.33% whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24% with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube current necessary to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Tao; Stern, Frederick
2015-11-01
Eça and Hoekstra [1] proposed a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on the least squares root (LSR) method. We believe that the LSR method has potential value for providing an extended Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedure for mixed monotonic and oscillatory or only oscillatory convergent solutions (based on the usual systematic grid-triplet convergence condition R). Current Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedures [2-7] are restricted to monotonic convergent solutions 0 < R < 1. Procedures for oscillatory convergence simply either use uncertainty estimate based on average maximum minus minimum solutions [8,9] or arbitrarily large factors of safety (FS) [2]. However, in our opinion several issues preclude the usefulness of the presented LSR method: five criticisms follow. The solution verification literature needs technical discussion in order to put the LSR method in context. The LSR method has many options making it very difficult to follow. Fig. 1 provides a block diagram, which summarizes the LSR procedure and options, including some of which we are in disagreement. Compared to the grid-triplet and three-step procedure followed by most solution verification methods (convergence condition followed by error and uncertainty estimates), the LSR method follows a four-grid (minimum) and four-step procedure (error estimate, data range parameter Δϕ, FS, and uncertainty estimate).
Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.
Composite load spectra for select space propulsion structural components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newell, J. F.; Ho, H. W.; Kurth, R. E.
1991-01-01
The work performed to develop composite load spectra (CLS) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) using probabilistic methods. The three methods were implemented to be the engine system influence model. RASCAL was chosen to be the principal method as most component load models were implemented with the method. Validation of RASCAL was performed. High accuracy comparable to the Monte Carlo method can be obtained if a large enough bin size is used. Generic probabilistic models were developed and implemented for load calculations using the probabilistic methods discussed above. Each engine mission, either a real fighter or a test, has three mission phases: the engine start transient phase, the steady state phase, and the engine cut off transient phase. Power level and engine operating inlet conditions change during a mission. The load calculation module provides the steady-state and quasi-steady state calculation procedures with duty-cycle-data option. The quasi-steady state procedure is for engine transient phase calculations. In addition, a few generic probabilistic load models were also developed for specific conditions. These include the fixed transient spike model, the poison arrival transient spike model, and the rare event model. These generic probabilistic load models provide sufficient latitude for simulating loads with specific conditions. For SSME components, turbine blades, transfer ducts, LOX post, and the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) discharge duct were selected for application of the CLS program. They include static pressure loads and dynamic pressure loads for all four components, centrifugal force for the turbine blade, temperatures of thermal loads for all four components, and structural vibration loads for the ducts and LOX posts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, Charles E; Durling, Barbara J
1956-01-01
This report presents tabulated values of certain definite integral that are involved in the calculation of near-field propeller noise when the chordwise forces are assumed to be either uniform or of a Dirac delta type. The tabulations are over a wide range of operating conditions and are useful for estimating propeller noise when either the concept of an effective radius or radial distributions of forces are considered. Use of the tabulations is illustrated by several examples of calculated results for some specific propellers.
We use USEPA’s Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) to calculate annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in ten estuaries or sub-estuaries along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Florida. These include a variety of systems, ranging from strongly-flushed bays to weakly...
We use USEPA’s Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) to calculate annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in ten estuaries or sub-estuaries along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Florida. These include a variety of systems, ranging from strongly-flushed bays to weakly...
Hayashi, Atsuko; Emanovsky, Paul D; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Holland, Thomas D
2016-03-01
Estimating stature from skeletonized remains is one of the essential parameters in the development of a biological profile. A new procedure for determining skeletal height (SKH) incorporating the vertical space height (VSH) from the anterior margin of the sacral promontory to the superior margins of the acetabulae for use in the anatomical method of stature estimation is introduced. Regression equations for stature estimation were generated from measurements of 38 American males of European ancestry from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The modification to the procedure results in a SKH that is highly correlated with stature (r = 0.925-0.948). Stature estimates have low standard errors of the estimate ranging from 21.79 to 25.95 mm, biases from to 0.50 to 0.94 mm, and accuracy rates from 17.71 mm to 19.45 mm. The procedure for determining the VSH, which replaces "S1 height" in traditional anatomical method models, is a key improvement to the method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Programmable calculator stress analysis
Van Gulick, L.A.
1983-01-01
Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.
Amorfini, Leonardo; Migliorati, Marco; Drago, Sara; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando
2017-04-01
Implant-simulation software can now be used to improve treatment planning, guide surgery, and ensure more accurate implant placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a guided surgery protocol versus a conventional protocol. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to Guided Surgery or Conventional Surgery. In test group implants were placed in the maxilla using a tooth supported model-based surgical guide with a minimally invasive flap and immediately loaded. In control group implants were inserted with an open flap surgery following a prosthetic stent and immediately loaded. A total of 70 implants were placed (36 test and 34 control). Statistically significant differences were found between the test group and the control group for patient opinion about self-confidence, assumption of analgesic tablets and perceived pain. The test group registered a statistically significant reduction (p < .05) as regards time of surgery and time of provisional insertion with respect to the control group. Implants can successfully integrate in the posterior maxilla using a guided surgery approach with immediate loading. The use of guided surgery helped to reduce the surgery duration, pain intensity, related analgesic consumption, and a more predictable provisional installation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.
2016-11-01
The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.
Sharada, Shaama Mallikarjun; Bell, Alexis T. E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu
2014-04-28
The cost of calculating nuclear hessians, either analytically or by finite difference methods, during the course of quantum chemical analyses can be prohibitive for systems containing hundreds of atoms. In many applications, though, only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and not the full hessian, are required. For instance, the lowest one or two eigenvalues of the full hessian are sufficient to characterize a stationary point as a minimum or a transition state (TS), respectively. We describe here a method that can eliminate the need for hessian calculations for both the characterization of stationary points as well as searches for saddle points. A finite differences implementation of the Davidson method that uses only first derivatives of the energy to calculate the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the hessian is discussed. This method can be implemented in conjunction with geometry optimization methods such as partitioned-rational function optimization (P-RFO) to characterize stationary points on the potential energy surface. With equal ease, it can be combined with interpolation methods that determine TS guess structures, such as the freezing string method, to generate approximate hessian matrices in lieu of full hessians as input to P-RFO for TS optimization. This approach is shown to achieve significant cost savings relative to exact hessian calculation when applied to both stationary point characterization as well as TS optimization. The basic reason is that the present approach scales one power of system size lower since the rate of convergence is approximately independent of the size of the system. Therefore, the finite-difference Davidson method is a viable alternative to full hessian calculation for stationary point characterization and TS search particularly when analytical hessians are not available or require substantial computational effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.
2012-10-01
Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.
Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Ziegler, Andrew C.
2009-01-01
In-stream continuous turbidity and streamflow data, calibrated with measured suspended-sediment concentration data, can be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentration and load at a stream site. Development of a simple linear (ordinary least squares) regression model for computing suspended-sediment concentrations from instantaneous turbidity data is the first step in the computation process. If the model standard percentage error (MSPE) of the simple linear regression model meets a minimum criterion, this model should be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentrations. Otherwise, a multiple linear regression model using paired instantaneous turbidity and streamflow data is developed and compared to the simple regression model. If the inclusion of the streamflow variable proves to be statistically significant and the uncertainty associated with the multiple regression model results in an improvement over that for the simple linear model, the turbidity-streamflow multiple linear regression model should be used to compute a suspended-sediment concentration time series. The computed concentration time series is subsequently used with its paired streamflow time series to compute suspended-sediment loads by standard U.S. Geological Survey techniques. Once an acceptable regression model is developed, it can be used to compute suspended-sediment concentration beyond the period of record used in model development with proper ongoing collection and analysis of calibration samples. Regression models to compute suspended-sediment concentrations are generally site specific and should never be considered static, but they represent a set period in a continually dynamic system in which additional data will help verify any change in sediment load, type, and source.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherill, Warren H.; Ehlers, F. Edward
1989-01-01
A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. Difference equations are derived for harmonic transonic flow to include a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered planforms. A pilot program is developed for three-dimensional planar lifting surface configurations (including thickness) for the CRAY-XMP at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and for the CYBER VPS-32 at the NASA Langley Research Center. An investigation is made of the effect of the location of the outer boundaries on accuracy for very small reduced frequencies. Finally, the pilot program is applied to the flutter analysis of a rectangular wing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, Jacques; Delva, Julien; Cobut, Pierre; Romain, Anne-Claude
A specific formula to calculate separation distance from piggeries and poultry facilities to sensitive receptor is developed for Walloon Region, in Belgium. The paper briefly presents the main principles of the formula and discusses more deeply the compatibility of the distance approach with odour units, odour rate and percentiles usually applied to assess the odour annoyance zones. A method of validation is presented and tested to adjust the different parameters of the formula to Belgian field reality. A total of 43 farms of which 21 piggeries and 22 poultry facilities are visited and, for each case, the distance calculated by the formula is compared to the one deduced from odour annoyance criterion (10 ou m -3 at 98th percentile). Validation work results in discussing the sensibility of different factors of the formula and especially in adjusting a fitting factor to match the absolute distances to real field annoyance impression. Conclusions show that both approaches - separation distance formula and percentile evaluation - are coherent. The validation method allows parameter adjustment but should need further refinements to examine separately piggeries and poultry facilities.
Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Viotti, Paolo; Urbini, Giordano
2014-01-01
This article presents the results of an experimental study on the correlation among the specific denitrification rate (SDNR), the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), the F:M ratio (F:M) and the mixed-liquor (ML) recycle in the pre-denitrification reactors fed by domestic sewage. The experimental curves reveal a 28.8-32.0% reduction in the SDNR at 20 degrees C (SDNR(20 degrees C)) with DO equal to 0.1 mgO2 L(-1) and F:M in the range 0.2-0.4 kgBOD5 kgMLVSS(-1) d(-1). The SDNR reduction increases to 50.0-55.9% with DO = 0.3 mgO2 L(-1). A mathematical correlation of these results and an equation for calculating SDNR(20 degrees C) as function of the F:M as well as the average DO and BOD5 in the total flow rate fed in the denitrification stage are proposed. The conducted experience gives useful suggestions for practical usage, in particular regarding the denitrification reactor design, and represents a good starting point for future applications with the aim to optimize the biological process in domestic sewage treatment plants.
Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Loading Tool (MDMLT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewer, Lenox Allen; Hale, Elizabeth; Martella, Robert; Gyorfi, Ryan
2012-01-01
The purpose of the MDMLT is to improve the reliability and speed of loading multiplexers/demultiplexers (MDMs) in the Software Development and Integration Laboratory (SDIL) by automating the configuration management (CM) of the loads in the MDMs, automating the loading procedure, and providing the capability to load multiple or all MDMs concurrently. This loading may be accomplished in parallel, or single MDMs (remote). The MDMLT is a Web-based tool that is capable of loading the entire International Space Station (ISS) MDM configuration in parallel. It is able to load Flight Equivalent Units (FEUs), enhanced, standard, and prototype MDMs as well as both EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) and SSMMU (Solid State Mass Memory Unit) (MASS Memory). This software has extensive configuration management to track loading history, and the performance improvement means of loading the entire ISS MDM configuration of 49 MDMs in approximately 30 minutes, as opposed to 36 hours, which is what it took previously utilizing the flight method of S-Band uplink. The laptop version recently added to the MDMLT suite allows remote lab loading with the CM of information entered into a common database when it is reconnected to the network. This allows the program to reconfigure the test rigs quickly between shifts, allowing the lab to support a variety of onboard configurations during a single day, based on upcoming or current missions. The MDMLT Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) supports a Web-based command and control interface to the user. An interface to the SDIL File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server is supported to import Integrated Flight Loads (IFLs) and Internal Product Release Notes (IPRNs) into the database. An interface to the Monitor and Control System (MCS) is supported to control the power state, and to enable or disable the debug port of the MDMs to be loaded. Two direct interfaces to the MDM are supported: a serial interface (debug port) to
Determination of stress intensity factors for interface cracks under mixed-mode loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.
1992-01-01
A simple technique was developed using conventional finite element analysis to determine stress intensity factors, K1 and K2, for interface cracks under mixed-mode loading. This technique involves the calculation of crack tip stresses using non-singular finite elements. These stresses are then combined and used in a linear regression procedure to calculate K1 and K2. The technique was demonstrated by calculating three different bimaterial combinations. For the normal loading case, the K's were within 2.6 percent of an exact solution. The normalized K's under shear loading were shown to be related to the normalized K's under normal loading. Based on these relations, a simple equation was derived for calculating K1 and K2 for mixed-mode loading from knowledge of the K's under normal loading. The equation was verified by computing the K's for a mixed-mode case with equal and normal shear loading. The correlation between exact and finite element solutions is within 3.7 percent. This study provides a simple procedure to compute K2/K1 ratio which has been used to characterize the stress state at the crack tip for various combinations of materials and loadings. Tests conducted over a range of K2/K1 ratios could be used to fully characterize interface fracture toughness.
Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B
2005-03-01
A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic (B1) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.
Combined hot-spot stress procedures for tubular joints
Buitrayo, J.; Kahlich, J.L.; Zettlemoyer, N.
1984-05-01
An alternative procedure for predicting the combined hot-spot stress (CHSS) at tubular K and Y joints under combined branch loading is presented. The procedure makes use of influence factor (IF) equations developed, as a function of the joint geometry and branch loading, for various potential hot-spot locations on the branch and chord sides of the weld. The CHSS is obtained by lineraly superimposing, at a point, the effects of the axial force and bending moments acting on each branch. The resulting CHSS, therefore, reflects location, orientation and sign of each branch load contribution. Comparisons of predicted CHSS obtained via the new and other procedures to stresses from finite element analyses were made on a large sample of joints. Result show that (1) the new procedure is substantially more reliable than the other procedures studied, (2) none of the procedures consistently predicts conservative CHSS values, and (3) the overriding factor influencing the accuracy of the CHSS calculations appears to be the accuracy of the parametric equations. Although a better stress predictor can be expected to yield more reliable fatigue damage estimates, damage calculations will exhibit broad scatter due to the power function relating damage to stress. Unfortunately, further improvements in the accuracy of CHSS based on parametric equations are not likely to be easily achieved, given the large number of variables and locations that need to be considered.
Pyroshock prediction procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piersol, Allan G.
2002-05-01
Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.
Maximum von Mises Stress in the Loading Environment of Mass Acceleration Curve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaser, Robert J.; Chen, Long Y.
2006-01-01
Method for calculating stress due to acceleration loading: 1) Part has been designed by FEA and hand calculation in one critical loading direction judged by the analyst; 2) Maximum stress can be due to loading in another direction; 3) Analysis procedure to be presented determines: a) The maximum Mises stress at any point; and b) The direction of maximum loading associated with the "stress". Concept of Mass Acceleration Curves (MAC): 1) Developed by JPL to perform preliminary structural sizing (i.e. Mariners, Voyager, Galileo, Pathfinder, MER,...MSL); 2) Acceleration of physical masses are bounded by a curve; 3) G-levels of vibro-acoustic and transient environments; 4) Convergent process before the couple loads cycle; and 5) Semi-empirical method to effectively bound the loads, not a simulation of the actual response.
Maximum von Mises Stress in the Loading Environment of Mass Acceleration Curve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaser, Robert J.; Chen, Long Y.
2006-01-01
Method for calculating stress due to acceleration loading: 1) Part has been designed by FEA and hand calculation in one critical loading direction judged by the analyst; 2) Maximum stress can be due to loading in another direction; 3) Analysis procedure to be presented determines: a) The maximum Mises stress at any point; and b) The direction of maximum loading associated with the "stress". Concept of Mass Acceleration Curves (MAC): 1) Developed by JPL to perform preliminary structural sizing (i.e. Mariners, Voyager, Galileo, Pathfinder, MER,...MSL); 2) Acceleration of physical masses are bounded by a curve; 3) G-levels of vibro-acoustic and transient environments; 4) Convergent process before the couple loads cycle; and 5) Semi-empirical method to effectively bound the loads, not a simulation of the actual response.
Terzis, Julia K; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yueqin
2009-11-01
To improve the ability to prognosticate the final surgery outcomes, this study was carried out to explore the correlation between the number of motor axons given to cross-facial nerve grafts for smile restoration and the aesthetic and functional outcomes. Sixty-nine cases had adequate nerve biopsy specimens and were selected for the authors' study. Patient information was collected from chart review. Using Terzis' evaluation scale, smile functional and aesthetic outcomes as depicted in standardized videos were graded by a panel of four independent reviewers. Digital images of nerve specimens in stages I and II were obtained by using a microscope with a digital camera attachment. Using MetaMorph software, the number of motor axons was calculated, with the exception of the nerve specimens at the distal nerve grafts in stage II, which were quantitated manually. Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used to test the effects of axon numbers and other factors on the outcomes. The donor axonal input correlated with the axon number at the distal end of the nerve graft and also correlated with the improvement of evaluation; however, no significance was found between the counts at the distal end of the nerve graft and the clinical outcomes. An important observation was that patients with a donor nerve count of 900 or higher showed a greater likelihood of achieving satisfactory results. The axon count at the donor nerve has a stronger influence on the final results.
Spletzer, Barry L.
2001-01-01
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.
Spletzer, Barry L.
1998-01-01
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhode, Richard V.; Stokke, Allen R.; Rogin, Leo
1947-01-01
Several dive paths were calculated for a C54 airplane starting from level flight at an altitude of 4000 feet and from an initial indicated airspeed of 200 miles per hour. The results show that, within the limits of the possible paths permitted by the evidence of the crash at Bainbridge, the speed of impact would be about 370 miles per hour and the time to crash would be between 12 1/2 and 15 1/2 seconds. Tail load calculations indicate that, with moderate negative acceleration of the airplane, the tail would fail near the end of the dive in a manner consistent in several important respects with the evidence. A number of tests were made of the elevator tab control system to determine whether the tab would move by an amount sufficient to have caused the observed dive if the stored energy in the tab control cable were suddenly released. The results of these tests indicated that the probable tab movement is such as to be capable of causing a dive similar to the one observed at Bainbridge.
Engine Load Path Calculations - Project Neo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, Joseph
2014-01-01
A mathematical model of the engine and actuator geometry was developed and used to perform a static force analysis of the system with the engine at different pitch and yaw angles. This analysis yielded the direction and magnitude of the reaction forces at the mounting points of the engine and actuators. These data were used to validate the selection of the actuators installed in the system and to design a new spherical joint to mount the engine on the test fixture. To illustrate the motion of the system and to further interest in the project, a functional 3D printed version of the system was made, featuring the full mobility of the real system.
Zuo, Heng; Huang, Xueying; Rathod, Rahul H.; Gooty, Vasu; Tang, Alexander; Wu, Zheyang; Billiar, Kristen L.
2016-01-01
Background Accurate calculation of ventricular stress and strain is critical for cardiovascular investigations. Sarcomere shortening in active contraction leads to change of ventricular zero-stress configurations during the cardiac cycle. A new model using different zero-load diastole and systole geometries was introduced to provide more accurate cardiac stress/strain calculations with potential to predict post pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) surgical outcome. Methods Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data were obtained from 16 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot prior to and 6 months after pulmonary valve replacement (8 male, 8 female, mean age 34.5 years). Patients were divided into Group 1 (n = 8) with better post PVR outcome and Group 2 (n = 8) with worse post PVR outcome based on their change in RV ejection fraction (EF). CMR-based patient-specific computational RV/LV models using one zero-load geometry (1G model) and two zero-load geometries (diastole and systole, 2G model) were constructed and RV wall thickness, volume, circumferential and longitudinal curvatures, mechanical stress and strain were obtained for analysis. Pairwise T-test and Linear Mixed Effect (LME) model were used to determine if the differences from the 1G and 2G models were statistically significant, with the dependence of the pair-wise observations and the patient-slice clustering effects being taken into consideration. For group comparisons, continuous variables (RV volumes, WT, C- and L- curvatures, and stress and strain values) were summarized as mean ± SD and compared between the outcome groups by using an unpaired Student t-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential morphological and mechanical predictors for post PVR surgical outcome. Results Based on results from the 16 patients, mean begin-ejection stress and strain from the 2G model were 28% and 40% higher than that from the 1G model, respectively. Using the 2G model results, RV EF changes
Guidelines for transmission line structural loading
Not Available
1984-01-01
This guide provides methods for the selection of design loads and load factors. This is accomplished by the presentation of a Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) procedure. The basic formula for wind force is discussed. This include basic wind speed, terrain and height coefficients, gust response factors, and pressure coefficients. Information is also provided on ice loads, tornadoes, hurricanes, longitudinal loads, construction, and maintenance loads.
A multi-purpose method for analysis of spur gear tooth loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kasuba, R.; Evans, J. W.; August, R.; Frater, J. L.
1981-01-01
A large digitized approach was developed for the static and dynamic load analysis of spur gearing. An iterative procedure was used to calculate directly the "variable-variable" gear mesh stiffness as a function of transmitted load, gear tooth profile errors, gear tooth deflections and gear hub torsional deformation, and position of contacting profile points. The developed approach can be used to analyze the loads, Hertz stresses, and PV for the normal and high contrast ratio gearing, presently the modeling is limited to the condition that for a given gear all teeth have identical spacing and profiles (with or without surface imperfections). Certain types of simulated sinusoidal profile errors and pitting can cause interruptions of the gear mesh stiffness function and, thus, increase the dynamic loads in spur gearing. In addition, a finite element stress and mesh subprogram was developed for future introduction into the main program for calculating the gear tooth bending stresses under dynamic loads.
ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING
This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...
30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...
30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...
30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...
30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...
30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...
... is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery Life ... FAQs Bariatric Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity 100 SW 75th Street, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL, ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogallo, Vernon L; Yaggy, Paul F; Mccloud, John L , III
1956-01-01
A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.
A novel design procedure for jacket installations
Christiansen, P.E.; Sterndorff, M.J.
1995-12-31
In the summer of 1994 the jacket and topsides for Total Oil Marine`s Dunbar field in the UK sector of the North Sea were successfully installed by Heeremac`s heavy lift barge DB102. The jacket was lifted off the transportation barge, upended from horizontal to vertical using a crane assisted ballasting procedure, and then installed in two steps over four pre-installed under-leg piles. The installation of the jacket was challenging since the life was utilizing the full crane capacity and also due to the soil conditions at the location, which made the docking procedure critical to achieve the required installation tolerances for tie-back of the pre-drilled wells. The SSCV assisted installation procedure was carefully deigned and analyzed by numerical calculations supplemented and supported by extensive physical model testing. This paper addresses the model test methodology with emphasis on the innovative procedures for testing and analyzing random, non-linear phenomena: impact loads during jacket lift-off from the barge and between jacket and piles during docking. The test program and the analysis demonstrated the importance of providing not just a single value but a sample of extreme values for a proper assessment of design loads that are generated by non-linear random processes. Whereas the results from the tests are specific for the jacket structure, the methodology is of general use for the industry.
Analyzing Static Loading of Complex Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallear, D. C.
1986-01-01
Critical loading conditions determined from analysis of each structural element. Automated Thrust Structures Loads and Stresses (ATLAS) system is series of programs developed to analyze elements of complex structure under static-loading conditions. ATLAS calculates internal loads, beam-bending loads, column- and web-buckling loads, beam and panel stresses, and beam-corner stresses. Programs written in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution.
Development of fatigue loading spectra
Potter, J.M.; Watanabe, R.T.
1989-01-01
The present work on fatigue-loading spectra encompasses the current status of standardized stress-time histories, European approaches to standard loading spectrum development, transport aircraft airframe fatigue test spectra, the TURBISTAN fatigue-loading standard for fighter-aircraft engine disks, an automated procedure for the creation of flight-by-flight spectra, and the development of a wave-action standard history for fatigue testing relevant to tubular structures in the North Sea. Also treated is the use of the TURBISTAN mission spectra to evaluate fatigue crack growth in a rotating disk, fatigue-spectra development for airborne stores, a simplified analysis of fatigue-loading spectra, variable-amplitude load models for fatigue-damage crack growth, the tracking time service histories for multiaxis fatigue problems, and the compilation of procedures for fatigue crack propagation testing under complex load sequences.
Contact stresses calculated for miniature slip rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albright, F. G.; Domerest, K. E.; Horton, J. C.
1965-01-01
Using mathematical formulations to plot the graphs of the contact preload versus the Hertzian load, calculations of unit loading of the preloaded brushes on slip rings can be made. This optimizes the design of contact brushes and miniature slip rings.
A method of limit point calculation in finite element structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallagher, R. H.; Mau, S. T.
1972-01-01
An approach is presented for the calculation of limit points for structures described by discrete coordinates, and whose governing equations derive from finite element concepts. The nonlinear load-displacement path of the imperfect structure is first traced by use of a direct iteration scheme and the determinant of the governing algebraic equations is calculated at each solution point. The limit point is then established by extrapolation and imposition of the condition of zero slope of the plot of load vs. determinant. Three problems are solved in illustration of the approach and in comparison with alternative procedures and test data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hordósy, Gábor; Hegyi, György; Keresztúri, András; Maráczy, Csaba; Temesvári, Emese; Zsolnay, Éva M.
2016-02-01
A major project was launched at Paks NPP, Hungary, to investigate the possibility of lifetime extension up to 60 years. At the same time, new fuel types with higher enrichment and containing pins with gadolinium have been introduced. Due to these plans, the radiation load of the pressure vessel was evaluated up to 60 years irradiation, taking into account the past and planned future cycles. The computational procedure, elaborated and validated earlier for the fast flux calculation in the pressure vessel was modified for the new fuel types. The neutron source at the core boundaries was taken from core design calculations and the neutron transport from the source to and through the pressure vessel was followed by Monte Carlo calculations. A number of calculations were performed to adequately follow the change of the neutron source. The paper details this procedure, the used Monte Carlo model, the influence of the different reloading schemes on the radiation load and the calculated results.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than...
EC Hydraulic Drive Cylinder Load Test
Wu, J.; /Fermilab
1991-05-13
This engineering note documents the testing of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder. The test was done to insure that the cylinder could operate at the desired compression. The purpose of the test was to determine the deflection of the cylinder rod at a pressure of 7000 psi. This note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on May 1, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The purpose for load testing the cylinder was to insure that it could operate at the pressures required. These pressures were calculated in EN 254, with the appropriate safety factors included. Another engineering note to refer to is note 3740.510-EN-298, which explains the testing of the cylinder relief valve, and the effect of the difference in cross-sectional areas on the forces involved. The general result of this load test was that the cylinder could operate safely at the design pressures. Since the rod was tested in compression, calculations were required in order to determine the buckling force of the rod. The maximum cylinder test pressure was based on the allowable force on the rod for elastic buckling. This force was calculated using two methods, a simple Euler column calculation, and an AISC method.
Photovoltaic module energy rating procedure. Final subcontract report
Whitaker, C.M.; Newmiller, J.D.
1998-01-01
This document describes testing and computation procedures used to generate a photovoltaic Module Energy Rating (MER). The MER consists of 10 estimates of the amount of energy a single module of a particular type (make and model) will produce in one day. Module energy values are calculated for each of five different sets of weather conditions (defined by location and date) and two load types. Because reproduction of these exact testing conditions in the field or laboratory is not feasible, limited testing and modeling procedures and assumptions are specified.
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2012-01-01
The article presents a new procedure of calculating the shielding functions for irregular objects formed from a set of nonintersecting (adjacent) triangles covering completely the surface of each object. Calculated and experimentally derived distributions of space ionizing radiation doses in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom (experiment MATRYOSHKA-R) inside the International space station were in good agreement in the mass of phantom depths with allowance for measurement error (-10%). The procedure can be applied in modeling radiation loads on cosmonauts, calculating effectiveness of secondary protection in spacecraft, and design review of radiation protection for future space exploration missions.
Structural dynamics payload loads estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engels, R. C.
1982-01-01
Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humphreys, Casey; And Others
This valuable collection of materials was developed to incorporate the calculator as an instructional aid in ninth- and tenth-grade general and basic mathematics classes. The materials are also appropriate for grades 7 and 8. After an introductory section which teaches the use of the calculator, four games and activities are described. For these…
46 CFR 154.448 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Tank Type B § 154.448 Calculations. The following calculations for an independent tank type B must be... element analysis using the loads determined under § 154.406. (f) A fracture mechanics analysis using the...
46 CFR 154.448 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Tank Type B § 154.448 Calculations. The following calculations for an independent tank type B must be... element analysis using the loads determined under § 154.406. (f) A fracture mechanics analysis using the...
Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.
2011-01-01
A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.
The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks
Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-09-06
This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
A method for variable pressure load estimation in spur and helical gear pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battarra, M.; Mucchi, E.
2016-08-01
A systematic procedure is proposed to determine variable excitation loads coming from pressure evolution inside tooth spaces in external gear pumps. Pressure force and torque are estimated with respect to the angular position of the gears, taking into account the phenomena that occur during the meshing course. In particular, the paper proposes a general methodology aiming at determining pressure force and torque components along the three coordinate axes and suitable to be applied on both spur and helical gear configuration. Firstly, the method to calculate pressure loads acting on a single tooth space during a complete revolution is given, then the total pressure force and torque loading each gear is obtained. Particular attention is addressed on the description of the helical gear scenario. As an example, the method is applied to a tandem gear pump, characterized by the presence of two stages, one with spur gears and one with helical gears. An experimentally assessed model to calculate the pressure ripple inside the tandem pump is described and the proposed procedure for pressure load estimation is applied. Eventually, the pressure loads estimated with the present procedure are compared with other estimation methods already described in the literature. The comparison shows that the present methodology is able to describe a wider range of phenomena involved in the meshing evolution and to determine all the pressure force and torque components applied to helical gears. The method gives suitable results to study the balancing and the dynamic behavior of gear pumps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, G. L.
1980-01-01
A substructure procedure to include the flexibility of the tile in the stress analysis of the shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is described. In this procedure, the TPS is divided into substructures of (1) the tile which is modeled by linear finite elements and (2) the SIP which is modeled as a nonlinear continuum. This procedure was applied for loading cases of uniform pressure, uniform moment, and an aerodynamic shock on various tile thicknesses. The ratios of through-the-thickness stresses in the SIP which were calculated using a flexible tile compared to using a rigid tile were found to be less than 1.05 for the cases considered.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All...
Geometric field-line calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Mead, G. D.
1972-01-01
Procedure for calculating three components of vector field from spherical harmonic using either geocentric or geodetic coordinates as input and output is described. Three subroutines of computer program are explained. Program is written in FORTRAN for IBM 360 computer.
Loading-unloading response of circular GLARE fiber-metal laminates under lateral indentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamasphyros, George J.; Bikakis, George S.
2015-01-01
GLARE is a Fiber-Metal laminated material used in aerospace structures which are frequently subjected to various impact damages. Hence, the response of GLARE plates subjected to lateral indentation is very important. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived and a non-linear finite element modeling procedure is proposed in order to predict the static load-indentation curves of circular GLARE plates during loading and unloading by a hemispherical indentor. We have recently published analytical formulas and a finite element procedure for the static indentation of circular GLARE plates which are now used during the loading stage. Here, considering that aluminum layers are in a state of membrane yield and employing energy balance during unloading, the unloading path is determined. Using this unloading path, an algebraic equation is derived for calculating the permanent dent depth of the GLARE plate after the indentor's withdrawal. Furthermore, our finite element procedure is modified in order to simulate the unloading stage as well. The derived formulas and the proposed finite element modeling procedure are applied successfully to GLARE 2-2/1-0.3 and to GLARE 3-3/2-0.4 circular plates. The analytical results are compared with corresponding FEM results and a good agreement is found. The analytically calculated permanent dent depth is within 6 % for the GLARE 2 plate, and within 7 % for the GLARE 3 plate, of the corresponding numerically calculated result. No other solution of this problem is known to the authors.
Programmable calculator stress analysis
Van Gulick, L.A.
1983-01-01
This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.
Ohlinger, L.A.
1958-10-01
A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.
Calculate waveguide aperture susceptance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, J.-K.; Ishii, T. K.
1982-12-01
A method is developed for calculating aperture susceptance which makes use of the distribution of an aperture's local fields. This method can be applied to the computation of the aperture susceptance of irises, as well as the calculation of the susceptances of waveguide filters, aperture antennas, waveguide cavity coupling, waveguide junctions, and heterogeneous boundaries such as inputs to ferrite or dielectric loaded waveguides. This method assumes a local field determined by transverse components of the incident wave in the local surface of the cross section in the discontinuity plane which lies at the aperture. The aperture susceptance is calculated by the use of the local fields, the law of energy conservation, and the principles of continuity of the fields. This method requires that the thickness of the aperture structure be zero, but this does not limit the practical usefulness of this local-field method.
CAI on a Programmable Calculator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlaphoff, Carl W.
1975-01-01
This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)
Plug Loads Conservation Measures
Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean
2010-12-31
This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.
THERMAL HISTORY OF CLADDING IN A 21 PWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADED WITH AVERAGE FUEL
H.M. Wade
2000-01-25
The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a mid-assembly axial fuel cladding temperature profile of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) loaded with average fuel assemblies and emplaced in a monitored geologic repository. This calculation is intended to evaluate Viability Assessment (VA) and Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) II design configurations in support of performance assessment. This calculation was developed by Waste Package Operations (WPO) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0.
Clark, A.; Curtis, A.B.; Darwin, W.N.
1981-01-01
Rotating cardboard discs are used to read off total tree or topwood firewood volume (tons or cords) that can be expected from trees of d.b.h. 6 to 24 inches and tree height 10 to 90 feet. One side of the calculator is used for broadleaved species with deliquescent crowns and the other side for braodleaves with excurrent crowns.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Csernus, Marilyn
Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Csernus, Marilyn
Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…
Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne
2001-01-01
Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.
Calculating a Stepwise Ridge Regression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, John D.
1986-01-01
Although methods for using ordinary least squares regression computer programs to calculate a ridge regression are available, the calculation of a stepwise ridge regression requires a special purpose algorithm and computer program. The correct stepwise ridge regression procedure is given, and a parallel FORTRAN computer program is described.…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.
Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.
1958-06-24
>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)
Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator
The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase, use and disposal of electronics.The EEBC estimates the environmental and economic benefits of: Purchasing Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered products; Enabling power management features on computers and monitors above default percentages; Extending the life of equipment beyond baseline values; Reusing computers, monitors and cell phones; and Recycling computers, monitors, cell phones and loads of mixed electronic products.The EEBC may be downloaded as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.See https://www.federalelectronicschallenge.net/resources/bencalc.htm for more details.
A simple approach for determining detonation velocity of high explosive at any loading density.
Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein
2005-05-20
A simple empirical relationship is introduced between detonation velocity at any loading density and chemical composition of high explosive as well as its gas phase heat of formation, which is calculated by group additivity rules. The present work may be applied to any explosive that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen with no difficulties. The new correlation can easily be applied for determining detonation velocity of explosives with loading densities less than 1g/cm3 as well as greater than 1g/cm3. Calculated detonation velocities by this procedure for both pure and explosive formulations show good agreement with respect to measured detonation velocity over a wide range of loading density.
Reconstruction method for running shape of rotor blade considering nonlinear stiffness and loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yongliang; Kang, Da; Zhong, Jingjun
2017-10-01
The aerodynamic and centrifugal loads acting on the rotating blade make the blade configuration deformed comparing to its shape at rest. Accurate prediction of the running blade configuration plays a significant role in examining and analyzing turbomachinery performance. Considering nonlinear stiffness and loads, a reconstruction method is presented to address transformation of a rotating blade from cold to hot state. When calculating blade deformations, the blade stiffness and load conditions are updated simultaneously as blade shape varies. The reconstruction procedure is iterated till a converged hot blade shape is obtained. This method has been employed to determine the operating blade shapes of a test rotor blade and the Stage 37 rotor blade. The calculated results are compared with the experiments. The results show that the proposed method used for blade operating shape prediction is effective. The studies also show that this method can improve precision of finite element analysis and aerodynamic performance analysis.
76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-05-04
...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues a final rule amending the existing test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts at Appendix Q and establishing a new test procedure at Appendix Q1. The amendments to appendix Q update a reference to an industry test procedure. The new test procedure at Appendix Q1 changes the efficiency metric to ballast luminous efficiency (BLE), which is measured directly using electrical measurements instead of the photometric measurements employed in the test procedure at Appendix Q. The calculation of BLE includes a correction factor to account for the reduced lighting efficacy of low frequency lamp operation. The test procedure specifies use of a fluorescent lamp load during testing, allowing ballasts to operate closer to their optimal design points and providing a better descriptor of real ballast performance compared to resistor loads. If DOE determines that amendments to the fluorescent lamp ballast energy conservation standards are required, they will be issued or published by June 30, 2011, and use of the test procedures at Appendix Q1 will be required on the compliance date of the amendments. Until that time, manufacturers must use the procedures at Appendix Q to certify compliance.
Fracture Behaviour of Glass Columns Experimental Study of Axial Loaded Glass Columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakab, A.; Nehme, K.; Nehme, S. G.
2016-04-01
Nowadays supporting structures can be transparent due to the development of glass strengthening procedures. The building glass as a versatile building material enables the efforts of the architects due to its transparency. This paper focuses on glass columns in the topic of load-bearing glasses and also on the design and load bearing capacity of fins and stability issues. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the BME, Department of Building Materials and Engineering Geology on the fracture behaviour of centrally compressed glass columns. More than 120 specimens where loaded until fracture. The load and deformations were measured. Based on the experimental results the critical force was determined and with force-deflection diagrams were illustrated the fracture and stability processes. Authors are going to compare the results of the laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations.
Hunter, Charles H.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarov, A. N.
2014-10-01
The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.
Development of a Rational Design Procedure for Overland Flow Systems,
1982-02-01
precipitation and evaporation. TSS is 40 minutes. Since BOD removal is the limiting The land area calculated by this procedure is parameter, the design is based...0.078 (50) volume of 667,750 m3 which includes 567,750 m3 (0.04)1/3 60 for storing wastewater and 100,000 m3 for storing precipitation during winter...loading rate. For example, it the precipitation minus evaporation volume from would be reasonable to assume that the designer the holding pond is 0.15
Umbilical cable recovery load analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao
2013-06-01
Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.
Automated Product Test Wafer Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Andrew; Minvielle, Anna; Salugsugan, Anita
1987-04-01
An automated test wafer procedure has been developed using the KLA 2020 wafer inspector to measure registration and critical dimensions on production wafers. The procedure reduces operator interactions to loading the wafer and entering information for wafer identification. The analysis of the registration data is performed on a PC using the methods established by Perloff to determine both intrafield and grid errors. These results are then used to correct the stepper. CD data is also analyzed by the program and corrections to the exposure time are calculated. It was found that the KLA 2020 is as much as 10 times faster and 4 times more precise in obtaining registration data then an operator reading optical verniers on a microscope. Due to the high precision of the reading, the analysis does not need a large number of readings to obtain precise and accurate stepper corrections. Further, significant improvements can be obtained by adding registration targets to measure the intrafield errors. Using the KLA 2020 and computer analysis we have demonstrated an ability to reduce the errors for a manually aligned run to a one sigma distribution of 0.09 um for x and y translation, 0.4 PPM for scaling and orthogonality, and 2.3 PPM for rotation from the first test wafer for a GCA 6100. Nearly all of this variation is due to operator misalignment or the inability of the stepper to correct the errors. The corrections with this technique measuring the same wafer are precise to + 0.01 um in translation and + 0.5 PPM for rotation, scaling, and orthogonality. It has also been shown that a simple linear equation can be used to correct exposure time, even when a process is not tightly controlled.
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure
Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank
2009-01-01
This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moir, Ian
The development of the Electrical Load Management System (ELMS) for the Boeing 777 aircraft is reviewed. The discussion covers the overall design of the system, its principal components, and the functions it provides. Some of the additional system drivers, such as autoland electrical system partitioning and dispatch reliability, are outlined, and their effect on the system architecture is examined. The key technologies used in the development of the ELMS include smart high power contactors, ARING 629 data buses, the Motorola 68020 processor combined with Ada software, dedicated ASICs, and modular architecture for improved maintainability.
Ramponi, Denise R
2016-01-01
Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.
Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricci, Mario
2010-01-01
A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eisenhower, R. Warren
Because grievances are unavoidable, it is essential for organizations, such as the schools, to utilize an efficient, effective procedure to handle friction between employers and employees. Through successive steps, representatives of labor and management attempt to resolve the grievance, first with meetings of lower level representatives (such as…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nolte, W. E.
1976-01-01
LOADS determines rigid body vehicle shears, bending moments and axial loads on a space vehicle due to aerodynamic loads and propellant inertial loads. An example hand calculation is presented and was used to check LOADS. A brief description of the program and the equations used are presented. LOADS is operational on the Univac 1110, occupies 10505 core and typically takes less than one(1) second of CAU time to execute.
Field guide for identifying fuel loading models
Pamela G. Sikkink; Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane
2009-01-01
This report details a procedure for identifying fuel loading models (FLMs) in the field. FLMs are a new classification system for predicting fire effects from on-site fuels. Each FLM class represents fuel beds that have similar fuel loadings and produce similar emissions and soil surface heating when burned using computer simulations. We describe how to estimate fuel...
Peterson, T.K.
1995-02-15
This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Thoma, Daniel S; Haas, Robert; Tutak, Marcin; Garcia, Abel; Taylor, Thomas D; Hämmerle, Christoph H F
2015-11-01
To compare, clinically and radiographically, short dental implants (6 mm) to long implants (11-15 mm) placed with sinus grafting. Participants with 5-7 mm of bone height in the posterior maxilla were randomly allocated to receive short implants (GS) or long implants with sinus grafting (GG). Implants were loaded with single crowns 6 months after placement (PR). Patients were re-evaluated 12 months after loading (FU-1). Outcome variables included: Implant survival rate (CSR), marginal bone level alteration (MBL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), plaque control record (PCR) and crown-to-implant ratios (C/I). Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests. In 97 subjects, 132 implants were re-evaluated at FU-1. The CSR was 100%. The MBL from implant placement (IP) to (PR) was -0.22 ± 0.4 mm for GG and -0.3 ± 0.45 mm for GS (p < 0.001). MBL from IP to FU-1 was -0.37 ± 0.59 mm for GG and -0.22 ± 0.3 mm for GS (p < 0.001). Intergroup comparisons showed non-significant differences for MBL (p > 0.05), PPD (p = 1) and PCR (p = 0.09). BoP was higher in the GS (p = 0.04). The C/I was 0.99 ± 0.17 for GG and 1.86 ± 0.23 for GS (p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between C/I and MBL, (GG: p = 0.13; GS: p = 0.38). Both treatment modalities provided similar outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Calculating Buckling And Vibrations Of Lattice Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, M. S.; Durling, B. J.; Herstrom, C. L.; Williams, F. W.; Banerjee, J. R.; Kennedy, D.; Warnaar, D. B.
1989-01-01
BUNVIS-RG computer program designed to calculate vibration frequencies or buckling loads of prestressed lattice structures used in outer space. For buckling and vibration problems, BUNVIS-RG calculates deadload axial forces caused in members by any combination of externally-applied static point forces and moments at nodes, axial preload or prestrain in members, and such acceleration loads as those due to gravity. BUNVIS-RG is FORTRAN 77 computer program implemented on CDC CYBER and VAX computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deyoung, John
1952-01-01
A simplified lifting-surface theory is applied to the problem of evaluating span loading due to flap deflection for arbitrary wing plan forms. With the resulting procedure, the effects of flap deflection on the span loading and associated aerodynamic characteristics can be easily computed for any wing which is symmetrical about the root chord and which has a straight quarter-chord line over the wing semispan. The effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope are taken into account by the procedure. The method presented can also be used to calculate the downwash in the vertical center of the wake of a wing which has arbitrary spanwise loading.
Configuration space Faddeev calculations
Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.
1989-01-01
The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem.
Split TSHD hydrostatic particulars calculation for cargo discharge phase using polynomial RBF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Dario; Bašić, Josip; Dobrota, Đorđe
2017-06-01
Split Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHD) are special type of working ships, whose hulls open to discharge cargo to certain unloading positions while being at sea. Although they have variable hull geometry, their hydrostatic and stability characteristics are usually calculated for unchanged initial hull geometry loading conditions only, and such calculations are supported by classification society stability regulations for that ship type. Nevertheless, in this study, we show that hydrostatic particulars for intermediate loading conditions of variable ship geometry can be calculated by using analytical solutions of basic hydrostatic integrals for arbitrary list angles, obtained for polynomial radial basis function description of ship geometry. The calculations will be performed for symmetric hopper opening during cargo discharge procedure, thus covering all Split TSHD regular unloading conditions, without examination of ship hull opening failure modes. Thus, all ship hydrostatic properties will be pre-calculated analytically and prepared for further stability calculations, as opposed to the usual numerical calculations for initial geometry and even keel only, as currently used in naval architecture design.
Split TSHD hydrostatic particulars calculation for cargo discharge phase using polynomial RBF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Dario; Bašić, Josip; Dobrota, Đorđe
2017-01-01
Split Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHD) are a special type of working ships, whose hull opens to discharge cargo to certain unloading positions while being at sea. Although they have variable hull geometry, their hydrostatic and stability characteristics are usually calculated for unchanged initial hull geometry loading conditions only, and such calculations are supported by classification society stability regulations for that ship type. Nevertheless, in this study, we show that hydrostatic particulars for intermediate loading conditions of variable ship geometry, too, can be calculated by using analytical solutions of basic hydrostatic integrals for arbitrary list angles, obtained for polynomial radial basis function description of ship geometry. The calculations will be performed for symmetric hopper opening during cargo discharge procedure, thus covering all Split TSHD regular unloading conditions, without examination of ship hull opening failure modes. Thus, all ship hydrostatic properties will be pre-calculated analytically and prepared for further stability calculations, as opposed to the usual numerical calculations for initial geometry and even keel only, as currently used in naval architecture design.
An algorithmic scheme for the automated calculation of fiber orientations in arterial walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fausten, Simon; Balzani, Daniel; Schröder, Jörg
2016-11-01
We propose an algorithmic scheme for the numerical calculation of fiber orientations in arterial walls. The basic assumption behind the procedure is that the fiber orientations are mainly governed by the principal tensile stress directions resulting in an improved load transfer within the artery as a consequence of the redistribution of stresses. This reflects the biological motivation that soft tissues continuously adapt to their mechanical environment in order to optimize their load-bearing capacities. The algorithmic scheme proposed here enhances efficiency of the general procedure given in Hariton et al. (Biomech Model Mechanobiol 6(3):163-175, 2007), which consists of repeatedly identifying a favored fiber orientation based on the principal tensile stresses under a certain loading scenario, and then re-calculating the stresses for that loading scenario with the modified favored fiber orientation. Since the method still depends on a highly accurate stress approximation of the finite element formulation, which is not straightforward to obtain in particular for incompressible and highly anisotropic materials, furthermore, a modified model is introduced. This model defines the favored fiber orientation not only in terms of the local principal stresses, but in terms of the volume averages of the principal stresses computed over individual finite elements. Thereby, the influence of imperfect stress approximations can be weakened leading to a stabilized convergence of the reorientation procedure and a more reasonable fiber orientation with less numerical noise. The performance of the proposed fiber reorientation scheme is investigated with respect to different finite element formulations and different favored fiber orientation models, Hariton et al. (Biomech Model Mechanobiol 6(3):163-175, 2007) and Cyron and Humphrey (Math Mech Solids 1-17, 2014). In addition, it is applied to calculate the fiber orientation in a patient-specific arterial geometry.
Irrigation customer survey procedures and results
Harrer, B.J.; Johnston, J.W.; Dase, J.E.; Hattrup, M.P.; Reed, G.
1987-03-01
This report describes the statistical procedures, administrative procedures, and results of a telephone survey designed to collect primary data from individuals in the Pacific Northwest region who use electricity in irrigating agricultural crops. The project was intended to collect data useful for a variety of purposes, including conservation planning, load forecasting, and rate design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sprowls, D. O.; Bucci, R. J.; Ponchel, B. M.; Brazill, R. L.; Bretz, P. E.
1984-01-01
A technique is demonstrated for accelerated stress corrosion testing of high strength aluminum alloys. The method offers better precision and shorter exposure times than traditional pass fail procedures. The approach uses data from tension tests performed on replicate groups of smooth specimens after various lengths of exposure to static stress. The breaking strength measures degradation in the test specimen load carrying ability due to the environmental attack. Analysis of breaking load data by extreme value statistics enables the calculation of survival probabilities and a statistically defined threshold stress applicable to the specific test conditions. A fracture mechanics model is given which quantifies depth of attack in the stress corroded specimen by an effective flaw size calculated from the breaking stress and the material strength and fracture toughness properties. Comparisons are made with experimental results from three tempers of 7075 alloy plate tested by the breaking load method and by traditional tests of statistically loaded smooth tension bars and conventional precracked specimens.
Sub-wavelength waveguide loaded by a complementary electric metamaterial for vacuum electron devices
Duan, Zhaoyun; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A. Temkin, Richard J.
2014-10-15
We report the electromagnetic properties of a waveguide loaded by complementary electric split ring resonators (CeSRRs) and the application of the waveguide in vacuum electronics. The S-parameters of the CeSRRs in free space are calculated using the HFSS code and are used to retrieve the effective permittivity and permeability in an effective medium theory. The dispersion relation of a waveguide loaded with the CeSRRs is calculated by two approaches: by direct calculation with HFSS and by calculation with the effective medium theory; the results are in good agreement. An improved agreement is obtained using a fitting procedure for the permittivity tensor in the effective medium theory. The gain of a backward wave mode of the CeSRR-loaded waveguide interacting with an electron beam is calculated by two methods: by using the HFSS model and traveling wave tube theory; and by using a dispersion relation derived in the effective medium model. Results of the two methods are in very good agreement. The proposed all-metal structure may be useful in miniaturized vacuum electron devices.
Dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Wilhelm; von Locquenghien, Florian; Conrad, Philipp; Koutnik, Jiri
2017-04-01
A comparison between numerically obtained dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load with experimental ones is presented. Due to the change in the electrical power mix to more content of new renewable energy sources, Francis turbines are forced to operate at deep part load in order to compensate stochastic nature of wind and solar power and to ensure grid stability. For the extension of the operating range towards deep part load improved understanding of the harsh flow conditions and their impact on material fatigue of hydraulic components is required in order to ensure long life time of the power unit. In this paper pressure loads on a model turbine runner from unsteady two-phase computational fluid dynamics simulation at deep part load are used for calculation of mechanical stresses by finite element analysis. Therewith, stress distribution over time is determined. Since only few runner rotations are simulated due to enormous numerical cost, more effort has to be spent to evaluation procedure in order to obtain objective results. By comparing the numerical results with measured strains accuracy of the whole simulation procedure is verified.
40 CFR 1065.650 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.650 Section 1065.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.650 Emission calculations....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Loads calibrations of strain gage bridges on the DAST project Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckstrom, C. V.
1980-01-01
The details of and results from the procedure used to calibrate strain gage bridges for measurement of wing structural loads for the DAST project ARW-1 wing are presented. Results are in the form of loads equations and comparison of computed loads vs. actual loads for two simulated flight loading conditions.
Thermal loading of natural streams
Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro
1977-01-01
The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)
Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function
J. L. V. Lewandowski
2003-03-24
A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics.
SSME-HAS dynamic load simulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The space shuttle main engine propellant valve actuators (SSME) were designed to simulate the loads reflected into the SSME by the chamber coolant valve, the fuel preburner, and the oxidizer. The design, and functional description are included along with a list of the drawings. The load fixture control transform, friction torque, and flow calculations are reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.
1986-01-01
Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.
Perez, Richard
2005-05-03
A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.